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Рыбные ресурсы их использование и охрана

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Naaa?i-Inaoeineee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao

eiaie E.E.Oaoaao?iaa

?AOA?AO

ia oaio

“?uaiua ?ano?nu, eo eniieueciaaiea e io?aia.”

Auiieieea: no-ea. 5-ai eo?na

aeieiae/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa Aieeia E. E.

Aeaaeeeaaeac 1999 a.

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea.

Oeaiiua ii?iaeu ?ua. Eo Aaia?aoey.

Io?aia e ainiieiaiea ?uaiuo ?ano?nia.

Auaiaeu.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea

Iaoa no?aia – aaeeeai ii?neay aea?aeaaa, iiuaaaony o?aiy ieaaiaie e
aeaaiaaeoeaoueth ioe?uouie ii?yie. ?inneeneee ?uaii?iiuneiaue oeio
aeiauaaao aaeaaiaeii aieaa 11 iei. o. ?aciiia?aciie i?iaeoeoeee: ?uau,
e?aaia, e?aaaoie, ii?neiai caa?y, ii?neeo aiaei?ineae e ae?oaeo ieuaauo
e oaoie/aneeo ii?ai?iaeoeoia.

Ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai NNN? ieiei 800 oun. ?ae i?ioyaeaiiinoueth aieaa 5
iei. ei, nauoa 3 iei. aieueoeo e iaeuo ica? ieiuaaeueth ii/oe 0, 5 iei.
ei2.

Ia iiiaeo e?oiiuo ?aeao e ica?ao iino?iaiu iiuiua aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee
n ia?iiiuie aiaeio?aieeeuaie – aioo?aiieie ii?yie, iauay ieiuaaeue
eioi?uo aieaa 11 iei. aa. Iino?iaiu iiiai/eneaiiua i?oaeu, i?ineoaeueiua
nenoaiu n aiaeio?aieeeuaie, ia?aciaaeenue cia/eoaeueiua ieiuaaee
ea?uea?ia io au?aaioee oi?oa, ieia?aeueiuo eneiiaaiuo, caeeoua aiaeie.

Ana yoe aioo?aiiea aiaeiaiu yaeythony aaaeiie aacie aeey i?aaiecaoeee a
ieo aunieii?iaeoeoeaiiai ?uaiiai oicyenoaa ii i?iiuoeaiiiio ?acaaaeaieth
e au?aueaaieth ?aciiia?aciuo oeaiiuo ?ua aeey niaaaeaiey ianaeaiey a
aeeaii e naaaeai aeaea.

?uaieianoai a ieaaia aeaao 90 % iauaai oeiaa ?uau a no?aia, 80 %
aueiaeaiiie ii?neie ?uau iai?aaeyaony ia i?iecaiaenoai ieuaaie
i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ie au?aaaouaaaony ieiei ouny/e iaeiaiiaaiee.
Inoaeueiia eiee/anoai ?uau ia?a?aaaouaaaony ia ei?iiaoth ioeo aeey
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, ioeoea- e caa?ioa?i. E?iia oiai, aeiauaathony ii?neea
caa?e (otheaie, ii?aee, eioeee, ia?iu), ieuaaua iieethnee (ono?eoeu,
ieaeee e ae?.) e aiaei?inee (ieuaaua – ii?neay eaionoa e aaa?iiiniua).
Ai aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiao (ii?yo, ?aeao, ica?ao, aiaeio?aieeeuao)
aeiauaaaony ieiei 1 iei. o. aunieioeaiiie ?uau: inao?iauo, eininaauo,
neaiauo, nacaia, eaua, noaeaea, oa?aie, aiaeu e ae?.

Ai anao ?uaii?iiuneiauo aannaeiao eiathony ?uaii?iiuoeaiiua
iauaaeeiaiey, a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo: ?uaii?iiuneiaue e
o?ainii?oii-i?eaiiue oeio, ?uaiia?a?aaaouaathuea i?aaei?eyoey,
oieiaeeeueieee, ?uaiua ii?ou, eeoiaieiua aacu, noaei?aiiioiua e oa?iua
i?aaei?eyoey, naoaaycaeueiua e ii iino?ieea i?oaeee eiaa oaa?eee,
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea e i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?uaioicyenoaaiiua
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiao (ica?a, ?aee, i?oaeu e aiaeio?aieeeua) oaeaea
i?aaieciaaiu iauaaeeiaiey ii ?uaiiio oicyenoao, a eioi?ua aoiaeyo:
?uaieiaaoeeea iiae?acaeaeaiey n ?uaii?eaiiie e ?uaiia?a?aaaouaathuae
aacie, i?oaeiaua e ica?iua ?uaiaiaeiua oicyenoaa (?uaoicu),
?uaiieoiiieee, ia?anoiai-au?inoiua oicyenoaa, ?uaiaiaeiua e
eiiaeei?iiaua caaiaeu, au?aaaouaathuea ?uaiua ei?ia.

1. Oeaiiua ii?iaeu ?ua. Eo Aaia?aoey.

Yeieiae/aneea a?oiiu ?ua. ?inney, ianiio?y ia ?aniaae NNN?, caieiaao
iaeii ec ia?auo iano a ie?a ii nu?ueaaui caianai ?ua. Aeaaiaaeoeaoue
ioe?uouo ii?ae, iiuaathueo a?aieoeu ?inney, aeaa e?oiiaeoeo a ie?a
aioo?aiieo ii?y-ica?a (Eanieeneia e A?aeueneia), iiiaeanoai aieueoeo e
iaeuo ?ae e eneeth/eoaeueiia ?aciiia?acea eeeiaoa iaania/eee
aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey iaeoaiey aieaa 1000 aeaeia ?ua, ec eioi?uo
250 yaeythony ?uaii?iiuneiauie. Iniaaiii aiaaou aiaeu ?innee iaeaieaa
oeaiiuie aeaeaie ?ua: inao?iauie (aieaa 90 % ie?iaiai oeiaa) e
ea?iiauie (60 % ie?iaiai oeiaa), a oaeaea eininaauie e naeueaeaauie.

A yoii ?acaeaea i?aaenoaaeaia e?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo ii?neeo e
i?aniiaiaeiuo ?ua, /anoue ec eioi?uo yaeyaony iauaeoii eneonnoaaiiiai
?acaaaeaiey: inao?iaua, eininaaua, ea?iiaua, oa?e e ae?.

Ii?neea ?uau. Aeeth/atho ieiei 11,6 oun. aeaeia, aeeaoueo a ii?neie
aiaea. N?aaee ieo iaeaae/aneea ?uau, aeeaoo a oieua aiaeu (iaeaieaea,
ai/ionu, neoia?ey, ooioeu, eoia-?uaa e ae?.), e aeiiiua, eioi?ua aeeaoo
o aeia (eaiaaeu, neaou, iiaeeaiaiueee e ae?.).

Ii?neea ?uau aeaeyony ia ieaaie/aneeo, aeeaoueo a iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo
ioe?uouo /anoae ieaaia (iae?aeauoea, ooioeu, eaoo/ea ?uau e ae?.),
ia?eoe/aneeo, ianaeythueo i?ea?aaeiua ii?neea aiaeu (au/ee, eaiaaeu,
aieueoeinoai nia?iauo e ae?.), aeoaieiaiaeiuo, eioi?ua, a naith
i/a?aaeue, aeaeyony iaaaoeiaeaae/aneeo (naaoyueany ai/ionu, oaeeeueueee)
e aeiiiuo.

I?aniiaiaeiua ?uau. Aeeth/atho ieiei 8 oun. aeaeia, iinoiyiii aeeaoo a
i?aniie aiaea. Iie ?acaeaeythony ia?aioeeueiuo, i?eniiniaeaiiuo e aeecie
ia oa/aiee (oi?aee, ia?eiee, aieueoeu e ae?.), e eeiiioeeueiuo, aeeaoueo
a noiy/ae aiaea (ea?i, ea?anue, eau, nacai, auethi e ae?.).

?uau oaeo/eo aiae (?aioeeu) e noiy/eo (eeiiioeeu) aeaeyony ia
iaeaae/aneeo – iaeoaoaeae oieue aiaeu, i?eaeiiiuo e aeiiiuo.

I?ioiaeiua ?uau. Iie ia?aiauathony aeey ee?iiaoaiey (ia?anoa) eeai ec
ii?neie aiaeu a i?anioth (einine, naeueaee, inao?iaua), eeai ec i?aniie
– a ii?neoth (oa?e e ae?.).

Nieiiiaaoiaiaeiua ?uau. Ianaeytho ii?aniaiiua o/anoee ii?ae, ynooa?ee
(onoueaaua o/anoee), e aioo?aiiea ii?y n iiieaeaiiie nieaiinoueth e
?acaeaeythony ia iieoi?ioiaeiuo, caoiaeyueo aeey ia?anoa a ieciauey ?ae,
e iaaoeeaathueony a nieiiiaaouo aiaeao (iiiaea neae, aiaea e ae?.), e
nianoaaiii nieiiiaaoiaiaeiuo, iinoiyiii aeeaoueo a ii?aniaiiuo ii?neeo
o/anoeao (au/ee, ?a/iay eaiaaea, ii?neea eaeu).

Ii oi?ia oaea ?uau ?acaeaeythony ia a?oiiu: oi?iaaeiaeaeiua (ooioeu,
iae?aeue, o?anea, naeueaee, einine); ciaaaeaeiua (ieiiae, oa?e);
eaioiaeaeiua (naeueaeyiie ei?ieue, ?uaa-naaey); no?aeiaeaeiua (uoea,
oaeiaiue); niethuaiiua (eaiaaea); ieineea (neaou); oa?iaeaeiua
(neaeicoau).

Iea?aoeee. ?uau a aiaeiaiao niaa?oatho ia?aaeaeaeaiey – iea?aoeee
eiiaaea ia cia/eoaeueiua ?annoiyiey, aucaaiiua ?acee/iuie i?e/eiaie.

Ia?anoiaua iea?aoeee. Iie i?ienoiaeyo io iano ceiiaee eee ioei?ia
(iaaoea) e ia?anoeeeuai.

Iaaoeueiua eee ei?iiaua iea?aoeee. Iooue yoeo iea?aoeee io ia?anoeeeu
eee ceiiaee e ianoai iaaoea (ioei?ia).

Ceiiaaeueiua iea?aoeee. Iie i?ienoiaeyo ec ?aeiiia iaaoea (ioei?ia) eee
ia?anoa a ?aeiiu ceiiaee.

I?ioiaeiua ?uau ?acei iaiytho n?aaeo iaeoaiey (ii?neoth n?aaeo ia
i?aniiaiaeioth e iaiai?io), i?aiaeieaaatho ia?iiiua ?annoiyiey (naiaa
i?ioiaeeo 1100-2500 ei i?e nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey 50-100 ei a nooee),
i?aiaeieaaatho cia/eoaeueiua ii?iae, aiaeiiaaeu. O iaeioi?uo ?ua
(einine, oa?e, naeueaeue-/a?iinieiea e ae?.) ai a?aiy ia?anoiaiai
ia?eiaea a i?aaiecia i?ienoiaeyo ianoieueei cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey, /oi
aeaeathony iaia?aoeiuie, e ?uau iiaeaatho iinea ia?aiai e aaeeinoaaiiiai
a aeecie ia?anoa.

Aic?ano ?ua. O aieueoeinoaa ?ua aic?ano e ?ino ii?aaeaeytho ii /aooa,
acyoie a n?aaeiae /anoe oaea iaaeaeo iniiaaieai ia?aiai nieiiiai
ieaaieea e aieiaie eeieae. Ia /aooa aeaeiu aiaeiaua eieueoea. O
inao?iauo, niiia, noaeaea e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ?ua eniieuecotho eo/
a?oaeiiai ieaaieea, iiia?a/iue n?ac eioi?iai iiaeoeeoiauaatho e
i?eeeaeaatho aaeuecaiii ia i?aaeiaoiia noaeei e iiae eoiie i?iecaiaeyo
iiaen/ao eieaoe. O ieoiaauo, iaeeia e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ?ua aic?ano
ii?aaeaeytho ii eieueoeai, eiathueiny ia aeaaa?iie e?uoea; o o?aneiauo,
eaiaaeiauo e noaeaea – ii neooiaui eaiaoeai – ioieeoai, eioi?ua
?anieeeaatho iiiieai, iiaeoeeoiauaatho e i?ieaeeaatho. Ia oeeoa oi?ioi
aeaeiu aiaeiaua eieueoea.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie ?ua ?acee/iay. Iaeioi?ua ?uau, eae,
iai?eia?, au/ie n Oeeeiieineeo ino?iaia, ?acia?ii 7,5-14,0 ii, aeeaao
anaai ieiei aiaea, a aaeoaa – aei 100 eao, aeinoeaay iannu 1,5o.
Aeieaiaeeoaeai oaeaea yaeyaony nii, eioi?ue eiiaaea aeiaeeaaao aei 15
eao, na?aa?yiue ea?anue aei 12, ea?i aei 20, aio?neee nacai aei 16 eao.
Aeaeueiaainoi/iua einine e oai?ue iiaeaatho iinea ia?aiai ia?anoa. A
aieueoeinoaa iiaeaaao iinea ia?anoa naiaa.

?aciiiaeaiea ?ua. Ii oneiaeyi ?aciiiaeaiey ?uau aeaeyony ia neaaeothuea
a?oiiu.

Eeoioeeu. Ia?anoyony ia ian/aii-eaiaienoii a?oioa (inao?u, einine,
iiaeonou e ae?.).

Oeoioeeu. Ioeeaaeuaatho ee?o ia ioia?oea eee aaaaoe?othuea ?anoaiey
(uoea, nacai, eau, ieioaa, ieoiue e ae?.).

Inaiioeeu. Ia?anoyony ia ianea, eiiaaea ee?eiee i?ee?aieythony e
ei?aoeai ?anoaiee (ianea?ue, iaeioi?ua aieueoeu).

Iaeaaioeeu. Ia/oo ee?o a oieua aiaeu (naeueaee, o?aneiaua, eaiaaeu,
iaeioi?ua ea?iiaua – /aoiiue, oienoieiaeee, aio?u e ae?.).

Ino?aeioeeu. Ioeeaaeuaatho ee?o aioo?ue iaioeeiie iieinoe iieethneia,
eiiaaea iiae iaioee?e e?aaia e ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo (ianea?e, ai?/aee).

E?iia oiai, anoue ?uau aeeai?iaeyuea, iai?eia? iiiaea aeaeu aeoe, a
n?aaee einoenouo ?ua – aaeueaethaa, ii?neie ieoiue.

Ieiaeiaeoinoue ?ua ?acee/ia. Naiie ieiaeiaeoie ?uaie yaeyaony eoia-?uaa,
eioi?ay auiaouaaao aei 300 iei. ee?eiie, ii?neay uoea – aei 60, o?anea –
aei 9 iei. ee?eiie. Ii?neie ieoiue – ?uaa aeeai?iaeyuay, auioneaao a
aiaeo ia ee?eiee, a ?acaeaoeany ee/eiee. E?oiiua naiee auiaouaatho aei
150 oun. ee/eiie, a eiiaaea e aieueoa. Iaeie ?uau no?iyo aiacaea,
ae?oaea ioeeaaeuaatho ee?o ia aaea/ii-eaiaienoue a?oio, naaaeacaeeooth
eee i?ioeiaiaeithth o?aao.

?aciiiaeaiea ?ua i?ioaeaao ii-?aciiio. Oae, eiethoea no?ieo aiacaei ec
eoni/eia o?aaeiie, neeaeaaaiuo auaeaeaieyie ii/ae. Aiacaei eiaao aia/aea
aeaa ioaa?noey, a iinea iaiieiaiey aai ee?ie (ianeieueeeie naieaie)
naiaoe cae?uaaao iaeii ioaa?noea e inoaaony io?aiyoue aiacaei, ay?e?oy
aiaeo aeaeaeaieyie ieaaieeia. Iinea aueoieaiey iieiaee naiaoe a oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo aeiae neaaeeo ca oai, /oiau iieiaeue iaoiaeeeanue a aiacaea,
e aica?auaao ooaea auieuaathuoth, caoaaouaay aa ?oii. Oeeyiee
auiaoeaatho ee?o ai ?oo e eiiaaea a neo/aa iianiinoe caae?atho iaeueeia
a ?io. O ii?neie eaeu e ii?neiai eiiueea ee?a eieoae?oaony a neeaaeeao
eee noiea ia a?thoea naioeia. Eaae?eioiaua ?uau no?iyo aiacaei ec iaiu,
ia?acothuaeny ec iocu?ueeia aicaeooa e aaeeiiia?aciiai nae?aoa. Einine e
oi?aee ioeeaaeuaatho ee?o a yiee, aueiiaiiua oainoii a ianea eee a?aaee.
ssiee canuiatho, ia?acoy “ia?anoiaua aoa?u”. Noaeae no?ieo aiacaei ec
eoni/eia ei?iae eee ?an/euay eaiaienoue o/anoie e iinea ioeeaaeee ee?u e
aa iieiaeioai?aiey nicaeaao oie aiaeu aeaeaeaieai a?oaeiuo ieaaieeia,
niuaathuee n ee?eiie ee. Nacai e ea?i ia?anoyony ia naaaeacaeeoie iyaeie
?anoeoaeueiinoe.

?uau, iaeoathuea a aiaeiaiao ?innee. A ica?ao, ?aeao, aiaeio?aieeeuao e
ii?yo ?innee iaeoaao aieaa 1000 aeaeia ?ua. ?anneacaoue i anao ?uaao ia
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui, iiyoiio y ia?aie/onue e?aoeei iienaieai
iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo i?iiuneiauo ?ua, /anoue ec eioi?uo ?acaiaeyo
ia ?uaiaiaeiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e aeeeeiaoece?otho a ae?oaeo aiaeiaiao.

INAO?IAUA. Inao?iaua yaeythony oeaiiuie i?iiuneiauie ?uaaie,
?ani?ino?aiaiiuie i?aeiouanoaaiii a aiaeiaiao ?innee e ?anioaeeeao
aoiaeeaoeo a NNN?. Iie i?eiaaeeaaeao e ae?aaiae a?oiia o?yuaauo
aaiieaeia. Ie?iaie oeia inao?iauo ninoaaeyao ieiei 1000-1200 oun. oe, ec
ieo oeia a ?innee 800-1000 oun. oe.

Nenoaiaoe/aneei i?eciaeii ?ua yoiai naiaenoaa yaeyaony iaee/ea iyoe
?yaeia einoiuo aeo/ae, iaee/ea o?yuaaiai neaeaoa acaiai einoiiai.
Iauaeoaie eneonnoaaiiiai ?acaaaeaiey e aeeeeiaoecaoeee yaeythony inao?
?onneee, inao? neae?neee, aaeoaa, naa?thaa, noa?eyaeue, oei, aanoa?.

Inao? ?onneee. Ii iaeoaao a aannaeiao *a?iiai, Acianeiai e Eanieeneiai
ii?ae, ia?anoeony a iaa – ethia a ?aeao Aieaa, O?ae, Oa?ae, Aeoiae,
Aeiano?, Aeii, Eoaaiue a aic?anoa 8-14 eao iannie 12-24 ea. Iieiaeue
ieoaaony aaniicaiii/iuie, ac?ineua – ee/eieaie eiia?ia, /a?ayie,
aieiieaaaie, a oaeaea iieethneaie e au/eaie.

Inao? neae?neee. Ii iaeoaao a ?aeao Neae?e, iaaoeeaaaony a Ianeie,
Oacianeie e Aienaeneie aoaao. Ia ia?ano iiaeieiaaony a aa?oiauey ?ae. A
Aaeeaea inao? ia?anoeony a ?aeao Naeaiaa e Aa?oiyy Aiaa?a, *a?iue E?ouo.
Aeinoeaaao iannu a n?aaeiai aei 65 ea. Ieoathony /a?ayie, aieiieaaaie,
iieethneaie, a oaeaea ?uaie.

Aaeoaa. ssaeyaony iaeiie ec oeuiuo ?ua Eanieeneiai, *a?iiai, Acianeiai
ii?ae e ainoi/iie /anoe N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y. Iieiaay c?aeinoue ianooiaao
a aic?anoa 15-18 eao. Iiaeao aeeoue aei 70-100 eao, aeinoeaaao iannu
65-150 ea. Ieoaaony eneeth/eoaeueii ?uaie (aiaea, naeueaeue, au/ee e
ae?.).

Naa?thaa. Naa?thaa iaeoaao a aannaeiao Acianeiai, *a?iiai e Eanieeneiai
ii?ae, iieiaic?aeinoe aeinoeaaao a aic?anoa 9-15 eao. Au?anoaao aei 220
ni, ianna 68 ea; i?iiuneiaay ianna 7-8 ea. Ieoaaony ee/eieaie
oe?iiiieae, ?a/eaie, a oaeaea ?uaie.

Oei. Ii iaeoaao a aannaeiao A?aeueneiai, Eanieeneiai e *a?iiai ii?ae,
iieiaay c?aeinoue ianooiaao a aic?anoa 6-15 eao. Aeinoeaaao aeeeiu 2 i e
aieaa. I?iiuneiaay ianna 12-16 ea.

Noa?eyaeue. Yoio aeae iaeoaao a aannaeiao Eanieeneiai, Acianeiai,
*a?iiai, Aaeoeeneiai ii?ae, Eaaeiaeoiai ieaaia. I?iiuneiaue ?acia? 30-65
ni, ianna 0,5-2,0 ea, aeinoeaaao iannu 12 ea. Ieoaaony ee/eieaie
ianaeiiuo.

Aanoa?. Aea?eae (aaeoaaonoa?eyaeue), iieo/ai a 60-o aiaeao a
eneonnoaaiiuo oneiaeyo ia ?uaiaiaeiuo caaiaeao; auno?i?anoouee,
nic?aaathuee aeaaea a oneiaeyo iai?ioi/iie aiaeu i?oaeiauo oicyenoa. A
aea?eaea oaea/ii ni/aoaaony auno?ue ?ino aaeoae e ?aiiaa iieiaia
nic?aaaiea noa?eyaee. Naiee aanoa?a nic?aaatho ia 6-8-i, naioeu – ia
3-4-i aiaeo. Oeuiee. Naaieaoee au?anoatho aei 50-100 a, aeaooeaoee – aei
800 a e aieaa.

EININAAUA. Yoi naiaenoai ?acaeaeyaony ia aeaa iiaenaiaenoaa: eininae e
neaia. Eiaao iauee nenoaiaoe/aneee i?eciae – aee?iaie ieaaiee,
?aniieiaeaiiue aeeaea e oainoo. O eininae a aieiaie eeiee aieaa 120
/aooae, o neaia iaiueoa. Oeoiieaaineea einine ia?anoyony iaeei ?ac a
aeecie, iinea /aai iiaeaatho. Ee?o ioeeaaeuaatho a aiacaei, au?uoia
?uaie a aaeueea. A ii?a eininaaua iaaoeeaathony io iaeiiai aei /aou?ao
eao. N ianooieaieai iieiaie c?aeinoe iie aica?auathony aeey ee?iiaoaiey
a oa ?aee, a eioi?uo ?iaeeeenue.

Einine. A ?aee Eai/aoee caoiaeyo ia ia?ano oanoue aeaeia oeoiieaaineeo
eininae: eaoa, ai?aooa, eeaeo/, ia?ea, neia e /aau/a.

Ieeeeiiu eao ouny/e eai/aoneeo ?o/ueaa e ?ae, nioie ica? neoaeao
anoanoaaiiuie eieoaaoi?aie aeey iiiaeo iieieaiee eininae.

Eininue – e?oiiay ?uaa ?acia?ii a o?e /aoaa?oe iao?a, iannie ii 3-4 ea e
aieaa. A ?aee eininue eaeao eaoii aieueoeie ieioiuie einyeaie ii anae
oe?eia ?aee.

Eo?eeueneia ica?i – iaeii ec e?oiiaeoeo ia Eai/aoea ia?anoeeeu ia?ee
(e?aniie). Einyee ian/eouaatho io 30 aei 50 oun. i?iecaiaeeoaeae.
Aaeaaiaeii nthaea aica?auathony ec ii?y ia ia?ano aieaa 2 iei. eininae.
A a?a/iue ia?eiae o eininae e?aneaay ie?anea: nieia e aiea y?ei e?aniua
a aieiaa caeaiay

Einine oainoiaui ieaaieeii aueaiuaatho ia ioiaeyo yiee e ia/oo a ieo
ee?o caoai iieeaatho aa iieieaie e canuiatho iaeeie aaeueeie, ia?acoy
ia?anoiaua aoa?u. Eaeia-oi a?aiy ?uau io?aiytho ianoi, aaea aeieaeii
iiyaeoueny eo aoaeouaa iioiinoai, caoai neaaatho e aeaioo.

A ia?anoiauo aoa?ao auaiaeyony aoaeouea einine, /a?ac aiae iaeueee
neaouaathony a ieaai, aaea i?aa?auathony a iiao/eo na?aa?enouo ?ua,
eioi?ua /a?ac 4 aiaea aa?ioony nthaea, /oiau aeaoue iioiinoai e
iiaeaiooue.

Aueia yoie ?uau aei ia?anoa cai?auai – eia/a ia aoaeao iioiinoaa. Ioeia
iinea ia?anoa ia aeano aiaeiaiai ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa aeey cii- e
oeoiieaieoiia. Ia aoaeao ieue iaeueeai.

Oi?aeue. Oi?aeue ?aaeoaeiay – i?aniiaiaeiay oi?ia noaeueiiaieiaiai
eininy. ssaeyaony iauaeoii ?uaiaiaenoaa a i?oaeiauo, ica?iuo e ii?neeo
oicyenoaao. O naioeia a ia?anoiaue ia?eiae aaeieue aieiaie eeiee
iiyaeyaony y?eay, caoiaeyuay ia aeaaa?ioth e?uoeo, e?aniay iieina
?aaeoaeiuo iooaieia, ii/aio oi?aeue e iacaaia ?aaeoaeiie. Ia?anoeony i?e
oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu 6-8 °N. Oi?aeue eae oeuiay ?uaa ioaeaeaaony a ieua
aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. A i?oaeiauo oicyenoaao a ninoaa ?aoeeiia
?aaeoaeiie oi?aee aoiaeyo ?uaiay ioea eee naaaeay ?uaa, iynieinoiay
ioea, naeacaiea, o?iou ianee/iuo eoeueoo?, ioaie/iay ioea, ca?iiiooiaeu,
aeae?ieeciua ae?iaeaee, nooie ia?ao, aeoaieiu, aioeaeioeee e ae?oaea
i?iaeoeou. ?uaii?iaeoeoeaiinoue oi?aeaauo i?oaeia ninoaaeyao aei
500-1000 oe/aa e aieaa.

Neae. Nea iaueiiaaiiue ia?acoao iiiai aeeeuo e iieoi?ioiaeiuo oi?i. A
aannaeia Aaeoeeneiai ii?y iaeoaao i?ioiaeiie iaaneee nea,
iaaoeeaathueeny a ii?a, inaiueth aoiaeeo a Iaao, aaea ia?anoeony ia
ian/aiuo a?oioao.

Nea /oaeneie iaeoaao a *oaeneii ica?a, aeey ia?anoa caoiaeeo inaiueth a
?aeo Yiaao e ica?i Ae?oey?a. Ieoaaony ciiieaieoiiii, ee/eieaie
oe?iiiieae e ae?oaeie aiaeiuie aaniicaiii/iuie. E?oiiua neae iiaaeatho
niaoea. Aeeeeiaoece?iaai ai iiiaeo ica?ao ?innee.

Nea-eoaeiaa iaeoaao a Eaaeiaeneii e Iiaaeneii ica?ao. Aeeeeiaoece?iaai a
ica?a Naaai, aaea ia?aciaae auno?i?anoouoth aea?eaeioth oi?io n /oaeneei
neaii.

?yiooea ?ani?ino?aiaia a ica?ao aannaeia Aaeoeeneiai ii?y, a
Eaaeiaeneii, Iiaaeneii, Ia?aneaaneii ica?ao, a oaeaea a ica?ao
Aaei?onnee, Ea?aeee, Eaoaee, Eeoau, Ynoiiee, Aa?oiae Aieae e Neae?e e
ae?. A iaeioi?uo ica?ao ia?aciaaeenue iiaeaeaeu ?yiooee, iieo/eaoea
ianoiia iacaaiea: a Eaaeiaeneii – ?eion, a Iiaaeneii – eeeaoe,
Ia?aneaaneii – naeueaeue. Ia?anoeony a ieoya?a-iiya?a.

Iioeue ?ani?ino?aiai a aannaeia Eaaeiaeoiai ieaaia, caoiaeeo ii/oe ai
ana ?aee Naaa?a e Neae?e – io Iacaie ia caiaaea aei ?aee Iaeeaice a
Naaa?iie Aia?eea (e?iia ?. Iae). A Aaeeaea aeeaao iiaeaeae iioey,
ioee/athueeny io ae?oaeo aieueoei eiee/anoaii aeaaa?iuo ou/eiie (47-51
oo.) e aieueoeie aeacaie. Aeey ia?anoa aoiaeeo a ?aee Naeaiaa, *eau?eoe,
Aiaa?a e ae?oaea. Ieoaaony ?a/eii yieoo?ie, aieiieaaaie e iieiaeueth
?ua.

Iaeyaeue – ica?ii-?a/iie nea. Iaeoaao a aiaeiaiao io Iacaie ia caiaaea
aei Eieuiu ia ainoiea. Ia?anoeony inaiueth a ianoao n auoiaeaie eeth/ae,
ioeeaaeuaay 5 oun. – 85 oun. ee?eiie. Ieoaaony ciiieaieoiiii e
aaiia?eaeaie. ssaeyaony aaaeiui iauaeoii aeeeeiaoecaoeee e au?aueaaiey a
ica?ao e i?oaeao.

*e? – naiay e?oiiay ?uaa ec neaia, aeinoeaaao iannu 16 ea. Ano?a/aaony
io Ia/i?u aei Aiaa?u, anoue a ica?a Oaeiu? e ooiae?iauo ica?ao, a oaeaea
a aiaeiaiao Naaa?iie Aia?eee.

Ioenoi – iieoi?ioiaeiie nea. I?iiuneiaay ?uaa ?ae Iae, Aienay, eoaea
aoiaeeo n ii?y aeey ia?anoa a ethea-aaaonoa. Iieiaeue ieoaaony
ciiieaieoiiii, ac?ineay – aaioinii, ee/eieaie oe?iiiieae, iieethneaie,
eiiaaea iaeeie ?uaie.

OA?EONIAUA. Oa?eonu – iaeoaoaee i?aniuo aiae oia?aiiuo e aunieeo oe?io
Naaa?iiai iieooa?ey. Ecaanoiu oanoue aeaeia oa?eonia: a Aa?acee –
/aou?a, a Naaa?iie Aia?eea – aeaa.

Iaueiiaaiiue oa?eon ianaeyao ?aee Aa?iiu. Eaoii aea?aeeony o eaiaienouo
ia?aeaoia, aaea ieoaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii ee/eieaie, neaeyueie ia eaiiyo,
?o/aeieeaie, iiaeaieaie e ae?oaeie ianaeiiuie, ano iieethneia e ae?oaeo
aaniicaiii/iuo. E?oiiua oa?eonu iiaaeatho oaeaea ?uao.

Neae?neee oa?eon oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a aiaeiaiao Neae?e e Naaa?iie
Aia?eee. Ia?anoeony a iaeeeo auno?uo ?a/eao. A Aaeeaea aiaeyony aaeue
ica?iue e /a?iue aiaa?neee oa?eonu.

EI?THOEIAUA.

Ei?thoea. Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia a i?aaeonoueaauo i?ioieao ?ae e
i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiao ii?ae, a oaeaea a i?aniiaiaeiuo aiaeiaiao.
Iaaoeeaaaony a ii?a iaaeaeaei io aa?aaia. Aeey ia?anoa iiaeieiaaony
aaa?o ii ?aea Aienath ia 1000 ei, ii ?aea Eaia ia 200 ei. A ?aee Aaeiai
ii?y iiaeieiaaony ia 2-3 ei. Ieoaaony ieaieoiiii, ?aeiia?aciuie,
/a?ayie, iaeeie ?uaie.

Niaoie. Yoi ea?eeeiaay ica?iay oi?ia ei?thoee, iaeoaao a caeeaao e
ica?ao aannaeia Aaeiai ii?y e Aa?oiae Aieae (Ineianeia, *oaeneia, Aaeia
ica?i, Eeueiaiue, Naeeaa? e ae?.). Ii iaeoaao oieueei a i?aniie aiaea,
aeeaao 2-3 aiaea, iieiaic?aeinoue ianooiaao a aiaeiaaeii e aeaooeaoiai
aic?anoa. A ia?eiae ia?anoa niaoie ioeeaaeuaaao 2 oun. ee?eiie ia
ian/aiuo e aeeienouo a?oioao (eiiaaea ia ?anoeoaeueiinoe) a onoueyo ?ae.

IEOIAAUA. N?aaee ieoiaauo iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu noaeae, ieoiue, a?o.

Noaeae. Noaeae iaeoaao a aannaeiao Eanieeneiai, Acianeiai, *a?iiai,
A?aeueneiai e Aaeoeeneiai ii?ae, i?aaeii/eoaao /enoua ?aee, ica?a,
aiaeio?aieeeua e ii?aniaiiua ?aeiiu ii?ae, aaea ia?acoao iieoi?ioiaeioth
oi?io. Ie?anea oaea caeaiiaaoi-na?ay, ni nieiu ia aieao 8-12 oaiiuo
aa?oeeaeueiuo iiein, a?thoei naaoeia. Ieoaaony ?uaie, e?oiiuie
?aeiia?aciuie. Eniieuecoaony a ?uaioicyenoaaiiuo aiaeiaiao eae
iaeei?aoi? aeey ai?ueau n iaeioeaiiuie ?uaaie. Noaeaea ?acaiaeyo a
ia?anoiai-au?inoiuo oicyenoaao a aannaeia Aieae, Aeiia e Eoaaie.

Ieoiue. Ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a aiaeiaiao Aa?iiu, Acee, Naaa?iie
Aia?eee. Oaei caeaiiaaoi-aeaeoia, ii aieai 5-9 /a?iuo iiia?a/iuo iiein.
Iaeoaao a ica?ao, ?aeao, i?oaeao, aiaeio?aieeeuao. Ieoaaony
ciiieaieoiiii, ee/eieaie oe?iiiieae e ae?oaeie aaniicaiii/iuie. E?oiiue
ieoiue – oeie/iue oeuiee, iiaaeaao iaeueeia ?ua.

A?o. Yoio aeae oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a i?aniuo aiaeao. Ie?anea
na?i-caeaiay n ao?uie iyoiuoeaie. Ia?anoeony aaniie a aeaooaiaeiaaeii
aic?anoa ia iaaieueoeo aeoaeiao, ia eaiaienoi-ian/aiuo a?oioao.

EA?IIAUA. Naiaenoai ea?iiauo naiia iiiai/eneaiiia, oa?aeoa?ecothuaany
iaee/eai o ?ua aeioi/iuo coaia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a 1-3 ?yaea, o?oueony i
aea?iiaee (?iaiaeaeiia ia?aciaaiea). Oneeia eee iao, eee ia aieaa aeaoo
ia?. Oaei iau/ii iie?uoi /aooae, ?aaea aieia. AEeaoo a auno?ioaeoueo
iioieao (ia?eiee, ona/e, aeueoeu e ae?.), a ica?ao e i?oaeao. Aea?aeaony
eae a oieua aiaeu, oae e o aeia noiy/eo (eeiue, ea?anue) e oaeo/eo aiae
(ianea?e, aieueyiu). AEeaoo oaeaea a nieiiiaaoie aiaea a Eanieeneii e
A?aeueneii ii?yo.

Aieueoeinoai aeaeia ea?iiauo ia niaa?oatho aeaeaeeo ia?aaeaeaeaiee aeey
ia?anoa. Iaeiaei anoue e oeie/iua i?ioiaeiua ?uau, iaaoeeaathueany a
nieiiiaaouo aiaeao, a aeey ee?iiaoaiey iiaeieiathueany aaa?o ii ?aeai
eiiaaea aieaa /ai ia ouny/o eeeiiao?ia (au?acoa, eoooi, a?aeueneee ona/,
eanieeneay e acianeay oaiay e ae?.).

Iieiaeue ea?iiauo ieoaaony ciiieaieoiiii. Ai ac?ineii ninoiyiee iniiaiay
ianna ea?iiauo ieoaaony ciiaaioinii – aeeaioiuie, neaeyueie ia a?oioa
(ycue, ieioaa, /a?iue aio? e ae?.) e caeaiuaathueieny a a?oio (nacai,
eeiue, ea?anue e ae?.), a oaeaea ciiieaieoiiii (oeeay, aio?neay
aino?ia?thoea e ae?.). N?aaee ea?iiauo anoue oeuieee (aea?ao, aeaeoiuae,
aa?oiaeyae, aieaaeue e ae?.). Aunooth ?anoeoaeueiinoue iiaaeatho aaeue
aio?, e?aniiia?ea. Oeoiieaieoiiii ieoaaony oienoieiaee. Aieueoeinoai
ea?iiauo eioaineaii ieoathony a oaieia a?aiy aiaea e ii/oe eee
iieiinoueth i?ae?auatho ieoaiea a oieiaeiia a?aiy.

Ec ea?iiauo – nacai, eau, ea?anue, ea?i, oienoieiaee, aaeue e iano?ue
aio?, oa?aiue, neiaoe – yaeythony iauaeoaie eneonnoaaiiiai
?uai?acaaaeaiey a ia?anoiai-au?inoiuo oicyenoaao e ?uaiieoiiieeao ai
anao ?aaeiiao no?aiu.

Nacai e eoeueoo?iua ?anu ea?ia. O nacaia oaei iie?uoi e?oiiie /aooae,
eiathony aeaa ia?u oneeia. Aeioi/iua coau o?ao?yaeiua n iiuiie
aeaaaoaeueiie ieiuaaeeie. Nacai aiaeeony a aannaeiao Acianeiai,
Eanieeneiai, A?aeueneiai, *a?iiai e N?aaeecaiiiai ii?ae, a ica?a
Ennue-Eoeue, ?aea Aio? e ?aeao Eeoay. ?annaeai ii/oe ii anaio caiiii
oa?o a i?aaeaeao oia?aiiuo e ieceeo oe?io. Iaeoaao a iaaeeaiii oaeoueo
?aeao e ica?ao. A thaeiuo ii?yo e ica?ao nacai aeeaao a nieiiiaaoie
aiaea, ia?acoy iieoi?ioiaeiua oi?iu.

Iieiaeue nacaia aia/aea ieoaaony ciiieaieoiiii, eieia?aoeaie e
?aeiia?aciuie, caoai ia?aoiaeeo ia aeiiiuo aaniicaiii/iuo. Ac?ineua
ieoathony aeaaiui ia?acii aeiiiuie aaniicaiii/iuie. A neeueii ca?inoeo
aiaeiaiao nacai a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iio?aaeyao ?anoeoaeueiinoue. A
ieciaueyo ?ae nacai ia ceio iau/ii caeaaaao a yiu, ii/oe iieiinoueth
i?ae?auaao ieoaoueny e aiaaeaao a ninoiyiea, aeeceia e niy/ea. Nacai
yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae i?iiuneiaie ?uaie iaoeo thaeiuo ii?ae, ica? e
aannaeia Aio?a.

Nacai e aeeeee aeoiaeneee ea?i – ?iaeiia/aeueieee i?oaeiauo pann ea?ia,
ioee/aaony ioiineoaeueiie iai?eoioeeainoueth e oneiaeyi iaeoaiey,
anayaeiinoueth, auno?ui ?inoii e aee?iinoueth. Ea?i yaeyaony iniiaiie
?uaie a i?oaeiaii oaieiaiaeiii ?uaiaiaenoaa.

Ii aiaoiae oi?ia ?acee/atho auniei- e oe?ieinieiiuo ea?iia, a ii
“?oaaoea” eo aeaeya ia /aooe/aouo, ca?eaeueiuo (n ?aca?inaiiui ?ai/aoui
e eeiaeiui ?aniieiaeaieai /aooe) e aieuo (aac /aooe).

Ecaanoiu ii?iaeu ea?ia: oe?aeineee /aooe/aoue, oe?aeineee ?ai/aoue,
eo?neee, ?iioeineee e ae?.

A Iieueoa, Aa?iaiee, ?anioaeeeao auaoaai NNN? e ?innee ?acaiaeyo
ca?eaeueiiai iaeei/aooe/aoiai e aieiai ea?iia, oe?iei ecaanoiuo eae
aaeeoeeeneeo eee neeacneeo. A *aoineiaaeee ieiei 300 eao ?acaiaeyo
oeoiaoeeiai ea?ia n ?aca?inaiiie /aooae, ieiei 175 eao eoeueoeae?otho
eeiieoeeiai /aooe/aoiai, eeoiieeueneiai e e?uaeeoaeianeiai eeiaeiuo
ea?iia.

Ea?ii – ea?anue eee ea?anue-ea?i – yoi iaaeaeaeiaua aea?eaeu, iieo/aiiua
iooai ne?aueaaiey ea?ia n cieioui ea?anai. ?anoao iaaeeaiiaa ea?ia, ii
cia/eoaeueii auno?aa cieioiai ea?any. Iaiaa o?aaiaaoaeai e eenei?iaeo,
/ai ea?i. Ea?ii-ea?anue aanieiaeai. Au?aueaaiea yoeo aea?eaeia
oeaeaniia?acii a oao ianioneiuo aiaeiaiao, eioi?ua iai?eaiaeiu aeey
au?aueaaiey ea?ia e ae?oaeo ?ua.

Ea?iu e eo aea?eaeu a iniiaiii aaioiniyaeiua ?uau; ieuae ei neoaeao
ee/eiee oe?iiiieae, ieeaioaou, iieethnee. Iie ioioii iiaaeatho e oi?ioi
onaaeaatho ei?i ?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eiiaeei?ia.

Noaiaea?oiie iannie aeey ea?ia n/eoaaony: ia ia?aii aiaeo – 25-30 a. ia
aoi?ii 500-800 a, ia o?aoueai ieiei 1,5 ea e aieaa.

Oienoieiaee aaeue. Ii iaeoaao a aannaeia Aio?a e a e?oiiuo ?aeao Eeoay.
A aeeeeiaoece?iaai a N?aaeiae Acee e a aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee.
Aeinoeaaao aeeeiu 1 i e iannu 45 ea. Ieoaaony oeoiieaieoiiii, eioi?ue
iooeaaeeaaaony i?e iiiiue aeaaa?iuo ou/eiie, ia?acothueo naiaia?acioth
naoeo. Iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth aui?uaeaaoue ec aiaeu ia 2 iao?a i?e
i?eaeeaeaiee oaie, ooia iioi?a eee oaea?a aanea i ai?o eiaeee.
Au?aueaaaony oaeaea niaianoii n ea?iii e ae?oaeie ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiuie
?uaaie.

Oienoieiaee iano?ue. Ioee/aaony io aaeiai oienoieiaeea aieaa oaiiie
ie?aneie e oaiiuie iyoiaie ia aieao e aieueoie aieiaie. Iaeoaao a ?aea
Aio?a, ?aeao Eeoay. Aeeeeiaoece?iaai a i?oaeiauo oicyenoaao, aiaeiaiao
N?aaeiae Acee e a thaeiuo ?aeiiao aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee. Ee/eiee
ieoathony iaeeei ciiieaieoiiii, ac?ineua – oeoi- e ciiieaieoiiii, a
oaeaea aeao?eoii. A aeaooeaoiai aic?anoa aeinoeaaao iannu 1,5 ea, a
o?aoeaoiai – 2,5 ea.

Aio? aaeue. Aio? aaeue iaeoaao a ieaeiai oa/aiee ?aee Aio? e ?aeao
Eeoay, aeinoeaaao aeeeiu 1,2 i e iannu aieaa 32 ea. Eiaao ino?ua
aeioi/iua coau, i?eniiniaeaiiua aeey eciaeue/aiey ?anoeoaeueiinoe. Ii
iiaaeaao ia oieueei iyaeoth iiaeaiaeioth ?anoeoaeueiinoue, ii e
iacaiioth, auoiaey ia ?aceeau ?ae e iieiaiiuo ica?. Oniaoii au?aueaaaony
a i?oaeao e aiaeio?aieeeuao. Aeey i?e?inoa ia 1 ea aio?o o?aaoaony
nuanoue 30-70 ea ?anoeoaeueiinoe.

Aio? /a?iue. Ii ?ani?ino?aiai a aannaeia Aio?a, Onno?e, ica?a Oaiea e
?aeao Eeoay. Ie?anea oaea oaiiay, ii/oe /a?iay, aeinoeaaao aeeeiu aieaa
1,2 i, iannu 36 ea, ia?anoeony a ?oneao ?ae a ethia-ethea a aic?anoa
7-10 eao. Aio? /a?iue ieoaaony iieethneaie, ?acaeaaeeaay eo ?aeiaeio
iiuiuie aeioi/iuie coaaie, a oaeaea aiaeiuie ianaeiiuie e e?aaaoeaie.
Aeeeeiaoece?iaai a aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee e a N?aaeiae Acee.

Ea?anue iaueiiaaiiue (cieioie). Ii ?ani?ino?aiai a iaeeeo ica?ao Aa?iiu
e Acee aei ?aee Eaia. A ?aeao auae?aao ianoa n caiaaeeaiiui oa/aieai,
aeeaao a noa?eoeao, caeeaao e noiy/eo aiaeiaiao. Auiineo eeneua aiaeu,
niiniaai auaea?aeeaaoue niaea?aeaiea eenei?iaea, ?anoai?aiiiai a aiaea
aei 0,5-0,6 ni/e, e i?iia?caiea aiaeiaia aei aeia. Ecaanoiu neo/ae
auaeeaaiey ea?anae a eea niouaiiuo eee auniooeo aiaeiaiia. Ia ceio
caeaiuaaaony a ee. Ieoaaony aaioinii e aeao?eoii, iiaaeaao /anoe aiaeiuo
?anoaiee. Aeinoeaaao aeeeiu 45 ni, iannu 500-600 a, eiiaaea 3 ea.

Ea?anue na?aa?yiue. Ii ?ani?ino?aiai a aiaeiaiao Neae?e e aannaeia
Oeoiai ieaaia. Oi?ia oaea oaeiaaoay, a ia ie?oaeay, eae o cieioiai
ea?any. Aiea na?aa?enoua. A ?innee na?aa?yiue ea?anue ?acaiaeeony a
i?oaeiauo oicyenoaao eae aeiaaai/iay ?uaa e ea?io; aeeeeiaoece?iaai a
ica?ao Eai/aoee. Au?anoaao aeeeiie aei 45 ni, iannie aei 1 ea. Ea?anue
na?aa?yiue ieoaaony ieaieoiiii e aaioinii, iieiaie c?aeinoe aeinoeaaao a
aic?anoa 3-4 eao.

Nouanoaotho iaeiiiieua iiioeyoeee ea?any, a eioi?uo naiee o/anoaotho a
ia?anoa n naioeaie ae?oaeo ea?iiauo ?ua (cieioiai ea?any, eeiy, ea?ia),
i?e yoii iieo/athony oieueei naiee na?aa?yiiai ea?any.

Eau. Ii ?ani?ino?aiai a aiaeiaiao Aa?iiu e aannaeiao Naaa?iiai,
Aaeoeeneiai, Aa?aioeaaa (?aea Ia/i?a),*a?iiai, Acianeiai, Eanieeneiai e
A?aeueneiai ii?ae. Ii iaeoaao a noiy/eo e neaaii?ioi/iuo aiaeiaiao, ii a
Eanieeneii e Acianeii ii?yo ia?acoao iieoi?ioiaeioth oi?io,
iaaoeeaathuothny a ii?aniaiiuo ciiao ii?y. Aeinoeaaao aeeeiu 45 ni,
iannu 2,5-3,0 ea. Iieiaic?aeinoue o eaua ianooiaao a aic?anoa 3-4 eao, a
naaa?iuo ?aeiiao – 5-8 eao.

Eeiue. Eeiue – oeie/iay aeiiiay ?uaa, iaeoaao a noiy/eo aiaeiaiao n
eeenoui aeiii, a ?aeao – a caaiaeyo e caoiiao, ca?inoeo
?anoeoaeueiinoueth, ia ceio ca?uaaaony a ee. Iieiaeue ieoaaony nia/aea
ieaieoiiii, ii auno?i ia?aoiaeeo ia ee/eiie oe?iiiieae, ?aeiia?aciuo,
iaeeeo iieethneia. Eeiue oi?ioi i?eniiniaeai e aeecie a aiaeiaiao n
aeaoeoeeoii eenei?iaea.

Ieioaa. Ieioaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia a aiaeiaiao Neae?e, Aa?iiu,
aannaeia A?aeueneiai ii?y, i?aaeii/eoaao aiaeiaiu n iaaieueoie
i?ioi/iinoueth eee noiy/ea, eiathuea ca?inee aiaeiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe.
Oa?aeoa?ia y?eay i?aiaeaaay ?aaeoaeiay iaiei/ea aeac. Aeinoeaaao aeeeiu
25-30 ni, iannu 150-200 a, iaeneioi 2 ea. Iieiaeue ieoaaony
ciiieaieoiiii, ac?ineua – aiaei?ineyie e ee/eieaie ianaeiiuo,
iieethneaie.

Aiaea. Aaaeiaeoay i?iiuneiaay ?uaa aannaeia Eanieeneiai ii?y,
iieoi?ioiaeiay oi?ia ieioau. Iaaoe i?ienoiaeeo a Naaa?iii Eaniee ia
o/anoeao n nieaiinoueth aiaeu 7-8 i?iieeea. Iia ceioao a yiao ia?aae
onoueyie ?ae. Ieoaaony iaeeeie iieethneaie, ?a/eaie, /a?ayie, ee/eieaie
oe?iiiieae.

Oa?aiue. Oa?aiue – iieoi?ioiaeiie iiaeaeae ieioau, iaeoathuee a
aannaeiao Acianeiai e *a?iiai ii?ae. Ia?ano i?ienoiaeeo aaniie ia
caeieuao, a ii?neeo ieaaiyo, i?aniiaiaeiuo ica?ao, a aeaeueoao ?ae.
Iinea ia?anoa neaouaaaony ec ?ae a eeiaiu e ii?a aeey iaaoea. Ceioao a
onoueyo ?ae.

?uaaoe aciai-/a?iiii?neee. Ii aoiaeeo a ?aee a iiya?a-yiaa?a n iac?aeie
ee?ie, i?iaiaeeo a i?aniie aiaea anth ceio e aaniie ia?anoeony a ?aea
Eoaaie i?e oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu 18-25 °N, ia ia?aeaoao n aaea/iui a?oioii
ia aeoaeia 25-50 ni ni nei?inoueth oa/aiey aiaeu 0,7-1,1 i/n, auiaouaay
27,5 oun. – 300 oun. ee?eiie. Ee?a nia/aea i?eeeaeaaaony e eaiiyi, a
caoai oa/aieai niuaaaony n ieo, e aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aa i?ienoiaeeo a
oaeoaeaieyo iaaeaeo eaiiyie. ?uaaoe aciai-/a?iiii?neee aeinoeaaao aeeeiu
40 ni, iannu 0,8 ea, ieoaaony ee/eieaie ianaeiiuo, aieiieaaaie,
iieethneaie.

Oaiay. Yoa ?uaa iaeoaao a aannaeiao *a?iiai, Acianeiai, Eanieeneiai e
A?aeueneiai ii?ae. Iaeia ec oeaiiuo ?ua Aciai-*a?iiii?uey. Iia ieoaaony
ciiieaieoiiii e iieiaeueth ?ua, a ia?eiae ia?anoa ia ieoaaony.

Neiaoe. Ii ?ani?ino?aiai a aannaeiao Naaa?iiai, Aaeoeeneiai, *a?iiai e
Acianeiai ii?ae; ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo ea?iiauo aa?oiei ?oii; oeie/iue
ciiieaieoioaa. Neiaoe aeinoeaaao aeeeiu a n?aaeiai 35-45 ni. A
Oeeieyineii aiaeio?aieeeua auno?i ?anoao e iaeaaeaao aee?iui iynii.

Ianea?ue iaueiiaaiiue. Iaeoaao a /enouo i?aniiaiaeiuo aiaeiaiao n
ian/aiui aeiii. Ieoaaony ciiieaieoiiii, aeiiiuie i?aaieciaie, ia
ia?anoeeeuao iiaaeaao ee?o i?iiuneiauo ?ua e naith ee?o.

?UAU Ae?OAEO NAIAENOA.

Uoea iaueiiaaiiay. Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia a i?aniuo aiaeao a Aa?iia,
Neae?e, a aannaeia A?aeueneiai ii?y, a ?aeao Naaa?iie Aia?eee (?en. 5).
Aea?aeeony a iaeeii/eo a aa?aaiaie ciia ica?, ?ae, aiaeio?aieeeu n
iaaeeaiiui oa/aieai.

Uoea – naieoa? i?aniuo aiae. Oieueei a ia?aua ianyoeu aeecie iia
ieoaaony iaeeeie ?a/eaie, ee/eieaie ianaeiiuo, iai?eia? iioueai,
/a?ayie. Oeuie/aoue ia/eiaao o ian, a n?aaeiae iieina, ni aoi?iai
ianyoea aeecie. Ieoaaony ee/eieaie ieioau e ieoiy, ?uaie, aieiaanoeeaie,
eyaooeaie, iuoaie e aeaaea iaeeeie ioeoeaie, iai?eia? eoee/eaie. Iiieii
iaeioeaiiuo ?ua, aa ?aoeeii iiiieiyaony ca n/ao iieiaee e aeaaea
ac?ineuo oeaiiuo ?ua, ii enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi aeiey eo a
niaea?aeeiii aeaeoaeea iau/ii auaaao iaaaeeea. Ieoaaony oaeaea iaeeie
uoeie. Iniaaiii /anoi yoi i?ienoiaeeo i?e /?acia?iii ?aciiiaeaiee a
aiaeiaia uoe.

Uoea – oeie/iue oeuiee-canaae/ee, ea?aoeyuee naith aea?oao, a ioee/ea io
noaeaea e aea?aoa, aa?oueo aea?oao a “oaii”. A?inie uoee iieieaiinai,
iia i?aneaaeoao aeiau/o oieueei a oao neo/ayo, anee i/aiue aieiaeia,
iiaeao ?acaeaaoue aieueooth nei?inoue e aeaaea aui?uaeaaoue ec aiaeu.
Ia?eiae, eiaaea uoea iniaaiii aeoeaia, ?uaaee iacuaatho “aei?ii”.
Aeaeaeaiey uoee ae?aae/eau, iaeicaiaoiu, iia inoaiaaeeaaaony e
caoaeaaaony a oaeeo ianoao, eioi?ua ianee?otho ?uao. Uoea /aua anaai
eethao ia aeeaoea e aeanio.

Uoeo ?acaiaeyo a ?uaiaiaeiuo oicyenoaao, eniieuecoy aa niiniaiinoe
oeuieea a ai?ueaa n i?iieeiiaaieai a i?oaeu yoeo oicyenoa iaeioeaiiuo
?ua.

Uoea – iaeia ec naiuo auno?i?anooueo ?ua, a n?aaeiae iieina NNN? aan
aiaeiaeeia 50-150 a, aeaooaiaeiaeeia – 300-400 a, a 6-7-eaoiea ?uau
aeinoeaatho 4-5 ea. Iiaaeay iieiaeue iaeioeaiiuo ?ua, uoea icaei?iaeyao
i?iiuneiaua noaaea.

Nii iaueiiaaiiue. Iaeia ec naiuo e?oiiuo ?ua aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiia.
AEeaao aieaa 30 eao. ?ani?ino?aiai a aannaeiao Aaeoeeneiai, *a?iiai,
Eanieeneiai e A?aeueneiai ii?ae, a Eaaeiaeneii e Iiaaeneii ica?ao.
Aeinoeaaao iannu aei 300 ea e aeeeiu aei 5 i. Iaeeii/iue i?iaei?eeaue
oeuiee. Ieoaaony ?uaie, eyaooeaie, iieethneaie, iaiaaeaao ia
aiaeiieaaathuoth ioeoeo. Aea?aeeony a yiao, iiooao o ieioei.
Iieiaic?aeinoue ianooiaao ia 3-4-i aiaeo.

Iaeei. Aaeeinoaaiiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue naiaenoaa o?aneiauo a i?aniuo
aiaeao. Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a Naaa?iii iieooa?ee. I?aaeii/eoaao
oieiaeiiaiaeiua aiaeiaiu n /enoie aiaeie e eaiaienoui eee ian/aiui
aeiii. Aea?aeeony o aeia, caae?aaony iiae ei?yae e ei?ie o ia?uaenouo
aa?aaia. Iaeaieaa aeoeaai a oieiaeiia a?aiy aiaea. Iaaoeeaaaony e
?aciiiaeaaony iiaei eueaeii. Aeinoeaaao aeeeiu 120 ni e iannu ia aieaa
1-2 ea eiiaaea – 24 ea. Ieoaaony a iniiaiii ?uaie, eiiaaea ee/eieaie
ianaeiiuo e ?aeiia?aciuie.

Oai?ue iaueiiaaiiue. Ii ioiineony e io?yaeo oa?aia?aciuo. Iaaoeeaaaony a
i?aniuo aiaeao Aa?iiu, ?aciiiaeaaony a Na?aanniaii ii?a i?e nieaiinoe
aiaeu 37 i?iieeea, i?e oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu 16-17 °N. Niaa?oaao ia?anoiaua
iea?aoeee ia ?annoiyiee 4000-7000 ei. Iinea ia?anoa i?iecaiaeeoaee
iiaeaatho. Iieiaeioai?aiiay ee?a ?acaeaaaony a oieua aiaeu. Ee/eiee
i?ic?a/iua, eaioeaoiaeaeiie oi?iu, iiaeoaaouaathony oaieui oa/aieai –
Aieueono?eiii, eioi?ia a oa/aiea 2,5-3 eao ianao eo e aa?aaai Aa?iiu,
caoai iie iannie aoiaeyo a onouey ?ae, iniaaiii Aiaeee, O?aioeee e O?A e
/anoe/ii ?innee (?aea Ia?aa). A ieciaueyo ?ae iie ieaiaioe?othony e
i?aa?auathony a iieiaeue, caoai iiaeieiathony a aa?oiauey ?ae,
i?iieeatho a i?eaeaoi/iua ica?a, eeiaiu, a eioi?uo iaaoeeaathony. A
oa/aiea 6-10 eao aeinoeaatho iieiaic?aeinoe, neaouaathony aiec ii ?aeai
a ii?a e iea?e?otho e ianoai ?aciiiaeaiey a aeoaeiiuo neiyo aiaeu, aaea
eiaaony oa/aiea, ia?aoiia Aieueono?eio. Iau/iue ?acia? neaouaathuaainy
oa?y ec aiaeiaiia iaaoea 32-72 ni e ianna 500-800 a. Iyni niaea?aeeo
22-32 % aee?a. Ieoaaony iaaoeeaathueeny oai?ue ?uaie, aeiiiuie
?aeiia?aciuie, /a?ayie. Ee/eiee ai a?aiy iea?aoeee ieoathony
ciiieaieoiiii,

?inney caeoiaao ai O?aioeee e Aiaeee noaeeiaeaeiiai oa?y aeey oiaa?iiai
au?aueaaiey. I?iaiaeyony iiuou ii au?aueaaieth oa?y aei iieiaic?aeie
noaaeee e iieo/aieth iioiinoaa a i?aniuo aiaeao.

Ciaaaieia. Ciaaaieia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e io?yaeo ciaaaieiaiia?aciuo,
iaeoaao a Aio?a, aiaeiaiao Eeoay e Eiaeee. Iaae aeaaa?iie iieinoueth
eiaao iieinoue n iaaeaeaaa?iui i?aaiii, neoaeauei aeey aeuoaiey
aoiinoa?iui aicaeooii. Iiaeao ianeieueei aeiae (i?e oaiia?aoo?a 7 °C aei
iaaeaee) i?iaeeoue aac aiaeu e iaeoaoue a caa?yciaiiie aiaea,
auaea?aeeaaoue oaiia?aoo?o aiaeu aei 35-40 “N. Ii nooa ia?aiiecaao ec
aiaeiaia a aiaeiai. Au?anoaao aei 1 i, iannie aei 8 ea. Ieoaaony ?uaie,
eyaooeaie, e?oiiuie aaniicaiii/iuie. Ia?niaeoeaiue iauaeo aeey
?uaiaiaenoaa a thaeiuo ?aeiiao.

Nii eaiaeueiue (niiee). Ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a Naaa?iie Aia?eea,
caaacai a ?inneth ec ooaoa A?eciia. Eiaea aac /aooe. Aa?oiyy /aethnoue
auaeaaony iaae ieaeiae, aoau iynenoua, aeiaieueii oienoua. Au?anoaao aei
13 ea i?e aeeeia aei 80 ni. Ieoaaony nii ee/eieaie no?aeic, aiaeyiuie
aeoeaie, iaeeie ?uaie. Iyni ii aeono ia onooiaao iyno oi?aee.
Au?aueaaaony a oaieiaiaeiuo ?uaoicao.

Aoooaei. A ?innee aeeeeiaoece?iaaiu o?e aia?eeaineeo aeaea:
aieueoa?ioue, iaei?ioue e /a?iue. Ii aiaoiaio aeaeo iaiiieiatho ea?ia.

Aoooaei aieueoa?ioue ii oaiio ?inoa i?aainoiaeeo ea?ia. Naiue
?ani?ino?aiaiiue ec aeaeia aoooaei e onoie/eaue e iaaeaaii?eyoiui
oneiaeyi aeecie. Ia?aiineo aunieoth iooiinoue aiaeu. Iaeoaao a
i?eaeaoi/iuo aiaeiaiao e caaiaeyo e?oiiuo ?ae, ia iaeeiaiaeueyo ica? e
aiaeio?aieeeu. Naaieaoee au?anoatho aei 40 a, iaeneiaeueii aei 400-500,
o?aoeaoee – aei 2000-2500 a. Ie?iay aeeaioiiyaeiay ?uaa. Oi?ioi iiaaeaao
eiiaeei?i. Ia?niaeoeaiay ?uaa aeey eioaineaiiai ?uaiaiaenoaa.

Aoooaei iaei?ioue ioee/aaony io aieueoa?ioiai oai, /oi eiaao ieaeiee
?io, ?aniieiaeaiiue ai?eciioaeueii. Iaeoaao a i?ioi/iuo aeoaieeo
aiaeiaiao. Ieoaaony aieueoa aeiiiuie aeeaioiuie, /ai ieaieoiiii.
?aciiiaeaaony a oa aea n?iee, ii iieiaic?aeinoe aeinoeaaao ia 1-2 aiaea
iicaea.

Aoooaei /a?iue noiae n ae?oaeie aoooaei.

Aaneiiin. Yoa ?uaa ioiineony e naiaenoao aaneiiinia, iaeoaao ia ioiaeyo
e?oiiuo ?ae e ica? ainoi/iie /anoe Naaa?iie Aia?eee. Ii caaacai a
?inneth eae ia?niaeoeaiue iauaeo aeey ?uaiaiaenoaa. Aieiaa iaiiieiaao
aanei, ?io ia?iiiue, aaccoaue. Oaei aieia. Au?anoaao aaneiiin aei 2 i,
iannie 50-75 ea. ?anoao auno?i: naaieaoee aei 200-900 a, aeaooeaoee –
2,5-3,0 ea, o?aoeaoee – aei 4,0-5,0 ea. Ieoaaony ciiieaieoiiii.
ssaeyaony ia?niaeoeaiui iauaeoii aeey ica?, ?ae e aiaeio?aieeeu.

2. Io?aia e ainiieiaiea ?uaiuo ?ano?nia.

Iniiaiuie ia?aie io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ?uaiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
yaeythony ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea aeiauaaaiiai nu?uey,
aaciooiaeiay oaoiieiaey e nia?aiaiiay oaoieea.

Eioaineaiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, naycaiiay n ?acaeoeai
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneiai oicyenoaa, aiaeiiai o?ainii?oa e ae?. a ?yaea
neo/aaa io?eoeaoaeueii neacaeanue ia ninoiyiee ?uaioicyenoaaiiuo
aiaeiaiia. Ii/oe ana e?oiiaeoea ?aee iaoae no?aiu e no?ai aeeaeiaai
ca?oaaaeuey: Aieaa, Eaia, O?ae, Aeii, Eoaaiue, Aeiai?, Aeiano?,
Aeaoaaaa, Aiaa?a, Aienae, E?ouo, Nu?aea?uey, Aioaea?uey, Eo?a e ae?.
/anoe/ii eee iieiinoueth ca?aaoee?iaaiu ieioeiaie e?oiiuo
aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee eee i?ineoaeueiuo aeae?ioceia. I?aeoe/anee ii/oe
ana i?ioiaeiua ?uau – inao?iaua, eininaaua, neaiaua, ea?iiaua, naeueaee
– e iieoi?ioiaeiua – ieoiaaua, ea?iiaua e ae?. – eeoeeenue naieo
neiaeeaoeony aaeaie anoanoaaiiuo ia?anoeeeu.

A ?acoeueoaoa ca?aaoee?iaaiey ?ae e eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia a
iniiaiii aeey oeaeae yia?aaoeee e naeueneiai oicyenoaa aac o/aoa ae?oaeo
eioa?ania io?aneae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa i?iecioei ?aceia nie?auaiea
iauaia iaaiaeeiauo aiae e iaaethaeaaony iinoiyiiia a oa/aiea aiaea
eieaaaiea o?iaiy aiaeu a ieaeieo o/anoeao ?ae, /oi e?aeia io?eoeaoaeueii
neacuaaaony ia ?aciiiaeaiee iieoi?ioiaeiuo e ooaiaeiuo ?ua ai iiiaeo
e?oiiuo aannaeiao.

Au?oaea eana, ?aniaoea neeiiia ?ae e ?a/iuo iiei i?eaiaeeo e caeeaieth e
caoeaieaieth ia?anoeeeu, a caa?yciaiea aiaeu oiene/iuie noieaie
aoaeoaeueii aeaenoaoao ia oaoio aiaeiaiia. Aio?iiiaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
aiaeiaiu a eiia/iii eoiaa i?eaaei e nie?auaieth ?uaiuo caiania e oeiaia
?uau ai aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiao. A nayce n yoei ia?aae ?uaiui oicyenoaii
noieo iaeia ec aeaaiuo caaea/ – nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey
aini?iecaiaenoaa e oaaee/aiey ?uaiuo caiania iooai i?iaaaeaiey eiiieaena
?acee/iuo ?uaiaiaeii-iaeei?aoeaiuo e ?uaiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.

Nio?aiaiea e i?eoiiiaeaiea ?uaiuo aiaaonoa ai aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiao
?innee, io?aia anoanoaaiiuo aiaaonoa eiioeiaioaeueiiai oaeueoa ?innee,
aeeauo ?ano?nia a i?eeaaathueo e iiaa?aaeueth ?innee ii?neeo ?aeiiao,
ioianaiiuo e yeiiiie/aneie ciia ?innee, e inouanoaeaiea eiio?iey ca
niaethaeaieai iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiiaaioeee e aeiaiai?ia i ?uaieianoaa a
ioe?uoii ii?a, o/anoieeii eioi?uo yaeyaony ?inney, aiceaaathony ia
Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea ii io?aia e aini?iecaiaenoao ?uaiuo caiania e
?aaoee?iaaieth ?uaieianoaa e aai aannaeiiaua oi?aaeaiey.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ca iineaaeiea iyoue aeanyoeeaoee i?iecioei
eciaiaiea ninoiyiey aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiia: ii?ae, ?ae, ica?. E?oiiua ?aee
no?aiu ca?aaoee?iaaiu iiuiuie ieioeiaie aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee e
i?ineoaeueiuo nenoai, cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeny ioai? i?aniuo aiae ia
i?iiuoeaiiua, naeueneioicyenoaaiiua e auoiaua ioaeaeu, oneeeeinue
caa?yciaiea aiaeiaiia ?acee/iuie a?aaeiuie noieaie, aic?inee iauaiu
iiaeaiaeiuo ?ac?aaioie iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, aeiioaeoaeoaeueiuo ?aaio e
o. ae. I/aiue iaaaoeaioth ?ieue ia yeieiae/aneia ninoiyiea aiaeiuo
?ano?nia nua?ae aaneiio?ieueiue na?in yaeiaeouo iooiaeia a ?aee ca
iineaaeiea aiaeu. Aieueoie o?ii ?uaiui ?ano?nai iaiineo a?aeiiuea?neee
aueia oeaiiuo ii?iae ?ua.

Ana yoi ia iiaeao ia io?aceoueny ia oooaeoaiee oneiaee anoanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa ?uaiuo caiania e nie?auaiee aueiaa ?uau ai aioo?aiieo
aiaeiaiao.

Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey e oaaee/aiey caiania oeaiiuo i?iiuneiauo ?ua a iaoae
no?aia, ianiio?y ia i?iaeieaeathueeny e?ecen, inouanoaeythony oe?ieea
ia?ii?eyoey ii eneonnoaaiiiio ?uai?acaaaeaieth, oeo/oaieth oneiaee
anoanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa ?ua, a oaeaea ?acaeoeth ica?iiai e
i?oaeiaiai ?uaiaiaenoaa ii au?aueaaieth oiaa?iie ?uau. Aieueoea ?aaiou
i?iaiaeyony ii aeeeeiaoecaoeee oeaiiuo i?iiuneiauo ?ua e ae?oaeo
iauaeoia i?iiunea, iai?aaeaiiua, ia ?anoe?aiea aeaeiaiai ninoaaa ?ua e
oaaee/aiea ?uaiuo caiania.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey yoeo oeaeae a no?aia iino?iaii aieaa 150
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?uaiaiaeiuo caaiaeia, ia?anoiai-au?inoiuo oicyenoa,
?uaiieoiiieeia, i?iecaiaenoaaiii-aeeeeiaoecaoeeiiiuo noaioeee. Ca
iineaaeiea iyoue eao iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai /anoiuo ?uaiaiaeiuo caaiaeia,
ia?anoiai-au?inoiuo oicyenoa, ?uaiieoiiieeia.

?uaiaiaeu yoeo i?aaei?eyoee au?aueaatho e aaeaaiaeii auioneatho a
anoanoaaiiua aiaeiaiu aieaa 12 ie?ae oo. iieiaee oeaiiuo ?ua aieaa 40
aeaeia.

Iniiaiuie iauaeoaie ?acaaaeaiey ia ?uaiaiaeiuo caaiaeao noaee i?ioiaeiua
?uau: inao?iaua, eininaaua, neaiaua, ea?iiaua. A ia?anoiai-au?inoiuo
oicyenoaao e ?uaiieoiiieeao ?acaiaeyo iieoi?ioiaeiuo e ooaiaeiuo ?ua:
ea?iiauo, ieoiaauo e ae?.

Ainiieiaiea ?uaiuo ?ano?nia. ?acaaaeaiea ?ua. ?uaiaiaenoai aeeth/aao a
naay eneonnoaaiiia ?acaaaeaiea ia ?uaiaiaeiuo caaiaeao e a
ia?anoiai-au?inoiuo oicyenoaao e aeeeeiaoecaoeeth oeaiiuo i?iiuneiauo
?ua aeey oaaee/aiey ?uaiuo caiania, a oaeaea au?aueaaiea oiaa?iie ?uau a
i?oaeao, ica?ao e ae?. aiaeiaiao.

?uaiaiaenoai yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth iaueo ia?ii?eyoee ii io?aia e
aini?iecaiaenoao ?uaiuo caiania, eoaea aoiaeeo ?uaioicyenoaaiiay
iaeei?aoeey aiaeiaiia, anoanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai, io?aia ?uaiuo
caiania e ?aaoee?iaaiea i?iiunea ?uau, eiio?ieue ca eiiieaeniui
eniieueciaaieai aiaeiuo ?ano?nia, naieoa?iui ninoiyieai aiaeiaiia.

?acaaaeaiea ?ua ia ?uaiaiaeiuo caaiaeao. A ?innee aeaenoaoao aieaa 80
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?uaiaiaeiuo caaiaeia: 51 – eininaaue, 18 – inao?iauo e
aieaa 10 – niaoaiiuo (inao?iauo, eininaauo, neaiauo e ea?iiauo).
Eiathony oaeaea yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?uaiaiaeiua caaiaeu i?e
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo.

Iniiaiuie iauaeoaie eneonnoaaiiiai ?acaaaeaiey ia caaiaeao yaeythony
eininaaua, inao?iaua, neaiaua, ea?iiaua, ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiua ?uau.

Oaoiieiaey ?acaaaeaiey ?uau neiaeiay e o?oaeiaieay. Iia aeeth/aao a naay
ianeieueei i?ioeannia: caaioiaea c?aeuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae; iieo/aiea
c?aeie ee?u e nia?iu; inaiaiaiea ee?u; iiaeaioiaea ee?u e eieoaaoeee;
eieoaaoeey ee?u; auaea?aeeaaiea i?aaeee/eiie, iiae?aueaaiea ee/eiie e
au?aueaaiea iieiaee; auione iieiaee a anoanoaaiiua aiaeiaiu.

Aeioaoie/aneee i?ioeann ?acaaaeaiey ?aciuo aeaeia i?ioiaeiuo ?ua
ii?aaeaeyao no?oeoo?o ?uaiaiaeiuo caaiaeia. A ninoaa caaiaeia /aua anaai
aoiaeyo neaaeothuea iiae?acaeaeaiey: oeao auaea?aeeaaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeae, eiathuee i?oaeu, naaeee eee aannaeiu, a eioi?uo
niaea?aeao ?uao aei nic?aaaiey iieiauo i?iaeoeoia; eieoaaoeeiiiue oeao n
aiia?aoaie aeey eieoaaoeee ee?u, eieoaaoeeiiiua aiia?aou auaatho
?acee/iie eiino?oeoeee a caaeneiinoe io aeaea ?acaiaeeiie ?uau; oeao
au?aueaaiey iieiaee n aannaeiaie e i?oaeaie; oeao ?acaaaeaiey aeeauo
ei?iia. E?iia yoiai, ia eaaeaeii caaiaea eiathony eaai?aoi?ey aeey
auiieiaiey aeae?ioeie/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo aiaeecia, oieiaeeeueiee aeey
o?aiaiey ei?iia, neeaaeu aeey o?aiaiey ?uaiaiaeiiai eiaaioa?y e
iai?oaeiaaiey, ianiniay noaioeey, oaoie/aneea neoaeau, aaeieieno?aoeaiua
caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey.

?acaaaeaiea ?ua a ia?anoiai-au?inoiuo oicyenoaao. Ia?anoiai-au?inoiua
oicyenoaa ii eneonnoaaiiiio ?uai?acaaaeaieth iino?iaiu a iaoae no?aia a
iniiaiii a aannaeiao ?ae Aieae, Aeiia, Eoaaie e i?e aiaeio?aieeeuao,
ia?aciaaiiuo i?e aeae?ino?ieoaeuenoaa.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?aaiecaoeee oaeeo oicyenoa aucaaia oooaeoaieai
anoanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa e oiaiueoaieai caiania iieoi?ioiaeiuo e
ooaiaeiuo ?ua: nacaia, eaua, noaeaea, oa?aie e ae?. a ?acoeueoaoa
ca?aaoee?iaaiey noiea ?ae, ei?aiiiai eciaiaiey aaee/eiu e ?aaeeia
aanaiiaai noiea, oaaee/aiey aacaica?aoiiai aiaeiiio?aaeaiey e o. ae.

I?oaeiaia ?uaiaiaenoai. I?oaeiaia ?uaiaiaenoai – yoi iiaeio?aneue
?uaiiai oicyenoaa, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao au?aueaaiea oiaa?iie ?uau a
i?oaeao, iaaieueoeo ica?ao e ae?oaeo iaeuo aiaeiaiao aeey niaaaeaiey
ianaeaiey aeeaie eee ioeaaeaeaiiie ?uaie.

A iaoae no?aia ?acaeoi ainoaea?noaaiiia, eieoicii-niaoiciia e /anoiia
i?oaeiaia ?uaiaiaenoai. A ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?oaeiauo oicyenoaao
aaeaaiaeii au?aueaaaony ieiei 300 oun. o i?oaeiaie ?uau e ieiei 2 ie?ae.
oo. ?uaiiinaaei/iiai iaoa?eaea i?e ?uaii?iaeoeoeaiinoe iaaoeueiuo
i?oaeia a n?aaeiai 14 oe/aa.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iieo/eee ?acaeoea eiaeono?eaeueiua oi?iu ?uaiaiaenoaa
– au?aueaaiea ?uau a naaeeao e aannaeiao n eniieueciaaieai oaieuo aiae
A?YN, OYOe e AYN.

Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey i?oaeiaiai ?uaiaiaenoaa a aaeeee e ?aciiia?aciu.
Iiuo ia?aaeiauo ?uaiaiaeiuo oicyenoa iieacuaaao, /oi ?acaaaeaiea ?uau a
i?oaeao – aunieii?iaeoeoeaiay e aeioiaeiay io?aneue aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy a i?oaeiauo ?uaoicao au?aueaatho ia oieueei ea?ia e
aai aea?eaeia, ii e aaeiai e iano?iai oienoieiaeeia, aio?ia, na?aa?enouo
ea?anae, uoeo, noaeaea, o?e aeaea aoooaei, eaiaeueiiai niia, aaneiiina,
aanoa?a (aea?eae aaeoaa o noa?eyaeue), ?aaeoaeioth oi?aeue, inao?a,
?yiooeo, iaeyaeue, /oaeneiai neaa, /e?a e ae?.

Ii aeieiae/aneei iniaaiiinoyi ?acaiaeeiuo ?ua oneiaii ?acaeaeytho ia
oaieiaiaeiuo (ea?i, oienoieiaeee, aio?, ea?anue, uoea, noaeae,
eaiaeueiue nii, aoooaei, aanoa? e ae?.) e oieiaeiiaiaeiuo (oi?aeue,
iaeyaeue e ?yiooea).

I?aaeoniao?eaathony aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ?uaiiai oicyenoaa, oaaee/aiea
?uaii?iaeoeoeaiinoe aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiia e ii?neeo ?aeiiia, oneeaiea
aini?iecaiaenoaa e io?aiu ?uaiuo caiania, ?acaeoea anao aeaeia
?uaiaiaenoaa. ?acaeoea ?uaiiai oicyenoaa iicaieeo cia/eoaeueii iiauneoue
aaeain aeeaioiuo aaeeia a ieoaiee ianaeaiey.

Auaiaeu.

Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu – iaeia ec naiuo ino?uo, aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai
nia?aiaiiinoe, cao?aaeaathuay eioa?anu anao ia?iaeia. Io?aia ?uaiuo
?ano?nia yaeyaony aaaeiie /anoueth iauae i?iaeaiu io?aiu i?e?iaeiie
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Ecaanoii, /oi io?aia i?e?iaeu yaeyaony
eiinoeoooeeiiiie iaycaiiinoueth a?aaeaeai ?innee . A ?yaea noaoae
Eiinoeoooeee i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee e
aeieaeiinoiua eeoea iaycaiu i?eieiaoue iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u ii io?aia
i?e?iaeu. Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e i?aaeea io?aiu e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey ?uaiuo ?ano?nia cae?aieaiu a iaua?inneeneeo e
?aaeiiaeueiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoao, a oaeaea a ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao
Iei?uaoica ?innee e ae?oaeo ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa.

Aeey nio?aiaiey e ?acaeoey ?uaiuo ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue
iianaianoiue eiio?ieue caa?yciaiey aiaeiaiia noi/iuie aiaeaie,
nicaeaaaoue oneiaey aeey ii?iaeueiiai ?aciiiaeaiey, ?acaeaaoue ?uaioth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iiiu?youe ?acaeoea e i?eiaiaiea iao/iuo eaeae a ?uaiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, e o.ae.

Nio?aiaiea e ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ?uaiuo ?ano?nia (yaeythueony
ia oieueei ieuaaui ?ano?nii), aaaeiaeoay caaea/a ainoaea?noaa.
Eeoa?aoo?a

”?uaiaiaenoai” A.E. Enaaa., Iineaa., AI ”Aa?ii?iiecaeao”, 1991a.

”Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ?uaiii oicyenoaa” I.E. Ineiiaa, Iineaa.,
”Aa?ii?iiecaeao”, 1986a.

”Aeieiae/aneea ?ano?nu ie?iaiai ieaaia” I.A.Iienaaa., Iineaa.,
”Ieuai?iiecaeao”, 1989a.

”Ni?aai/iee ii ?uaiio?aia” Iineaa. ”Aa?ii?iiecaeao”, 1986 a.

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