Пути повышения эффективности молочного скотоводства

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Niaea?aeaiea.

1. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea
e niaa?oainoaiaaiea cao?ao a iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa.

1.1 Cia/aiea e ninoiyiea iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa ?innee, oaeoi?u ia iaai
aeeythuea.

1.2 Iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a iao/iie
eeoa?aoo?a.

2. I?e?iaeiay e yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea IIO “Ieineia” Eino?iineiai
?aeiia Eino?iineie iaeanoe.

3. I?aaiecaoeey e niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee
iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a IIO”Ieineia” Eino?iineiai ?aeiia Eino?iineie
iaeanoe.

3.1 Cia/aiea e caaea/e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

3.2 Ia?ae/iue e naiaeiue o/ao cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee.

3.3 I?aaiecaoeey neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa.

3.4 Eaeueeoeyoeey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa e
cae?uoee n/aoa.

3.5 Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee a iiei/iii
neioiaiaenoaa.

4. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea a IIO”Ieineia” Eino?iineiai ?aeiia Eino?iineie iaeanoe.

4.1 Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea e oaeoi?u ia iaai aeeythuea.

4.2 Aiaeec cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e naaanoieiinoue iieiea.

4.3 Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea e ?aca?au aa
iiauoaiey.

5. Aaciianiinoue e yeieiae/iinoue ?aaiou.

Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee nienie.

Ni?aaea ? 1.

1. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea cao?ao a iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa.

1.1 Cia/aiea e ninoiyiea iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa ?innee, oaeoi?u ia iaai
aeeythuea.

Aiaeec nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey neioiaiaenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
iieacuaaao, /oi ca ia?eiae n 1990aiaea ii 1996 aiae /eneaiiinoue
e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa nie?aoeeanue ia 21.3 iei.aieia, eee ia 37.3%,
ei?ia niioaaonoaaiii ia 4.4 iei.aieia eee ia 21.2%. I?e yoii
i?iecaiaenoai iieiea oiaiueoeeinue ia

35.9 %. Oaeia iieiaeaiea yaeeinue neaaenoaeai eae nie?auaiey iiaieiauey,
oae e cia/eoaeueiiai niaaea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe neioa. N?aaeiee oaeie ca yoe
aiaeu nieceeny ia 24.4% [ 1 ] . Oaiaeaioeey niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa a
AIE nio?aiyaony e naaiaeiy. *enei ?aaeiiia ?innee n aiaeiaie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth iaiaa 200 ea. aic?inei a 1998 aiaeo n 11 aei 48.

I?aeoeeie ie?iaiai e ioa/anoaaiiiai neioiaiaenoaa aeieacaii, /oi
aeioiaeiinoue nia?aiaiiiai iiei/iiai oicyenoaa iai?yioth naycaia n
oaeiai ei?ia. Aneaaenoaea yoiai aeeaioiiaiaeu no?ai n ?acaeoui iiei/iui
neioiaiaenoaii ?aciuie ciioaoie/aneeie i?eaiaie aeiaeaathony ?inoa eo
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe. I?e yoii eiee/anoai iiei/iuo ei?ia, eae i?aaeei
nie?auaaony, i?e oaaee/aiee iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Ecaanoii , /oi aunieii?iaeoeoeaiay ei?iaa – yoi niioaaonoaothuee
o?iaaiue eoeueoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa e iaiueoee ?anoiae ei?iia ia eaaeaeue
eeo? iieiea e aeecianiiniaiue i?eieiae, e caei?iaay ie?oaeathuay N?aaea.
Aeey oiai, /oiau aacoauoi/ii niaea?aeaoue noaaei ei?ia, neaaeoao
inaiaiaeaeaoueny io anao iai?eaiaeiuo e eniieueciaaieth aeeaioiuo.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a iaeioi?uo oicyenoaao eo/oea iieacaoaee oaaee/aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia e nieaeaiea cao?ao
ia aaeeieoeo iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeee aeinoeaioou a ?acoeueoaoa nie?auaiey
iiaieiauey ei?ia. Ia o?aaoao aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ii-aeaeeiiio, i/aaeaeiue
oaeo : yooaeoeaiaa niaea?aeaoue iaeio ei?iao n aunieei oaeiai, iaaeaee
2-3 n ieceei [ 2 ] .

I?iecaiaenoai iyniuo iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
enoi/ieeia oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey a aunieiaaeeiauo
i?iaeoeoao ieoaiey. E?eceniay neooaoeey iineaaeieo eao i?eaaea e
nieaeaieth iauaiia e yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iyniie, iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoeee e nie?auaieth eo iio?aaeaiey. Iaaeie iieiea io iaeiie ei?iau
ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo ninoaaeee a 1995 aiaeo 2 007ea. ,
o.a. nieceeenue i?ioea o?iaiy 1990aiaea ia 38.5%.

Nieaeaiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeee aucaaii i?aaeaea
anaai iacaeioa?aniaaiiinoueth oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae a ?acaeoee io?anee a
oneiaeyo aeenia?eoaoa oeai, ?inoa iaieaoaaeae, oooaeoaiea iaania/aiiinoe
ei?iaie e ae?oaeie iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeie ?ano?naie, nieaeaiea o?iaiy
naeaeoeeiiii ieaiaiiie ?aaiou.

Oae a ?acoeueoaoa neiaeeaoeony oeai ia ca?iioo?aae ?acia? au?o/ee io aai
?aaeecaoeee a ianeieueei ?ac auoa, /ai i?e o?ainoi?iaoeee ca?iiauo
ei?iia a iiei/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth.

Ia iieiaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ieacaee oneiaey
i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaei?eyoee ia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee,
eioi?ua, eniieuecoy naia iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea, i?enaaeaatho
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa.

?aaeecaoeey iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeee naea?aeeaaaony oai, /oi ianoiua
aaeieieno?aoeaiua i?aaiu ia?aaeei ia?aie/eaatho aa auaic a ae?oaea
?aaeiiu. Neooaoeey oneiaeiyaony oaeaea ec-ca ?inoa oa?eoia ia
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa e aunieeo ecaea?aeae i?e aaoiiiaeeueiuo
ia?aaiceao.

?ac?aaioaiiue ia ia?niaeoeao i?iaiic ?acaeoey io?aneae aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
a 1996-2000 a.a. iaia/aao noaaeeecaoeeth /eneaiiinoe iiaieiauey neioa e
iaeioi?ue ?ino aai i?iaeoeoeaiinoe. Ia iniiaa aiaae?aiey eioaineaiuo
oaoiieiaee e ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee io?anee i?aaeiieaaaao
nouanoaaiii iiauneoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo e oaaee/eoue
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee.

A aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai i?aaeiieaaaaony ia?aeoe ia iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua,
?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, iicaieythuaa
iiauneoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aei 3 000ea. ia iaeio ei?iao.

A ia?niaeoeaa iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie ?acaeoey io?aneae aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
aeieaeiu noaoue- ?aoeeiiaeueiia ni/aoaiea e?oiiiai, n?aaeiaai e
iaeeioiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eniieueciaaiea eioaineaiuo e
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia aai ?acaeoey ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai ?aoaiey a
?aieao oeaeaauo i?ia?aii caaea/ oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia,
niaa?oainoaiaaiey naeaeoeeiiii-ieaiaiiie ?aaiou, iiauoaiey
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae a eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoao.

Nie?auaiea /eneaiiinoe aeeaioiuo i?aaeiieaaaao eiiiaine?iaaoue aieaa
eioaineaiui eniieueciaaieai iiaieiauey, iiauoaieai aai i?iaeoeoeaiinoe,
?inoii oiaa?iinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo iai?aaeaiee noaaeeecaoeee e aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
io?anee yaeyaony ia?aoiae e aunieioiaa?iiio i?iecaiaenoao ia iniiaa
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai oeiaine?iaaiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Aeaaainoaothuei a ?aoi?ie?iaaiee i?iecaiaenoaa, ii iiaieth aeaaeaieea
?ANOI A.?. Aiaaa, yaeyaony ia niaia oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e
oicyenoaiaaiey, a nicaeaiea caei?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai eeeiaoa aeey
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa ia ?anoe?aiiie iniiaa, /oi aeinoeaaaony ia aaca
niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu oeai, e?aaeeoiaaiey e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Eia/a
aiai?y, iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue oaeea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie
e iio?aaeoaeyie, i?e eioi?uo au a i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
aiciauaeenue cao?aou ia iieo/aiea iieuecothuaeny ni?inii i?iaeoeoeee e
nicaeaaaeanue i?eaueue, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia caei?iaie yeiiiie/aneie iniiaa. Iai?aeiaeiui oneiaeai
aeaiiiai i?ioeanna aeieaeiu auoue i?yiay caeioa?aniaaiiinoue e
ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae ai anao noa?ao i?eeiaeaiey o?oaea ca
?acoeueoaou naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

1.2 Iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a iao/iie
eeoa?aoo?a.

Iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?aeoeeie
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii, /oi n iiauoaieai iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia
nieaeathony cao?aou ei?iia e o?oaea ia aaeeieoeo iieo/aaiie i?iaeoeoeee.
Ia iaiaa aaaeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u ?anoiaea
ei?iia e nieaeaiea noieiinoe ?anoiaeoaiuo ei?iia ia iieo/aaioth
i?iaeoeoeeth. Caeanue eiathony aieueoea ?aca?au ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey
anoanoaaiiuo e oeo/oaiiuo ianoaeu, oaaee/aiea a ?aoeeiia oaeaeueiiai
aana naia oi?ioaai ea/anoaa , i?e ieieiaeueiii ?anoiaeiaaiee
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ei?iia. Oaeay nenoaia iaania/eaaao aeieiae/aneoth
iieiioeaiiinoue ei?ieaiey e aiieia naay ii?aaaeuaaao [ 1 ] .

Niaoeeoeea io?aneae aeeaioiiaiaenoaa iaoneaaeeaaao iniaaiiinoe
eioaineoeeaoeee, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony a oii, /oi i?iaeoeoeaiinoue e
yooaeoeaiinoue io?aneae caaeneo io noaiaie eniieueciaaiey iioaioeeaea
aeeaioiuo, eo aiciiaeiinoae.

Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey iaeneiaeueiie ?aaeecaoeee
aeaiiuo oaeoi?ia. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao oe?ieoth i?ia?aiio ia?ii?eyoee ii
iaania/aieth iaiaoiaeeiiai o?iaiy, ea/anoaa e ni/aoaiey aeieiae/aneeo,
oaoie/aneeo, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia.

I?inoie eiee/anoaaiiue ?ino iiaieiauey aac oeo/oaiey aai ea/anoaa e
no?oeoo?u, i?eiaiaiey iiauo, aieaa nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo e
oaoie/aneeo nenoai, aac eniieueciaaiey aunieiyooaeoeaiuo iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey, ei?iiauo n?aaenoa aeinoaoi/iiai iauaia e ea/anoaa
i?eaiaeeo naaiaeiy e cia/eoaeueiiio oaaee/aieth iio?aaiinoe a o?oaeiauo
e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nao, /oi i?e ieceii o?iaia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea iaoneaaeeaaao a eiia/iii n/aoa cia/eoaeueiue ?ino oiiaeiaieinoe,
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe e naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Aaaeiaeoeie oaeoi?aie e
oneiaeyie iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e yooaeoeaiinoe a
io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa yaeythony: ia?aoiae e iiaui aieaa i?ia?anneaiui
oaoiieiaeyi, nenoaiai i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaea . oeo/oaiea
ii?iaeiuo e ieaiaiiuo i?eciaeia aeeaioiuo, i?e cia/eoaeueiii iiauoaiee
iaania/aiiinoe eo aunieiea/anoaaiiuie ii?iaie aeinoaoi/iiai iauaia.

O?oaeiaieinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea inoaaony i/aiue aunieie e oaiiu aa
nieaeaiey aua i/aiue ieceea . Aeaaiie i?e/eiie yaeythony aunieea cao?aou
o?oaea a ?an/aoa ia iaeio ei?iao ec-ca ieceiai o?iaiy iaoaiecaoeee,
eioi?ue ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea e yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue iieiea a oeaeii.

Oaeoi?ii, ieacuaathuei aeeyiea ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea a
iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa, yaeyaony noaae ?aaiou, o?iaaiue
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee e aiciiaeiinoe aa oeo/oaiey. I?ioeann
noa?aiey eaae?ia ,i?e iauai eo iaaeinoaoea iaaaoeaii io?aaeaaony ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. O?iaaiue i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeai ?acaeoey io?anee iiei/iiai
neioiaiaenoaa. Ia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo ieacuaaao aeeyiea aieueoia
eiee/anoai oaeoi?ia. Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo i?aaeaea anaai
eiiieaen oaeoi?ia e oneiaee, eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n naieie
aeeaioiuie, eo aeieiae/aneeie e oeceieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie [ 3 ] .

Yooaeoeaiinoue ?acaeaeaiey iiei/iiai neioa a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
caaeneo io eioaineaiinoe iaoi/iiai iiaieiauey. Iaeiaei aeaaea a eo/oeo
oicyenoaao no?aiu n?ie i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeieaieaoey ei?ia ninoaaeyao 3.5 –
4 eaeoaoeee, oi anoue aieueoeinoai aeeaioiuo ia aeiaeeaatho aei oiai
aic?anoa, eiaaea iie ?aaeecotho iaeaunooth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue. Yoi
caiaaeeyao oaiiu ?inoa iiaieiauey, i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, aaaeao e
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiui cao?aoai e yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa [ 4 ] .

Aaee/eia oaeiaa ei?ia ?aciuo aic?anoia iieacuaaao, /oi iaiueoa iieo/atho
iieiea io ia?aioaeie. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi o ieo aua ia ieii/aiu
?ino e oi?ie?iaaiea i?aaiecia e ia yoi cao?a/eaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay aeiey
yia?aee, iieo/aaiay n ei?iii. E?iia oiai , nae?aoi?iay /anoue auiaie o
ia?aioaeie aua ia aeinoeaea iaeneiaeecia, iiyoiio oaeie ei?ia ia?aiai
ioaea ninoaaeyao anaai 70-75% io aoaeouae iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e
aeinoeaatho iaeneiaeecia e /aoaa?oiio ioaeo. O aeeaioiuo o?aoueaai –
iyoiai ioaeia ?ino e ?acaeoea i?aaiecia, a oii /enea e auiaie caeii/aiu,
iiyoiio iiei/iay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue naiay aunieay.

Ii n?aaiaieth n ia?aioaeeaie , a yoii aic?anoa iieo/atho ia 30 – 40%
iieiea aieueoa. Ia naaeueiii – aeaayoii ioaea oaeie ei?ia nieaeaaony ia
10-13% , ii ii ana aea auoa, /ai o ia?aioaeie ia 18-30 % . Ei?iau
noa?oeo aic?anoia , i?e iinoiyiiii i?eayciii niaea?aeaiee, nio?aiytho
ianeieueei eao aeinoaoi/ii aunieoth noaaeeueioth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue,
iiyoiio eo iaee/ea a iiei/iii noaaea yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaii [ 5 ] .

Aeeeoaeueii eniieuecoaiua ei?iau, eioi?ua aaeaaiaeii oaeyony e
nio?aiytho a oa/aiee iiiaeo eaeoaoeee noaaeeueiua e aunieea oaeie,
iniaaiii oeaiiu. Iiyoiio iiene iooae oaaee/aiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo ei?ia yaeyaony
aeooaeueiui. Eioaineaiia eniieueciaaiea iiei/iuo ei?ia aeieaeii auoue
iaania/aii iioeiaeueiuie oneiaeyie aeey au?aueaaiey iieiaeiyea e
iiaeaioiaee aeeaioiuo e eaeoaoeee, /oi iicaieyao aeinoeaiooue aeeaie
iannu ei?ia i?e ia?aii ioaea a aic?anoa 24-28 ianyoeaa 500-600 ea.,
iieo/eoue oaeie ca ia?aoth eaeoaoeeth 4 400ea. , ca o?aoueth – 5 208ea.
e yenieoaoe?iaaoue ei?ia a oa/aiee /aou?ao – naie eaeoaoeee [ 4 ] .

Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao o?iaaiue e ea/anoai ei?ieaiey , eioi?ue ia 60 -70
% ii?aaeaeyao ?acee/ey a i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia.

I?e ii?ie?iaaiee e ioeaiea iieiioeaiiinoe ei?ieaiey e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai
neioa aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ia ia?aia ianoi auaeaeaaaony
ieoaoaeueiinoue ?aoeeiia , ii eiiaaea iaaeiioeaieaaaony aai no?oeoo?a.
Ioaeaeueiua aaoi?u n/eoatho, /oi ?aoathuei oneiaeai, aeeythuei ia iaiai
aauanoa a i?aaiecia aeeaioiuo e yooaeoeaiinoue ei?ieaiey yaeyaony ia
iaai? ei?iia a ?aoeeiia, a naaeaine?iaaiiinoue aai ii yia?aee,
ieoaoaeueiui e aeieiae/aneei aauanoaai.

Aianoa n oai , ooieoeeiiaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey aeieiae/aneie iaoee ii
oeceieiaee ieuaaa?aiey e iaiaio aauanoa o aeaa/iuo, iieo/aiiua ca
iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey, iiiaieaoiyy i?aeoeea iauanoaaiiiai
neioiaiaenoaa iaoae no?aiu iaoneiaeee iaiaoiaeeiinoue aianaiey
nouanoaaiiuo ei??aeoea a oeiu e ?aoeeiiu ei?ieaiey e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai
neioa a ceiianoieeiaue ia?eiae.

Iiiaieaoiyy i?aeoeea iauanoaaiiiai neioiaiaenoaa iieacaea, /oi oe?ieia
i?eiaiaiea neeiniiai, neeinii-eiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai e
neeinii-naiaaeii-eiioeaio?aoiiai oeiia ei?ieaiey ei?ia ia iaania/eaaao
eo aunieie e onoie/eaie iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe, nio?aiaiey
caei?iauey, aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiie niiniaiinoe e ii?iaeueiiai n?iea
oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey . I?e yoii iaaethaeathony ianniaua
ia?ooaiey iaiaia aauanoa o ei?ia, aunieay caaieaaaaiinoue
iiai?iaeaeaiiuo oaeyo aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iuie aieaciyie e aieueoay
yeiainoue iaoi/iiai iiaieiauey. Aneaaenoaea caaieaaaiee ei?ia
aoeeaeicii, eaoicii, aanieiaeeai e ae?oaeie aieaciyie, naycaiiuie n
ia?ooaieai iaiaia aauanoa, iie /anoi iiaeaa?aathony auioaeaeaiiiio oaith
eee i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie aua?aeiaea e naea/a ia oaie. A ?acoeueoaoa anaai
yoiai ai iiiaeo oicyenoaao, aea e a oeaeii ii ?innee, eiatho ianoi
i/aiue ei?ioeea n?iee oicyenoaaiiie yenieoaoaoeee iiei/iuo ei?ia (
aeaiiua 1995 aiaea ), a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aua?aeiaea ei?ia ii no?aia
ninoaaeyao ieiei 30 % , /oi iacaaeneii io o?iaiy aini?iecaiaenoaa e
ea/anoaa iieiaeiyea, o?aaoao iieiiai iaiiaeaiey iiei/iiai noaaea
eaaeaeua o?e aiaea.

Iniiaiie aaaeouae i?e/eiie auoaoeacaiiiai iaaeaaiiieo/ey a iiei/iii
neioiaiaenoaa yaeyaony iai?aaeeueiia , oeceieiae/anee iaiainiiaaiiia
ei?ieaiea ei?ia a ceiianoieeiaue ia?eiae ii ?aoeeiiai, no?oeoo?a eioi?uo
ia niioaaonoaoao oeceieiae/aneei iniaaiiinoyi ieuaaa?aiey o aeaa/iuo
o?aaiyaeiuo aeeaioiuo. Yoi e iaoneaaeeaaaony neeiniui e
nieinii-eiioeaio?aoiui oeiaie ei?ieaiey , eiaaea a ?aoeeiiao
i?aiaeaaeaao niaea?aeaiea eeneuo ( neeina e eiioeaio?aoia ) –
iaanoanoaaiiuo aeey aeaa/iuo ei?iia, e i/aiue iaei niaea?aeeony naia –
naiiai anoanoaaiiiai ei?ia, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey aeeaioiuo.

Nouanoaoao caaeneiinoue iniiaiuo ciiaaoa?eia?iuo iieacaoaeae iiei/iiai
neioiaiaenoaa io eiee/anoaa ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ei?iia. I?e yoii, /ai
auoa iaania/aiiinoue naiii e ei?iaieiaeaie, oai aieueoa auoiae oaeyo e
iaiueoa eo caaieaaaaiinoue e iauee iaaeaae. N?aaeiaaiaeiaie iaaeie
iieiea ia iaeio ei?iao i?yii caaeneo io iauae iaania/aiiinoe ei?iaie a
ei?iiauo aaeeieoeao, oae e ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ei?iia.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaiaoiaeeii nouanoaaiii eciaieoue no?oeoo?o ceiieo
?aoeeiiia aeey ei?ia a noi?iio oaaee/aiey a ieo aeiee a?oauo ei?iia,
iniaaiii naia a 2 – 2.5 ?aca e nieaeaiea aeiee neeina ia iaiaa /ai a 2
?aca. A no?oeoo?a ?anoiaea ca aiae oaeaeueiue aan ei?iia aeieaeai auoue
28 -30 % , a oii /enea naia 22 – 25 % aianoi 10-14% ,
?aeiiaiaeoaiuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Aeieth neeina neaaeoao oiaiueoeoue aei
9 – 12 % , aianoi 22 – 25 % . Aeey noaeueiuo nooinoieiuo ei?ia iniiaie
ceiieo ?aoeeiiia aeieaeii auoue oi?ioaa naii ( ia iaiaa 50 % ii
ieoaoaeueiinoe ) .

N/eoaai, /oi neein iaeuecy ioiineoue e a?oiia ni/iuo ei?iia , a
auaeaeeoue aai a ioaeaeueioth a?oiio “eiina?ae?iaaiiua ei?ia” , eae yoi
i?eiyoi a ?yaea ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai [ 6 ] .

Neaai iinoaaeai o/ao e eiio?ieue ?anoiaeoaiuo ei?iia. I?aeoe/anee ia
iiei/iia noaaei nienuaaaony ia oaeoe/anee nea?ieeaaaiue iauai ei?iia, a
caaioiaeaiiua ei?ia, aeeth/ay iioa?e i?e o?aiaiee e o.i. , /oi
cia/eoaeueii caauoaao oaeoe/aneee o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey. I?e ieceii
o?iaia e ea/anoaa ei?ieaiey – ia iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe.
Naaeaine?iaaiiia ei?ieaiea , i?e aunieii oaeaeueiii aana eiioeaio?aoia a
?aoeeiia ( aei 30 % ) iaania/eaaao iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia e
ieoiaaiinoue cao?ao.

Eiathony oaeaea nouanoaaiiua naciiiua ?acee/ey n?aaeiaiany/iiai oaeiy
ei?ia e yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea. Oae, oaeie a ianoaeuiue
ia?eiae a n?aaeiai ca ianyoe auoa oaeiy a noieeiaue. I?e yoii ioia/aaony
caiaoiia nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe 1 oeaioia?a iieiea, ca n/ao aieueoaai
eniieueciaaiey aeaoaauo ei?iia, nouanoaaiiiai oaaee/aiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e ieoiaaiinoe ei?ia i?iaeoeoeeae.

A oeaeii, oaeoi?u iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia ieacuaatho
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia oieueei ia oaeie, ii e ia ae?oaea iieacaoaee
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, oaeaea ia –
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, cao?aou ei?iia ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea,
naaanoieiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa 1 oeaioia?a iieiea, oiiaeiioaea/o,
ieoiaaiinoue ei?iia.

Iniiaiui yeaiaioii ieaiaiiie ?aaiou a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, yaeyaony ioeaiea
aeeaioiuo e ia yoie aaca eo iiaeai?, ioai? e eniieueciaaiea. I?e
ioeaiea iiei/iuo ei?ia ii i?iaeoeoeaiinoe o/eouaatho eo iiei/iinoue,
niaea?aeaiea a iieiea aaeea e aee?a , i?eaiaeiinoue e iaoeiiiio
aeiaieth.

Naeaeoeeiiiay ?aaioa iicaieyao nouanoaaiii iiauneoue aaiaoe/aneee
iioaioeeae i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iooai oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey
aunieiea/anoaaiiiai aaiioiiaea eiii?oiuo ii?iae. Iaaeii?iaeiia
ne?aueaaiea i?eaiaeeo e caiaoiiio iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea.

Iaiauay ioa/anoaaiiue e ie?iaie iiuo ?acaeoey iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa e
o/eouaay neiaeeaoothny ianoaiiaeo a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, iaiaoiaeeii
nin?aaeioi/eoue aieiaiea ia ia oaaee/aiee, a ia noaaeeecaoeee iiaieiauey
iiei/iuo ei?ia e iai?aaeoue ana aieiaiea ia iiauoaiea eioaineaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey eiathuaainy iiaieiauey, ia ?ino iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
ca n/ao inouanoaeaiey eiiieaena ciioaoie/aneeo , i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e
yeiiiie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee.

A yoie nayce iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea niaoeeaeenoia,
?oeiaiaeeoaeae oicyenoa e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiia, a oaeaea
oa?ia?ia ia inouanoaeaiea neaaeothueo oaoiieiae/aneeo yeaiaioia e
yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia:

– nouanoaaiii oeo/oeoue aini?iecaiaenoai, naanoe aei ieieioia yeiainoue
ei?ia, naiaa?aiaiii i?iaiaeeoue aua?aeiaeo iai?eaiaeiuo e
aini?iecaiaenoao ei?ia e iaoaeae;

– iaeneiaeueii nio?aieoue i?eieiae, oeo/oeoue au?aueaaiea iieiaeiyea,
iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeiia eiee/anoai oaeie aeey ?aiiioa noaaea;

– iiauneoue o?iaaiue ei?ieaiey e oeo/oeoue niaea?aeaiea ei?ia a
nooinoieiue

ia?eiae e oai naiui iaania/eoue aeieiae/aneea e ciioaoie/aneea
i?aaeiinueee iiauoaiey iiei/iie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe, i?e iiaeaioiaea ei?ia e
?acaeith;

– i?e aini?iecaiaenoaa eniieueciaaoue oieueei aueia-oeo/oaoaeae ii
aaaeouei i?eciaeai i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ;

– oe?a i?aeoeeiaaoue ia?u yeiiiie/aneiai e ii?aeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey
?aaioieeia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa e niaoeeaeenoia ca iiauoaiea iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e ea/anoaa iieiea;

– oe?a aiaae?youe iiaaeoea n?aaenoaa iaoaiecaoeee aeiaiey, o?aiaiey e
ia?a?aaioee , iaania/eaathuea iieo/aiea yeieiae/anee /enoiai e aunieiai
ea/anoaa iieiea;

– onoaiiaeoue aieaa oaniua eioaa?aoeeiiiua nayce i?iecaiaeeoaeae n
ia?a?aaaouaathueie i?aaei?eyoeyie e oi?aiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie,
onoaiiaeoue a?iiaaeiue aeenia?eoao oeai ia iieiei e iiei/iua i?iaeoeou;

Aaaeiui ?aca?aii iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea yaeyaony nie?auaiea aic?anoa ia?aiai ioaea. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
aeiionoeii inaiaiaiea oaeie a ?aiiai aic?anoa, eiaaea iie aua ia
aeinoeaee iieiiai oeceieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey , oae eae a yoii neo/aa
iieo/aaony neaai?acaeoue i?eieiae, oaaee/eaaaony i?ioeaio yeiainoe
ei?ia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iicaeiea ioaeu iaiinyo yeiiiie/aneee oua?a
neioiaiaenoao, oae eae oaeeeiyaony ia?eiae iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey aeeaioiuo. Yoi naycaii n iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeeae au?aueaaiey oaeie, /oi caaea?aeeaaao eo iie?uoea .

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaaiui iaaeinoaoeii a i?ioeanna au?aueaaiey
iaoaeae yaeyaony iaaeiei?i, ieioea oneiaey niaea?aeaiey e ooiaea. Ana
yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aeeaioiua ia iaae?atho e niioaaonoaothuaio
aic?anoo, ioaeiie iannu. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi naiue aunieee
?acia? i?eauee iiaeii iieo/eoue i?e inaiaiaiee a 18 – 19 ianyoeaa.

Oaeeeiaiea nooinoieiiai ia?eiaea i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio iaaeiai?o
iieiea, oaeaea eae e oaeeeiaiea na?aen-ia?eiaea i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth
oaeiy e caiaoiiio nieaeaieth auoiaea oaeyo.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a nie?auaiee iaaeioaeueiiai ia?eiaea ea?aao naiaa?aiaiiia
inaiaiaiea ei?ia , a oaeaea iaoiaeu neo/ee. I?eiaiaiea eneonnoaaiiiai
inaiaiaiey iicaieyao a e?ao/aeoea n?iee nicaeaoue aunieii?iaeoeoeaiia
noaaei ei?ia.

Aieueoeinoai ioaeia i?eoiaeeony ia eiiaoe ceiu e ia/aei aaniu,
aneaaenoaea /aai a inaiia-ceiiea ianyoeu aieueoeinoai ei?ia iaoiaeeony
ia nooinoia. Oaeia yaeaiea naycaii n ?ani?aaeaeaieai neo/ae ei?ia ii
ianyoeai aiaea, eioi?ia, aneaaenoaea , neio?iiii aeeyao ia n?iee ioaeia.
Naciiiinoue ioaeia oaeaea naycaia n iaiieiioeaiiui e iaaeinoaoi/iui
ei?ieaieai aeeaioiuo a ceiiee ia?eiae.

Eiioeaio?aoeey ioaeia ia n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeii io?acea a?aiaie ia?ooaao
ii?iaeueiue ?eoi ia oa?iao, nicaeaao ia?eiaeu iniaiai iai?yaeaiey,
ia?aa?ocee ?aaioieeia, ia?aiieiaiea ?iaeeeueiiai ioaeaeaiey e
oaeyoieeia. Yoi cao?oaeiyao i?aaeeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth o?oaea, aaaeao e
?inoo caaieaaaaiinoe e iaaeaaeo oaeyo.

Oniao ?aaiou ii oi?ie?iaaieth aunieii?iaeoeoeaiiai noaaea caaeneo io
oneiaee niaea?aeaiey io oneiaee niaea?aeaiey, o?iaiy ciiaaoa?eia?iie
?aaiou, naiaa?aiaiiinoe aua?aeiaee aieueiuo e iaeii?iaeoeoeaiuo
aeeaioiuo, ia ioaa/athueo o?aaiaaieyi eioaineaiuo oaoiieiaee . Iniiaiuie
i?e/eiaie aua?aeiaee ei?ia yaeythony yeiainoue e ieceay
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

Oaeei ia?acii, oi?ie?iaaiea aunieii?iaeoeoeaiiai noaaea – ?acoeueoao
aeeeoaeueiiai o?oaea. Ia aai nicaeaiea o?aaoaony iiiai a?aiaie e
aieueoea iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou. A oaeii e?iiioeeaii aeaea iaaeiionoeiu
iia?aoiinoe, oae eae iie naycaiu n aieueoeie oauoeaie. Ii?iaeiue neio
eiaao aunieoth iiei/ioth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, oi?ioi iiea/eaaao ei?i
i?iaeoeoeeae, /oi niinianoaoao nieaeaieth naaanoieiinoe 1 oeaioia?a
iieiea [ 7 ] .

Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa – aaaeiaeoee yeiiiie/aneee iieacaoaeue
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ethaie i?iaeoeoeee. Aeaenoaeoaeueiua
ecaea?aeee ii naiae nooe i?aaenoaaeytho niaie cao?aou aeeaiai e
iaauanoaeaiiiai o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai. A iaueo cao?aoao o?oaea, o.a.
a aeaenoaeoaeueiuo ecaea?aeeao i?iecaiaenoaa auaeaeyaony /anoue ,
ninoiyuay ec cao?ao i?ioeiai o?oaea e cao?ao aeeaiai o?oaea, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o?oae “ia naay” . Cao?aou i?ioeiai o?oaea e o?oaea
“ia naay” ninoaaeyao aeaenoaeoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea iniaie eaoaai?ee
cao?ao, iieo/eaoae iacaaiea naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee. I?e en/eneaiee
naaanoieiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, e?iia ioia/aiiuo
cao?ao, a iaa aeeth/athony yeaiaiou /enoiai aeioiaea. Iiyoiio ia
i?aeoeea naaanoieiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoa?eaeueii-aeaiaaeiua
cao?aou i?aaei?eyoey ia i?iecaiaenoai aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee.

4. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea .

4.1 Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea e oaeoi?u ia iaai aeeythuea.

A yeiiiieea iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea eiaao ?ino
n?aaeiaaiaeiauo oaeiaa. Oaaee/aiea aaeiauo iaaeiaa io oiai aea
iiaieiauey – aaaeiue oaeoi? iiauoaiey ieoiaaiinoe cao?ao iooai
nie?auaiey aeiee iiaeaea?aeeaathuae /anoe ei?ia e cao?ao o?oaea ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee. Aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeeae iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa
yaeyaony iauee iauai i?iaeoeoeee io?anee, i?iecaaaeaiiie ca oio eee eiie
ia?eiae a?aiaie. Iniiaiay aaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey – iieiei, iieo/aaiia io
iiei/iiai noaaea ei?ia, nii?yaeaiiay – i?eieiae, a iiai/iay – iaaic. Eae
iieacuaaao aiaeec a IIO “ Ieineia ” a aeeiaieea ca ?yae eao i?iecioee
eciaiaiey a aaeiaii i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea. ?anniio?ei, eae iaiyeanue
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo, iiaieiauea ei?ia ca 1993 – 1997 aiaeu e eae
yoi iiaeeyei ia aaeiaue iaaeie, a?aoe/anee.

?en.1 Aeeyiea eciaiaiey /eneaiiinoe ei?ia e eo i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aaeiaia

i?iecaiaenoai iieiea.

Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey:

– oaeie ia iaeio ei?iao, ea.

– aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea, oe.

– n?aaeiaaiaeiaia iiaieiauea ei?ia , aieia.

Ia nieaeaiea aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea a 1997 aiaeo iiaeeyei
nieaeaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo ia 6%, a ia aai iiauoaiea a 1994
aiaeo iaiai?io iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe . A yoii aiaeo iiaieiauea
ei?ia nieaeaeinue, ii iacia/eoaeueiuie oaiiaie (1% ), /oi ia ieacaei
aeeyiey ia aaeiaue iaaeie. A 1995 aiaeo ea?oeia eciaieeanue : aaeiaue
iaaeie iaaeaao ( ia 4 % ), a nayce ni nieaeaieai /eneaiiinoe ei?ia ( ia
4 % ), i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo aeinoaoi/ii aunieay e ninoaaeea 101%
io o?iaiy 1993 aiaea . A 1997 aiaeo aaeiaue iaaeie e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
aeeaioiuo ianeieueei nieaeaaony( 1% ), a eiee/anoai aeeaioiuo aeinoeaaao
naiae ieieiaeueiie aaee/eiu.

Aeaiiue a?aoee aue iino?iai ia iniiaaiee oeeo?, i?eaaaeaiiuo a oaaeeoea
9.

Oaaeeoea 9

Aeeiaieea aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iiaieiauey e i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia a
IIO “Ieineia”.

Iieacaoaee

Aiaeu Ioeeiiaiey 1997 aiaea io 1993 aiaea A n?aaeiai ii ?aeiio ca 1997
aiae

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 +;-; oe.

10e,ea %

Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea, oeaioia?ia

22849

24418

22853

22986

21741

-1108

5%

4 716

Ia eiiaoe aiaea anaai, aieia

———————-

a o./. ei?ia (n?aaeia-aiaeiaia iiaieiauea)

1 912

——-

684

1 859

——–

672

1 872

——–

638

1 767

——–

636

1 681

——–

629

-231

——

-55

12,08%

—-

8,04%

654

———

268

Oaeie ia iaeio ei?iao, ea.

3 340

3 633

3 581

3 614

3 456

+116

3,47

1 750

Oaeaeueiue aan ei?ia a noaaea, %

35,5

34,3

34,4

34,8

35,25

2,75

—-

33.9

A IIO “Ieineia” a aeeiaieea ca ?yae eao i?iecioee eciaiaiey a aaeiaii
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, o.a. iii nie?aoeeinue a 1997 aiaeo ii n?aaiaieth n
1993 aiaeii ia 11.08oe. eee ia 5%, yoi i?iecioei a nayce n nie?auaieai
/eneaiiinoe ei?ia ia 55 aieia eee ia 8%, ii yoe eciaiaiey
nii?iaiaeaeaeenue iiauoaieai i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo ia 116 ea. eee ia
3.47% . Anee n?aaieaaoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo a IIO “Ieineia” ni
n?aaeia?aeiiiuie aeaiiuie, oi aeaeii, /oi a oicyenoaa iia auoa a aeaa
?aca . *enei ei?ia a noaaea oaaee/eaaaony, anee n?aaieaaoue aeaiiua 1993
e 1997 aiaeia. Oaaee/aiea i?iecioei ia 2.7 % . Eciaiaiea ?acia?a
aaeiaiai iaaeiy iieiea a 1997 aiaeo, ii n?aaiaieth n ieaiii ca yoio aea
aiae, e n 1993 aiaeii anaai, a o./. ca n/ao ioaeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, a
eiaiii /eneaiiinoe, i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia, no?oeoo?u iiaieiauey, iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue n iiiiuueth eiaeaeniiai aiaeeca a ?ac?aca oa?i.
I?iecaiaenoai iieiea a IIO “Ieineia” inouanoaeyaony ia aeaoo aeai?ao
?aniieiaeaiiuo ?yaeii.

Oaaeeoea 10

Eiaeaeniue aiaeec aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Oa?iu Oaeie ia iaeio ei?iao, ea. Iiaieiauea ei?ia ia ia/aei aiaea, aieia

Aaeiaue iaaeie, oe.

1993aiae 1997aiae 1993aiae 1997aiae 1993

aiae 1997

aiae oneiaii

Eiaeaenu Oi O1 Ii I1 OiIi O1I1 OiI1

1 aeai?

———————-

2 aeai? 3 657

———-

3 354 3 945

———-

3 529 300

———

384 300

——-316 10 971

———12 879 11 835

——–

11 151 10 971

——–

10 598

EOIAI: — — 684 616 23 850 22 986 21 569

1.Eiaeaen aaeiaiai iaaeiy iieiea

( Oi I1 22 986oe.

——————–
———————- = 0.96

( OiIi 23 850oe.

2. Eiaeaen i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa

O1 ( O1 I1
( Oi Ii

———- aaea O1 = ——————- ; Oi =
——————– ;

Oi ( I1
( Ii

22 986oe. 23 850oe.

O1 = ———– =37.3oe. ; Oi = ————- = 34.8oe.

616 aie. 684 aie.

37.3oe.

Eiaeaen ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa ———- = 1.07

34.8oe.

3. Eiaeaen i?iaeoeoeaiinoe oeene?iaaiiiai ninoaaa

( O1 I1 22 986oe.

—————— ; —————— = 1.06

( O0 I1 21 569oe.

4. Eiaeaen no?oeoo?u iiaieiauey

O i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ia?aiaiiiai ninoaaa
1.07

———————————————————————-
; ———- = 1.00

O i?iaeoeoeaiinoe oeene?iaaiiiai ninoaaa
1.06

5. Eiaeaen /eneaiiinoe ei?ia

( I 1 616 aie.

————— ; ——————– =0.9

( I i 684 aie.

6. Aaniethoiia eciaiaiea aaeiaiai iaaeiy

(= ( O1 I1 – ( O0 I0 ; 22 986oe. – 23 850oe. =
-864oe.

a o./. ca n/ao i?iaeoeoeaiinoe

(o = ( O1 – O0 ) * ( I1 ; ( 37.37 – 34.85 )* 616 = 1
540oe.

ca n/ao /eneaiiinoe ei?ia .

(i = (( I1 – ( I0) * O0 ; ( 616 – 684) * 34.8 = – 2
366oe.

Nieaeaiea aaeiaiai iaaeiy a 1997 aiaeo i?iecioei ia 4%, ii n?aaiaieth n
1993 aiaeii. I?e oaeiyo ia iaeio ei?iao ia o?iaia 1993 aiaea e
iiaieiauey 1997 aiaea aaeiaue iaaeie 1993 aiaea ia 6% ieaea aaeiaiai
iaaeiy 1997 aiaea. N?aaeiee oaeie ia iaeio ei?iao 1997 aiaea ia 7 %
auoa n?aaeiaai oaeiy 1993 aiaea . *eneaiiinoue ei?ia a 1997 aiaeo
nieceeanue ia 10 %. A 1997 aiaeo aaeiaue iaaeie iieiea aue ia 864
oeaioia?ia iaiueoa, ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey /eneaiiinoe ei?ia – ia 2 366oe.
iieiea, a ca n/ao oaaee/aiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo i?aaei?eyoea
aeiiieieoaeueii iieo/eei 1 540 oeaioia?ia iieiea.

A nayce n oai, /oi eciaiaiea iiaieiauey ei?ia i?yii aeeyao ia aaeiaia
i?iecaiaenoai iieiea, ?anniio?ei i?e/eiu yoiai yaeaiey. A oicyenoaa ia
nieaeaiea iiaieiauey aeeyao auioaeaeaiiue caaie ei?ia ec-ca eo
caaieaaaaiinoe, yeiainoe, iaania/aiiinoue ei?ia noa?oa aeaoo eao.

Iieacaoaee aini?iecaiaenoaa noaaea eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea o.e. aeeytho
ia o?iaaiue i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo.

Oaaeeoea 11

Iieacaoaee aini?iecaiaenoaa noaaea.

Iieacaoaee Aiaeu

——————————————————

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Ioeeiia-iey 1997
aiaea io 1993 aiaea

Iieo/aii oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia, aieia 90 91 90 91 89 -0.8

Iaania/aiiinoue ei?ia oaeeaie noa?oa aeaoo eao , % 15 18 17 19 25 +9.2

Aua?aeiaaii ei?ia (e iiaieiaueth ia ia/aei aiaea ) , % 28 32 23 29 28

Iaaeaae i?eieiaea , % 6 36 11 8 6 —

sseiainoue ei?ia , % 5.5 3.4 6.5 8.7 2 -3.5

Aeiionoeiue iieacaoaeue yeiainoe 3-5 %. A IIO “Ieineia” ca iineaaeiea
aiaeu yoio iieacaoaeue aieueoa ii?iu, oae a 1996 aiaeo ii ninoaaee 8.7 %
. Ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae yeiainoue ei?ia nieceeanue ia 6 % . Auoiae
oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia niioaaonoaoao ciioaoie/aneei ii?iai, ca aiaeece?oaiue
ia?eiae yoio iieacaoaeue nieaeaaony ia 0.8 %. Iieacaoaeue iaania/aiiinoe
ei?ia oaeeaie noa?oa aeaoo eao aeieaeiu auoue 25 % e aieaa, a oicyenoaa
aea yoio iieacaoaeue cia/eoaeueii ieaea a n?aaeiai 17% , ii ca
aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae ii aic?in ia 9.2 % .

IIO “ Ieineia ” ia i?ienoiaeeo ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa iiaieiauey
ei?ia, o.e. i?ioeaio aua?aeiaee aeeaioiuo ec noaaea auoa ( 3 % a
n?aaeiai ), /ai i?ioeaio iaania/aiiinoe ei?ia oaeeaie noa?oa 2-o eao.

Iaaeaae i?eieiaea a oicyenoaa aunieee , yoi i?ienoiaeeo ia oieueei ec-ca
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie ciioaoie/aneie ?aaiou , ii e ec-ca ianiaa?oaiiie
eiiiaie aacu, oeceieiae/aneie aua?aeiaee.

Aic?ano neo/ee a oicyenoaa 21 – 23 ianyoea. Oaeia iicaeiaa inaiaiaiea
i?ienoiaeeo ec-ca oiai, /oi aeeaioiua ia oniaaatho iaa?aoue
aeinoaoi/ioth aeeaoth ianno e 18 – 20 ianyoeai ( iioeiaeueiue aic?ano
aeey ia?aie neo/ee ) , ec-ca ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoe ?aoeeiiia.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeiiieieoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea ei?ia aei neo/ee ( 3 – 5
ianyoeaa ) iiauoaao cao?aou ia iaeio aieiao. Oaeaea nooinoieiue ia?eiae
i?aauoaao ia 17 aeiae ii?io ( 60 aeiae ) , e na?aen-ia?eiae ia 23 aeiy
i?aauoaao ii?io ( 80 aeiae ). Ec-ca oaaee/aiey cao?ao ia iaeio aieiao,
naaanoieiinoue iieiea iiauoaaony, nieaeay, oai naiui yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a oicyenoaa eiathony aeinoaoi/ii aieueoea
?aca?au oeo/oaiey ciioaoie/aneie ?aaiou.

Aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai oniaoiiai ?acaeoey iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a
oicyenoaa yaeyaony iaania/aiiinoue neioa ei?iaie. Aeey yoiai ?aoathuaa
cia/aiea eiaao oe?aieaiea ei?iiaie aacu, oi anoue nenoaiu i?iecaiaenoaa
ei?iia, iaania/eaathuae iio?aaiinoue aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 12

Aiaeec oaeoe/aneiai oeia ei?ieaiey .

Iieacaoaee Aiaeu

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Ioeeiia-iey 1997
aiaea io 1993 aiaea.

Anaai ec?anoiaeiaaii ia iiei/iia noaaei, oe.e.aae. 36 176 37 929 34 772
34 454 29 543 o

Eiioeaio?aou, oe. e. aae. 9 662 9 026 9 023 12 713 10 901 o

Ni/iua, anaai 16 025 22 062 14 965 13 311 11 412

a o./. neein – – – 5 462 4 678

ei?iaieiaeu – – – 3 413 2 921

ea?oioaeue – – – 4 436
3 800

caeaiue ei?i – – – 1 706 1 460

A?oaua , anaai 2 784 2 882 2 600 2 448 2 740

a o./. naii – – – 2 098 2 348

I?i/ea 7 705 3 959 8 184 5 982 4 451

Iiaieiauea ei?ia , aieia 680 672 635 636 629 -51

O?iaaiue ei?ieaiey , oe.e.aae. 53.2 56.4 54.7 54.1 46.97 -6.23

I?iaeoeoeaiinoue , ea. 3 300 3 633 3 581 3 614 3 456 156

?anoiae ia 1 oe. iieiea, oe.e.aae. 1.61 1.55 1.52 1.49 1.36 -0.25

O?iaaiue ei?ieaiey a IIO”Ieineia” nieceeny ia 6.23oe.e.aae. , ii
inoaeny ia aunieii o?iaia, a n?aaeiai ca iyoue eao ii ?aaai 55.0
oe.e.aae. , /oi cia/eoaeueii auoa ciioaoie/aneeo ii?i ( 38.8
oe.e.aae.). Ii ciioaoie/aneei ii?iai ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea aeieaeii
?anoiaeiaaoueny 1.1oe.e.aae. , neaaeiaaoaeueii, /oiau iaania/eoue
n?aaeiee oaeie 3 529ea. ( a n?aaeiai ca 5 eao) iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau
o?iaaiue ei?ieaiey aeieaeai

auoue ?aaai 38.8 oe.e.aae.. A IIO ”Ieineia” ia?a?anoiae ei?iia , oae ia
iaeio aieiao,oae e ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea , oae eae ei?ia ieceiai
ea/anoaa e ?aoeeiiu ia naaeaine?iaaiu.

*oiau ?anniio?aoue oei ei?ieaiey, iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue no?oeoo?o
?aoeeiia, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeaia naeoi?iie aeeaa?aiiie.

A IIO “Ieineia” eiioeaio?e?iaaiiue oei ei?ieaiey n aieueoei
niaea?aeaieai ni/iuo ei?iia e iacia/eoaeueiui niaea?aeaieai a?oauo.
Aeiey neeina a ?aoeeiiao aeieaeia auoue nieaeaia aei 9 – 12 % , a naia
oaaee/aia aei 22-25 % . Naii – anoanoaaiiue ei?i aeey ei?ia e iaeaieaa
aeaaioai?ii aeeythuee eae ia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo, oae e ia eo
iauaa ninoiyiea. Aeiey a?oauo ei?iia a IIO “Ieineia” i/aiue ieceay 7%
, iia aeieaeia auoue oaaee/aia aei 28 – 30 % . Ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue
?aoeeiia iauyniyaony oai, /oi oicyenoai ei?ieo ei?ia ia oai /ai ioaeii
, a oai ia /oi oaaoaao n?aaenoa. Aeey oaaee/aiey iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aaaeii ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ei?iia, oae eae a
ia?aoiii neo/aa, ia?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ei?iia i?eaiaeeo e eo
ia?a?anoiaeo e a neaaenoaea yoiai iiauoaaony naaanoieiinoue iieiea.

Oaaeeoea 13

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ei?iia ia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea.

Iieacaoaee Aiaeu

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

1.I?iecaaaeaii i?iaeoeoeee , oe. 22 849 24 418 22 853 22 986 21 741

2.?anoiae ei?iia ia 1oe. iieiea, oe.e.aae. 1.58 1.5 1.52 1.49 1.36

3.Naaanoieiinoue 1oe.e.aae. (oun.?oa.) 2.79 9.188 31.0 54.88 91.79

4. Cao?aou ia ei?ia a ?an/aoa ia 1oe. i?iaeoeoeee (oun.?oa.)

4.408

13.78

47.12

81.77

124.74

5.N?aaeiyy oeaia ?aaeecaoeee ca 1oe. iieiea (oun.?oa.)

5.0

24.0

97.7

106.4

122.26

6.Ieoiaaiinoue cao?ao ia ei?ia

(5 : 4) 1.13 1.74 2.07 1.3 0.98

no?.16
————————————————————————
————-

A IIO “Ieineia” ieoiaaiinoue cao?ao ia ei?ia nieceeanue a 1.2 ?aca , a
nayce n oai , /oi ia?yaeo n ?inoii n?aaeiae oeaiu ?aaeecaoeee a 24.4
?aca ?anooo e cao?aou ei?ia a ?an/aoa ia 1oeaioia? iieiea a 28.3 ?aca.

Ionoaaaiea ?inoa i?iaeoeoeaiinoe io oaiiia oaei?iaeaiey ei?iia
iauyniyaony , n iaeiie noi?iiu ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoueth ?aoeeiiia, a n
ae?oaie noi?iiu -ianiaethaeaiea i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeeo eae : ieaiaiiie e aic?anoiie ninoaa ,
aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiua ooieoeee aeeaioiuo , a oaeaea eaaeeoeeaoeey
eaae?ia e oneiaey niaea?aeaiey ei?ia .

A IIO” Ieineia ” i?eiaiyaony noieeiai-ianoaeuiia niaea?aeaiea
aeeaioiuo, i?e yoii ia eaaeaeoth ei?iao i?eoiaeeony a n?aaeiai 1.23 aa
ianoaeua , i?e ii?ia 2 aa. A oicyenoaa i?eiaiyaony eneonnoaaiiia
inaiaiaiea . Eeanniue ninoaa noaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie : ei?ia yeeoa
-?aei?ae 56.5 % ;

yeeoa – 34.1 % ;

1 eeanna – 9.1 %;

2 eeanna – 0.3 %;

Aaeaiany/ii a oicyenoaa i?iaiaeyony eiio?ieueiua aeieee n ii?aaeaeaieai
i?ioeaioa aee?iinoe a iieiea.

Ciioaoie/aneay ?aaioa i?iaiaeeony neaai a nayce n iaoaaoeie
iaoa?eaeueii-aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua aeeytho a eiia/iii eoiaa ia
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo.

A oicyenoaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?ioeannu aeinoaoi/ii iaoaiece?iaaiu.
Aeiaiea ei?ia inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth iieieii?iaiaea AeAN-2-5, aeey
iiaea/e aiaeu iai?oaeiaaiu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iieeee.

I/enoea iiiauaiee inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth o?ainii?oa?a ONI-160A.
?acaea/a ei?iia, a iniiaiii , inouanoaeyaony ?o/iui niiniaii , e?iia
iiaeaicee o?aayiie caeaiie iannu. EOO -10 e IOC-80 e 2ION-4
ei?ii?acaeaoi/iee ea?oioaey.

Ia oa?iao aeaooniaiiay ?aaioa aeiy?ie, ca eaaeaeie a n?aaeiai
cae?aieaii ii 50 ei?ia . I?ienoiaeeo iaoaaoea ?aaioieeia
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, o.a. aeiy?ie, oae eae noa?ua ?aaioieee ooiaeyo ia
iaineth, iieiaeua ia oioyo eaeoe ,oae eae ieceay ca?aaioiay ieaoa e iao
iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey .

Oaaeeoea 14

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e cao?aou o?oaea ia i?iecaiaenoai 1 oeaioia?a
iieiea.

Iieacaoaee Aiaeu

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Ioeeiia-iey 1997
aiaea io 1993 aiaea, + , – A n?aaeiai ii ?aeiio ca 1997 aiae

I?iecaiaenoai iieiea ia 1 /ae./an.ea.

19.6

18.6

21.1

20.5

19.07

– 0.53

8

Cao?aou o?oaea

ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea,

/ae./an.

5.0

5.3

4.7

4.8

5.2

0.2

12.0

no?.17
————————————————————————
————-

A IIO “Ieineia” i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia
0.53 ea. , iiauoaiea o?oaeiaieinoe ia 0.2 /aeiaaei-/ana . Ii yoe naeaeae
ia cia/eoaeueiu , anee acyoue ai aieiaiea n?aaeia?aeiiiua aeaiiua ca
1997 aiae.

?aaioieee oa?i iaei caeioa?aniaaiiu a ?acoeueoaoao naiaai o?oaea.
Aeiy?eai aeiiea/eaatho ca aee?iinoue iieiea, ca /enoioo iieiea, ii yoe
aeiieaou ia aeatho iuooeiie i?eaaaee e ca?ieaoa. A n?aaeiai ca 1997 aiae
ca?aaioiay ieaoa aeiy?ie ninoaaeea 795 ?oaeae.

Iaoa?eaeueiia noeioee?iaaiea niinianoaoao ?inoo o?oaeiaie aeoeaiinoe
?aaioieeia e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

4.2 Aiaeec cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e naaanoieiinoue iieiea.

Iiauoaiea yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea ia iniiaa
oaaee/aiey auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee, i?e oiaiueoaiee cao?ao a ?an/aoa ia
aaeeieoeo, yaeyaony iaeiie ec iiiai/eneaiiuo caaea/ , iinoaaeaiiuo
ia?aae naeueneei oicyenoaii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaaeiui iieacaoaeai
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea , yaeyaony o?iaaiue aai
?aioaaaeueiinoe. Anee ia aoaeao nieaeaia naaanoieiinoue iieiea, oi
aeaaea aunieea oeaiu ?aaeecaoeee ia niiaoo iaania/eoue cia/eoaeueiiai
?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. *ai ieaea naaanoieiinoue , oai
aieueoa i?aaei?eyoea iieo/aao i?eauee e oai cia/eoaeueiaa n?aaenoaa,
eioi?uie iia ?aniieaaaao , aeey inouanoaeaiey ?anoe?aiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 15

Aeeyiea eciaiaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo e cao?ao ia niaea?aeaiea
iaeiie aieiau , ia naaanoieiinoue 1 oeaioia?a iieiea.

Aiaeu Cao?aou ia 1 aieiao,

oun.?oa. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue, oe. Naaanoieiinoue 1 oe. Iieiea, oun.?oa.
Ioeeiiaiey, ( +;-)

————————–

a o./. ca n/ao eciaiaiey

i?iaiic

oaeo

i?iaiic

oaeo

i?ia-iic

oaeo i?e i?iaiice?iaaiiuo cao?aoao oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe ANAAI
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe cao?ao ia 1 oe. iieiea

1993 109.7 232.2 34.3 33.4 3.2 6.9 3.2 3.7 0 3.7

1994 763 1 013 35.0 36.33 21.8 27.8 21.0 6 -0.8 6.8

1995 2 476 3 066 36.0 35.81 97.0 85.6 69.1 -11.39 -27.9 16.5

1996 7 541 4 688 35.0 36.14 193.0 129.7 208.6 -63.3 15.6 -78.9

1997 7 640 5 993 36.0 34.56 194.0 173.4 221.06 -20.6 16.4 -37

Auyaeoue i?e/eiu ioeeiiaiey oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe io i?iaiice?oaiie
ca ?yae eao iiiiaeao i?eai yeeeoeie?iaaiey iooai oeaiiuo iiaenoaiiaie.

Anee ?anniio?aoue ieaiiaua iieacaoaee e oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua , oi iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi IIO “Ieineia” i?eaea?aeeaaaony ieaia e
ia?aauiieiyao iaeioi?ua iieacaoaee.

no?.18
————————————————————————
————-

A oicyenoaa oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue iieiea ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae
auea ieaea ieaiiaie , oaeaea eae e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ca yoe aiaeu.

Oae a 1997 aiaeo nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe iauyniyaony nieaeaieai cao?ao
ia

37 % . A 1995 aiaeo ca n/ao oaaee/aiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo ia
27.9 % i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe 1 oeaioia?a iieiea ia 11.39
%.

Oaaee/aiea aea naaanoieiinoe iieiea a 1993 aiaeo e 1994 aiaeo
iauyniyaony aic?inoeie cao?aoaie ia iaeio aieiao.

A eoiaa iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ia naaanoieiinoue 1 oeaioia?a iieiea
ieacuaatho aeeyiea e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ei?ia e cao?aou ia iaeio aieiao.

Aeey iaoiaeaeaiey ?aca?aia nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe iieiea eae
iieacaoaey cao?ao ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee , ioaeii i?iaiaeeoue
iia?aoeaiue eiio?ieue ca cao?aoaie. I?e yoii aaaeii ?anniao?eaaoue
eciaiaiey ii eaaeaeie noaouea cao?ao, onoaiiaeoue i?e/eiu, eioi?ua
aucaaee oaaee/aiea ?acia?a aeioiaeia ii yoie eee eiie noaouea cao?ao ,
iauaeoeaii ioeaieaaoue oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia e
i?eieiaoue niioaaonoaothuea ia?u e eo nieaeaieth.

Oaaeeoea 16

Aiaeec cao?ao ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea.

Noaouee cao?ao Cao?aou ia 1 oe. iieiea, oun.?oa.

———————————————-

1997 aiae

———————————–

1996aiae ieai oaeo ioeeiia

iey +;-

Cao?aou n io/eneaieyie ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu 22.1 25.5 29.4 +3.9

Ei?ia 80.1 107.3 107.0 -11.7

Cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa 3.4 16.2 4.5 +11.7

?aaiou e oneoae 10.1 22.4 13.4 -9

Cao?aou ii i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaieth 11 14.9 14.7 -0.2

I?i/ea cao?aou 3 7.1 4.4 -2.7

Anaai cao?ao 129.7 193.4 173.4 -2.0

A 1997 aiaeo cao?aou ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea aic?inee ii n?aaiaieth n 1996
aiaeii a 1.3 ?aca ii anai noaoueyi cao?ao.

Caieaie?iaaee a 1997 aiaeo iaiiiai aieueoa, /ai oaeoe/anee auei
cao?a/aii ia i?iecaiaenoai 1 oeaioia?a iieiea, iiyoiio iieacaoaee ii
anai noaoueyi cao?ao ieaea ieaiiauo a 1.1 ?aca.

no?.19——————————————————————
——————–

I?i/ea
cao?aou 2.44%

Cao?aou ia IO n

io/eneaieyie 17 %

Ei?ia 61.7 %

Cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea

iniiaiuo n?aaenoa 2.6 %

?aaiou e oneoae 7.78 %

Cao?aou ia i?aaiecaoeeth

e oi?aaeaiea 8.48 %

———————————————

Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai

1 oeaioia?a iieiea, oun.?oa. 173.4 eee 100 %

?en.3 No?oeoo?a cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai 1oeaioia?a iieiea.

Eae aeaeii ia ?enoiea 3, iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan a no?oeoo?a cao?ao
caieiatho ei?ia a 1996 e 1997 aiaeao – 61.7 % . Aoi?ia ianoi caieiaao
oaeay noaouey cao?ao, eae iieaoa o?oaea n io/eneaieyie a 1996 e 1997
aiaeao – 17.3 %, caoai ?aaiou e oneoae, a oaeaea cao?aou ia
i?aaiecaoeeth e oi?aaeaiea , Cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
caieiatho iaeiaiueoee oaeaeueiue aan a no?oeoo?a cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai
1 oeaioia?a iieiea. A i?aaeaeao 2 % .

Oaaeeoea 17

Aiaeec ioaeaeueiuo noaoae cao?ao ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea.

Iieacaoaee 1997 aiae

———————————————-

ieai oaeo Ioeeiia

iea, +;-

Ca?aaioiay ieeoa n io/eneaieyie, oun.?oa 25.5 29.4 -3.9

Cao?aou o?oaea, /aeiaaei-/ania 5.6 5.2 0.4

Iieaoa o?oaea n ia/eneaieyie 1 /aeiaaei-/ana,oun.?oa.

4.5

4.8 -0.3

Ei?ia. oun.?oa. 107.3 107 0.3

?anoiae ei?iia , oe.e.aae. 1.3 1.36 -0.06

Naaanoieiinoue 1 oe.e.aae., oun.?oa. 82.5 91.79 -9.29

Iieaoa o?oaea n ia/eneaieyie 1 /aeiaaei-/ana a 1997 aiaeoninoaaeea 4.8
oun.?oa. , /oi aieueoa ieaiiaie aaee/eiu ia 0.3 oun.?oa. A 1997 aiaeo
i?iecioei aieueoaa ?anoiaeiaaiea oeaioia?ia ei?iiauo aaeeieoe ia
i?iecaiaenoai 1 oeaioia?a iieiea , a n?aaiaiee n ieaiii ia
0.06oe.e.aae.. Naaanoieiinoue 1 oe.e.aae. oaeoe/anee auea auoa, /ai
caieaie?iaaia- ia 9.29 oun.?oa.

Aeey nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe iieiea, aaaeii nieaeaoue o?oaeiaieinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia aeiioneaoue ia?a?anoiaea ei?iia ia 1 oeaioia? iieiea,
a oaeaea i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec ae?oaeo noaoae cao?ao a oa/aiea aiaea .

4.3 Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea e ?aca?au aa
iiauoaiey.

Ia noaaeee ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee caaa?oaaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
i?ioeann, ii?aaeaeyaony aai ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue. Aaaeii ia oieueei
i?iecaanoe ioiineoaeueii aeaoaaoth naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth,
ii e auaiaeii aa i?iaeaoue. Yoi iaycuaaao inouanoaeyoue eiiia?/aneee
iiaeoiae e i?iecaiaenoao e oi?aiaea, oi anoue e onoaiiaeaieth
iaiaoiaeeiie acaeiinayce ieaia n ?uieii, eco/aieth ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey . Eaaeaeia naeueneioicyenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea a i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee aeieaeii no?aieony e aiciauaieth cao?ao e iieo/aieth
i?eauee. A IIO” Ieineia” ia i?ioyaeaiee 1993 – 1997 aiaeia i?ienoiaeeei
nieaeaiea eiee/anoaa ?aaeeciaaiiiai iieiea, oae eae nie?aoeeinue aaeiaia
i?iecaiaenoai. Eiee/anoai ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee iaoiaeeony a i?yiie
caaeneiinoe io aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai

e ?aaeecaoeey iieiea , oe.

24 500

24 000

23 500

23 000

22 500

22 000

21 500

21 000

20 500

20 000

___________________________________________________

1993 1994 1995
1996 1997 Aiaeu

Aeeaa?aiia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee iieiea.

Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey: i?iecaaaeaii iieiea

?aaeeciaaii iieiea

Eae aeaeii ia ?enoiea, a IIO “Ieineia” ?aaeecoaony 91-94 %
i?iecaaaeaiiiai iieiea, inoaeueiay /anoue eaeao ?aaioieeai a n/ao iieaou
o?oaea, a oaeaea ia auiieeo oaeyoai. ?aaeecoaony iieiei caaioiaeoaeueiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi , a o./. Eino?iineiio iiei/iiio eiiaeiaoo.

Ia oiaa?iinoue iieiea, iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea ieacuaaao ea/anoai
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee : niaea?aeaiea aaeea, aee?a, eeneioiinoe,
aaeoa?eaeueiie ianaiaiaiiinoe, iaoaie/aneie cani?aiiinoe , ni?oai,
aaniethoiui auoiaeii ianea e aaeea, iaee/eai eiaeae?othueo e
iaeo?aeecothueo aauanoa.

Oaaeeoea 18

Aeeyiea ea/anoaa iieiea, ?aaeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noao, ia yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aiaeu ?aaeeciaaii, oe.

———————-

a iaoo?a a ca/ao-

iie ianna Ioeeiia-iey , +;- N?aaeiyy oeaia ?aaeecaoeee,
oun.?oa. Auaiaea, oun.?oa.

1993 17 196 17 607 441 5.0 2 055.0

1994 19 528 20 449 921 24.0 22 104

1995 18 112 18 800 688 97.7 67 217

1996 18 394 19 092 698 106.4 74 267

1997 18 818 19 514 696 122.26 85 092

A IIO “Ieineia” iieiei i?iecaiaeeony oi?ioaai ea/anoaa, oae eae ca/aoiay
ianna auoa iaoo?aeueiie. A nayce n yoei oaaee/eaaaony au?o/ea.

*aua anaai IIO “Ieineia” ?aaeecoao iieiei aee?iinoueth 3.7 % ,i?e
aaceniie – 3.6 %.

Ea/anoai iieiea nicaeaaony a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, a o/eouaaaony
oieueei i?e ?aaeecaoeee e iio?aaeaiee . Oicyenoai ia eiaao iiea
aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey ea/anoaa anae i?iecaiaeeiie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi nicaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiua
o?oaeiinoe a auyaeaiee i?e/ei e oaeoi?ia, io?eoeaoaeueii aeeythueo ia
ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee.

A nayce n oai, /oi oeaia ?aaeecaoeee caaeneo io ea/anoaa iieiea, oi
aeey iieo/aiey aieueoie aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee, aaaeii iiauoaoue ea/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iai?aaeaia ia aeinoeaeaiea ?aioaaaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. ?aioaaaeueiinoue yaeyaony, oa?aeoa?ecothuei
yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeai ii?aaeaeythuei yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa. A
iai io?aaeathony ?acoeueoaou cao?ao ia oieueei aeeaiai e i?ioeiai
o?oaea, ii e ea/anoai ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee, o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee,
i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey.

no?.22——————————————————————
——————–

niio?e aeie.1

no?.23
————————————————————————
—————————

A IIO “Ieineia” i?iecaiaenoai iieiea yaeyaony yeiiiie/anee iaauaiaeiui.
Anee a 1995 aiaeo auea iieo/aia i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee iieiea, oi a
inoaeueiuo aiaeao, a nayce n o?oaeiui oeiainiaui iieiaeaieai , oicyenoai
ia/eiaao iieo/aoue oauoie. Eae iieacuaaao i?aaeuaeouay oaaeeoea, oeaiu
?aaeecaoeee ia iie?uaatho aeiaeaiiua a i?iecaiaenoai iieiea cao?aou, e
oiio aea e eiee/anoai ?aaeeciaaiiiai iieiea, aneaaenoaea nieaeaiey
aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa oiaiueoeeinue.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea a
oicyenoaa aaaeii ecuneeaaoue aioo?aiiea ?aca?au nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe
e oaaee/aiea aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea yaeyaony
?ino i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia, auiieiaiea ieaia ii n?aaeiaaiaeiaiio
i?iaeoeoeaiiio iiaieiaueth , ia aeiiouaiea iioa?ue io iaaeaaea e
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ei?ia i?e niaea?aeaiee. Oaeaea ?ino
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iiaeao auoue aeinoeaioo ca n/ao iaaeiiouaiey iioa?ue
ec-ca yeiainoe iaoi/iiai iiaieiauey, iaania/aiey auiieiaiey ieaia ii
ii?iaeiinoe neioa e oeo/oaiey niaea?aeaiey aeeaioiuo.

Iaeiei ec iieacaoaeae i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iiei/iiai noaaea yaeyaony auoiae
oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia e oaeie noa?oa 2-o eao ia eiiaoe aiaea.

Oaaeeoea 21

Aeaeiaie i?eieiae a oicyenoaa ca 1997 aiae, aieia.

Iieacaoaee Ii oicyenoao

Iiaieiauea ei?ia e oaeie noa?oa 2 eao

oaeo

ieai

802

___________

812

Aeaeiaie i?eieiae

oaeo

ieai

793

___________

700

Auoiae oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia e oaeie noa?oa 2-o eao, aieia

oaeo

ieai

98.9

___________

90

Auiieiaiea ieaia- i?iaiica , % . 100

A IIO “Ieineia” ia eiiaoe 1997 aiaea auei 802 aieiau ei?ia e oaeie
noa?oa 2-o eao, ec ieo yeiauo 16 aieia, /oi ninoaaeei 2% . Ii?aaeaeei
iioa?e iieiea io niaea?aeaiey 16 aieia yeiauo ei?ia. Aeey yoiai
n?aaeiaaiaeiaie oaeie io iaeiie ei?iau oiiiaeaai ia i?ioeaio nieaeaiey
oaeiy yeiauo ei?ia , ia eo eiee/anoai.

Ciay ,/oi yeiainoue ei?ia aaaeao e nieaeaieth oaeiy ia 30-50 % ,
aicueiai aeey iiaen/aoa n?aaeithth aaee/eio. Oiaaea iioa?e io 16 ei?ia
ninoaayo :

(3 456 * 40% )*16 = 1 382,4 * 16=22 118,4 ea.

Ae?oaei ?aca?aii a oicyenoaa iiaeii iacaaoue ?ino i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
iiaieiauey aei o?iaiy aeinoeaiooiai ia?aaeiaie oa?iie. Oae a 1997 aiaeo
iaeaieueoee aiaeiaie oaeie io 1 ei?iau ia 1 aeai?a 3 724 ea. Oiaaea
?aca?a oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iiei

no?.24——————————————————————
———————————-

ea aoaeao ?aaai 3 945 ea. – 3 529 ea. * 300 aieia = 1 248,0 oe.
Neaaeothuei ?aca?aii yaeyaony yeiiiiiia ?anoiaeiaaiea ea/anoaaiiuo
ei?iia.

Oaaeeoea 22

?aca?a oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea ca n/ao yeiiiiiiai
eniieueciaaiey ei?iia.

Iieacaoaee Ii oicyenoao

1.Aaeiaue iaaeie , oe. 21741

2.?anoiae ei?iia, oe.e.aae.

2.1 Ii ieaio ia 1 oe. Iieiea

2.2 Ii ieaiiaui ii?iai ia oaeoe/anee iieo/aiioth i?iaeoeoeeth ( 1*2.1 )

2.3 Oaeoe/anee ia 1 oe. iieiea

2.4 Oaeoe/anee ia anth i?iaeoeoeeth

1.33

28 915

1.36

29 543

3. Ioeeiiaiea io ieaia ?anoiaea ei?iia , anaai, oe.e.aae.

( 2.4 – 2.2 ) 628

4. ?aca?a oaaee/aiey i?iaeoeoeee, oe. ( 4 / 2.1) 472

Ca n/ao aieaa yeiiiiiiai eniieueciaaiey ei?iia iiaeii iieo/eoue
aeiiieieoaeueii 2 919 oeaioia?ia iieiea.

Oaaeeoea 23

Iaiauaiea aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea.

Aeaeu ?aca?aia Eiee/anoai, oe.

Oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea ca n/ao :

_______________________________________________________

1. ?inoa i?iaeoeoeaiinoe

a) io iaaeiiouaiey yeiainoe iaoi/iiai iiaieiauey

a) aei o?iaiy ia?aaeiaie oa?iu

221.2

1 248.0

2. yeiiiiiiai ?anoiaeiaaiey ei?iia

Anaai ?aca?aia, oe.

Oaeoe/anee i?iecaaaeaii iieiea, oe.

Aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea + ?aca?a, oe.

Oaiiu ?inoa ?aca?aa aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee , % 472

1 941.2

21 741

23 682,2

17.3

Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea a IIO
“Ieineia” aiciiaeii oaaee/eoue aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai ca n/ao aioo?aiieo
?aca?aia , a eiaiii : yeiiiiiiai ?anoiaeiaaiey ei?iia e ?inoa
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo. Ca n/ao yoeo ?aca?aia i?iecaiaenoai iieiea
iiauneony ia 5 091,8 oeaioia?ia.

no?.25
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—————————

Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

I?aaeeueiay i?aaiecaoeey e o/ao i?iaeoeoeee iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa
eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea a oicyenoaaiiie e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. No?iaeaeoaa niaethaeaiea aeiaiai?iie
aeenoeeieeiu, i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaiiue o/ao i?iaeoeoeee o?aaoao
iinoiyiiiai oi/iiai oeene?iaaiey. ?aoaoue yoe aii?inu i?aaenoieo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyi naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Iaeiei ec e?oiiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee a Eino?iineie iaeanoe yaeyaony IIO “Ieineia” . Oicyenoai
niaoeeaeece?oaony ia i?iecaiaenoaa naiaiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee. Iii
iaeaaeaao iiuiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aacie , yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeoueo
oicyenoa iaeanoe.

Ca iineaaeiea ianeieueei eao oicyenoai iieo/eei oauoee, o.e. iieo/aaiay
io ?aaeecaoeee aeaiaaeiay au?o/ea ia iiaeao iie?uoue cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai. Aieueooth /anoue oauoeia oicyenoai iieo/aao io io?anee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Oae a 1997 aiaeo oauoie ninoaaee 54 iei. ?oaeae.

Aeey oeo/oaiey iieacaoaeae oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao aooaaeoa?neee o/ao. A oeaeii ii
ioaa/aao i?aaeuyaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi , ii eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeaiiua
o?aoae aeaau, eiaaony ?yae iaaeinoaoeia:

– ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou caiieiythony n iaoi/iinoyie, eni?aaeaieyie, ia
anaaaea i?inoaaeaiu iiaeiene ioaaonoaaiiuo eeoe;

– ia anaaaea auiieiyaony a?aoee aeieoiaioiiai?ioa;

Aeey eeeaeaeaoeee oeacaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia i?aaeeaaaaony iaycaoue
?aaioieeia aooaaeoa?ee:

1) Oneeeoue eiio?ieue ca aaaeaieai ia?ae/iiai e naiaeiiai o/aoa .

2) Auiieiyoue a?aoee aeieoiaioiiai?ioa .

Aiaeec, i?aaenoaaeaiiue a aeeieiiiie ?aaioa iieacae, /oi
i?iecaiaenoai iieiea a IIO”Ieineia” yaeyaony yeiiiie/anee ia auaiaeiui .
Oeaiu ?aaeecaoeee ia iie?uaatho aeiaeaiiua a i?iecaiaenoai iieiea
cao?aou. Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
iieiea a oicyenoaa aaaeii ecuneaoue aioo?aiiea ?aca?au nieaeaiey
naaanoieiinoe e oaaee/aiey aaeiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea, oe?aieaiea
ei?iiaie aacu.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea yaeyaony
?ino i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?ia, auiieiaiea ieaia ii n?aaeiaaiaeiaiio
i?iaeoeoeaiiio iiaieiaueth, iaaeiiouaiea iioa?ue io iaaeaaea e
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ei?ia i?e niaea?aeaiee . Oaeaea ?ino
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iiaeao auoue aeinoeaioo ca n/ao iaaeiiouaiey iioa?ue
ec-ca yeiainoe iaoi/iiai iiaieiauey , iaania/aiea auiieiaiey ieaia ii
ii?iaeiinoe neioa e oeo/oaiey niaea?aeaiey aeeaioiuo. Iaiaoiaeeii
iiauneoue auoiae oaeyo ia 100 ei?ia e eo nio?aiaiea

no?.26——————————————————————
———————————-

3. I?aaiecaoeey e niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee
iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa a IIO “Ieineia” Eino?iineiai ?aeiia Eino?iineie
iaeanoe.

3.1 Cia/aiea e caaea/e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa .

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee ia yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee, a o./. e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo, yaeythony aeaiiua ,
niaea?aeaueany a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa .

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a naeueneii oicyenoaa i?ecaai aeaaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua
naaaeaiey i oiaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia , i auiieiaiee ieaiiauo
caaeaiee , niaeaenoaiaaoue iaania/aieth nio?aiiinoe oicyenoa,
oe?aieaieth oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa , ?inoo ?aioaaaeueiinoe, iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe e oeo/oaieth ea/anoaa ?aaiou. Ana ia?a/eneaiiia iiaeii
naanoe oe?oiiaii e aeaoi ooieoeeyi, aiceiaeaiiui ia o/ao :
eioi?iaoeeiiiie e eiio?ieueiie .

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao – iniiaiie enoi/iee eioi?iaoeee i ?aaioa
i?aaei?eyoee, i oiaea auiieiaiiuo ieaiiauo caaeaiee. Ii oeene?oao ana
eciaiaiey , i?ienoiaeyuea a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie , niaaaeai/aneie e
nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. aeaao iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth i
e?oaiiai?ioa n?aaenoa a i?ioeanna ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Ana i?ienoiaeyuea eciaiaiey a
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee ?aaeecothony a aooaaeoa?neii
o/aoa n oeaeueth aeoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia oeo/oaiea eo ?aaiou.

Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaii . Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, i?aaeaea anaai, iaiaoiaeei aeey
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ia anao aa o?iaiyo. A
/anoiinoe, o/aoiay eioi?iaoeey i?eaeaeaaony aeey oi?aaeaiey e i?eiyoey
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee ia neaaeothueo o?iaiyo: aioo?eoicyenoaaiiii (a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo ), iauaoicyenoaaiiii (ii oicyenoao a
oeaeii ) e ia aiaoieo o?iaiyo oi?aaeaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiui
i?iecaiaenoaii.

A nayce n yoei ii?aaeaeythony caaea/e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie o/aoa cao?ao a io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa yaeythony :

– yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiia ?aca?aie/aiea cao?ao ii aeaeai i?iecaiaenoa
e a?oiiai neioa ;

– oi/iia ?acaeaeaiea anao cao?ao ii yeiiiie/anee iaeii?iaeiui yeaiaioai
e noaoueyi , ec eioi?uo neeaaeuaaaony naaanoieiinoue i?iecaiaeeiie
i?iaeoeoeee;

– nia?aiaiiia , oi/iia e iieiia io?aaeaiea auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee ,
iieo/aaiie io aeeaioiiaiaenoaa;

– oi/iia io?aaeaiea cao?ao ii iiae?acaeaeaieyi oicyenoaa;

– yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea naaanoieiinoe iniiaiie ,
nii?yaeaiiie e iiai/iie i?iaeoeoeee;

– aeieoiaioaeueiia io?aaeaiea oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a ia?ae/iii o/aoa
, neioaoe/aneii e aiaeeoe/aneii;

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea iia?aoeaiie eioi?iaoeee aeey oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii
a iioeiaeueiii aa?eaioa;

no?.27——————————————————————
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3.2 Ia?ae/iue e naiaeiue o/ao cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee.

A IIO “Ieineia” aaaeaony aeo?iaeueii-i?aea?iay oi?ia o/aoa. I?e aeaiiie
oi?ia o/aoa i?eiaiyaony 18 aeo?iaeia -i?aea?ia, 27 aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
aaaeiiinoae e ?aano?ia, 8 i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo io/aoia, oaaeeoeu
aiaeeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo e aeo?iaeai – i?aea?ai, eenoee ?anoeo?iaee.

Aeieoiaioiiai?io eiaao aieueoia i?aaiecothuaa cia/aiea a aooaaeoa?neii
o/aoa . Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaeaeaiea aeieoiaioia a o/aoiii
i?ioeanna io iiiaioa eo ninoaaeaiey aei caaa?oaiey eniieueciaaiey e
naea/e a a?oea. Aeey /aoeie ?aaeecaoeee aeaeaeaiey aeieoiaioia,
aeieoiaioiiai?io ioi?ieyaony a aeaea a?aoeea, aaea oeacuaathony:
iaeiaiiaaiea e iiia? eaaeaeie oi?iu aeieoiaioa, aai iacia/aiea, n?iee,
eiee/anoai , eai ninoaaeyaony , eoi iiaeienuaaao aeieoiaio. A?aoee
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa ninoaaeyaony aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii e iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey
?oeiaiaeeoaeai oicyenoaa noaiiaeony iaycaoaeueiui aeey eniieiaiey . A
oicyenoaa a?aoee aeieoiaioiiai?ioa auiieiyaony oneiaii , ia?aaeei n
ia?ooaieyie. Oae , naea/a oaaaeae e ia?yaeia , io/aou eeaaeiaueeia,
ca?aaioiay ieaoa ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao naeathony e 1-io /eneo eaaeaeiai
ianyoea, o/aoiua eenou oioa?ia e o?aeoi?enoia – ii 25-ia /enei
eaaeaeiai ianyoea. Naiae ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa naeatho e 6-io /eneo
eaaeaeiai ianyoea.

A ia?ae/iii o/aoa eniieuecoaony aieueoia eiee/anoai ?aciiia?aciuo
aeieoiaioia , ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo i?iecaiaeyony ana iineaaeothuea
caiene. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea a?oiiu aeieoiaioia:

1) ii o/aoo cao?ao o?oaea;

2) i?aaeiaoia o?oaea ( a o./. ii ?anoiaeo ei?iia e i?i/eo iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae ) ;

3) ii eniieueciaaieth n?aaenoa o?oaea ;

4) ii o/aoo auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee e o.ae.

Iniiaiui aeieoiaioii ii o/aoo cao?ao o?oaea ?aaioieeia aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
yaeyaony “?an/ao ia/eneaiey iieaou o?oaea ?aaioieeai aeeaioiiaiaenoaa”
(n/ao 69). A yoii ?an/aoa ii?aaeaeyaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa aeiy?ie e
neioieeia. ?an/ao iieaou o?oaea aeiy?eai, neioieeai aaaeaony a
caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa iaaeiaiiiai iieiea e iieo/aiiiai i?eieiaea.

Yoio aeieoiaio a oicyenoaa caiieiyaony i?aaeeueii e naiaa?aiaiii, ii
o/eouaaao ana aeaeu aeiieao e iiiu?aiee .

O/ao io?aaioaiiiai a?aiaie ?aaioieeaie aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aaaeaony
aaeaaeiaaii ii eaaeaeiio ?aaioieeo oa?iu a oaaaea o/aoa ?aai/aai a?aiaie
(oi?ia 64). Yoio aeieoiaio caiieiyao a?eaaaee? oa?i oicyenoaa. Aeey
aeaiiiai oicyenoaa yoio aeieoiaio ianeieueei onoa?ae , aai ioaeii
oi?inoeoue, o.e. eniieuecoaony oieueei /anoue o/eouaathuay io?aaioaiiia
a?aiy , a inoaeueiay /anoue ?an/aoa : ca?aaioiay ieaoa n o/aoii
ieeaaeia ia eniieuecoaony.

Iniiaiui aeaeii ?anoiaeia i?aaeiaoia o?oaea a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa yaeyaony
“Aaaeiiinoue ?anoiaea ei?iia ” (oi?ia ? 94) – iia yaeyaony
eiiaeie?iaaiiui iaeiieoaeueiui aeieoiaioii , ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai
i?iecaiaeyo e auaea/o (ioione) ei?iia e nienaiea eo a ?anoiaeioth
“Aaaeiiinoue ?anoiaea ei?iia” – iia ninoaaeyaony ciioaoieeii.

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A yoii aeieoiaioa eaeao ?an/ao iauae noiiu eeieoa ia iniiaa ?aoeeiiia
ei?ieaiey, ninoaaeaiiuo aeaaiui ciioaoieeii, ia eaaeaeue ianyoe ii
aeaeai ei?iia e a?oiiai aeeaioiuo.

?anoiae ei?iia oeene?oaony ii aeaeai ?anoiaeoaiuo ei?iia e ii eaiaeai
?anoiaea (a eiee/anoaaiiii e noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ) a “Io/aoa i
aeaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ”(oi?ia ? 121) ca ianyoe.

Aai ninoaaeyao eeaaeiauee ii ei?iai. A eiioea ianyoea auaiaeeony iauay
noiia ec?anoiaeiaaiiuo ei?iia ii aeai?ai, oa?iai, iiaeio/aoiui eeoeai
e o.i. Ei?ia ioaeathony ni neeaaea ia oa?iu a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee e
ioiinyony ia cao?aou .

Ei?ia ioaeaiiua iiae io/ao a?eaaaee?ai ?anoiaeothony eie ia ei?i neioo ,
e a eiioea ianyoea iie ninoaaeytho io/ao a aeaea naeueaeiaie aaaeiiinoe
(i?iecaieueiie oi?iu) , aaea oeacuaathony eaiaeu iinooieaiey ei?ia e
eaiaeu ?anoiaeiaaiey (e?oiiue ?iaaoue neio eee iieiaeiye e?oiiiai
?iaaoiai neioa ).

Ni neeaaea ia ei?iioeao iinooiatho ei?ia ii “*aeai ia ioione
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ”. Aeaeaa a eiioea ianyoea ninoaaeyaony “Io/ao
ii ei?iioeaoo” ca ianyoe i?iecaieueiie oi?iu. “Io/ao ii ei?iioeaoo ”
iiaeienuaaao aeaaiue ciioaoiee. E io/aoo i?eeaaathony ana i?eoiaeiua e
?anoiaeiua “ *aee ia ioione iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae “. Iioii aeaiiua
io/aoa ii ei?iioeaoo ia?aiinyony a “Naeueaeiaoth aaaeiiinoue” (oi?ia ?
41a).

Naiaeiue o/ao ?anoiaea ei?iia ia oa?ia aaaeoo a “AEo?iaea o/aoa
?anoiaea ei?iia ”(oi?ia ? 35) . A iai ia eaaeaeoth a?oiio aeeaioiuo
ioaiaeyo ioaeaeueiua no?aieoeu aeey caiene ?anoiaea ei?iia ii eaaeaeiio
eo aeaeo a oece/aneie ianna, a ia?aaiaea ia ei?iiaua aaeeieoeu e i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ii niaea?aeaieth ia?aaa?eaaaiiai i?ioaeia.

Cao?aou n?aaenoa o?oaea a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa oeene?otho , a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, a aeieoiaioao ii ia/eneaieth aii?oecaoeee. Ia/eneaiea
aii?oecaoeee aaaeaony a “Aaaeiiinoe ia/eneaiey aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
ia/eneaiee ” ca ianyoe ( oi?ia ? 62 ) , aaea iniiaiua n?aaenoaa e eo
eciin oaea na?oiie?iaaiu ii noaoueyi ioianaiey aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee.

?an/ao aiaeiaie noiiu aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee aaaeaony a “Aaaeiiinoe
?an/aoa aii?oecaoeee ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai” ia aiae. Io/eneaiey a
?aiiioiue oiiae a IIO”Ieineia” ia i?iecaiaeeony .

?anoiae i?i/eo iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa (
ai?th/a-niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia, no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, iaaeeeaiaioia,
aeii?aia?aoia e o.ae. ) ioi?ieytho a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea:

ioione ni neeaaea i?iecaiaeyo ia iniiaaiee eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o ia
iieo/aiea iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae (oi?ia ? 117) , eeai i?e ?aciauo
iia?aoeeyo ia iniiaaiee iaeeaaeiuo (oi?ia ? 87) . Yoio aeieoiaio
iiaeienuaaao aeaaiue aooaaeoa?. Aeaiiua eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o
eniieuecothony aeey ninoaaeaiey “Naeueaeiaie aaaeiiinoe” (oi?ia ? 41a)
, aeaiiua a naeueaeiaie aaaeiiinoe ia?aiinyony a i?iecaiaenoaaiiue io/ao
, caoai ec iaai a AE-I ? 10 e Aeaaioth eieao.

?aiiio oao eee eiuo caeaiee , a oaeaea ae?oaea aeaeu ?aaio e oneoa
inouanoaeythony noi?iiieie i?aaiecaoeeyie e nianoaaiiuie ?aaioieeaie
no?ie oeaoa. Anee ?aaiou e oneoae ieacuaathony noi?iiieie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, oi ia iniiaaiee “Aeoa auiieiaiiuo ?aaio e ieacaiiuo
oneoa” i?aaei?eyoea iiea/eaaao n/aoa – oaeoo?u , ninoaaeaiiua
iinoaaueeii.

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Anee ?aiiio e i?i/ea oneoae auee auiieiaiu ?aaioieeaie naiiai
i?aaei?eyoey, oi ninoaaeythony “Ia?yaeu ia naeaeueioth ?aaioo“ , aaea
?ann/eouaaaony ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aaioieeai , caiyoui ?aiiioii. Iaoa?eaeu
ec?anoiaeiaaiiua ia ?aiiio nienuaathony ia i?iecaiaenoai ia iniiaaiee
eeieoii-caai?iuo ea?o (oi?ia ? 117).

Aeey o/aoa auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa i?eiaiytho aieueoia
eiee/anoai aeieoiaioia. Aeey o/aoa iaaeiaiiiai iieiea a IIO “Ieineia”
i?eiaiythony “AEo?iae aeey o/aoa iaaeiaiiiai iieiea” (oi?ia ? ) ,
aaea oeacuaathony neaaeothuea iieacaoaee: oaieeey, eiy, io/anoai
aeiy?ie; iiaieiauea ei?ia ; aaeiaie iaaeie; ia?an/ao n ?iaeeeueiiai
ioaeaeaiey ; ioeeiiaiey (+,- ) e i?ioeiio aiaeo ca oio aea ianyoe (ea.)
; aaeiaie iaaeie n ia/aea aiaea (o.) ; ioeeiiaiea (+,-) e i?ioeiio
aiaeo, nia/aea aiaea (o.) . A a?aoa “Ia?an/ao n ?iaeeeueiiai ioaeaeaiey”
oeacuaaaony eiee/anoai iieiea , iaaeiaiiiai io ei?ia . iaoiaeeaoeony a
?iaeeeueiii ioaeaeaiee . Yoi iieiei i?eaaaeyoueny e aaeiaiio iaaeith
iieiea io ei?ia e oaaee/eaaao aai aaee/eio, eniieuecoaony iii ia auiieeo
oaeyoai.

AEo?iae aeey o/aoa iaaeiaiiiai iieiea i?eniiniaeai e neiaeeaoaiony ia
i?aaei?eyoee o/aoo, yoi aai iniiaiia i?aeiouanoai, ii ?aaoey?ii
caiieiyaony aeey ia/eneaiey ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aaioieeai
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, ninoaaeaiea “Io/aoa i aeaeaeaiee iieiea”: eaiaeu
eniieueciaaiey iieiea.

“Io/ao i aeaeaeaiee iieiea” ( i?iecaieueiie oi?iu) ca ianyoe
ninoaaeyaony aooaaeoa?ii, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao i?iecaiaenoaaiiue io/ao ii
n/aoo 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai” . A
“Io/aoa i aeaeaeaiee iieiea” iieacuaaaony : aaeaaeiaaiia iinooieaiea
iieiea ca ianyoe, aaeaaeiaaiia ?anoiaeiaaiea iieiea ii eaiaeai
?aaeecaoeee , aaee/eia iauaai ?anoiaea , ia/aeueiia e eiia/iia naeueaei.

Ca aeaiiue ia?eiae i?iaeoeoeey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ?aaeeciaaeanue:

iieiei i?iaeaaaeinue a AIIO “Aieaeneay”-150ea., auea naeaeaia
neaaeothuay caienue

AeAAAO 46 / E?AAeEO 40 – io?aaeaia naaanoieiinoue iieiea – 225 000
?oaeae, caoai AeAAAO 62 / E?AAeEO 46 – naeaeaia caienue ia noiio au?o/ee
195 000 ?oaeae.

I?e ?aaeecaoeee 65 ea. iieiea ?aaioieeai IIO “Ieineia” ca iaee/iue
?an/ao , iia?aoeey io?aaeaeanue AeAAAO 46 / E?AAeEO 40 – ia noiio
ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe 97 500 ?oaeae, caoai i?e iieaoa ?aaioieeaie –
AeAAAO 50 / E?AAeEO 46 – ia noiio 84 500 ?oaeae.

I?e ?aaeecaoeee iieiea ?acee/iui caaioiaeoaeueiui i?aaiecaoeeyi ia
iniiaa aeiaiai?ia a eiee/anoaa 250 ea. aeaeaaony caienue AeAAAO 46 /
E?AAeEO 40 – ia noiio 375 000 ?oaeae, i?e io?aaeaiee au?o/ee ca
?aaeeciaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth AeAAAO 60.2 “?an/aou n caaioiaeoaeueiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie” (o.e. a oicyenoaa aianoi 62 n/aoa aaaeaony aeaiiue n/ao
) / E?AAeEO 46 – ia noiio 325 000 ?oaeae.

Oaeaea a aeaeaa?a i?iecaiaeeeanue ?aaeecaoeey iieiea ia
aioo?eoicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu a eiee/anoaa 84 ea. , i?e yoii
ninoaaeyeanue neaaeothuay caienue – AeAAAO 46 / E?AAeEO 40 – ia noiio
126 000 ?oaeae, i?e io?aaeaiee au?o/ee – AeAAAO 79
“Aioo?eoicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu” / E?AAeEO 46 – ia noiio 109 779 ?oaeae.
Ia n/ao 46 “?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio , oneoa” a ninoaaa
iinooiathuae au?o/ee o/eouaatho noiiu iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
, aaaaeaiioth a 1992 aiaeo.

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Noiiu iaeiaa iinooiatho a ninoaaa au?o/ee io iieoiaoaeae e ca/eneythony
a iauai ii?yaeea ia E?AAeEO 46 . Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei noiiu iaeiaa
io?aaeatho ii AeAAAOO 46 e ca/eneytho a E?AAeEO 68 “?an/aou n
athaeaeaoii” ia niaoeeaeueii ioe?uaaaiue aeey yoie oeaee noan/ao
“?an/aou ii iaeiao ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ”.Oaeei ia?acii, ia n/aoa
46 iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ia aeeyao ia oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao
aeayoaeueiinoe, o.e. ii i?ioiaeeo ii AeAAAOO e E?AAeEOO a iaeeiaeiaie
noiia .

Aeey io?aaeaiey iia?aoeee ii o/aoo i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaio e oneoa ia i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeiu auoue neaaeothuea ?aaeno?u:

aeo?iae-i?aea? ? 11-AIE;

aaaeiiinoue ? 62 -AIE o/aoa ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee , iaoa?eaeia, ?aaio
,

oneoa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee;

aaaeiiinoue ? 63 -AIE “?aano? aeieoiaioia ii ?aaeecaoeee aioiaie
i?iaeoe-

oeee”;

aaaeiiinoue ? 64-AIE “?aano? aeieoiaioia ii ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?i-

iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ?aaio, oneoa”.

Ana ?aaeno?u naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie . Ii a IIO “Ieineia” ec auoa
ia?a/eneaiiuo aaaeaony oieueei aaaeiiinoue ? 63-AIE e aeo?iae-i?aea? ?
11-AIE, yoi yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii aooaaeoa?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia aeaiiii o/anoea o/aoa.

Aeey ii?eoiaeiaaiey i?eieiaea i?eiaiyaony “Aeo ia ii?eoiaeiaaiea
i?eieiaea aeeaioiuo” (oi?ia ? 95), ii iiaeienuaaaony a?eaaaee?ii e
aeaaiui ciioaoieeii. O/ao aaaeaony ca eaaeaeia /enei a oa/aiea ianyoea.

?aaeno?ii, a eioi?ii iaiauatho aeaiiua ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia i cao?aoao
e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
io/ao ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao (oi?ia ? 18a). Aai ninoaaeytho ii eoiaai
aeaiiuo ca ianyoe ec niioaaonoaothueo ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue io/ao ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao ninoieo ec ?acaeaeia :

1. Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa (AeAAAO 20.2);

2. Auoiae i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa;

3. Iai?iou ii E?AAeEOO 20.2 n/aoa

A ?acaeaea “Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa”
o/eouaatho ana cao?aou, oaeea eae ca?aaioiay ieaoa , ?anoiae ei?iia,
aii?oecaoeey, no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu.

“Auoiae i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa”- io?aaeatho auoiae iniiaiie e
iiai/iie i?iaeoeoeee io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, ioiineiie n E?AAeEOA 20.2
“AEeaioiiaiaenoai” a AeAAAO ei??aniiiaee?othueo n/aoia, n oeacaieai
eiee/anoaa e noiiu.

3.3 I?aaiecaoeey neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa

Cao?aou e auoiae i?iaeoeoeee io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa o/eouaatho ia
aeoeaiii iia?aoeeiiiii, eaeueeoeyoeaiii n/aoa 20 “Iniiaiia
i?iecaiaenoai”, noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”, ii AeAAAOO eioi?iai
io?aaeatho – cao?aou , a ii E?AAeEOO- auoiae i?iaeoeoeee.

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A ea/anoaa iauaeoia o/aoa cao?ao ii aeaiiiio noan/aoo auaeaeytho
ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu aeeaioiuo a i?aaeaeao io?anee.

Iiei/iue e?oiiue ?iaaoue neio : iniiaiia noaaei iiei/iiai neioa (ei?iau
e auee-i?iecaiaeeoaee).

Aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao aaaeoo a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii io/aoa ii neaaeothuae
iiiaieeaoo?a noaoae cao?ao:

1.”Iieaoa o?oaea n io/eneaieyie ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu”

2.”N?aaenoaa caueou aeeaioiuo”

3.”Ei?ia”

4.” Niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa” , a o./.

a) iaooai?iaeoeou

a) ?aiiio iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

5.”?aaiou e oneoae”

6.”I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey”

7. “I?i/ea cao?aou”

8. “No?aoiaua ieaoaaee”

9.”Iioa?e io iaaeaaea aeeaioiuo”

A IIO “Ieineia” aaaeoo o/ao ii neaaeothuei noaoueyi cao?ao:

1. Iieaoa o?oaea n io/eneaieyie ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu

2.N?aaenoaa caueou aeeaioiuo

3.Ei?ia

4.Niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, a o./. iaooai?iaeoeou, aii?oecaoeey
iniia

iuo n?aaenoa, ?aiiio iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

5.?aaiou e oneoae

6.I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey

7.I?i/ea cao?aou

A noaouea “Iieaoa o?oaea n io/eneaieyie ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu”
o/eouaatho iniiaioth e aeiiieieoaeueioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo ?aaioieeia
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, caiyouo iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ianeoaeeaaiee aeaiiie
a?oiiu aeeaioiuo: aeiy?ie, neioieeia, a?eaaaee?ia, iiaeniaiiuo ?aai/eo,
oaeyoieoe. Nthaea aeeth/atho iieaoo ooaea ii oa?eoiui noaaeai. aeiieaou
e i?aiee ca i?iaeoeoeeth, ca iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo,
nio?aiaiea iiaieiauey, ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee, ca eeanniinoue, iaaeaaaee
ca ianeoaeeaaiea neioa ia ioaeaeueiuo ianoaeuao.

Oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue , /oi i?eiaiyaiay a oicyenoaa iieaoa o?oaea ii
oa?eoiui noaaeai ecaeeea naay, iaiaoiaeeii aaeaeaa?oaeueii i?iaiaeeoue
eo eiaeaenaoeeth.

A IIO”Ieineia” i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea oa?eoiua noaaee :

– aeey aeiy?ie oanoiai ?ac?yaea – ca 1 /an – 96eiiaae,

ca 1 aeaiue –
6?oaeae 73 eiiaeee

ca ianyoe – 160
?oaeae

– aeey neioieea iyoiai ?ac?yaea – ca 1 /an – 82eiiaeee

ca 1 aeaiue
– 5 ?oaeae 80 eiiaae

ca 1 ianyoe
– 138 ?oaeae.

?an/ao iieaou o?oaea aeiy?eai aaaeaony a caaeneiinoe io iaaeiaiiiai
iieiea e iieo/aiiiai i?eieiaea ii eaaeaeie oa?ia a ioaeaeueiinoe , i?e
yoii ca eaaeaeue iaaeiaiiue eeeia?aii iieiea ieaoeony 1.31 ?oaeae a
ia?an/aoa ia 1 % iieiea e

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6.58?oaeae ca eaaeaeoth aieiao i?eieiaea a ia?an/aoa ia 1% iieiea.
Neioieee i?e yoii iieo/atho 0.27 a ia?an/aoa ia 1% iieiea e 3.29 ca
eaaeaeoth aieiao i?eieiaea.

O aaoa?a/ae, a?eaaaee?ia , ciioaoieeia e i?i/eo ?aaioieeia
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aeey ?an/aoa ca?aaioiie ieaou eniieuecoaony ieeaae.

Ca eeanniinoue aeiieaou ?ann/eouaathony n o/aoii neaaeothueo i?ioeaioia:
aeiy?ee 1 eeanna – 20% io iany/iie ca?aaioiie ieaou n o/aoii
io?aaioaiiuo aeiae ; 2 eeanna – 10%.

Ca aeiiieieoaeueii io?aaioaiiua ii/iua /anu aeiy?ee iieo/atho enoiaey
ec /aniaie ?anoeaiee, eioi?ay ninoaaeyao 40 % /aniaie oa?eoiie noaaee

I?aieaeueiua ?ann/eouaaao a?eaaaee? oa?iu. I?aiey eee aeiieaoa ca
naa?oaeinoeaiooue o?iaaiue ia 1 oo?aaeioth ei?iao , ii n?aaiaieth n
o?iaiai i?ioeiai aiaea yoiai aea ianyoea. Anee o?iaaiue yoiai aiaea
ninoaaee 100% io i?ioeiai, oi ?ann/eouaaaony 15% aeiieaou ;

io 101% aei 105% – 30% aeiieaou;

nauoa 105% – 50% aeiieaou.

Ii yoie aea noaouea o/eouaatho:

– noiiu io/eneaiee ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea a ?acia?a 5.4% io iauae
noiiu ia/eneaiiie ca?aaioiie ieaou ;

-noiiu io/eneaiee a Iaineiiiue oiiae a ?acia?a 20.6% io ia/eneaiiie
noiiu iieaou o?oaea;

-io/eneaiey a oiiae iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey a ?acia?a 3.6 % io
ia/eneaiiie noiiu iieaou o?oaea,

a oaeaea a oiiae caiyoinoe a ?acia?a 1.5% io ia/eneaiiie noiiu iieaou
o?oaea.

AeAAAO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”

aiaeeoe/aneee n/ao “Iniiaiia noaaei”

E?AAeEO 70 “?an/aou n ia?niiaeii ii iieaoa o?oaea ” ia noiio
ia/eneaiiie iieaou o?oaea ?aaioieeai aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a ?acia?a 416 565
941 ?oaeue.

E?AAeEO 69 “Io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea” ia aaee/eio
io/eneaiee io noiiu ia/eneaiiie ca?aaioiie ieaou a ?acia?a 135 043 934
?oaey.

E?AAeEO “Iaineiiiue oiiae” – 85812584 ?oaey

E?AAeEO “Oiiae iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey” – 14996374 ?oaey

E?AAeEO “Oiiae caiyoinoe” – 6248489 ?oaeae

“N?aaenoaa caueou aeeaioiuo ” io?aaeatho ?anoiae ia aeaiioth o/aoioth
a?oiio neioa aeii?aia?aoia, iaaeeeaiaioia, aeaceioeoee?othueo n?aaenoa.

AeAAAO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” / E?AAeEO 10 “Iaoa?eaeu” noan/ao
“Iaaeeeaiaiou” – ia noiio 8 523 545 ?oaeae

AeAAAO 20 noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai” aiaeeoe/aneee n/ao “Iniiaiia
noaaei”

E?AAeEO 10 noan/ao 1 “N?aaenoaa caueou aeeaioiuo” a ?acia?a 18 848 856
?oaeae.

“Ei?ia” o/eouaatho ?anoiae ei?iia nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iieoiiuo
ia niaea?aeaiea aeaiiie a?oiiu aeeaioiuo. O/ao ei?iia aaaeoo
iauaaeeiaiiue, o.a. ec?anoiaeiaaiiua ei?ia eaaeaeiai iaeiaiiaaiey
o/eouaatho a ioaeaeueiii “?aano?a –

no?.33——————————————————————
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aeo?iaea o/aoa ?anoiaea ei?iia” (oi?ia ? 35). Ia yoo noaoueth ioiinyo
oaeaea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n i?eaioiaeaieai e ia?aaioeie ei?iia a
ei?iioeaoao iooai nienaiey eo n niioaaonoaothuaai aiaeeoe/aneiai n/aoa
e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia iauaeou o/aoa i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ianna
i?eaioiaeaiiuo ei?iia.

?anoiae ei?iia ii aeaiiie noaouea io?aaeatho a eo aaeainiaie ioeaiea ;
ia?aoaaeoeo n i?ioeiai aiaea ii oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe;
i?iecaaaeaiiuo a oaeouai aiaeo – ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe n
ei??aeoe?iaeie a eiioea aiaea aei oaeoe/aneie ; iieoiiuo – ii oeaiai
i?eia?aoaiey , aeeth/ay ?anoiaeu ia aeinoaaeo a oicyenoai. ?anoiaeu ii
aeinoaaea ei?iia ec iano eo iinoiyiiiai o?aiaiey a oicyenoaa ia oa?iu
aeey nea?ieeaaiey neioo ia aeaiioth noaoueth ia ioiinyo. Eo nienuaatho
ia n/ao iauaeoia o/aoa cao?ao a niioaaonoaee a?oiiai aeeaioiuo ia
niioaaonoaothuea noaouee ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe : ia ?aaiou e oneoae –
ia?aaicee aaoiiiaeeueiui o?ainii?oii , o?ainii?oiua ?aaiou o?aeoi?ia .

AeAAAO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”

aiaeeoe/aneee n/ao “Iniiaiia noaaei”

E?AAeEO 10 “Iaoa?eaeu” noan/ao 10 “Ei?ia” -a ?acia?a 2 712 122
597?oaeae

E?AAeEO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 3 “?anoiaeu ii
i?eaioiaeaieth ei?iia ia ei?iieooiyo” – a ?acia?a 81 632 366 ?oaeae.

“Niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa” auaeaeaia aeey o/aoa aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee , cao?ao ia ?aiiio e ae?oaeo cao?ao ii niaea?aeaieth
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, eniieuecoaiuo a aeaiiie io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa (
caeaiey, aeieeueiua onoaiiaee e ae?oaea iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, aeeth/ay
eciin e cao?aou ia ainnoaiiaeaiea iaeioeaiiuo auno?ieciaoeaathueony
eino?oiaioia e i?eniiniaeaiee), ioianaiea niioaaonoaothueo cao?ao ia
aeaiioth a?oiio aeeaioiuo i?iecaiaeyony ii aiciiaeiinoe i?yiui iooai.

AeAAAO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”

aiaeeoe/aneee n/ao “Iniiaiia noaaei”

E?AAeEO 02 “Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa” – ia noiio aii?oecaoeeiiiuo
io/eneaiee , ia/eneaiiuo ia caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey , eniieuecoaiua a
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, a ?acia?a 128 486 894 ?oaey.

E?AAeEO 10 “Iaoa?eaeu” noan/ao 8 “No?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu ” – ia noiio
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ua iioee ia ?aiiio ei?iaieeia,
nooinoieiiai e ?iaeeeueiiai aeai?a, eioi?ay a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaeea 44
743.36 ?oaey.

E?AAeEO 13 “Eciin IAI” – ia noiio eciina a ?acia?a 17 552.85 ?oaeae.

“?aaiou e oneoae” i?aaeiacia/aia aeey o/aoa auiieiaiiuo a
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ?aaio e oneoa aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa e noi?iiieo
i?aaiecaoeee . Iaeaieaa aaaeiua aeaeu ?aaio e oneoa aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
i?iecaiaenoa oeaeaniia?acii auaeaeyoue: aaoio?ainii?o, o?ainii?oiua
?aaiou o?aeoi?ia, yeaeo?iniaaaeaiea, aiaeiniaaaeaiea . Ii eaaeaeiio
aeaeo ?aaio e oneoa iieacuaatho eo eiee/anoai e noieiinoue (a oa/aiea
aiaea ieaiiaay n aeiaaaeaieai a eiioea aiaea aei oaeoe/aneie ).

1.Aaoio?ainii?o ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia AeAAAO 20.2 i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
auiieiaiiui o/ei. ;

2. Oneoae iaoeiii-o?aeoi?iiai ia?ea i?iii?oeeiiaeueii oneiaiui yoaeiiai
aaeoa?ai;

3.Yeaeo?iyia?aey niaeanii aeaiiuo yeaeo?in/ao/eeia;

4.Aiaeiniaaaeaiea ioiineony ii ii?iai.

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Ia yoo aea noaoueth ioiinyo noieiinoue ?aaio , auiieiaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyie ii oaoie/aneiio ianeoaeeaaieth aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, noaioeee
ii eneonnoaaiiiio inaiaiaieth aeeaioiuo. A oa/aiee aiaea ioeaiea yoeo
?anoiaeia inouanoaeyaony ii ieaiiaui oeaiai , a a eiioea aiaea
aeiaiaeeony aei oaeoe/aneie e ?ani?aaeaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n
auiieiaiiuie ?aaioaie.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 2 “Oneoae a?ociaiai
o?ainii?oa” – a ?acia?a 15 007 045 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 3
“Yeaeo?iniaaaeaiea” a ?acia?a 7 250 168 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 5 “Oneoae aoaeaaiai
aaoio?ainii?oa” – a ?acia?a 176 495 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 6 “Oaieiniaaaeaiea”
– a ?acia?a 3 290 438 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 23 “Aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa” noan/ao 7 “Oneoae iaoeiiiai
o?aeoi?iiai ia?ea” – a ?acia?a 140 844 077 ?oaeae.

“I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey” io?aaeatho ?anoiaeu ia
i?aaiecaoeeth e oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii a io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a
aeiea , i?eoiaeeaoaeny ia aeaiiue iauaeo o/aoa cao?ao. A aeaiiii neo/aa
, a IIO “Ieineia” noiiu eoiaia ii n/aoo 25 “Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua
?anoiaeu” aoi?iai noan/aoa aa?oo ec i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai io/aoa e
aaeaeaa?oaeueii ?ani?aaeaeytho neaaeothuei ia?acii : 60% – iieiei e
40%- iieiaeiye, oi aea naiia i?ienoiaeeo e n 26 n/aoii
“Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu”, eioi?ua oeene?othony a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii
io/aoa . A eiioea aiaea ninoaaeythony ni?aaee ii cae?uoeth yoeo n/aoia;
ii?aaeaeyaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo oaeoe/aneie noiiie cao?ao e
ieaie?oaiuie, iieo/aaioth ?acieoeo eee i?eaaaeytho e cao?aoai n ia/aea
aiaea eee au/eoatho iaoiaeii e?aniiai noi?ii ( noiio ioeeiiaiee
?ani?aaeaeytho 60% – iieiei, 40% – i?eieiaea).

E?AAeEO 25 “Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu” – a ?acia?a 95 483
401?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 26 “Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu” – a ?acia?a 129 982 779 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 60 “?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie e iiae?yae/eeaie” – a ?acia?a 397 296
?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 40 “Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey” – a ?acia?a 25 069 693 ?oaeae.

E?AAeEO 10 “Iaoa?eaeu” noan/ao 3 “Ai?th/a-niaci/iua iaoa?eaeu” – a
?acia?a 3 040 267 ?oaeae.

“I?i/ea cao?aou ” auaeaeaia aeey o/aoa ?acee/iuo iaeeeo ?anoiaeia e
?anoiaeia ?aciaiai oa?aeoa?a. Nthaea aea ioiinyony cao?aou, iaaioaaeoea
a i?aaeuaeouea noaouee, a o./.

-cao?aou ii ia?aaeaeaieth oa?i, iai?oaeiaaieth aeacaa?uea?ia,
no?ieoaeuenoao naii?iioneieeia e ae?oaeo iauaeoia, naycaiiuo n
aaoe?eia?ii-naieoa?iuie ia?ii?eyoeyie;

– noieiinoue iiaenoeeee aeey aeeaioiuo;

– eciin niaoeiaeaaeaeu e iaoae, auaeaaaaiuo aeiy?eai;

– cao?aou ia no?ieoaeuenoai caaiiia, iaaania e ae?oaeo nii?oaeaiee
iaeiieoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a aeey aeeaioiuo, nienuaaaiua a onoaiiaeaiiii
ii?yaeea ni n/aoa “?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia” n/ao 31.

“I?i/ea cao?aou”, eae i?aaeei, ioiinyo ia niioaaonoaothuoth o/aoioth
a?oiio neioa i?yiui iooai .

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Eoiai ii AeAAAOO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2
”AEeaioiiaiaenoai” ca 1997 aiae noiia ninoaaeea -4 189 035 895 ?oaeae.

Ii E?AAeEOO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”
o/eouaaaony auoiae i?iaeoeoeee a ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe.

Iieo/aii: iieiea a eiee/anoaa 2 174 134ea. ia noiio 3 478 614 400
?oaeae

AeAAAO 40 “Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey”

E?AAeEO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao 2 “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”

i?eieiaea a eiee/anoaa 709 aieia ia noiio 425 400 000 ?oaeae

AeAAAO 11”AEeaioiua ia au?aueaaiee e ioei?ia”

iiai/iiai i?iaeoeoa a eiee/anoaa 22 900oiii ia noiio 572 500
000 ?oaeae ii ii?iaoeaai.

Eoiai ii E?AAeEOO 20 “Iniiaiia i?iecaiaenoai” noan/ao “AEeaioiiaiaenoai”
noieiinoue iieiea, i?eieiaea e iaaica ninoaaeea 6 730 874.4 ?oaeae.

3.4 Eaeueeoeyoeey naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa e
cae?u-

oea n/aoa .

A aeeaioiiaiaenoaa iauaeoaie en/eneaiey naaanoieiinoe yaeyaony iniiaiay
i?iaeoeoeey : iieiei e i?eieiae . Eioi?ua a oa/aiea aiaea o/eouaatho
ii ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe, n aeiaaaeaieai a eiioea aiaea aei
oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe. Iiai/iay i?iaeoeoeey – iaaic , o/eouaaaony ii
ii?iaoeaai .

Ii AeAAAOO aiaeeoe/aneiai n/aoa “Iniiaiia iiei/iia noaaei” e iiiaioo
aai cae?uoey io?aaeathony ana cao?aou n o/aoii ei??aeoe?iaee noieiinoe
?aaio aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa, i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa. E
iiiaioo cae?uoey oaeaea nthaea ioiinyo niioaaonoaothuea cao?aou ii
ei?iieooia eee ei?iioeaoo i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ?anoiaeo ei?iia . Ii
E?AAeEOO yoiai n/aoa e eiioeo aiaea io?aaeaia ii ieaiiaie ioeaiea any
iniiaiay i?iaeoeoeey .

?acieoea iaaeaeo aeaaaoiaui e e?aaeeoiaui iai?ioii ii n/aoo ninoaaeytho
noiio ioeeiiaiee oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao io ieaiiaie naaanoieiinoe
iieo/aiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

A IIO “Ieineia” a eiioea aiaea ec iauae noiiu cao?ao ii e?oiiiio
?iaaoiio neioo ( iiei/iia noaaei ) au/eoatho cao?aou ia iaaic,
inoaaoothny noiio ?ani?aaeaeyo a niioaaonoaee n ?anoiaeii iaiaiiie
yia?aee ei?iia : ia iieiei – 90%, ia i?eieiae – 10 %.

?anniio?ei en/eneaiea oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe 1 oeaioia?a iieiea e 1
aieiau i?eieiaea ii aeaiiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai io/aoa ca 1997 aiae.

Ec anao cao?ao au/eoaai cao?aou ia iiai/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth

( 4 189 035 895 – 572 500 000)= 3 616 535 895 ?oaeae.

Inoaaoothny noiio ?ani?aaeaeyai ia i?eieiae 10%

( 3 616 535 895 ?oaeae * 10% ) = 416 064 ?oaeae.

ia iieiei
90%

( 3 616 535 895 ?oaeae * 90%) = 3 761 ?oaeue.

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Aeaeaa ii?aaeaeyai naaanoieiinoue 1 oeaioia?a iieiea:

(3 761 ?oaeue / 2 174ea.) = 1.73 ?oaey.

Naaanoieiinoue 1 aieiau i?eieiaea :

( 416 064 ?oaeae / 709 aieia) = 591 ?oaeue.

Iinea n?aaieaaai oaeoe/aneoth naaanoieiinoue n ieaiiaie e
eaeueeoeyoeeiiioth ?acieoeo nienuaaai aeaoiy iaoiaeaie:

1. Anee oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue auoa ieaiiaie , oi eaeueeoeyoeeiiioth
?acieoeo nienuaaai iaoiaeii aeiiieieoaeueiie i?iaiaeee.

2. Anee oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue ieaea ieaiiaie, oi nienuaaai iaoiaeii
“e?aniia noi?ii”.

A IIO “Ieineia” ieaiiaay naaanoieiinoue ca 1997 aiae ieacaeanue auoa ,
/ai oaeoe/aneay (ieaiiaay ii iieieo 1?oaeue84eiiaeee , oaeoe/aneay –
1?oaeue 73 eiiaeee, ieaiiaay ii i?eieiaeo – 662 ?oaey , oaeoe/aneay -591
?oaeue), nienuaaai ?acieoeo iaoiaeii “e?aniia noi?ii” ii eaiaeai
eniieueciaaiey (niio?e ni?aaeo ?1).

3.5 Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa cao?ao e auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee a iiei/iii
neioi-

aiaenoaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy , i?e ia?aoiaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea aeey iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee anoaao aeooaeueiay
,aeey naaiaeiyoieo aeiae caaea/a – aaaeaiea n/aoa n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa
yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee (YAI). Cia/aiea aaoiiaoecaoeee
aaeeei, oae eae , i?e aai aiaae?aiee oaaee/eaaaony iia?aoeaiinoue o/aoa
, oneeeaathony eiio?ieueiua ooieoeee ii auiieiaieth aeiaiai?iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa e naiaa?aiaiiuo ieaoaaeae iaeiaia a athaeaeao. Ia
aeaiiue iiiaio a IIO”Ieineia” eiaaony iaeei eiiiuethoa? “Gold Star”.

Aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee ?aaio eniieuecoaony i?ia?aiia “Eioeiaooaaeoa?ey”.
O/ao a i?ia?aiia iino?iai ia iniiaa ?aaeno?aoeee aooaaeoa?neeo i?iaiaeie
(oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee), /oi iicaieyao aaeeiiia?acii
aaoiiaoece?iaaoue ana o/anoee o/aoa . Oieaa?naeueiue i?ia?aiiiue
eiiieaen “Eioei” i?aaeiacia/ai aeey aaoiiaoecaoeee o/aoa i?aaei?eyoee
anao oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. Aeaeinoue e oieaa?naeueiinoue , caeiaeaiiua a
i?ia?aiio , iicaieytho eaaei aaeaioe?iaaoue aa e ethaie iaoiaeeea
aaaeaiey o/aoa . I?ia?aiia inaiaiaeaeaao ?aaioieeia aooaaeoa?ee io
?ooeiiie ?an/aoiie ?aaiou , io ?aciinee i?iaiaeie ii aeo?iaeai
-i?aea?ai e a aeaaioth eieao. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a oicyenoaa aaaeoony ia
eiiiuethoa?a i?ia?aiiu: 12 n/ao “IAI” iai?ioiay aaaeiiinoue ; 60 n/ao
“?an/aou n iinoaaueeaie e iiae?yae/eeaie” ; ca?aaioiay ieaoa ; aeaaiay
eieaa ; n/aoa-oaeoo?u ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao ; n/aoa- oaeoo?u ia
?aaeecaoeeth ; “aaaeiiinoue acaaoeaaiey aeeaioiuo ii a?oiiai neioa”.

Oaeaea i?eiaiyaony i?ia?aiia “Windows – 95” , iia ianeieueei onoa?aea e
iiaeii ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue i?eia?anoe i?ia?aiio “Windows-97” .

Ii ioi?ieaieth aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e eo nienaiea
?aeiiaiaeoai eniieueciaaoue oi?iu ia?ae/iuo aeieoiaioia ? 261 AIE
“Eeioii-caai?iay

no?.37——————————————————————
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aaaeiiinoue”; ? 264-AIE “Io/ao i aeaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae”; ?
266 -AIE “Io/ao i aeaeaeaiee ai?th/aai e niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia ”. E?iia
oiai, iiaeii ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue i?eiaiyoue neaaeothuea
iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiua oeiiaua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oi?iu ? IA-2 “Ea?oi/ea
o/aoa iaeioeaiiuo e auno?ieciaoeaathueony i?aaeiaoia” e ? EA-6 “Ee/iay
ea?oi/ea niaoeiaeaaeaeu, niaoeiaoae e i?aaeio?aieoaeueiuo
i?eniiniaeaiee” (eeno ? 37).

Oaeaea aeey i?aaiecaoeee aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa , aac eioi?iai iaiuneeii
iieiioeaiiia aaaeaiea aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e n/aoai eee noan/aoai
iiaeii i?ee?aieoue naie ni?aai/ieee aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa , eiee/anoai
eioi?uo iiaeao aeinoeaaoue iyoe. Yoi iicaieeo ii ethaiio n/aoo
i?aaieciaaoue iyoeo?iaiaaue aiaeeoe/aneee o/ao. I?ia?aiia
“Windows-97”aeano aiciiaeiinoue iinea aaaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee n ia?ae/iuo
aeieoiaioia aac aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiaee?iaaiey iieo/eoue
?acoeueoaoeaioth eioi?iaoeeth a aeaea iai?ioiie aaaeiiinoe, eioi?ay
caiaieo niaie “?aano? ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee” (?aaio,oneoa) (oi?ia
? 63 -AIE e AE-I ? 11).

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Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee nienie.

1. Eaaaioei Ae. “Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey neioiaiaenoaa ?innee ”

//Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai ? 6 1997 aiae.

2. *ioaoa?eaee A. “Ioaeii ee iai aieueoa ei?ia ? ”

//Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai ?6 1997aiae.

3. Aeoaei I.I. , Oaaoeia ?.I. “Yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea”

// Iineaa Ieaa ?innee 1992 aiae.

4.A?eai?ueaa TH. , Iio?aaiye A. “Io/aai caaeneo i?iaeoeoeaiia
aeieaieaoea ei

?ia”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997aiae ? 1.

5. Aeia?iaieueneee A. “Aeeyiea aic?anoa ia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ei?ia ”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997 aiae ? 4.

6. A?oeiia A. , Aeoeueiaa A. “I oeiao e ?aoeeiiao ei?ieaiey neioa ”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997 aiae ? 1.

7. Aeia?iaieueneee A. , Oaaei?yea A. “I?iaiice?iaaiea iiei/iie
i?iaeoeoea-

iinoe ei?ia ii oaeith i?aaeeia”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997 aiae ? 5.

8. Aaiieeia A.I. , Aaeoeei A.A. , ?ooaiia A.E. “Iniiau yeieiaee e
io?aiu

ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu”

// Iineaa “Eiein” 1996 aiae .

9. Ei?yeeia E. “Aeeyiea yeieiaee ia caaieaaaaiinoue neioa eaeeicii”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1997 aiae ? 2.

10. Niaaoyi A. “Eiio?ieue eiioeaio?aoeee ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a ei?iao e
aiayaee-

ia”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1996 aiae ? 2

11. Ayecaiai A. , Naaei A. “Ianei eueiyiia – eo/oaa n?aaenoai aeey
auaaaeaiey

?aaeeiioeeeaeia ec i?aaiecia ei?ia”

// Iyniia e iiei/iia neioiaiaenoai 1997 ? 1.

12. ” Aeieeaae i ninoiyiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu Eino?iineie iaeanoe a
1996

aiaeo“

// Eino?iia 1997 aiae. Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii io?aia
ie?oaeathuae

n?aaeu Eino?iineie iaeanoe.

13.Aaaeuiaeeeia E. “Eioaineoeeaoeey e yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?i

ecaiaenoaa iieiea”

// Iiei/iia e iyniia neioiaiaenoai 1991 aiae ?1.

14. Aeai?ia ?.A. “Ioeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania e nieaeaiea naaanoie

iinoe i?iaeoeoeee a oneiaeyo ?uiea”.

// Yeiiiieea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoee

1991 aiae ? 1.

15. Aa?ooiia O.A. “Oeaiu ia iieiei i?e ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo”

//Aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee 1994 aiae ? 2-3.

16.Aaeiaaeaoeeee E.A. “Ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa : aooaaeoa?neee o/ao e
aoaeeo”

// Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao 1994 aiae? 2.

17.Aaeiaaeaoeeee O.A. “AEeaioiiaiaenoai a ?innee a 1996 aiaeo”

// Yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?innee 1997 aiae ? 2.

no?.39——————————————————————
———————-

18.Aieiaaiia A.A. “O/ao cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai , aeioiaeia e oeiainiauo
?a

coeueoaoia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee ”

// Yeiiiieea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo e ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoee

1993 aiae ?4.

19.Aieiaaiia A.A. “O/ao ia i?aaei?eyoeyo AIE”

// Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao 1996 aiae ? 5.

20. Aeoaea?aa N.A. “I niaa?oainoaiaaiee o/aoa cao?ao”

// Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao 1993 aiae ? 12.

21.Caaai?iaeiee A.E. , Iieioaaa O.A. “Aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe

naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee”

// Iineaa Aa?ii?iiecaeao 1987 aiae.

22.Cioia A.E. e ae?oaea “Io?aia o?oaea a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa”

// Iineaa 1991 aiae.

23. Aaeeaiia I.E. Oa?aiao A.Ae. “Oai?ey yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca” 1995
aiae.

24.Niaeaeia E.A. I?aaaneay A.A. “Aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
naeue

neioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee” 1991 aiae

25. Iecaiaieueoe I.C. Aa?iaa A.I. Aanueeei O.E. “Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao a
naeuen

eii oicyenoaa”

// Iineaa “Eiein” 1994 aiae

no?.40——————————————————————
————————

NI?AAEA ? 1.

Nienaiea eaeueeoeyoeeiiiuo ?acieoe ii eaiaeai eniieueciaaiey .

IAEIAIIAAIEA I?I-

AeOEOeEE.
Iieiei

(oeaioia?) I?eieiae (aieia) Iaaic(oi.) EOIAI

E?AAeEO 20

Auoiae i?iaeoeoeee

2 174

709

Ieaiiaay naaanoieiinoue:

– aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee

————————————————

– anae i?iaeoeoeee

1.84

—————-

4 000

662

—————-

469 358

—————-

—————

Oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue:

– aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee

————————————————-

– anae i?iaeoeoeee

1.73

—————-

3 761

591

—————-

416 064

—————-

—————

Eaeueeoeyoeeiiiay ?acieoea iaaeaeo ieaiiaie e oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoueth:

– aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee

————————————————-

– anae i?iaeoeoeee

[0.11]

—————-

239

[7.1]

—————-

53 294

—————-

—————

Eaiaeu eniieueciaaiey

AeAAAO 46 : ?aaeecaoeey ainoaea?noao

– eiee/anoai

——————————————-

– noiia

400

—————-

[44.00]

—————-

—————-

—————

AeAAAO 46 : Naiei ?aai/ei

– eiee/anoai

——————————————-

– noiia

65

—————-

[7.15]

—————-

—————-

—————

AeAAAO 46 : ?uiie

– eiee/anoai

——————————————-

– noiia

1 709

—————-

187.99

—————-

—————-

—————

AeAAAO 11: I?eieiae

– eiee/anoai

——————————————-

– noiia

—————–

709

—————-[ 71 ]

—————-

—————

no?.41——————————————————————
—————————

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