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47

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

Eaoaae?a noaoenoeee ? ainiiaea?nueeiai aiae?co

Eo?niaee i?iaeo c noaoenoeee

ia oaio:

“Noaoenoe/ia aea/aiiy o?iaeaeiino? ca?iiaeo”

Aeeiiaa:

Ea??aiee: aeioeaio Iooyo?ia Ethaia Aeieo??aia

Ee?a – 1997

ANOOI

Ca?iia? eoeueoo?e iathoue iaeaeuo ieoiio aaao a no?oeoo?? iin?aieo ieiu
? aaeiaeo cai??a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Oea iiynith?oueny
?o aeiyoeiaei cia/aiiyi oa ??ciia?/iei aeei?enoaiiyi. Aea ca?ac ie
aa/eii ye ??cei nei?i/othoueny iin?ai? ieiu?. Aeey ii??aiyiiy, a 1985 ?.
i?ae iin?aaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? aoei caeiyoi 32656 oen.
aa, a a 1995 ?. – eeoa 30963 oen. aa. Oaeiae nei?i/othoueny ieiu? c yeeo
aoei c?a?aii o?iaeae ca?iiaeo a 1985 ?. 16064 oen. aa, a a 1995 ?. –
13963 oen. aa.

?icaeoie oa i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa
? iaiao?aeia oiiaa ia o?eueee caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy i?iaeoeoaie
oa?/oaaiiy, a e i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ?ioeo aeae?a
i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae aei
2005 ?ieo ia?aaeaa/a? nooo?aa ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia ia iniia?
iaooeeueiiai i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino? ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aioo??oi?o
iio?aa o ca?iiaeo oa ia?aoai?aiiy Oe?a?ie c ?iii?oa?a a aenii?oa?a
ca?ia.

?ioaineo?eaoe?y n?euenueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, yea cae?enithaaeanue aieiaiei
/eiii oeyoii o?i?caoe??, iae?i?aoe?? oa iaoai?caoe??, ianea cia/ia
ciaioaiiy ?o/ii? i?aoe?. Ii?yae c oeei ?ioaineo?eaoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa, a c
iath ? aaeee? aeo?aoe ?ano?n?a, coiiaeee oe?eee ?yae iaaaoeaieo yaeu o
caiea?ianoa?, ye? ianaiia?aae i?eaaee aei iia??oaiiy no?oeoo?e
caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a, iineeaiiy a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a, cieaeaiiy
?iaeth/ino? a?oioo a on?o eiai i?iyaao, caa?oaeiaiiy aa?io?i?eaoaie,
ianoeoeeaeaie, oiui. Oiio nueiaiaei? ye i?eiee iai iio??aii aa?aaeii
a?aeiineoenue aei caie?. Aaiaeeoe iia? oaoiieia?? o?eueee oiae?, eiee ie
aiaaiai?, ui ia c?iaeii a??oa. ?ioaineaia ? iaaei??ia c?ioaiiy
i?eaiaeeoue aei ?ic/eiaiiy o i?aea?oio? nieae eoaeieo iaoae?a, ye?
aiane?aeie c?ioaiiy iinooiathoue o a?oio ? canieththoue eiai.

O?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? a 1995 ?ioe? cieceeanue ia 10,8 oe/aa a
ii??aiyii? c 1985 ?ieii (35,1 oe/aa), ? noaiiaeea 24,3 oe/aa.

Iniiaiei oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy aaeiaeo cai??a i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa ?
i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, yea
iiaeeeai aeinyaoe o?eueee i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?ioaineaieo oaoiieia?e.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui ia ?acoeueoao n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aieeaa?
aaaaoi oaeoi??a ea??aiee aai niaoe?ae?no n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeiai a/anii aeyaeyoe oa i?aaeeueii aiae?coaaoe
noaoenoe/io ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i caeaaei?noue ?acoeueoaoo a?ae oaeoi??a ? ?
oe?eeth oe??? ?iaioe.

Ioaea iaoith eo?niaiai i?iaeoo iieacaoe aca?iica’ycie ? caeaaei?noue
o?iaeaeiino? ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, a?ae e?eueeino? aianaieo i?aai?/ieo
aeia?ea ? yeino? a?oio?a. E?euee?nia a?aeia?aaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo /a?ac
nenoaio iieaciee?a yaey?oueny caaaeaiiyi eo?niaiai i?iaeoo.

>74V; 1. I?aaeiao, caaaeaiiy ? nenoaia iieaciee?a ?ineeiieoeoaa.

1. I?aaeiao ? caaaeaiiy noaoenoeee ?ineeiieoeoaa.

sse ie?aia aaeocue iaoee noaoenoeea aeieeea c i?aeoe/ieo iio?aa ethaeae.
Ia’?eoii ?? aea/aiiy nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i? oa eoeueoo?i?
yaeua ? i?ioeane noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

Noaoenoeea – aaaaoiaaeocaaa iaoea, yea aeeth/a? caaaeueio oai??th
noaoenoeee, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io noaoenoeeo ? aaeocaa? noaoenoeee.
Aaeocaa? noaoenoeee (i?iieneiaa, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea, o?ainii?oia)
aea/athoue noai ? ?icaeoie ie?aieo aaeocae ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno. Oae, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea noaoenoeea aea/a? e?euee?nio
noi?iio ianiaeo noni?eueieo yaeu, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?, o ia?ic?eaiiio ca’yceo c ?o e?euee?niith noi?iiith. Aiia
?icaeyaea? nenoaio ia’?eoeaieo iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oiiae,
i?ioeane ? ?acoeueoaoe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aeyaey?
? aiae?co? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo oe??? aaeoc?.

?ineeiieoeoai – iaeia c iniiaieo aaeocae n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ui
iia’ycaia c ia?iaeith caie? ? ae?iuoaaiiyi n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
?ineei. Aiii caaacia/o? ianaeaiiy i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy, oaa?eiieoeoai
–ei?iaie, eaaeo, oa?/iao ? ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue – ne?iaeiith. Ieoiia
aaaa i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa o aaeia?e i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie noaiiaeoue aeecueei 45%. ?ineeiieoeoai ?
eiiieaeniith aaeoccth, yea iiae?ey?oueny ia ??eueieoeoai, iai/?aieoeoai,
eoe?aieoeoai, ieiae?aieoeoai, oiui. Ana?aaeei? eiaeii? c oeeo aaeocae
aeae?eythoue a?oie iaeii??aeieo eoeueoo? ? ie?ai? eoeueoo?e.

A oni?oiiio ?icaeoeo ?ineeiieoeoaa aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? ?
noaoenoeea. Caaaeaiiy noaoenoeee ?ineeiieoeoaa oae?:

· anaa?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea noaio ? ?icaeoeo ?ineeiieoeoaa;

· aeine?aeaeaiiy ianiaeo i?ioean?a oa yaeu, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a oe?e
aaeoc?;

· eiio?ieue ca caa?aaeaiiyi ? ?aoe?iiaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi caiaeueieo
?ano?n?a;

· aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao i?e?iaeieo ? aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a ia ?acoeueoaoe
ae?iaieoeoaa;

· aeyaeaiiy iaaeei?enoaieo ?aca?a?a;

· aea/aiiy ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo, oiui.

Noaoenoeea ?ineeiieoeoaa aea/a? ?ici??e oa ?iciiae?e caiaeueieo oa?aeue,
?ici?uaiiy iin?aieo ieiu n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ? ieiu
aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue, ianya, no?iee ? ye?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ??cieo
aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a, caaaeuei? ?ici??e a?iaeath ? o?iaeaei?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? oa aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue.
Noaoenoeea aea/a? noai ? ?icaeoie ?ineeiieoeoaa ii eaoaai??yi
ainiiaea?noa (eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa,
aea?aeainie, i?aeainiiaea?nuee? oa ?io? ae?iaie/?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, naeyinuee? oa i?aeniai?
ainiiaea?noaa ianaeaiiy), aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?ae?icae?eao (?aeiiao,
iaeanoyo), n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ciiao ? i?aeciiao. Ana?aaeei?
ie?aieo eaoaai??e ainiiaea?noa, caeaaeii a?ae niaoe?ae?caoe??,
aeae?eythoue ae?iaie/? oeie i?aei?e?inoa (ca?iia?, iai/aa?,
ca?iiai-ao?yeia? ? o. ae.).

Iniiaiei aeaea?aeii a?aeiiinoae i?i noai ?ineeiieoeoaa ? noaoenoe/ia
a?aeii?noue. A ca’yceo c oei, ui a ?ineeiieoeoa? ae?iaie/? i?ioeane
(n?aaa, aeiaeyae ca iin?aaie, cae?aiiy) aeeiiothoueny ca ei?ioe?
ia??iaee, oi oe?iei canoiniaothoue iia?aoeaio ca?oi?noue, yeo iiaeathoue
a i?aaie noaoenoeee aea?/? ca i?nyoeue – 1 ? 15 /enea. I?ney caaa?oaiiy
iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a iiaeathoue caeeth/io ca?oi?noue. Aeey
no?eeeo yaeu ca?oi?noue iiaeathoue iaeei ?ac ia ??e, aai aeaa ?ace o
i’youe ?ie?a, a /anoeio yaeu aeine?aeaeothoue i?iaiaey/e ia?aiene aai
niaoe?aeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy.

Noaoenoe/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy o ?ineeiieoeoa? cae?eniththoue i?aaie
aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee ?acii c ea??aieeaie ? niaoe?ae?noaie
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, neeaaeath/e ? cae?ath/e
ia??iaee/io ? ??/io ca?oi?noue, i?iaiaey/e ia?aiene ? niaoe?aeuei?
ianoaaeaiiy. Noaoenoe/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy – oea, ieaiii??ia, iaoeiai
i?aai?ciaaia cae?aiiy ianiaeo aeaieo i?i yaeua ? i?ioeane noni?eueiiai
aeeooy ca aeiiiiiaith ?a?no?aoe?? ?o nooo?aeo iciae. Iaoa??aee
niinoa?aaeaiiy – oea ia?aeiia noaoenoe/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y, yea ? iniiaith
aeey iaea?aeaiiy ocaaaeueithth/eo oa?aeoa?enoee, ia?oa noaae?y
noaoenoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia oe?e noaae?? caaaeaiiyi noaoenoeee ?
iae?e eiaeii? iaeeieoe? noeoiiino? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo cia/aiue
aeanoeaeo ?e iciae. Oa?aeoa?iei aeey ia? ? iaoiae ianiaiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy. O?eueee ianiaa niinoa?aaeaiiy aea? ciiao aeyaeoeny
caaaeueiei oiiaai, ye? oa?aeoa?i? aeey on??? noeoiiino?, ? oieeiooe
aieeao aeiaaeeiaeo i?e/ei, ui ae?thoue ia ie?ai? aeaiaioe noeoiiino?.

A Oe?a?i? cae?enith?oueny ?aeeiee aea?aeaaiee iae?e caiaeueiiai oiiaeo.
Aeey oiai uia caaacia/eoe ?aaee ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a, i?aei?e?inoaa,
onoaiiae, i?aai?caoe?? ? a?iiaaeyi a?aeiiinoyie i?i caieth c iaoith
i?aai?caoe?? ?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa ioi?iie, aaaeaoueny
aea?aeaaiee caiaeueiee eaaeano?. A?i i?noeoue nenoaio aeaieo ?
aeieoiaio?a i?i i?aaiaee ?aaeei caiaeue, a oaeiae i?i ye?nio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ? ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeo oe?ii?noue caiaeue. Ii?yaeie
aaaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai caiaeueiiai eaaeano?o anoaiiaeth? Eaa?iao
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie.

Ia?aeiiee iae?e caieaaeaniee?a ? caieaei?enooaa/?a, e?eueeino? ? yeino?
caiaeue aaaeooue o “Caiaeueii-eaaeano?ia?e eiec? i?noeaai? ?aaee
ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a”, a a iaaeao ?aeiio (i?noa) o “Aea?aeaai?e
caiaeueii-eaaeano?ia?e eiec? ?aeiio (i?noa)”. A oeeo eieaao ?a?no?othoue
caieaaeaniee?a ? caieaei?enooaa/?a, iieacothoue caaaeueio ieiuo oa ??
?iciiae?e ca aeaeaie caiaeueieo oa?aeue (ie?aii ieiu? c?iooaaieo ?
inooaieo caiaeue), iaaiaeyoue aeai? i?i iae?e yeino? caiaeue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai, e?niainiiaea?nueeiai oa aea?aeaaiiai caiano,
a oaeiae oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo caiaeue ca aaeiaith
i?iaeoeoe??th (a aaeao ? a ia?a?aooieo ia eaaeano?iaee aaeoa?), ca
ieoii?noth aeo?ao ? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei aeioiaeii ?c cacia/aiiyi eiai
/anoee o aaeia?e i?iaeoeoe??.

Ui?ieo, noaiii ia 1 n?/iy, i?aei?e?inoaa, onoaiiae, i?aai?caoe??,
ia’?aeiaiiy oa caieaaii?yaei? i?aaie neeaaeathoue ? iiaeathoue
niaoe?aeueio noaoenoe/io ca?oi?noue – o. ? 6-cai. “Ca?o i?i iayai?noue ?
?iciiae?e ?o ii eaoaai??yo, oa?aeaeyo, aeanieeao caie? oa
caieaei?enooaa/ao”; o. ? 6a-cai. “Ca?o i?i iayai?noue c?iooaaieo caiaeue
? ?iciiae?e ?o ii eaoaai??yo, oa?aeaeyo, aeanieeao caie? oa
caieaei?enooaa/ao”; o. ? 6a-cai. “Ca?o i?i iayai?noue inooaieo caiaeue ?
?iciiae?e ?o ii eaoaai??yo, oa?aeaeyo, aeanieeao caie? oa
caieaei?enooaa/ao”. A oeeo ca?oao i?noyoueny aeai? i?i eaoaai???
caiaeue, aeaniee?a caie? oa caieaei?enooaa/?a, a a na?aaeei? ?o – i?i
aeaee oa?aeue, noai ? aeei?enoaiiy caie?. Oaeo ca?oi?noue iaaeneeathoue
a?aeae?eai ? oi?aae?iiyi caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a ?aeiiieo ? iaeanieo
aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e, a oaeiae Aea?aeaaiiio eii?oaoo ii
caiaeueieo ?ano?nao.

A?aeiiino? i?i o?ae n?aae y?eo ? iceieo eoeueoo? i?noyoueny o oeaeiaa?e
iia?aoeai?e noaoenoe/i?e ca?oiino? o. ? 3-na ? 7-na. I?ney cae?i/aiiy
n?aae y?eo eoeueoo? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee ui?ieo i?iaiaeyoue
caeeth/iee iae?e iin?aieo ieiu i?ae o?iaeae iioi/iiai ?ieo ii an?o
eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa. Aeey oeueiai ENI, aea?aeainie oa ?io?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? iathoue iin?ai? ieiu? 50 aa
? a?eueoa, neeaaeathoue ? iiaeathoue ?aeiiiei a?aeae?eai noaoenoeee
“Caeeth/iee ca?o i?i iin?ai? ieiu? i?ae o?iaeae iioi/iiai ?ieo” (o. ?
4-na). A iueiio i?noeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iin?ai? ieiu? on?o eoeueoo?,
aeeth/ath/e iin?ae iceieo ? aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ieioeeo ?ie?a, o oiio
/ene? ia c?iooaaeueieo caieyo. Ainiiaea?noaa, ye? iathoue iin?ai? ieiu?
iaio ye 50 aa, neeaaeathoue oaeee naiee ca?o (o. ? 6-i). O naeyinueeeo ?
iniaenoeo ainiiaea?noaao ianaeaiiy ?ici?? iin?aieo ieiu aecia/athoue
niaoe?aeueieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie. I?e oeueiio aeai? ae?noathoue oeyoii
iaoiaeo aeai??a, iieooaaiiy aeaniee?a, iaeyaeo ? aei??thaaiiy iin?a?a.

Eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, aea?aeainie,
aeine?aei? noaioe??, iaa/aeueii-aeine?aei? ainiiaea?noaa iaoeiaeo
caeeaae?a oaeiae neeaaeathoue “Ca?o i?i ni?oia? iin?ae i?ae o?iaeae
iioi/iiai ?ieo” (o. ? 5-na). O iueiio iaaiaeyoueny a?aeiiino? i?i
iin?ai? ieiu? ii ni?oao ? a?a?eaeao iniiaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?.

Aeaea?aeaie noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo i?i aa?ioaoi?eo ? “Ca?o i?i iayai?noue
ian?iiy y?eo eoeueoo?” (o. ? 1-na), “Ca?o i?i ae?iaieoeoai a?a?eaeiiai
ian?iiy eoeo?oaece” (o. ? 19-na), “Ca?o i?i ai?iaaoe?th iin?a?a” (o. ?
15-na), “Ca?o i?i i?iaaaeaiiy aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a uiaei caoenoo
a?oio?a a?ae a?ic?? ? ai?ioueae c iinooith” (o. ? 43-na), “Ca?o i?i
i?aeaioiaeo c?iooaaieo caiaeue” (o. ? 20-na), “Ca?o i?i i?aeaioiaeo
inooaieo caiaeue” (o. ? 21-na), “Ca?o i?i iieea
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?” (o. ? 30-na), “Ca?o i?i canoinoaaiiy
aeia?ea” (o. ? 9-na), “Ca?o i?i aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo oa i?aai?/ieo
aeia?ea i?ae o?iaeae iioi/iiai ?ieo” (o. ? 9a-na), “Caeeth/iee ca?o i?i
cae?aiiy ni?oiaeo ian?iieo iin?a?a” (o. ? 28-na).

Iia?aoeai? a?aeiiino? i?i o?ae cae?aiiy o?iaeath
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? iaaiaeyoue o o. ? 7-na “Ca?o i?i
cae?aiiy a?iaeath, n?aao iceieo ? i?aieo ia cya”. O oeueiio ca?o?
ia?inoath/ei i?aenoieii iieacothoue c?a?aio ieiuo iniiaieo eoeueoo? ?
ae?iaeaio c oe??? ieiu? i?iaeoeoe?th. Oey oi?ia ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
aeey eiio?ieth ca aeeiiaiiyi a?ao?e?a cae?aiiy o?iaeath, a oaeiae aeey
ioe?iee no?ie?a i?iaaaeaiiy cae?aeueieo ?ia?o ? ao?ao i?iaeoeoe??.

Iiia?aaei? aeai? i?i cae?aiiy a?iaeath on?o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo? iaaeoiaeyoue a?ae eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, aea?aeaini?a oa ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo ainiiaea?noa o ?aeiii?
a?aeae?ee noaoenoeee. Oe? aeai? iaaiaeyoueny o o. ? 29-na “Ca?o i?i
cae?aiiy a?iaeath n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ? aaaaoi??/ieo
ianaaeaeaiue”, yeee neeaaeathoue noaiii ia ia?oa eenoiiaaea. O ca?o? ca
?icai?iooei ia?ae?eii eoeueoo? iaaiaeyoueny oae? iieacieee: oaeoe/ia
iin?aia ieiua, c?a?aia ieiua a?ae ii/aoeo cae?aiiy aei ca?oiiai no?ieo,
e?euee?noue iaea?aeaii? c oe??? ieiu? i?iaeoeoe??, na?aaei?e ca??
i?iaeoeoe?? c 1 aa c?a?aii? ieiu?. E??i oiai, o ca?o? iieacothoue ieiuo
iin?ao, yea cae?aoeiaoueny i?ney ca?oiiai no?ieo, ? i/?eoaaiee ca??
i?iaeoeoe?? c 1 aa ? an??? ieiu?.

Inoaoi/i? a?aeiiino? i?i aaeia? cai?e i?iaeoeoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee
aecia/athoue ca aeaieie ??/ieo ca?o?a. Aeai? i?i ?ici?? i?iaeoeoe??,
ae?iaeaii? a naeyinueeeo oa iniaenoeo ainiiaea?noaao ianaeaiiy,
aecia/athoue i?aaie aea?aeaaii? noaoenoeee i?e aea??eiaiio ianoaaeaii?
athaeaeao?a.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeaieo noaoenoeee ?ineeiieoeoaa ? ??/i? ca?oe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa. A ieo iaaiaeyoue caaaeueio
caiaeueio ieiuo ainiiaea?noaa oa ?? ?iciiae?e ii oa?aeaeyo, iayai?noue
c?iooaaieo ? inooaieo caiaeue, oaeoe/ii iin?yio ieiuo ? ca?? i?iaeoeoe??
ie?aieo eoeueoo?, ieiuo ? aaeiaee ca?? i?iaeoeoe?? naae?a,
aeiia?aaeiee?a oa ?ioeo aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue. Oe?ii? a?aeiiino?
aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee noaio ? aiae?co ?icaeoeo ?ineeiieoeoaa ae?noathoue a
?acoeueoao? ianii?oecaoe?? iie?a ? aiaeiainiiaea?nueeeo nenoai. Iania?
aeai? i?i noai caiaeue, iin?a?a, ianaaeaeaiue iaa?iiaaeaeothoueny o
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo nenoaiao ? caeeaaeao, ye? ianeoaiaothoue n?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai (caieaono??e, a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ia neoaeaa, aa?io?i?/ia
ianeoaiaoaaiiy, ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy, caoeno ?ineei, oiui).

2. Nenoaia iieaciee?a noaoenoeee ?ineeiieoeoaa.

I?aaeiaoii noaoenoeee ? iniaeea? iciaee noaio ? ?icaeoeo ianiaeo
noni?eueieo yaeu. Oae? iciaee ae?noaee iacao ia’?eoeaieo noaoenoe/ieo
iieaciee?a.

Noaoenoe/iee iieaciee – oea caaaeueia ?noioia iciaea yeiai-iaaoaeue
ianiaiai yaeua o ?? ye?ni?e ? e?euee?ni?e aecia/aiino? aeey eiie?aoieo
oiia i?noey ? /ano. Eiaeiee noaoenoe/iee iieaciee ia? e?euee?niee ae?ac.
?acii c iei e?euee?noue a noaoenoeoe? caaaeaee ia? a?aeiia?aeio ye?noue.
sse ?aei?noue e?eueeino? ? yeino? noaoenoe/i? iieacieee oa?aeoa?ecothoue
i??o yaeua.

Aoaeue-yea nenoaia iieaciee?a aea? ?ioi?iaoe?th, yea ye?nii
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae o???, ui ianooue ie?ai? iieacieee.

Noaoenoe/iee aiae?c, ?ice?eaath/e ci?no ? cia/aiiy iieaciee?a,
iiaeeaethth/e oyao i?i i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeanoea? oeiio
caeiiii??iino?, cae?eniththoue ca aeaiia iai?yiaie:

cai?noue ?cieueiaaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aieo noi??i i?aaeiaoa
?icaeyaeathoue ca’ycee ? a?aeiioaiiy, aeyaeythoue oaeoi?e, ye?
aieeaathoue ia ??aaiue ? aa??aoe?th iieaciee?a, ioe?iththoue aoaeoe ?o
aieeao;

aea/athoue aeeiai?eo iieaciee?a, iai?yi ? oaeaee?noue ci?i, aecia/athoue
oa?aeoa? ? ?oo?ei? neee ?icaeoeo.

Ana oea iiaeeaeth? aiae?c ? aea? iiaeeea?noue aeey aaaaoioe?eueiaiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee noaio ? ?icaeoeo ?ineeiieoeoaa noaoenoeea
aeei?enoiao? nenoaio iia’ycaieo iieaciee?a.

Ia?oa a?oia iieaciee?a oa?aeoa?eco? iayai?noue ? ye?noue oaeoi??a
ae?iaieoeoaa. Ine?eueee iniiaiei caniaii ae?iaieoeoaa a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? ? caiey, oi iniiai? iieacieee a noaoenoeoe? ?ineeiieoeoaa
– oea iayai?noue caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a, iin?ai? ieiu? ? ieiu? aaaaoi??/ieo
ianaaeaeaiue. Iayai?noue o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, iniiaieo ? iai?ioieo
ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a ?icaeyaeathoueny ye oaeoi?e aeei?enoaiiy caie? ?
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??. I?e oeueiio a?aeiioaiiy ianyao cania?a
ae?iaieoeoaa aei caiaeueii? ieiu? oa?aeoa?eco? ??aaiue ?ioaineo?eaoe??
?ineeiieoeoaa; a?aeiioaiiy e?eueeino? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aei caiaeueii?
ieiu? – caaacia/ai?noue o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie; a a?aeiioaiiy ianyao
cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa aei /enaeueiino? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a –
oiiaeiica?i?i?noue ?iai/i? neee.

Ae?oaa a?oia iieaciee?a a?aeia?aaea? aeei?enoaiiy oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa:
caie?, o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, iniiaieo ? iai?ioieo oiiae?a. Ii?yae c
aea/aiiyi aeei?enoaiiy oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa noaoenoeea aeine?aeaeo? ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. Iai?eeeaae, ianyao ?ia?o aei cao?ao i?aoe?, ianyao
aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a aei iin?aii? ieiu?, aeei?enoaii? aia?a?? aei
?iai/iai /ano, oiui.

O?aoy a?oia iieaciee?a oa?aeoa?eco? ?acoeueoaoe ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?iaeoeoe??th ? ae?iaie/eie ?ano?naie. Aei oe???
a?oie iaeaaeaoue iieacieee o?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?, iieacieee i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, oiiaeia?aeaea/?,
nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe??, oiui.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caie?
aecia/athoue oae? iieacieee: iieacieee aeoiaeo i?iaeoeoe?? c iaeeieoe?
caiaeueii? ieiu?, ui iiae?eythoueny ia iaoo?aeuei? oa aa?o?ni?.
Iaeaaaeeea?oei iieacieeii aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iae?i?iaaieo caiaeue
? ??aaiue o?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ae?iuoaaieo
ia oeeo caieyo. Ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? iae?i?aoe?? iiaeia aeaoe
o?eueee ca aeiiiiiaith a?aeiinieo iieaciee?a i?e?inoo o?iaeaeiino?.

Noaoenoe/iee aiae?c ?ineeiieoeoaa aeeth/a? a naaa ye iin?ai? ieiu? oae ?
aaaaoi??/i? ianaaeaeaiiy.

Iin?aiith ieiuath iaceaathoue ieiuo ??ee? aai ?ioeo ?ici?aieo oa?aeue,
yea caeiyoa iin?aaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. ?ici??e
iin?aieo ieiu ia/eneththoue ii ie?aieo eoeueoo?ao ? ii eiaei?e eoeueoo??
ca ainiiaea?nueeei i?ecia/aiiyi. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee caaaeueiiai ?ici??o
iin?a?a aeei?enoiaothoue oae? eaoaai??? iin?aieo ieiu: can?yio,
aaniyii-i?iaeoeoeaio, cae?aeueio ? oaeoe/ii c?a?aio.

Aeeiai?eo iin?aieo ieiu aiae?cothoue ii??aiyiiyi oaeoe/iiai ?ici??o
iin?a?a o iioi/iiio ?ioe? c a?aeiia?aeieie aeaieie ca ieioe? ?iee.
Aiae?coth/e no?oeoo?o ? no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy iin?aieo ieiu, ia/eneththoue
ieoiio aaao iin?a?a ie?aieo eoeueoo? o caaaeuei?e ieiu? an?o iin?a?a.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee yeino? iin?aieo ieiu ia/eneththoue ieoiio aaao
iin?a?a eiaeii? eoeueoo?e ni?oiaei ian?iiyi o caaaeuei?e ieiu?. Aeey
ioe?iee no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu aeei?enoiaothoue iieaciee o?iaeaeiino?
aaceniiai ia??iaeo.

Noaoenoe/iee aiae?c aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue cae?eniththoue oae naii ye
? aiae?c iin?aieo ieiu. I?ioa aiae?c aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue ia?
aeaye? iniaeeaino?, iia’ycai? c oei, ui aaaaoi??/i? ianaaeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaothoue aeey iaea?aeaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai
ia??iaeo. Aeey ieo aeei?enoiaothoue oae? iieacieee: aeeiiaiiy ieaio
caeeaaeaiiy iiaeo ianaaeaeaiue, no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy ca aeaeaie
ianaaeaeaiue, a?eiaei ? ni?oiaei neeaaeii, oiui. E??i oiai aea/athoue
iieacieee a?aeoai?aiiy aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue: caaacia/aiiy
ainiiaea?noa naaeeaiei iaoa??aeii, ianaaeaeaiiy iieiaeeo ?ineei o
i?noeyo caaeaae? noa?eo aea?aa, c??aeaeaiino?.

O?iaeae ? o?iaeaei?noue – iaeaaaeeea?o? ?acoeueoaoeai? iieacieee
caiea?ianoaa ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oe?eiio.
??aaiue o?iaeaeiino? a?aeia?aaea? aieea aeiiii?/ieo ? i?e?iaeieo oiia, a
oaeiae ye?noue i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ? ainiiaea?noa.

I?ae o?iaea?i (aaeiaei cai?ii) o noaoenoeoe? ?icoi?thoue caaaeueiee
ianya i?iaeoeoe??, c?a?aii? c on??? ieiu? iin?ao ie?aieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? aai ?o a?oi. O?iaeaei?noue – oea
na?aaei?e ianya i?iaeoeoe?? c iaeeieoe? iin?aii? ieiu?. Aeey eoeueoo?,
ui ae?iuothoueny o a?aee?eoiio a?oio?, o?iaeaei?noue aecia/athoue c
?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa, a o cae?eoiio a?oio? – ia 1 i2.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee o?iaeath aeei?enoiaothoue oae? iieacieee: aeaeiaee
o?iaeae, o?iaeae ia ii?, oaeoe/iee o?iaeae.

Aeaeiaee o?iaeae – oea i/?eoaai? ?ici??e aaeiaiai cai?o a iaaiee ia??iae
aaaaoaoe??. Aecia/athoue eiai niaoe?ae?noe aa?iiii?/iiai i?io?eth ia iei
caeaaeii a?ae noaio iin?a?a: aonoioe noiae?a, nooiaiy ?icaeoeo ?ineei.

I?ae o?iaea?i ia ii? ia?aae ii/aoeii nai?/aniiai cae?aiiy ?icoi?thoue
aanue ae?iuaiee o?iaeae aac o?aooaaiiy ao?ao. O?iaeae ia ii?
aecia/athoue: 1) ia iei, iaeyaeath/e iin?ae ia?aae cae?aiiyi o?iaeath;
2) aea??eiaei iaeeaaeaiiyi iao??aie ia?aae ii/aoeii cae?aiiy a?iaeath.

Oaeoe/iee o?iaeae – oea e?euee?noue oaeoe/ii c?a?aii? ? ii?eaooeiaaii?
i?iaeoeoe?? ie?aieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iieaciee?a o?iaeath ?ic??ciythoue oae? aeaee
o?iaeaeiino?: aeaeiao, ia ii? ? oaeoe/io. Oaeoe/io o?iaeaei?noue
ia/eneththoue c ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa aaniyii-i?iaeoeoeaii? ieiu?. Aeey
eiiiiaeue, n?yieo iaeii??/ieo ? aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa oa i?e?iaeieo
n?iiaeaoae o?iaeaei?noue aecia/athoue c ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa oaeoe/ii
c?a?aii? ieiu?. A iai/?aieoeoa? cae?eoiai a?oioo o?iaeaei?noue
ia/eneththoue c ?ic?aooieo ia 1 i2 ?iaaioa?ii? ? iai?ioii? ieiu?. I?e
oeueiio aecia/athoue eiao?oe??io iai?ioo ieiu.

Aeey ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? iieaciee o?iaeaeiino?, ui
oa?aeoa?eco? /enoee ca?? c ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa aaniyii i?iaeoeoeaii?
ieiu?. Eiai ia/eneththoue a?aei?iath/e a?ae oaeoe/ii? o?iaeaeiino? (ca
ianith i?ney aei?iaee) aeo?aoe ian?iiy ia 1 aa aaniyii i?iaeoeoeaii?
ieiu?. *enoee ca?? c 1 aa aea? ciiao i?aaeeuei?oa ioe?ieoe na?aaeith
i?iaeoeoeai?noue iceieo ? y?eo ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, ine?eueee iin?ae
ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ia??aeei aeiooue o ceiiai-aaniyiee ia??iae, ui
coiiaeth? ao?aoo a?aeiia?aeii? e?eueeino? ian?iiy.

Aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi noaoenoeee ?ineeiieoeoaa ? aecia/aiiy ao?ao
o?iaeath i?ae /an cae?aiiy ? o?ainii?ooaaiiy i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeieeee c
oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei.

Noaoenoe/i? iieacieee o ?ineeiieoeoa? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaniethoieie
iiiaioaie (ieiua c?iooaaieo oa inooaieo caiaeue ia iaaio aeaoo) ?
?ioa?aaeueieie ??aiyie (ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe??, iinoaaea i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea ca iaaiee ia??iae), a oaeiae a?aeiinieie (no?oeoo?a iin?aieo
ieiu, iieacieee ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa) ? na?aaei?ie aaee/eiaie
(na?aaeiy o?iaeaei?noue, na?aaei? ao?aoe i?iaeoeoe?? i?ae /an cae?aiiy,
oiui).

>74V; 2. Noaoenoe/ia ioe?iea iieaciee?a o?iaeaeiino? ca?iiaeo.

1. ?yaee ?iciiae?eo aea??eiai? noeoiiino? oa ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee.

I?e noaoenoe/iiio a?oioaaii? aeaieo eiaeio a?oio oa?aeoa?ecothoue
nenoaiith iieaciee?a, ye? iathoue iaaiee aca?iica’ycie ?
aca?iicaeaaei?noue c a?oioaaeueiith iciaeith. sseui aeae?eai? a?oie
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia nenoaiith iieaciee?a, a eeoa e?euee?noth iaeeieoeue,
ui a?aeiinyoueny aei eiaeii? a?oie, oi ae?noathoue ?yaee ?iciiae?eo.

?yaeii ?iciiae?eo iaceaa?oueny ?iciiae?e iaeeieoeue noeoiiino? ii a?oiao
ca aaee/eiith aa??thth/i? iciaee. A?i neeaaea?oueny c aeaio aeaiaio?a:
aa??aio?a ? /anoio. Aa??aioaie ? ie?ai? cia/aiiy a?oioaaeueii? iciaee, a
/anoioaie – /enea, ye? iieacothoue, ne?eueee ?ac?a iiaoi?ththoueny
ie?ai? cia/aiiy aa??aio?a.

?yaee ?iciiae?eo iiaeia ooai?eoe ca ye?niith (ao?eaooeaiith) aai
e?euee?niith iciaeith. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai ?ic??ciythoue aeaa aeaee
?yae?a – ao?eaooeai? ? aa??aoe?ei?. Aa??aoe?ei? ?yaee caeaaeii a?ae
a?oioaaeueii? iciaee iiae?eythoueny ia aeene?aoi? ? ?ioa?aaeuei?. Ca
aeene?aoiith iciaeith, e?euee?noue cia/aiue yei? iaiaaeaia,
ooai?th?oueny aeene?aoiee ?yae ?iciiae?eo. Ca aeene?aoiith iciaeith, ui
aa??th? a oe?ieeo iaaeao, aai ca iaia?a?aiith aoaeothoue ?ioa?aaeueiee
?yae ?iciiae?eo. I?e oeueiio aa??aioe a?oiothoueny a ?ioa?aaee, a
/anoioe a?aeiinyoueny ia aei ie?aiiai cia/aiiy iciaee, ye o aeene?aoieo
?yaeao, a aei anueiai ?ioa?aaeo.

A?oioaaiiy – oea ?iciiae?e on??? noeoiiino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo noni?eueieo
yaeu ia oeie, a?oie ? i?aea?oie ca aoaeue-yeith ?noioiith iciaeith.

A?oioaaiiy ? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aoai?a an??? noaoenoe/ii? ?iaioe c
oeeo?aie. An? ?io? iaoiaee a noaoenoeoe? aoaeoeai? o?eueee ia i?aenoaa?
a?oioaaiue ? ii?aeiaii? c ieie.

Caeaaeii a?ae ?ica’ycoaaieo caaaeaiue a?oioaaiiy iiae?eythoue ia
oeiieia?/i?, no?oeoo?i? ? aiae?oe/i?.

Oeiieia?/i? a?oioaaiiy aeei?enoiaothoue aeey aeae?eaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oei?a c iane ??ciiye?nieo iaeeieoeue, uia
iieacaoe a?aei?ii?noue aai iiae?ai?noue ??cieo yaeu.

A?oioaaiiy, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?iciiae?e iaeii??aeii? noeoiiino? ca
aoaeue-yeith iciaeith, iaceaathoue no?oeoo?ieie.

Aiae?oe/ieie iaceaathoue a?oioaaiiy, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aecia/athoue
aca?iica’ycie i?ae ie?aieie iciaeaie iaeeieoeue noaoenoe/ii? noeoiiino?.

I?e aea/aii? caeaaeiino? iaoiaeii aiae?oe/ieo a?oioaaiue canoiniaothoue
?acoeueoaoeai? ? oaeoi?i? a?oioaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoeaiei iaceaa?oueny a?oioaaiiy, a yeiio a?oioaaeueiith iciaeith
? ?acoeueoaoeaiee iieaciee.

Oaeoi?iei iaceaa?oueny a?oioaaiiy, a yeiio a?oioaaeueiith iciaeith ?
oaeoi?iee iieaciee, ui aieeaa? ia ci?io ?acoeueoaoeaii? iciaee.

Na?aaeiueith aaee/eiith a noaoenoeoe? iaceaathoue iieaciee, ui
oa?aeoa?eco? ??aaiue aa??thth/i? iciaee a ye?nii iaeii??aei?e
noeoiiino?. Na?aaei? aaee/eie aeei?enoiaothoue aeey ocaaaeueiaii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee noeoiiino? ca ?noioieie iciaeaie, aeey ii??aiyiiy oeeo
iciae o ??cieo noeoiiinoyo. A noaoenoeoe? canoiniaothoue ??ci? aeaee
na?aaei?o aaee/ei: na?aaeith a?eoiaoe/io, na?aaeith aa?iii?eio,
na?aaeith aaiiao?e/io, na?aaeith eaaae?aoe/io. Aea?? eiie?aoiiai aeaeo
na?aaeiuei? aaee/eie caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o aeo?aeieo aeaieo.

Na?aaeiy a?eoiaoe/ia ? iaea?eueo iioe?aiei aeaeii na?aaei?o aaee/ei. ??
canoiniaothoue oiae?, eiee caaaeueiee ianya aa??thth/i? iciaee aeey
oe??? noeoiiino? noaiiaeoue noio ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo cia/aiue ona?aaeiaii?
iciaee. Na?aaeith a?eoiaoe/io i?inoo aecia/athoue ca oaeith oi?ioeith:

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(aa??aioe);

n – /enei aa??aio?a.

Na?aaeith a?eoiaoe/io caaaeaio ia/eneththoue ca oi?ioeith:

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Na?aaeith aa?iii?/io aeei?enoiaothoue aeey ocaaaeueiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iciaee oiae?, eiee a?aeii? ie?ai? cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? iciaee ?
ianyae yaeu, a /anoioe iaa?aeii?. ?? oi?ioea ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

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Ia i?aeoeoe? /ano?oa canoiniaothoue na?aaeith aa?iii?/io caaaeaio,
oi?ioea yei? ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

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Na?aaeith aaiiao?e/io aeei?enoiaothoue aeey ia/eneaiiy na?aaei?o oaii?a
c?inoaiiy, oiaoi eiee caaaeueiee ianya yaeu noaiiaeoue ia noio a
aeiaooie iciae. ?? aecia/athoue:

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eaaae?aoe/io aeei?enoiaothoue aeey ioe?iee aa??aoe?? iciae, a oaeiae
aeey ocaaaeueiaiiy iciae, ae?aaeaieo e?i?eieie ?ici??aie yeeo-iaaoaeue
ieiu (aeey ?ic?aooieo na?aaei?o ae?aiao??a noiaao??a aea?aa, eenoe?a,
eioee?a). ?? aecia/athoue ca oaeeie oi?ioeaie:

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy???Oe?????&??MathType??a?
???u?????????”????-?????d]????d#???o???oO
???9ae???! ???u?? ???????”????-????
!???Iv???-?????I~???R?e???R?e???R?o
[email protected]??????wmetafile8? ??O???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????a`
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy ??–?????&[email protected]
???u?????????”????-?????_b????_(???o???o/
????i???) ???u??
???????”????-????…)???v~???-?????v†???R?o???R
[email protected]??????

a) ca iaca?oiiaaieie aeaieie

?icaeyiaii noaoenoe/io ioe?ieo iieaciee?a o?iaeaeiino? ca?iiaeo aeey
iaoi? noeoiiino? ainiiaea?noa.

Oaaeeoey 1. Aeai? i?i o?iaeaei?noue iceii? ioaieoe?, e?eueeino? aianaieo
i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea ia 1 aa ? yeino? a?oioo

?A?iaeaei?noueAeia?eaasse?noue
a?oiooi/iYX1X2133,45,874239,65,783339,88,083436,45,685537,65,284639,65,7
83740,27,387842,47,182940,26,7751040,67,5741142,27,0701243,88,2811343,88
,2871443,17,7801535,95,7691640,66,9861743,07,8791843,07,8791933,05,87220
40,07,4882142,28,5832233,45,9702340,07,4892435,96,0732543,88,281993,5173
,11997Aeey cia?aaeaiiy aeene?aoieo ?yae?a ?iciiae?eo aeei?enoiaothoue
iie?aii. Ca aeiiiiiaith iie?aiia iiaeia aecia/eoe iiaeo. Aeey oeueiai c
aa?oeie iie?aiia ne?ae iionoeoe ia?iaiaeeeoey?, oi/ea ia?aoeio c a?nnth
aanoeen ? ? cia/aiiy iiaee. (Aeiaeaoie 13).

Ia/eneeii na?aaei? aaee/eie aeey iaoi? noeoiiino?.

Oaaeeoey 2. Na?aaei? aaee/eie ca iaca?oiiaaieie aeaieie

Iieacieee
ainiiaea?noaaa?iii?eiaaaiiao?e/iaa?eoiaoe/iaeaaae?aoe/iaNa?aaeiy
o?iaeaei?noue, oe/aa39,445339,595739,740039,8778Aianaii i?aai?/ieo
aeia?ea o/aa 6,77246,84886,92406,9968sse?noue a?oio?a,
aae79,417279,650979,880080,1037Oaaeeoey 3. Iaaei?aioi?noue na?aaei?o
aaee/ei

Aeae na?aaeiuei? Aeai? aaee/eiI?ei?oeaaaee/eieo?iaeaei?noue,
oe/aai?aai?/i? aeia?eaa o/aa ye?noue a?oio?a,
aaeAa?iii?eia39,44536,772479,4172minAaiiao?e/ia39,59576,848879,6509A?eoi
aoe/ia39,74006,924079,8800Eaaae?aoe/ia39,87786,996880,1037maxwmetafile8
? ??¬??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
????????a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy ??0?????&?
?MathType??p?
???u?????????”????-?????¤?]????¤?#???¤?2???¤?o???¤
?3/4 ???¤?„???¤?¬???¤[email protected]??????Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy iciaee o aa??aoe?eieo ?yaeao ?iciiae?eo
ia/eneththoue oae caai? ii?yaeeia? na?aaei?, iiaeo ? iaae?aio.

Iiaea – oea aa??aioa, yea iae/ano?oa cono??/a?oueny o aeaiiio
aa??aoe?eiiio ?yaeo.

Iaae?aia – oea aa??aioa, yea i?eiaaea? ia na?aaeeio aa??aoe?eiiai ?yaeo.
sseui e?euee?noue /eai?a ?yaeo ia?ia, oi iaae?aia aei??aith? na?aaei?e
a?eoiaoe/i?e ?c aeaio na?aaeeiieo cia/aiue aa??aio.

Oaaeeoey 4. Ia/eneai? cia/aiiy iiaee ? iaae?aie

Iieacieee ainiiaea?noaIiaeaIaae?aiaNa?aaeiy o?iaeaei?noue,
oe/aa43,840,2Aianaii i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea o/aa 5,78,27,1sse?noue a?oio?a,
aae8381Na?aaei? aaee/eie aeathoue ocaaaeueithth/o oa?aeoa?enoeeo
noeoiiinoae ca aa??thth/ith iciaeith. I?ioa i?e oiio naiiio na?aaeiueiio
cia/aii? iciaee, ui aecia/a?oueny, ie?ai? noeoiiino? ?noioii ??ciyoueny
ca neeaaeii ? aaee/eiith a?aeoeeaiue a?ae na?aaeiuei?. Aea/aiiy ?ici??o
a?aeoeeaiue oa ?o ?iciiae?eo aeei?enoiaothoue aeey ioe?iee e?euee?nii?
iaeii??aeiino? noeoiiino?. Aei??thaaiiy ? aiae?c aa??aoe?? ia? aaeeea
cia/aiiy aeey ioe?iee no?eeino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo yaeu, a oaeiae aieeao
??cieo oaeoi??a ia eieeaaiiy iciae.

Oaaeeoey 5. Oi?ioee ?ic?aooieo ? ?ic?aooieia? aeai? aeey ia/eneaiiy
iieaciee?a aa??aoe??.

Iieacieee aa??aoe??Oi?ioee aeey ia/eneaiiyNa?aaeiy o?iaeaei?noue,
oe/aaAianaii i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea o/aa sse?noue a?oio?a, aae?iciao
aa??aoe??wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy°[email protected]???????&?
?MathType??`[email protected]??????ii aa??aoe?eiiio ?iciaoo;wmetafile8?
[email protected]??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy`???????&?
?MathType????
???u?????????”????-?????#????#AE???T«???Tth???u
@th??????Iniaeeai aaaeeeaei i?e aeei?enoaii? iaoiaeo a?oioaaiue ?
aecia/aiiy e?eueeino? a?oi ? aaee/eie aioa?aae?a, ye? iieacothoue
i?i?iaeueia ? iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy iciaee aeey eiaeii? a?oie.
A?oioaaeuei? iciaee iiaeooue aooe ao?eaooeaieie (ye?nieie) aai
e?euee?nieie. Aei ao?eaooeaieo iaeaaeaoue oae? iciaee ye? ia iathoue
e?euee?niiai ae?aco ? ?a?no?othoueny o aeaeyae? oaenoiaiai caieno.
E?euee?ni? iciaee ?a?no?othoueny /eneii. Iaei? iciaee ae?aaeathoueny
oe?eeie /eneaie – aeene?aoi? aai ia?a?ai?, ?io? iciaee iiaeia iicia/aoe
oe?eeie ? ae?iaiaeie /eneaie – aacia?a?ai? iciaee.

sseui a?oioaaeueia iciaea ia? ieaaiee oa?aeoa? aa??thaaiiy ?
canoiniaothoueny ??ai? ?ioa?aaee, oi e?euee?noue a?oi i???ioiaaii iiaeia
aecia/eoe ca oi?ioeith aia?eeainueeiai a/aiiai Noa?aeaeana:

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`????????&?
[email protected]??????n – e?euee?noue a?oi

N – /enaeuei?noue noeoiiino?.

Ia iniia? ?aiaee?iaaiiai ?yaeo iiaeia iiaoaeoaaoe aa??aoe?eiee ?yae
?iciiae?eo, i?ii?aeia aiae?oe/ia a?oioaaiiy ?, i?iaiae?coaaaoe ?o,
aecia/eoe e?euee?noue ?noioii a?aei?iieo ? iaeii??aeieo a?oi.

I?e a?oioaaii? ca e?euee?niith iciaeith aaaeeeaei ? aecia/aiiy aaee/eie
?ioa?aaeo a?oioaaiiy. ?ioa?aaeii a?oioaaiiy iaceaa?oueny ??cieoey i?ae
iaeneiaeueieie ? i?i?iaeueieie cia/aiiyie iciaee a eiaei?e a?oi?.

Ca aaee/eiith ?ioa?aaee iiae?eythoueny ia ??ai? ? ia??ai?. sseui
aa??aoe?y a?oioaaeueii? iciaee iacia/ia, a ?iciiae?e iaeeieoeue
noeoiiino? ia? ii??aiyii ??aiii??iee oa?aeoa? oi canoiniaothoue ??ai?
?ioa?aaee. Aeiaaeeio ?ioa?aaeo i?e a?oioaaii? ?c canoinoaaiiyi ??aieo
?ioa?aae?a aecia/athoue ca oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ??#???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????` 
???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy` ???????&??MathType????
???u?????????”????-?????T????TP [email protected]??????i –
aeiaaeeia ?ioa?aaeo;

xmax – iaeneiaeueia aaee/eia a?oioaaeueii? iciaee;

xmin – i?i?iaeueia aaee/eia a?oioaaeueii? iciaee;

n – e?euee?noue a?oi.

O noaoenoe/i?e i?aeoeoe? canoiniaothoue cae?eo? ? a?aee?eo? ?ioa?aaee.
Cae?eoeie iaceaathoue ?ioa?aaee, a yeeo a?aeii? i?i?iaeuei? ?
iaeneiaeuei? iaae? iciaee. A?aee?eoeie iaceaathoue ?ioa?aaee, a yeeo
iaa?aeii? i?i?iaeuei? ? iaeneiaeuei? iaae?. A?aee?eoeie iiaeooue aooe
ia?oee ? inoaii?e ?yae.

C?iaeii a?oioaaiiy caaeaii? noeoiiino? ainiiaea?noa ca o?iaeaei?noth
ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?.

Oaaeeoey 6. ?iciiae?e ainiiaea?noa ca o?iaeaei?noth ca?iiaeo

?ioa?aaeE?euee?noue ainiiaea?noaNa?aaeeia
?ioa?aaeo33,035,2334,0835,237,32336,2437,3239,48138,439,4841,64940,5641,
6443,8942,72A?noia?aia ?yaeo ?iciiae?eo ca aeaieie oaaeeoe? 6 (Aeiaeaoie
4).

Ia/eneeii na?aaei? aaee/eie aeey ca?oiiaaiiai ?yaeo ?iciiae?eo ?
ia?aa??eii iaoaiaoe/i? aeanoeaino? na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii?.

Oaaeeoey 7. Na?aaei? aaee/eie aeey ca?oiiaaiiai ?yaeo ?iciiae?eo

Iieaciee Caaaeai? na?aaei?
aaee/eieainiiaea?noaaaa?iii?eiaaaiiao?e/iaa?eoiaoe/iaeaaae?aoe/iaO?iaeae
i?noue ca?iiaeo oe/aa39,71939,84039,95540,065Na?aaeiy a?eoiaoe/ia ia?
iaai? iaoaiaoe/i? aeanoeaino?:

Oaaeeoey 8. Ia?aa??ea iaoaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aeey na?aaeiuei?
a?eoiaoe/ii?

?ioa?aaeNiYiYiNiNiK (K=2)YiNiK(Yi-A) Ni (A=3)CYiNi
(C=2)(Yi-Yna?)Ni3335,16334,08102,246204,4893,24204,48-17,625635,1637,323
36,24108,726217,4499,72217,44-11,145637,3239,48138,438,4276,835,476,8-1,
555239,4841,64940,56365,0418730,08338,04730,085,443241,6443,8942,72384,4
818768,96357,48768,9624,8832?acii998,88501997,76923,881997,761,35E-131)
sseui an? /anoioe ?yaeo ?iciiae?eo ciaioeoe aai ca?eueoeoe a E?ac?a, oi
na?aaeiy a?eoiaoe/ia i?e oeueiio ia ci?ieoueny.

wmetafile8? ??TH???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
[email protected]???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy???5?????&??MathType??0
???u?????????”????-?????#[????#!????????^[email protected]
h??????2) sseui an? cia/aiiy aa??thth/i? iciaee ciaioeoe aai ca?eueoeoe
ia iaeio e oo naio aaee/eio, oi e na?aaeiy a?eoiaoe/ia ciaioeoueny aai
ca?eueoeoueny ia oo ae naio aaee/eio.

wmetafile8? ??o???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
[email protected]???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyy???%?????&??MathType??
???u?????????”????-?????C[????C!???Ae???Ae?
[email protected]??????3) sseui an? cia/aiiy aa??thth/i?
iciaee ciaioeoe aai ca?eueoeoe a iaeia e oa ae /enei ?ac, oi e na?aaeiy
a?eoiaoe/ia ciaioeoueny aai ca?eueoeoueny a oaea ae /enei ?ac.

wmetafile8? ??F???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyyA

??&?????&??MathType??0
???u?????????”????-?????i????/????????µ
????4) Noia a?aeoeeaiue ie?aieo cia/aiue aa??thth/i? iciaee a?ae
na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii? aei??aith? ioeth.

wmetafile8? ??|???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????A
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya ???????&??MathType????
???u?????????”[email protected]??????Aei
oa?aeoa?enoee oeaio?o ?iciiae?eo e??i na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii?
iaeaaeeoue iiaea ? iaae?aia. A ?ioa?aaeueiiio ?yae? ?iciiae?eo eaaei
a?aeooeaoe iiaeaeueiee ?ioa?aae, a naia iiaea aecia/a?oueny ca
oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ??0???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
?????&[email protected]??%?????&??MathType??a?
???u?????????”????-?????TJ ???T:[email protected]??????o0 – ieaeiy
iaaea iiaeaeueiiai ?ioa?aaeo;

h – e?ie (oe?eia) ?ioa?aaeo;

nm – /anoioa iiaeaeueiiai ?ioa?aaeo;

nm-1 – /anoioa ?ioa?aaeo, yeee ia?aaeo? iiaeaeueiiio;

nm+1 – /anoioa ?ioa?aaeo yeee ne?aeo? ca iiaeaeueiei.

Iaae?aia a ?ioa?aaeueiiio ?yae? ?iciiae?eo iae/eneth?oueny ca oaeith
oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ??Oe???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
@ ???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyy`??a?????&??MathType??a?
???u?????????”????-?????[?†???N
???u?????????”????-????V [email protected]??????o0 – ieaeiy
iaaea iaae?aeueiiai ?ioa?aaeo;

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??O?????&??MathType?? ?
???u?????????”[email protected]??????Sn-1 – noia
an?o /anoio, ui ia?aaeothoue iaae?aeueiiio ?ioa?aaeo;

nme – /anoioa iaae?aiiiai ?ioa?aaeo.

Oaaeeoey 9. Ia/eneai? iieacieee iiaee ? iaae?aie aeey ca?oiiaaieo aeaieo
ca o?iaeaei?noth

Iieaciee ainiiaea?noaaIiaeaIaae?aiaO?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo,
oe/aa41,6440,8Noaoenoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oeaio?o ?iciiae?eo (na?aaeiy,
iiaea, iaae?aia) a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o aea/aii? noaoenoe/ieo
noeoiiinoae. ?ieiee ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? cia/aiiy iciaee cia/ii
a?aeoeeythoueny a?ae oeaio?o ?iciiae?eo, ?ieiee – o?nii a?oiothoueny
iaaeiei iueiai, a a?aeoae aeieea? iio?aaa ioe?ieoe i??o ? nooi?iue
aa??aoe??.

Oaaeeoey 10. Ia/eneaiiy iieaciee?a aa??aoe??

Iieacieee aa??aoe??Oi?ioee aeey ia/eneaiiyNa?aaeiy o?iaeaei?noue,
oe/aa?iciao aa??aoe??wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy°[email protected]???????&?
?MathType??`[email protected]??????ii aa??aoe?eiiio ?iciaoo;wmetafile8?
[email protected]??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy`???????&?
?MathType????
???u?????????”????-?????#????#AE???T«???Tth???u
@th??????Oaaeeoey 11. A?oioaaiiy ainiiaea?noa ca aianaiiyi i?aai?/ieo
aeia?ea

?ioa?aaeE?euee?noue ainiiaea?noa, NiNa?aaeeia ?ioa?aaeo,
Xi5,25,8675,535,866,5226,196,527,1846,857,187,8477,517,848,558,17A?ao?e
?iciiae?eo ainiiaea?noa ca aianaiiyi i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea – Aeiaeaoie 5.

Oaaeeoey 12. Ia/eneai? na?aaei? aaee/eie aeey aeaiiai ?yaeo

Iieaciee Caaaeai? na?aaei?
aaee/eieainiiaea?noaaaa?iii?eiaaaiiao?e/iaa?eoiaoe/iaeaaae?aoe/iaAianaii
i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea o/aa 6,725941376,8019333766,87646,94819Oaaeeoey 13.
Ia?aa??ea iaoaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii?

?ioa?aaeNiX1iX1iNiNiK (K=2)X1iNiK(X1i-A)Ni (A=3)CX1iNi
(C=2)(X1i-X1na?)Ni5,25,8675,5338,711477,4217,7177,42-9,42485,866,5226,19
12,38424,766,3824,76-1,37286,527,1846,8527,4854,815,454,8-0,10567,187,84
77,5152,5714105,1431,57105,144,43527,848,558,1740,851081,725,8581,76,468
?acii25171,9150343,8296,91343,828,88178E-161) wmetafile8?
??Y??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
????????????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyyA??&?????&?
?MathType??0 ???u?????????”????-?????’[????’!????
????:[email protected]??????2) wmetafile8? ??o???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyyA??&?????&??MathType??0
???u?????????”????-?????%]????%#????????™
???%????%[email protected]??????3) wmetafile8? ??F???????????
???????????yyy????.????1???????????????

???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦[email protected]

??&?????&??MathType??0
???u?????????”????-?????b????(???????? 
[email protected]??????4) wmetafile8?
??|??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????Aa ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy  ???????&?
?MathType????
???u?????????”[email protected]??????Oaaeeoey 14.
?acoeueoaoe ia/eneaiue iiaee ? iaae?aie

Iieaciee ainiiaea?noaaIiaeaIaae?aiaAianaii i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea,
o/aa7,5765,5857,0975Ia/eneeii iieacieee aa??aoe?? ca e?euee?noth
aianaieo aeia?ea.

Oaaeeoey 15. Ia/eneaiiy iieaciee?a aa??aoe??

Iieacieee aa??aoe??Oi?ioee aeey ia/eneaiiyAianaii i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea
?iciao aa??aoe??wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy°[email protected]???????&?
?MathType??`[email protected]??????Oaaeeoey 16. A?oioaaiiy ainiiaea?noa ca
ye?noth a?oio?a

?ioa?aaeE?euee?noue ainiiaea?noa, NiNa?aaeeia ?ioa?aaeo,
Xi69,0735717377375778157981857838589587A?ao?e ?iciiae?eo ainiiaea?noa ca
ye?noth a?oio?a – Aeiaeaoie 6.

Oaaeeoey 17. Ia/eneai? na?aaei? aaee/eie aeey aeaiiai ?yaeo

Iieaciee Caaaeai? na?aaei?
aaee/eieainiiaea?noaaaa?iii?eiaaaiiao?e/iaa?eoiaoe/iaeaaae?aoe/iasse?nou
e a?oio?a79,23370579,43833979,6479,838086Oaaeeoey 18. Ia?aa??ea
iaoaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii?

?ioa?aaeNiX2iX2iNiNiK (K=2)X2iNiK(X2i-A) Ni (A=3)CX2iNi (C=2)(X2i-X2na?)
Ni69,07357135510710340710-43,273773752256450216450-13,927781579395107903
80790-3,28185783581141162560116223,5285895874351087042087036,8?acii25199
150398219163982-1,4211E-141) wmetafile8? ??O???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
[email protected]???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy???&?????&??MathType??0
???u?????????”????-?????b????([email protected]
h??????2) wmetafile8? ??n???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ??&?????&??MathType??0
???u?????????”????-?????b????(???????? 
??[email protected]??????3) wmetafile8? ??E???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
?A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy???&?????&??MathType??0
???u?????????”????-?????b????(???????? 
[email protected]??????4) wmetafile8?
??|??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????Aa ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy  ???????&?
?MathType????
???u?????????”[email protected]??????Oaaeeoey 19.
?acoeueoaoe ia/eneaiue iiaee ? iaae?aie

Iieaciee ainiiaea?noaaIiaeaIaae?aiasse?noue a?oio?a8380,6Ia/eneeii
iieacieee aa??aoe?? ca ye?noth a?oio?a.

Oaaeeoey 20. Ia/eneaiiy iieaciee?a aa??aoe??

Iieacieee aa??aoe??Oi?ioee aeey ia/eneaiiysse?noue a?oio?a?iciao
aa??aoe??wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy°[email protected]???????&?
?MathType??`[email protected]??????Aea??eiaei iaceaa?oueny oaea niinoa?aaeaiiy,
yea aea? oa?aeoa?enoeeo an??? noeoiiino? iaeeieoeue ia iniia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeayei? ?? /anoeie. Noeoii?noue iaoaiaoe/ieo cania?a ?
iaa?oiooaaiue, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue i?e canoinoaaii? aea??eiaiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy, ae?noaei iacao aeaa?eiaiai iaoiaeo.

A noaoenoe/i?e i?aeoeoe? aea??eiaa niinoa?aaeaiiy canoiniaothoue i?e
aea/aii? athaeaeao?a ianaeaiiy, aeey iae?eo oe?i ia eieainiieo ?eieao,
aeey aecia/aiiy ao?ao i?e cae?aii? a?iaeath. Inoaii?i /anii aea??eiaee
iaoiae oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoue i?e ??cieo iieooaaiiyo a?iiaaenueei?
aeoiee c iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo ? eiia?oe?eieo ieoaiue, o iaoeia?e
?iaio? i?e noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ic??ciythoue aaia?aeueio ? aea??eiao noeoiiino?. Aaia?aeueia
noeoii?noue – oea caaaeueia noeoii?noue iaeeieoeue, c yei? i?iaiaeeoueny
a?aea?? /anoeie iaeeieoeue. Aea??eiaa noeoii?noue – oea /anoeia
aaia?aeueii? noeoiiino? yea aea??eiai ianoaaeoaaoeiaoueny.

Caaaeaiiyi aea??eiaiai niinoa?aaeaiiy iiaea aooe aea/aiiy na?aaeiueiai
?ici??o aeine?aeaeoaaii? iciaee aai ieoiii? aaae aeine?aeaeoaaii?
iciaee.

Aaaeeeaith oiiaith iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? aea??eiaiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ?
i?aaeeueia oi?ioaaiiy aea??eiai? noeoiiino?. Ca niiniaii a?aeai?o
iaeeieoeue aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy ?ic??ciythoue oae? aeaee oi?ioaaiiy
aea??eiai? noeoiiino?: aeania aeiaaeeiaa, iaoai?/ia, na??eia ? oeiiaa
aea??ee.

?icaeyiaii aeania aeiaaeeiao aea??eo, i?e ye?e eiaeio iaeeieoeth c
aaia?aeueii? noeoiiino? aeae?athoue o aea??eo aeiaaeeiai, iaiaaienia,
i?e aaciiaoi?iiio a?aeai??.

Aeey ocaaaeueithth/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiieeee aea??ee aecia/athoue
na?aaeith iiieeeo. Na?aaeiy iiieeea aea??ee aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ??ss???????????
[email protected]
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???o?????&??MathType??
???u?????????”????-??????^????g????E ????w
???A7??? r ???u??
???????”????-????(r???UC???-?????UI???U?;???U
?;[email protected]??????Oaaeeoey 21. Aeai? aea??eiaiai ianoaaeaiiy
o?iaeaeiino? ca?iiaeo

?ioa?aaeNiYiYiNi(Yi-Yn)2Ni33,035,2334,08102,24103,55392535,1637,32336,24
108,7241,408133137,3239,48138,438,42,4186470439,4841,64940,56365,043,292
0473641,6443,8942,72384,4868,7970714?acii25998,88219,469824Ciaeaeaii
aea??eiao na?aaeith:

wmetafile8? ??o???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ??&?????&??MathType??0
???u?????????”????-??????+????e????N
????›[email protected]??????Aea??eiaa aeenia?n?y aoaea aei??aithaaoe:

wmetafile8? ??W???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
 ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyyA??[?????&??MathType?? ???u’y
????Ioaea na?aaeiy iiieeea aea??ee aeey na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii? aoaea
aei??aithaaoe:

wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ???????&?
?MathType??`[email protected]??????I?aenoaaeaoe oe? aeai? o oi?ioeo a?aie/ii?
iiieeee aea??ee i?e aaciiaoi?i?e aea??oe? iaoeiaii:

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
`a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy ???????&?
?MathType??`[email protected]??????Iiaeeea? a?aieoe? na?aaeiuei? a aaia?aeuei?e
noeoiiino?:

wmetafile8? ??*???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`????????&??MathType??P?
???u?????????”????-??????i???[email protected]??????Ioaea c
eiia??i?noth 0,95 iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ??cieoey i?ae aea??eiaith ?
aaia?aeueiith na?aaei?ie ia ia?aaeuo? 5,78 oe/aa, a na?aaeiy
a?iaeaei?noue ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao a?ae 34,14 aei 45,74 oe/aa.

Oaaeeoey 22. Aeai? aea??eiaiai ianoaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noa ca aianaiiyi
i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea

?ioa?aaeNiXiXiNi(Xi-Xn)2Ni5,25,8675,5338,7112,689550725,866,5226,1912,38
0,942289926,527,1846,8527,40,002787847,187,8477,5152,572,810142727,848,5
58,1740,858,3670048?acii171,9124,811776

wmetafile8? ??]???????????
???????????yyy????.????1??????????????A
???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyy???%?????&??MathType??a?
???u?????????”[email protected]??????

wmetafile8? ??b???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
  ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyy`??[?????&??MathType?? ???u’y
????

= 0,19, t = 2

A?aie/ia iiieeea aoaea aei??aithaaoe:

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy`???????&?
?MathType??`[email protected]??????Iiaeeea? a?aieoe? na?aaeiuei? a aaia?aeuei?e
noeoiiino?:

wmetafile8? ??(???????????
???????????yyy????.????1????????????? @
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?????????&??MathType??P?
???u?????????”[email protected]??????Ioaea c
eiia??i?noth 0,95 iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ??cieoey i?ae aea??eiaith ?
aaia?aeueiith na?aaei?ie ia ia?aaeuo? 0,39 o/aa, a na?aaeiy aaee/eia ii
aianaiith aeia?ea ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao a?ae 6,49 aei 7,27 o/aa.

Oaaeeoey 23. Aeai? aea??eiaiai ianoaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noa ca ye?noth
a?oio?a

?ioa?aaeNiXiXiNi(Xi-Xn)2Ni69,073571355373,248737737522564,58887781579395
2,048818578358179,02728589587435270,848?acii1991789,76Ciaeaeaii
aea??eiao na?aaeith:

wmetafile8? ??L???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????? 
???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyy`??%?????&??MathType??a?
???u?????????”????-?????T6???T”[email protected]??????Aea??eiaa
aeenia?n?y:

wmetafile8? ??a???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
 `???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyy ??[?????&??MathType?? ???u’y
????Na?aaeiy iiieeea aeey na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii?:

= 1,09, t = 2

A?aie/ia iiieeea:

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
``???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy ???????&?
?MathType??`[email protected]??????Iiaeeea? a?aieoe? na?aaeiuei? a aaia?aeuei?e
noeoiiino?:

wmetafile8? ??*???????????
???????????yyy????.????1????????????? ?
???&[email protected]????????&??MathType??P?
???u?????????”[email protected]??????C
eiia??i?noth 0,95 iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ??cieoey i?ae aea??eiaith ?
aaia?aeueiith na?aaei?ie ia ia?aaeuo? 2,19 aaea, a na?aaeiy ye?noue
a?oioo ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao a?ae 77,45 aei 81,83 aaea.

3. Noaoenoe/ia ioe?iea iieaciee?a aaia?aeueii? noeoiiino?

Ia?aa??eii a?aeiia?aei?noue ?yaeo ?iciiae?eo (O) ii?iaeueiiio caeiio,
aeei?enoaaoe e?eoa??e 2. Oeae iieaciee aoa aaaaeaiee o noaoenoeeo E.
I??niiii. Ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??th 2 ioe?iththoue a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae
oaeoe/iei ? oai?aoe/iei ?iciiae?eii /anoio, iacaeaaei?noue ?iciiae?eo
iaeeieoeuenoeoiiino? ca a?aaeaoe?yie aeine?aeaeoaaeueii? iciaee,
iaeii??aei?noue ?iciiae?eo.

I?e aeei?enoaii? 2 ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe oae? aeiiae. Ia?aa??yth/e a?iioaco
i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue aii??e/iiai ?iciiae?eo oai?aoe/iiio, iio??aii iaoe
ia iaio ye 50 niinoa?aaeaiue. Ia ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe 2,
yeui oai?aoe/ia /enaeuei?noue iaeeieoeue o a?oi? iaioa i’yoe.

sseui oaeoe/ia cia/aiiy ia/eneaiiai ca aeaieie aea??ee e?eoa??th 2
aei??aith? oaaee/iiio, aai iaioa ca iueiai (i?e a?aeiia?aei?e e?eueeino?
nooiai?a naiaiaee ? ??ai? eiia??iino?), oi oea icia/a?, ui ?ica?aeiino?
i?ae oaeoe/ieie ? oai?aoe/ieie /anoioaie aeiaaeeia?, a yeui oaeoe/ia
cia/aiiy a?eueoa oaaee/iiai – ?ica?aeiino? i?ae aii??e/ieie ?
oai?aoe/ieie /anoioaie coiiaeai? ia aeiaaeeiaeie, a ?noioieie i?e/eiaie.

Aaee/eio 2 ia/eneththoue ca oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ??F???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????????????
[email protected]???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy???‡?????&??MathType???
???u?????????”????-?????a?:???a?·???t)???tu
[email protected]??????f – oaeoe/i? (aii??e/i?) /anoioe ?iciiae?eo;

f`– oai?aoe/i? /anoioe ?iciiae?eo.

Oaaeeoey 24. Ia/eneaiiy oai?aoe/ieo /anoio ? 2

O?iaeaei?noue, oe/aaE?euee?noue ainiiaea?noaNa?aaeeia ?yaeowmetafile8?
????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyya??p?????&?
?MathType???
???u?????????”????-?????‹?u???‹?????TO???Tss???u
@th??????Oaaee/ia cia/aiiy 2 i?e aeaio nooiaiyo naiaiaee ? ??ai?
eiia??iino? 0,05 aei??aith?:

20,05(5-3)=5,991

Ioaea ?ica?aeiino? i?ae oaeoe/ieie ? oai?eoe/ieie /anoioaie aeiaaeeia?,
? a?iioaca H0 i?eeia?oueny.

>74V; 3. Ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c o?iaeaeiino? ca?iiaeo.

1. I?inoa (ia?ia) ei?aeyoe?y.

Ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c – oea iaoiae e?euee?nii? ioe?iee aca?iicaeaaeiinoae
i?ae noaoenoe/ieie iciaeaie, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ie?ai?
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/i? yaeua ? i?ioeane.

Ca nooiaiai caeaaeiino? iaeiiai yaeua a?ae ?ioiai ?ic??ciythoue aeaa
aeaee ca’yceo: ooieoe?iiaeueiee (iiaiee) ? ei?aeyoe?eiee (iaiiaiee, aai
noaoenoe/iee).

Ooieoe?iiaeueiei iaceaa?oueny ca’ycie, i?e yeiio eiaeiiio cia/aiith
oaeoi?ii? iciaee, ui oa?aeoa?eco? iaaia yaeua, a?aeiia?aea? iaeia aai
e?eueea cia/aiue ?acoeueoaoeaii? iciaee. I?eeeaaeii oaeiai ca’yceo ?
caeaaei?noue i?ae aeiaaeeiith ? ?aae?onii eiea, ieiuath ? noi?iiith
eaaae?aoa. Ooieoe?iiaeueia caeaaei?noue aeyaey?oueny o eiaeiiio ie?aiiio
aeiaaeeo aaniethoii oi/ii ? ae?aaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith aiae?oe/ieo
oi?ioe.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aca?iicaeaaeiino? ianiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
yaeu, ye? oi?iothoueny i?ae aieeaii ??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a,
aeei?enoiaothoue ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee, ye? iinyoue ?iia??i?niee
oa?aeoa?. I?e ei?aeyoe?eiiio ca’yceo iaia? noai?i? a?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae
cia/aiiyie caeaaeieo iciae: eiaeiiio iaaiiio cia/aiith oaeoi?ii? iciaee
a?aeiia?aea? e?eueea cia/aiue ?acoeueoaoeaii? iciaee.

Ca iai?yiii ca’ycie i?ae ei?aethth/eie aaee/eiai iiaea aooe i?yiei ?
cai?ioiei. I?e i?yiiio ca’yceo oaeoi?ia iciaea ci?ith?oueny a oiio
naiiio iai?yi?, ui e ?acoeueoaoeaia. sseui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeoi?ii?
iciaee ?acoeueoaoeaia iciaea ciaioo?oueny aai, iaaiaee, ?c ciaioaiiyi
oaeoi?ii? iciaee ?acoeueoaoeaia iciaea ca?eueoo?oueny, oi oaeee ca’ycie
iaceaathoue cai?ioiei.

Ca oi?iith ?ic??ciythoue i?yiie?i?eiee ? e?eaie?i?eiee ei?aeyoe?eiee
ca’ycie. I?yiie?i?eiee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
??aiii??iei ca?eueoaiiyi aai ciaioaiiyi ?acoeueoaoeaii? iciaee i?ae
aieeaii a?aeiia?aeii? ci?ie oaeoi?ii? iciaee. I?e e?eaie?i?eiiio
ei?aeyoe?eiiio ca’yceo ??aiei ci?iai na?aaei?o cia/aiue oaeoi?ii? iciaee
a?aeiia?aeathoue ia??ai? ci?ie na?aaei?o cia/aiue ?acoeueoaoeaii?
iciaee. Aiae?oe/ii e?eaie?i?eiee ca’ycie aecia/athoue ca ??aiyiiyi
e?eai? e?i??.

Caeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo iciae ?ic??ciythoue ia?io
(i?inoo) ? iiiaeeiio ei?aeyoe?th.

I?e ia?i?e ei?aeyoe?? aiae?cothoue ca’ycie i?ae oaeoi?iith ?
?acoeueoaoeaiith iciaeaie.

Oaaeeoey 1. Aeo?aei? ? ?ic?aooieia? aeai? aeey ia/eneaiiy ia?ii?
ei?aeyoe?? i?ae aianaiiyi aeia?ea ? o?iaeaei?noth ca?iiaeo.

?A?iaeaei?noueAeia?eaa?ic?aooieia?
aaee/eiei/iYX1X12Y2X1*YYx1(Y-Yx)2Y(x)133,45,833,641115,56193,7236,75998,
880836,7599239,65,732,491568,16225,7236,494810,531336,4948339,88,0641584
,04318,4042,59288,138542,5928436,45,631,361324,96203,8436,229712,322436,
2297537,65,227,041413,76195,5235,169120,892735,1691639,65,732,491568,162
25,7236,494810,531336,4948740,27,353,291616,04293,4640,73690,993840,7369
842,47,150,411797,76301,0440,20660,217740,2066940,26,744,891616,04269,34
39,14610,352739,14611040,67,556,251648,36304,5041,26722,332241,26721142,
27,0491780,84295,4039,94150,040639,94151243,88,267,241918,44359,1643,123
111,445243,12311343,88,267,241918,44359,1643,123111,445243,12311443,17,7
59,291857,61331,8741,79744,233041,79741535,95,732,491288,81204,6336,4948
10,531336,49481640,66,947,611648,36280,1439,67640,004039,67641743,07,860
,841849,00335,4042,06255,394242,06251843,07,860,841849,00335,4042,06255,
394242,06251933,05,833,641089,00191,4036,75998,880836,75992040,07,454,76
1600,00296,0041,00201,592741,00202142,28,572,251780,84358,7043,918517,45
9643,91852233,45,934,811115,56197,0637,02517,370937,02512340,07,454,7616
00,00296,0041,00201,592741,00202435,96,0361288,81215,4037,29026,001637,2
9022543,88,267,241918,44359,1643,123111,445243,1231?acii993,5173,11223,8
739755,996946,14993,50178,02993,50Ia?aa??eii ia?aaeoiiae ei?aeyoe??:

1. Vx=14,536 %; Vy=8,336 %.

Aa??aoe?y aeinoaoiy ii ?yaeo O, aea iaaeinoaoiy ii ?yaeo O.

2. omin=1,71 ? ?? ??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? ?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??3?????&??MathType??0 ???u?????????"????-??????A????z ???u???TU ???u?? ???????"????-????U???0????-?????0????U? ???U? ???U?? [email protected]??????wmetafile8? ??G??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyyA??v?????&??MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????TH?o???TH?» ???u’y????Oaeiae ua iiaeia ia/enethaaoe eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe??: wmetafile8? ??a??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? ?????&[email protected]??c?????&??MathType?? ???u?????????"????-??????TH????¤?????????y????X ???? ????F ???????T????T,[email protected]??????Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? iieaco?, ui i?ae aeicaie aianaieo i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea ? o?iaeaei?noth ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ainiiaea?noaao ca’ycie i?yiee ? u?eueiee. 2 = Ae = 64,90 % Ae – eiao?oe??io aeaoa?i?iaoe??, iieaco? ia ne?eueee i?ioeaio?a aa??aoe?y ?acoeueoaoeaii? iciaee caeaaeeoue a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai oaeoi?a. A?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ia 64,90% iiynith?oueny aianaiiyi i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea, ? ia 35,1% caeaaeeoue a?ae aieeao iaa?aoiaaieo oaeoi??a. Nooo?a?noue eiao?oe??ioa aeaoa?i?iaoe?? aoaeaii ia?aa??yoe aeei?enoiaoth/e e?eoa??e O?oa?a. wmetafile8? ??0??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? a????&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyyA????????&??MathType??? ???u?????????"????-?????t%???t•???tS [email protected]??????aea 2 – eiao?oe??io aeaoa?i?iaoe??; ? – e?euee?noue ia?aiao??a ??aiyiiy; n – ianya aea??ee. I0: Aianaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea nooo?ai ia a?iaeaei?noue ia aieeaa?. F0,95(1;23) = 4,28; F2 = 42,52987 F2 > F0,95

Ioaea a?iioaca I0 a?aeoeey?oueny ? i?eeia?oueny aeueoa?iaoeaia a?iioaca.

Ha: Aianaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea nooo?ai aieeaa? ia o?iaeaei?noue.

Aeine?aeeaoe ca’ycee i?ae oeei aeaiia oaeoi?aie ie iiaeaii neacaoe, ui
aianaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea nooo?ai aieeaa? ia o?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo
eoeueoo?.

Aeine?aeeii aieea yeino? a?oio?a ia o?iaeaei?noue.

Oaaeeoey 2. Aeo?aei? ? ?ic?aooieia? aeai? aeey ia/eneaiiy ia?ii?
ei?aeyoe?? i?ae ye?noth a?oio?a ? a?iaeaei?noth

?A?iaeaei?noueA?oio?ic?aooieia?
aaee/eiei/iYX2X22Y2X2*YYX2(Y-Yx)2133,47454761115,562471,6038,28082,12932
39,68368891568,163286,8040,51430,5995339,88368891584,043303,4040,51430,5
995436,48572251324,963094,0041,01061,6145537,68470561413,763158,4040,762
41,0454639,68368891568,163286,8040,51430,5995740,28775691616,043497,4041
,50693,1221842,48267241797,763476,8040,26610,2768940,27556251616,043015,
0038,52891,46671040,67454761648,363004,4038,28082,12931142,27049001780,8
42954,0037,28816,01181243,88165611918,443547,8040,01790,07731343,8877569
1918,443810,6041,50693,12211443,18064001857,613448,0039,76980,00091535,9
6947611288,812477,1037,03997,29031640,68673961648,363491,6041,25882,3067
1743,07962411849,003397,0039,52160,04771843,07962411849,003397,0039,5216
0,04771933,07251841089,002376,0037,78443,82422040,08877441600,003520,004
1,75514,06072142,28368891780,843502,6040,51430,59952233,47049001115,5623
38,0037,28816,01182340,08979211600,003560,0042,00335,12242435,9735329128
8,812620,7038,03262,91522543,88165611918,443547,8040,01790,0773?acii993,
5199716041539755,9979582,80993,5055,098Ia?aa??eii ia?aaeoiiae:

1. Vx = 7,488%; Vy = 8,336%.

Aa??aoe?y iaaeinoaoiy ii ?yaeo O, ? iaaeinoaoiy ii ?yaeo O.

2. omin = 1,818 ? ?? ??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????????????   ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??Y?????&[email protected] ???u?????????"????-??????A????† ???s???RU ???u?? ???????"????-????ZU???1????-?????1????O? ???O? ???O?¦ [email protected]??????wmetafile8? ??m??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy`??~?????&??MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????I?o???I?3/4 ???u’y????Oaeiae ua iiaeia ia/enethaaoe eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe??: wmetafile8? ??a??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyy ??Ae?????&??MathType??0 ???u?????????"????-???????TH?????¤???????????y??? ??v??????????‚ [email protected]??????Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? iieaco?, ui i?ae aeicaie aianaieo i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea ? o?iaeaei?noth ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ainiiaea?noaao ca’ycie i?yiee ? neaaeee. 2 = Ae = 20,08 % A?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ia 20,08% iiynith?oueny aieeaii yeino? a?oio?a, ? ia 79,92% aieeaii iaa?aoiaaieo oaeoi??a. Nooo?a?noue eiao?oe??ioa aeaoa?i?iaoe?? aoaeaii ia?aa??yoe aeei?enoiaoth/e e?eoa??e O?oa?a. wmetafile8? ??0??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? [email protected]???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy???•?????&??MathType??? ???u?????????"????-?????d5???dE???d¦ [email protected]??????I0: sse?noue a?oioo ia aieeaa? nooo?ai ia a?iaeaei?noue. F0,95(1;23) = 4,28; F2 = 5,781216 F2 F0,95(2;22)

Oaeoe/ia cia/aiiy ia?aaeuo? e?eoe/ia, oiio nooo?a?noue ?acoeueoaoeaii?
iciaee c iaiia oaeoi?aie aeieacaia.

Ia?aa??eii ?noioi?noue eiao?oe??ioa iiiaeeiii? ei?aeyoe?? ca
t-e?eoa???i.

tR=R/SR=12,8486

SR=0,0644

t0,95=2,0739.

tR > t0,95, ioaea eiao?oe??io iiiaeeiii? ei?aeyoe?? ?noioiee.

Ioe?ieii nooo?a?noue eiao?oe??io?a ?aa?an?? ca t-e?eoa???i.

a1=0,36969; t a1=6,573224.

a2=0,0622; t a2=1,781362.

t0,95=2,0739.

t a1 > t0,95; t a2 ? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? @a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¬yyy ??i?????&??MathType??? ???u?????????"[email protected]??????wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? [email protected] ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¬yyya??i?????&? ?MathType??? ???u?????????"[email protected]??????Eiao?oe??io yx1 iieaco?, ui i?ae a?iaeaei?noth ? aianaiiyi i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea ?nio? i?yiee ? u?eueiee ca’ycie. A eiao?oe??io yx2 iieaco?, ui oi/ i?ae o?iaeaei?noth ? ye?noth a?oio?a ?nio? i?yiee ca’ycie, aea a?i ? neaaeee. Oaaeeoey 5. ?acoeueoaoeaia oaaeeoey ii ei?aeyoe?eiiio aiae?co Eiao?oe??ioeIieacieee?aiaee?oaaiiyIa?i?:ryx10,806> ryx1x2ryx20,448>
ryx2x1rx1x20,336*anoeia?:ryx1x20,778

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