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Культура дыни в защищенном грунте

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?INNEENEAss AEAAeAIEss NAEUeNEIOICssENOAAIIUO IAOE

IINEIANEAss NAEUeNEIOICssENOAAIIAss AEAAeAIEss

ei. E.A. OEIE?ssCAAA

?AOA?AO

IA OAIO:

(Aicaeaeuaaiea aeuie

(Cucumis melo L.)

a oneiaeyo caueuaiiiai a?oioa(

Eniieieoaeue:

Oaaae?a A.A.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

Iineaa 1996.

Niaea?aeaiea: no?

1. Oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea aicaeaeuaaiey aeuie a caueuaiiii a?oioa. 2

2. Enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea aicaeaeuaaiey aeuie a caueuaiiii
a?oioa. 4

2.1. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u aeuie a caueuaiiii a?oioa. 4

2.2. ?ani?ino?aiaiea eoeueoo?u aeuie caueuaiiiai a?oioa a ie?a. 5

3. Aeieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee aeuie. 6

3.1. Aioaie/aneia iienaiea. 6

3.2. Yoaiu ?inoa e ?acaeoey. 8

3.3. O?aaiaaiey e oneiaeyi ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. 9

3.3.1. Naao. 9

3.3.2. Oaiia?aoo?a 11

3.3.3. Aeaaeiinoue. 12

3.3.4. Ieia?aeueiia ieoaiea. 13

4. Nenoaiaoeea e ni?oa aeuie. 15

4.1. Nenoaiaoeea. 15

4.2. Ni?oeiaio aeuiue caueuaiiiai a?oioa. 16

5. Aa?ioaoieea aeuie a caueuaiiii a?oioa. 22

5.1. N?iee eoeueoo?u. 22

5.2. Au?aueaaiea ?annaaeu. 22

5.3. Iinaaeea. 24

5.4. Oi?ie?iaea. 25

5.5. Ooiae ca ?anoaieyie a ia?eiae caaycuaaiea ieiaeia — nic?aaaiea. 27

5.6. Iniaaiiinoe eoeueoo?u ia aeae?iiiieea. 28

6. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey naeaeoeee. 30

6.1. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue. 30

6.2. Nei?iniaeinoue. 31

6.3. Ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee. 32

6.4. Oaiaauiineeainoue. 33

6.5. Oieiaeinoionoie/eainoue. 34

6.6. Naea?aeaiiue ?ino. 34

6.7. Onoie/eainoue e aieaciyi e a?aaeeoaeyi. 35

6.8. Naeaeoeey aaoa?iceniuo aea?eaeia. 37

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. 39

1. Oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea aicaeaeuaaiey aeuie a caueuaiiii a?oioa.

Aeuiy oeaieony ca i?aainoiaeiua aeoniaua ea/anoaa e i?eyoiue a?iiao e
eniieuecoaony aeaaiui ia?acii a naaaeai aeaea eae aeana?o. Ii
?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi Einoeoooa ieoaiey ii?ia iio?aaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee aao/aauo
eoeueoo? ninoaaeyao 30 ea ia /aeiaaea a aiae, ec ieo 25 % (6-8 ea)
i?eoiaeeony ia aeuith. Iaeiaei ?ani?aaeaeaiea aa iio?aaeaiey i/aiue
ia?aaiiia?ii ii ciiai no?aiu — io 60 ea a ?aaeiiao aicaeaeuaaiey aei 1
ea a ioaeaeaiiuo naaa?iuo ?aeiiao. E?iia oiai aeuie, caaiceiua a
i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u ec N?aaeiae Acee, ia?aaeei ieceiai ea/anoaa.

Ieuaaia cia/aiea aeuie ninoieo a oii, /oi a iyeioe ieiaeia niaea?aeeony
12-18 % naoa?ia, a oaeaea aeoaieiu (N, a?oiiu B e ae?oaea), ieia?aeueiua
aauanoaa, i?aaie/aneea eeneiou, oa?iaiou e a?iiaoe/aneea aauanoaa. A
iaeiii eeeia?aiia iyeioe niaea?aeeony aieaa 300 eeae. Iyeioue ieiaeia
aeuie auno?i ia?aaa?eaaaony e eaaei onaaeaaaony i?aaieciii.
Niaea?aeauayny a ieiaeao aeuie oieeaaay eeneioa niinianoaoao
?annanuaaieth iiooieae e ieacuaaao aioeneea?ioe/aneia aeaenoaea [28]. Ii
niaea?aeaieth aeoaieia N (12-40 ia %) aeuiy i?e?aaieaaaony e oieiaoo,
nia?aea, caeaiiio eoeo e a?theaa. Ii?eiaue, aaeeaaeai e ?ai/aoue eoe
cia/eoaeueii onooiatho aeuia ii niaea?aeaieth aeoaieia N. I?e yoii a
ceiieo oaieeoeao, i?e iaiueoae inaauaiiinoe, ieiaeu iaeaieeaatho
anei?aeiiaie eeneiou aeaaea aieueoa, /ai eaoii a ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao.
Ieiaeu n i?aiaeaaie iyeioueth niaea?aeao aieaa 1 ia % ea?ioeia, a n
aaeie — ia niaea?aeao aai nianai [2,34,35].

Eaaeeea ni?oa aeuie o?aiyony aei ai?aey ( iay, a caaic aeuie a naaa?iua
?aeiiu ?innee n thaa i?iaeieaeaaony n aaaonoa aei iiya?y. A ia?eiae n
iay ii aaaono ia ?uiea naaa?a ?innee naaaeea aeuie i?aeoe/anee
ionoonoaotho [28]. A yoeo oneiaeyo ?aoeeiiaeueii i?aaieciaaoue
i?iecaiaenoai aeuie a oaieeoeao, oae eae i?e iinaaeea aeuie 1-5 ia?oa
ieiaeiiioaiea i?ienoiaeeo n eiioea ai?aey aei ia/aea ethiy [26].

N/eoatho, /oi aeon ieiaeia aeuie oanii ei??aee?oao n niaea?aeaieai nooeo
?anoai?eiuo aauanoa a iyeioe. Ieiaeu oi?ioaai aeona aeieaeiu
niaea?aeaoue aieaa 8-10% ?anoai?eiuo nooeo aauanoa [43,87,104]. I?e
i?aaeeueiie aa?ioaoieea e ?aoeeiiaeueiii iiaeai?a ni?oia aeoniaua
ea/anoaa oaiee/iuo aeuiue ii/oe ia onooiatho ea/anoao aeuiue ec
ioe?uoiai a?oioa. I?e/ai a ?aeiiao n ecauoi/iui oaeaaeiaieai aiaoiee
aeae e aeoniaua ea/anoaa aeuiue iieo/aiiuo a ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao
cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeyo oaeiaua aeuiue ec ioe?uoiai a?oioa [56].

A iiuoao Iaaeianeie noaioeee AE?, i?iaiaeeaoeony a iaiaia?aaaaiuo
ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao, ni?oa Eieoicieoea 749/743, Pearl e aea?eae F1 Pearl
x Eieoicieoea 749/743 niaea?aeaee 13 % nooiai aauanoaa, a aea?eae F1
Eieoicieoea 749/743 x Pearl ( 16 % nooiai aauanoaa, /oi yaeyaony aunieei
iieacaoaeai aeaaea aeey ioe?uoiai a?oioa ia thaa iaoae no?aiu [35]. A
ceiieo oaieeoeao niaea?aeaiea nooeo aauanoa a ieiaeao aeuie ianeieueei
ieaea, /ai a ieaii/iuo e ninoaaeyao io 8 ( 12 % o ni?oia oeia Ogen aei
15 % o ni?oia oeia Charentais [5,22,44,50].

Eae iieacuaaao iiuo ca?oaaaeiuo oicyenoa e ioa/anoaaiiuo
enneaaeiaaoaeae, oaiee/iay aeuiy — ?aioaaaeueiay eoeueoo?a. Ai O?aioeee
?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa aeuie a oaieeoeao ia ieaea, a ca/anooth
auoa, /ai oiiaoa. I?e au?aueaaiee aeuie a iaia?aaaaiuo ieaii/iuo
oaieeoeao a E?uio o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe ninoaaeye 120-127% i?e oeaiao
?aaeecaoeee 4 ?oa./ea [22,105].

Oaiee/iay aeuiy — ioiineoaeueii iaeio?oaeiaieay eoeueoo?a. Aeey aa
aicaeaeuaaiey ia 100 i2 cao?a/eaaaony a ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao a Eoaeee
16-17 /ae.-/an., a inoaeeaiiuo oaieeoeao a Aieeaiaeee — 20-25 /ae.-/an.,
a oi a?aiy eae ,iai?eia?, aeey oiiaoa ia oo aea ieiuaaeue inoaeeaiiie
oaieeoeu o?aaoaony 35-40 /ae.-/an. [45,47,77].

A Aa?iia o?iaeaeiinoue aeuie ca ia?aoth aieio ieiaeiiioaiey aeinoeaaao:
a ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao — 15-16 ea/i2, a ceiieo oaieeoeao, ia a?oioa — 7-8
ea/i2 , ia ieia?aeueiie aaoa — 10-11 ea/i2 [9,13,47,50,52,53,79,108].

A iaoae no?aia iau/ii eniieuecotho oieueei ia?aoth aieio ieiaeiiioaiey e
iieo/atho 4-9 ea/i2 ieiaeia aeuie [7,11,24,26].

?onneea iai?iaeieee ia naaa?a ?innee ecaeaaia au?aueaaee aeuith a
ia?ieeao aoi?ui iai?ioii iinea ?annaaeu iaiuiuo eoeueoo? aeey ioe?uoiai
a?oioa. A iaoa a?aiy oaeaea oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaiea iiae aeuith
aoi?iai iai?ioa ?annaaeiuo oaieeoe e ia?ieeia [13,26,27].

Ia thaa iaoae no?aiu eiathony aieueoea ieiuaaee ?annaaeiuo ieaii/iuo
oaieeoe. Iinea auai?ee ?annaaeu oaeea oaieeoeu a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iau/ii
inoathony iacaiyouie, ia?aoeeiiaeueii eniieuecothony oaieeoeu ?annaaeiuo
eiiieaenia, ieiuaaeue eioi?uo aeinoeaaao 300 aa. Aicaeaeuaaiea a ieo
aeuiue aoi?ui iai?ioii iicaieeo oaaee/eoue yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
e iieo/aoue ?aiithth i?iaeoeoeeth aeuiue. A yoii neo/aa aeey nieaeaiey
cao?ao o?oaea aeuith iiaeii au?aueaaoue a noaethuaeny eoeueoo?a. Eae
iieacuaaao iiuo Aieeaiaeneeo oicyenoa, a ai?eciioaeueiie eoeueoo?a aeuiy
iiaeao aeaoue aieaa 8 oo. ieiaeia/i2 [1,89].2. Enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiia
ninoiyiea aicaeaeuaaiey aeuie a caueuaiiii a?oioa.

2.1. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u aeuie a caueuaiiii a?oioa.

Aeuiy — iaeia ec naiuo noa?aeoeo eoeueoo? caueuaiiiai a?oioa: eoeueoo?o
aeuie iiae noaeeii i?aaeeiaeee naaeiaiee Ethaeiaeea VIII a ia?aie
/aoaa?oe XVIII aaea. Au?aueaaoue aeuith a oaieeoeao ia/aee a Aiaeee a
eiioea i?ioeiai aaea, iaeiaei a oi a?aiy yoi eoeueoeae?iaaiea iineei
aeaaiui ia?acii ethaeoaeueneee, iaoiaa?iue oa?aeoa? [13,27,47].

Ia?aua oiiieiaiey i aicaeaeuaaiee iiae Iineaie ia ooaieaiiuo iaaicii
a?oioa ioiinyony e ia/aeo XVI aaea. Oaea a ia/aea XX aaea iia caieiaea
ouny/e ia?ieeiauo ?ai iiae Iineaie, Aeaaeeie?ii, ?ycaiueth, Eaeoaie e
Iaoa?ao?aii. Neiaeeeny nianoaaiiue ni?oeiaio ia?ieeiauo aeuiue,
iniiaaiiue ia caaacaiiuo ec O?aioeee ni?oao eaioaeoi: Iineianeay
Eaioaeoia, Eaioaeoia Iaeay I?aneiooa, Eaioaeoia *oaei I?aneiooa
(Eaioaeoia Eaieia?aaeneay), Eaioaeoia Ea?iaeeoneay (A?aiea), Oea?eoea
Aeuiue (Ian?aaiaiiay ? 167), Noieiaue Aeaeeeaoan, Aiaianiay, e iiiai
ae?oaeo. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoeinoai yoeo ni?oia ooa?yii. A
yioeeeeiiaaeee A?ieaaoca e Ao?iia (1893(a.) oeacuaaaony, /oi auaiiea
aeuiue a ia?ieeao i?eiaiyaony /aua, /ai aao/aaay eoeueoo?a. Yoi aiai?eo
i ianooaaao au?aueaaiey aeuiue a ia?ieeao a ?innee oiai a?aiaie[13,27].

A eiioea 40-o aiaeia iaoaai aaea aiiaue aic?in eioa?an e aicaeaeuaaieth
aeuie ia naaa?a, aeaaiui ia?acii a caueuaiiii a?oioa. I?e aicaeaeuaaiee
aeuie iiae Eaieia?aaeii iieo/aee o?iaeae aei 15-25 ea/i2 (a n?aaeiai 5-6
ea/i2). Niaea?aeaiea nooeo aauanoa a eaieia?aaeneeo aeuiyo aeioiaeeei
aei 12,5 %, niaea?aeaiea naoa?ia ( aei 11 % (a n?aaeiai 7-11 %). A yoi
a?aiy i?iaiaeeeanue aieueoay ?aaioa ii naeaeoeee aeuie aeey naaa?iuo
?aeiiia aao/aaiaenoaa. Auee nicaeaiu nei?iniaeua ni?oa A?oioiaay
A?eaianeay, A?eaianeay ?annaaeiay ? 13, ?ycaineay, Aeoaeneay [9].

C ia/aea 70-o aiaeia iaoaai aaea a ?anioaeeeao Niaaoneiai Nithca
ia/aeenue aeoeaiua enneaaeiaaiey ii eoeueoo?a aeuie a oaieeoeao, a oii
/enea e a ceiieo. Aii?inaie naeaeoeee e aa?ioaoieee aeuie a caueuaiiii
a?oioa a yoi a?aiy caieiaeenue: Neioa?iiieueneay iaiua-aao/aaay iiuoiay
noaioeey, Oe?aeineee IEE iaiuaaiaenoaa e aao/aaiaenoaa, Aeiiaoeeay
iaiua-aao/aaay iiuoiay noaioeey, Naeueneioicyenoaaiiay Aeaaeaiey ei.
E.A. Oeie?ycaaa, Eaieia?aaeneee NOE, Iaaeianeay iiuoiay noaioeey AE?,
Caiaaeii-Neae?neay iiuoiay noaioeey e ae?. [2,7,10,24,32,35,58].

2.2. ?ani?ino?aiaiea eoeueoo?u aeuie caueuaiiiai a?oioa a ie?a.

Aeuiy oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia a caueuaiiii a?oioa ai O?aioeee, Eoaeee,
Aaia?ee, Eniaiee, NOA, Aieaa?ee e ssiiiee [21,24,26,41]. Aeaaea a oaeeo
oaieuo no?aiao, eae Ec?aeeue, Aaeiao, Ia?ieei e ae?. ana aieueoaa
cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao au?aueaaiea aeuie a ceiiee ia?eiae a ieaii/iuo
oaieeoeao [37,63,113].

A ssiiiee aao/aaua caieiatho 17-18% ieiuaaeae oaieeoe, a oii /enea
1300-1400 aa aeuie iiae noaeeii e aieaa 3700 aa iiae ieaieie. I?e yoii
ieiuaaeue aeuie a inoaeeaiiuo oaieeoeao eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo: anee
a 1975 aiaeo iia caieiaea 900 aa, oi a 1980 aiaeo 1200 aa, a a 1985 1300
aa. N?aaeiyy o?iaeaeiinoue aeuie a oaieeoeao 4 ea/i2. Aaeiaua nai?u
aeuie ec oaieeoe ninoaaeytho aieaa 150 oiii, a oii /enea ec inoaeeaiiuo
oaieeoe ( ieiei 40 oiii [41,68,71]. A ssiiiee au?aueaatho aia?eeaineea,
ainoi/iua nei?iniaeua, a oaeaea, aeey eiina?ae?iaaiey, eeoaeneea
iaaeana?oiua aeuie. Ec a?oiiu aeana?oiuo ni?oia i?aaeii/eoatho ni?oa
aeuie n caeaiie iyeioueth, ie?oaeie oi?iu e nao/aoie iiaa?oiinoueth
ieiaeia. Aeuith au?aueaatho e?oaeiaiaee/ii. A inoaeeaiiuo oaieeoeao
aeuith aunaaeeaatho a /aou?a iai?ioa ii o?e ianyoea eaaeaeue. Iau/ii n
?anoaiey iieo/atho iaeei e?oiiue ieiae. Ea/anoai ieiaeia i/aiue aunieia.
Nouanoaoao oaoiieiaey au?aueaaiey a ia?aoiaeiii iai?ioa, i?e eioi?ie
?annaaeo a oaieeoeu aunaaeeaatho a III aeaeaaea aaaonoa, oeaaoaiea
i?eoiaeeony ia III aeaeaaeo ieoya?y, a ieiaeiiioaiea ia/eiaaony a III
aeaeaaea yiaa?y [5,47,55].

A Aieeaiaeee ii ieiuaaeyi a inoaeeaiiuo oaieeoeao aeuiy eeoue iaiiiai
onooiaao aaeeaaeaiai e aaeaaiaeii caieiaao 40-60 aa. Aaeaaiaeii
i?iecaiaeeony 2-3 iei. oooe ieiaeia. Aeuie ec oaieeoe eaeoo ia yenii?o,
47 % eioi?iai i?eoiaeeony ia Aiaeeth e 43 % ( ia Caiaaeioth Aa?iaieth
[10,50,108].

A oaieeoeao Oaaoeee a 1993 aiaeo aeuiy caieiaea 20151 i2 (ieiei 1 %) io
iauae ieiuaaee oaieeoe, caiyouo iaiuiuie eoeueoo?aie a yoie no?aia,
eioi?ay ninoaaeyey 2048232 i2. Aaeiaie nai? a yoii aiaeo ninoaaee 114
oiii [69]. A Aeaiee oieueei ia ieia?aeueiie aaoa aaeaaiaeii i?iecaiaeyo
ieiei 400 o i?iaeoeoeee aeuie i?e o?iaeaeiinoe 6-7 ea/i2. ?annaaeo
aunaaeeaatho a ia/aea ai?aey – iay ii 2-3 ?anoaiey ia eaaae?aoiue iao?
[22].

Ai O?aioeee iinaaeee aeuie caieitho ieiei 1500 aa, ec ieo a caueuaiiii
a?oioa (aeaaiui ia?acii a iee?ioiiiaeyo) ( ieiei 7000 aa [82]. A NOA a
aieueoeo ianooaaao aeuith au?aueaatho a iaeiaaaa?eoiuo ieaii/iuo
oe?uoeyo [7,26].

3. Aeieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee aeuie.

3.1. Aioaie/aneia iienaiea.

Eoeueoo?iay aeuiy (Cucumis melo L., 2n=24) ioiineony e ?iaeo Cucumis L.,
naiaenoao oueaaiiua (Cucurbitaceae Juss).

?anoaiea iaeiieaoiaa, o?aayienoia. Ei?iaaay nenoaia ninoieo ec aeaaiiai
ei?iy e aieiauo ioaaoaeaiee, ia?acothueo ianno iaeeeo ei?iae. Iniiaiay
ianna ei?iae ?aniieiaeaia a aa?oieo ?uoeuo neiyo ii/au. A caaeneiinoe io
oneiaee au?aueaaiey iia iiaeao neeueii ?acaeaaoueny e i?iieeaoue ia
aeoaeio 2-2,5 iao?a.

Noaaaeue aeeeiiue, eeaiiaeaeiue, iieco/ee, ie?oaei-a?aiaiue, oieueiie
aei 2 ni, aeeeiie 2,5-3 i. Iiooaiea noaaey a?oaia, aeanoei-aieinenoia.
Io aeaaiiai iiaaaa ii anae aai aeeeia iooiaeeo 10 e aieaa aieiauo
iiaaaia I, II, III ii?yaeeia. Iauay aeeeia iiaaaia ia ?anoaiee
ninoaaeyao 25-30 i.

Eenouey i/a?aaeiua, aeeeiii/a?aoeiaua, aac i?eeenoieeia. *a?aoee
ie?oaei-a?aiaiua, naa?oo aeaeia/aoua, a?oaiiiooaiiua; o ni?oia
n?aaeiaaceaoneiai iiaeaeaea i?yiinoiy/ea, aa?iiaeneiai ( iaeeiiiua.

Eenoiaay ieanoeiea oeaeueiay eee ?ac?aciay. E?ae eenoa coa/aoue eee
?iaiue (oeaeueiie?aeiue). Oi?ia eenoa ie?oaeay, na?aeoeaaeaeiay (aeeeia
eenoa ?aaia oe?eia eee iaiiiai aieueoa), ii/eiaeaeiay (aeeeia eenoa
iaiueoa aai oe?eiu), oaeiaaoay (o?aoaieueiay eee iyoeoaieueiay). ?acia?
eenoiaie ieanoeiee aa?uee?oao io iaeeiai aei e?oiiiai, eae ii ni?oai,
oae e a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai ?anoaiey. Aeeeia ieanoeiee 7 ( 20 ni, oe?eia
12 ( 28 ni. Ie?anea eenoa oaiii-caeaiay, naaoei-caeaiay, na?i-caeaiay.
Iiooaiea ?aaeeia eee aonoia, aieinee iyaeea eee aeanoeea (a?oaua).

Oeaaoeai naienoaaiai i?aaeeueiue, iyoe/eaiiue ieieioeaaoiee. Aai/ee
ai?iieiaeaeiue, niaeiieaianoiue, n?inoeeny, o iniiaaiey n /aoa/eie.
Oeaaoie aeinoeaaao 2 ( 6 ni a aeeaiao?a. Eaianoeia iyoue, aeaeoiai
oeaaoa, yeoeaaeaeiie eee ie?oaeie oi?iu, aonoi iiooaiiuo ii aeeeeai.
Ou/eiie iyoue, ec eioi?uo /aou?a n?ineenue iiia?ii, iaeia naiaiaeiay.
Iueueieee aeaeoua, iaoeaia?acii eciaiooua, n i?eaeaoeaie. *aoa/ea
aieaeiaeaeiay eee eiioniaeaeiay, naaoei-caeaiay, aonoiiiooaiiay, n
iyoueth oeeiaeaeiuie /aoaeenoeeaie. Ianoee ei?ioeee, ooieuaiiue,
ooieuaiiue, o?ao-, ?aaea iyoeeiianoiia.

Aeuiy eiaao o?e iniiaiuo oeia oeaaoea: ioaeneie, aeaineee e
aa?iao?iaeeoiue. A aa?iao?iaeeoiuo oeaaoeao ou/eiee eiatho ii?iaeueioth
oa?oeeueioth iueueoeo. Iueueoea eeieay, oyaeaeay, ia?aiineony
ianaeiiuie, iueueoeaaua ca?ia o?aoaieueiie oi?iu. Aieueoeinoai
?aeiie?iaaiiuo ni?oia aeuie a ?innee eiaao ia ?anoaiee ou/eii/iua
(ioaeneea) e aa?iao?iaeeoiua (ooieoeeiiaeueiua aeaineea) oeaaoee oi
anoue ioiinyony e iieiaiio oeio aiae?iiiiieeenou. Iaaieueoay /anoue
nei?iniaeuo ni?oia aa?iiaeneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony /aoeie
?acaeaeueiiiieinoueth (iiiieeenou) n ?aniieiaeaieai ia iaeiii ?anoaiee
ioaeneeo e aeaineeo oeaaoeia. Aioo?e aeaea iaaethaeaaony iai?a?uaiue
?yae ia?aoiaeiuo oi?i io aa?iao?iaeeoiiai oeaaoea e ianoe/iiio. O
iieoeoeueoo?iuo iiaeaeaeia ano?a/athony aa?iao?iaeeoiua oi?iu. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey eniieueciaaiey a naeaeoeee ia aaoa?icen iieo/aiu
?anoaiey, eiathuea oieueei aeaineea oeaaoee (aeiioeee).

Caaycue ieaeiyy, iaaeueiay eee oei?i/aiii-iaaeueiay, aonoiiiooaiiay,
ia?acoaony ec n?inoeony ieiaeieenoeeia. Ieiae ( iiiainaiaiiay yaiaea
(oueaeia), ?aciiia?aciue ii oi?ia (io niethniooie aei oeeeeiae?e/aneie),
oa?aeoa?o iiaa?oiinoe (io aeaaeeie aei naaiaioe?iaaiiie e ii?ueienoie),
ie?anea iac?aeiai ieiaea (io caeaiie aei aaeie eee aeaeoie) e c?aeiai
(io caeaiie aei aeaeoi-ei?e/iaaie eee ieeaeiaie). Ianna ieiaea io 1 aei
20 ea. Iyeioue ieiaea ia?acoaony ec ?ac?inoeony ieaoeaio e eiaao
?acee/ioth no?oeoo?o, eiinenoaioeeth, ieioiinoue, aeon e oeaao.

Naiaia aac yiaeinia?ia, oaeeeiaiii-iaaeueiie, yeoeaaeaeiie eee iaaeueiie
oi?iu, aieaa eee iaiaa auoyiooua, caino?aiiua, naaoeie ie?anee (aeaeoay,
aaeay, e?aiiaay) [8,21,27,28,29,30,34].

3.2. Yoaiu ?inoa e ?acaeoey.

Naiaia aeuie ia/eiatho i?i?anoaoue i?e oaiia?aoo?a 15 0N. Oaiia?aoo?a 30
0N yaeyaony iioeioiii aeey i?i?anoaiey naiyi aeuie [8,27,34].

Aeaaiue noaaaeue aeuie a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae ?acaeoey ?anoao i/aiue
iaaeeaiii. A yoio ia?eiae aeaaiue noaaaeue eiaao 5-6 ianoiyueo eenoueaa
e ?aniieaaaaony aa?oeeaeueii, iiyoiio yoa oaca ?acaeoey iineo iacaaiea
(oaca oao?eea(. Ai a?aiy (oacu oao?eea( auno?i ?anoao e ?acaeaaaony
ei?iaaay nenoaia, eioi?ay aeinoeaaao naiaai iaeneioia e ia?eiaeo
ianniaiai oeaaoaiey. Ia/eiay n ia?aciaaiey 6-8-ai eenoa (iinea ia/aea
aaoaeaiey) ?ino aeaaiiai noaaey e ?ino aieiauo aaoaae neeueii onei?yaony
[11,27,34,46].

Oeaaoaiea aeuie ia/eiaaony n oeaaoaiey ioaeneeo oeaaoeia. O nei?iniaeuo
ia?acoeia iie caeeaaeuaathony a iacooa aoi?iai – o?aoueaai, o
iicaeianiaeuo ( /aoaa?oiai – iyoiai eenoa iiaaaa ioeaaiai ii?yaeea. Aei
iiyaeaiey ia?aiai aeaineiai oeaaoea ia ?anoaiee ia?acoaony io 6 aei 30
ioaeneeo oeaaoeia, a caaeneiinoe io nei?iniaeinoe ni?oa. Ia?aua aeaineea
oeaaoee iiyaeythony ia iiaaaao aoi?iai – o?aoueaai ii?yaeeia. AEaineea
oeaaoee, noi?ie?iaaiiua ia aeaaiii iiaaaa /aua auaatho noa?eeueiu,
iiyoiio ieiaeu caaycuaathony i/aiue ?aaeei. Oeaaoaiea aeaineeo oeaaoeia
i?iaeieaeaaony a n?aaeiai iaeei ianyoe. Iiae aeeyieai iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
oaeoi?ia n?aaeu (caoaiaiea ?anoaiee, iaaeinoaoie eee ecauoie aeaae,
iaaeinoaoie ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa e ae?.) eiee/anoai aeaineeo oeaaoeia
oiaiueoaaony eee eo oeaaoaiea caiacaeuaaao.

Oeaaoee aeuie iiaoo iiueyoueny i/aeaie, o?einaie, io?aaueyie. Aooiiu
?ane?uaathony a ynioth iiaiaeo a 6 /ania, iueueoea aunuiaaony ec
iueueieeia iau/ii ?aiueoa. E iieoaeith aieueoeinoai iueueieeia
inaiaiaeaeaaony io iueueoeu e ioaeneea oeaaoee canuoatho. Iaiiueaiiua
aeaineea oeaaoee nio?aiythony a oa/aiee 1-2 aeiae, a caoai canuoatho. A
oieiaeioth iiaiaeo iiae aeeyieai ieceie oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa iueueieee a
oeaaoeao ia eiiathony e iiueaiey ia i?ienoiaeeo. Iaaeinoaoie iueueoeu
i?e iiueaiee i?eaiaeeo e oi?ie?iaaieth o?iaeeeauo ieiaeia e iaeiio
eiee/anoao caaycaaoeony naiyi.

Ia ?anoaiee oi?ie?oaony io iaeiiai aei iyoe ieiaeia, a caaeneiinoe io
ni?oiauo iniaaiiinoae. Eiee/anoai ieiaeia ia ?anoaiee iaoneiaeaii
aeieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie ni?oia, i?aaeaeii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie
iaa?ocee ?anoaiee. Iiyoiio eeoiea, caaycaaoeany naa?o ii?iu ieiaeu
iau/ii ioie?atho 8,27,34].

Nei?iniaeinoue ni?oia aeuie caaeneo aeaaiui ia?acii io aeeeoaeueiinoe
oac ?inoa e nic?aaaiey ieiaeia, a ia ia/aeii oeaaoaiey aeaineeo
oeaaoeia. Iiiaea ni?oa, nic?aaathuea a ?aciia a?aiy ia/eiatho oeaanoe
ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii. ?ino ieiaeia

I?eia?ii /a?ac 30 aeiae iinea caaycuaaiey ieiaeu caeai/eaatho ?ino. A
yoio ia?eiae iaaethaeaaony iaeaieaa eioaineaiia iaeiieaiea naoa?ia a
ieiaeao. Io oneiaee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a yoio ia?eiae eo aeoniaua
ea/anoaa caaenyo a iaeaieueoae noaiaie [42,52,70,111]. Nic?aaaiea
ieiaeia o aieueoeinoaa oaiee/iuo ni?oia, a caaeneiinoe io ni?oiauo
iniaaiiinoae e oneiaee au?aueaaiey, ianooiaao /a?ac 30-50 aeiae iinea
caaycuaaiey. I?ioeannu nic?aaaiey naiyi e iyeioe i?ioiaeyo iaeiia?aiaiii
[46,54,82,96].

Aeuiiue a?iiao ieiaeia iiyaeyaony i?e aiay?iaiii a?iaeaiee,
caeai/eaathueiny ia?aciaaieai a ieiaeao yoeeiaiai nie?oa. A iaeaieueoae
noaiaie i?ioeannu aiay?iaiiai aeuoaiey naienoaaiiu ?aiiei ni?oai, /oi
yaeyaony i?e/eiie eo aieaa neeueiiai a?iiaoa, ii n?aaiaieth n iicaeieie
e eaaeeeie [34].

Ieiaeiiioaiea aeuie a oaieeoea iineo aieiiaie oa?aeoa?. I?e iinaaeea
aeuie a ia/aea ia?oa ia?aay aieia ieiaeiiioaiey i?eoiaeeony ia I
aeaeaaeo iay ( II aeaeaaeo ethiy (i?iaeieaeaaony 30-40 aeiae) [2].

3.3. O?aaiaaiey e oneiaeyi ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

3.3.1. Naao.

Aeuiy i/aiue o?aaiaaoaeueia e naaoiaui oneiaeyi. Aeey ii?iaeueiiai ?inoa
e ?acaeoey ?anoaiee iaiaoiaeeia inaauaiiinoue eioaineaiinoueth 5000-6000
ee e aieaa [77].

Aeuiy ( ?anoaiea ei?ioeiai aeiy. Ia oei?i/aiiii 12-/aniaii aeia
oeaaoaiea ianooiaao ?aiueoa, /ai ia aeeeiiii anoanoaaiiii aeia, a
8-/aniaie aeaiue oi?iiceo ?acaeoea ?anoaiee. Ia?eiae a oa/aiee eioi?iai
?anoaiey /oanoaeoaeueiu e aeeeia aeiy caeai/eaaaony iinea ia?aciaaiey
4-5 ianoiyueo eenoueaa [11,27,29,34].

Iiuou, i?iaiaeeaoeany a 1986 aiaeo a Eniaiee iaaeyaeii iieacuaatho
?aaeoeeth aeuie ia aeeeio aeiy a oneiaeyo caueuaiiiai a?oioa. Ni?o Piel
de Sapo aunaaaee a oaieeoeo eaaeaeua 5-10 aeiae e?oaeue aiae. ?anoaiey,
iinayiiua a ia?eiae n yiaa?y ii ai?aeue eiaee aieueooth noaiaiue
oaieiecaoeee, /ai iinayiiua n iay ii ethiue. I?e iinaaa n naioya?y aei
iiya?y ?anoaiey aiiaua ia aeaee aeaineeo oeaaoeia. ?anoaiey
aeaeaa?ueneiai iinaaa caieiaee i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea [39].

Iioeiaeueiay aeey oioineioaca aeeeia aieiu naaoa eciaiyaony a
caaeneiinoe io aai eioaineaiinoe. Naao n aeeeiie aieiu 675 ii iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaai i?e iiieaeaiiii o?iaia inaauaiiinoe ( iaiaa 13 Ao/i2. I?e
aieaa aunieii o?iaia inaauaiiinoe aieaa yooaeoeaai naao n aeeeiie aieiu
550 ii [99].

Aunaaeea ?annaaeu aeuie a ceiiae oaieeoea a ?acee/iua n?iee iieacaea,
/oi oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua oneiaey inaauaiiinoe aeinoeaathony oieueei a
ia?oa, iiyoiio ii oneiaeyi inaauaiiinoe a 2-4 naaoiauo ciiao aeuith
aunaaeeaatho a ceiiea oaieeoeu a eiioea oaa?aey – ia/aea ia?oa. I?e
aieaa ?aiiae iinaaeea ec-ca neaaie inaauaiiinoe ?anoaiey ia ia?acotho
ianoe/iuo oeaaoeia e ie i?eueieaie, ie ia?aaioeaie ?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoa
iaaiciiaeii aucaaoue eo iiyaeaiea [4,5,26,44,77,79,109,110].

Ii aeaiiui E.E. Iaiaaei i?e oiaiueoaiee eioaineaiinoe inaauaiiinoe a 5
?ac eioa?aae iaaeaeo ia/aeii oeaaoaiey ioaeneeo oeaaoeia e ia/aeii
oeaaoaiey ianoe/iuo oeaaoeia aeinoeaaao 32 aeiae, a oi a?aiy eae i?e
ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo inaauaiiinoe ii ninoaaeyao 3-5 aeiae. Iaeaunooth
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e caoaiaieth aeuiy i?iyaeyao a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae
naiaai ?acaeoey [27]. Iiyoiio, a oneiaeyo ceiiae oaieeoeu i?e
iiieaeaiiie inaauaiiinoe a ceiiea e ?aiiaaanaiiea ianyoeu neeueii
oaeeeiyaony ia?aue ia?eiae aeecie ?anoaiee ( io anoiaeia aei ia/aea
oeaaoaiey aeaineeie oeaaoeaie. I?e aunaaeea ?annaaeu 15 oaa?aey e 13
ia?oa oeaaoaiea aeaineeie oeaaoeaie o iaeieo e oao aea ni?oia e
aea?eaeia ia/aeinue i?aeoe/anee a iaeii e oiaea a?aiy n ?acieoeae a
iieueco ia?aiai n?iea a 3-7 aeiae. Ie i?eueieaie, ie oneeaiiui acioiui
ieoaieai e ie ia?aaioeaie ?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoa iaaiciiaeii aucaaoue
iiyaeaiea aeaineeo oeaaoeia ia ?anoaiee aei ia?oa-ai?aey. I?e aunaaeea
aeuie 13 ia?oa a ceiiae oaieeoea ?anoaiey neeueii auoyaeaaeenue,
iniaaiii a ia?aue ia?eiae iinea aunaaeee ?annaaeu. Ieaoe ia?aiai
ii?yaeea oaeaea neeueii auoyaeaaeenue, i?aeoe/anee ia ia?aciauaaee
aeaineeo oeaaoeia e ia ea?aee nouanoaaiiie ?iee a ia?aciaaiee
anneieeyoeeiiiiai aiia?aoa. Iniaaiii yoi au?aaeaii o ?aiieo ni?oia
[4,5].

A Eaieia?aaeneie iaeanoe i?e aunaaa i?i?iuaiiuie naiaiaie ni?oia Ceaa?,
Aeana?oiay 5 e Eieoicieoea 749/753 18 yiaa?y e 1 oaa?aey, ?anoaiey ni?oa
Eieoicieoea 749/753 ia/aee ieiaeiiineoue i?aeoe/anee iaeiia?aiaiii (15
iay). Ni?oa Ceaa? e Aeana?oiay 5 i?e aoi?ii n?iea iinaaa ia/aee
ieiaeiiineoue ia 6-7 aeiae iicaea, /ai i?e ia?aii n?iea iinaaa. Ioia/aii
iaeioi?ia o?iaeay a aa?eaioao ia?aiai n?iea iinaaa ii n?aaiaieth ni
aoi?ui, iaeiaei yoi i?aauoaiea ia ii?aaaeuaaao aeiiieieoaeueiuo cao?ao
ia niaea?aeaiea oaieeoeu [10].

Ii oneiaeyi inaauaiiinoe eoeueoo?a aeuie a 3-4 naaoiauo ciiao aiciiaeia
aei na?aaeeiu ieoya?y [46,48,109].

3.3.2. Oaiia?aoo?a.

Aeuiy ( oaieiethaeaay eoeueoo?a. Naiaia ia/eiatho i?i?anoaoue i?e 15(0N.
Iioeiaeueiie oaiia?aoo?ie aeey i?i?anoaiey naiyi n/eoatho 25-30 0N, i?e
yoii naiaia i?i?anoatho a oa/aiee 48 /ania. I?e oaiia?aoo?a aieaa 40 0N
i?i?anoaiea naiyi caaea?aeeaaaony. I?e oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa iaiaa 15 0N
aeuiy ii/oe ia ?acaeaaaony, i?e 10 0N i?ae?auathony i?ioeannu
anneieeyoeee, a i?e —10N ?anoaiey aeaioo /a?ac 2-3 /ana. Iioeiaeueiie
oaiia?aoo?ie aeey oioineioaca aeuie n/eoaaony 30-40 0N
[22,27].Iiieaeaiiay aeiaaiay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa (10-12 0N) ineaaeyao
?ino, ii oneeeaaao ?acaeoea ?anoaiee. I?e oaeie oaiia?aoo?a
iaaethaeaaony iiaaeaiea oeaaoeia [11,27,28,34]. Oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa
10-15 0N yaeyaony aeieiae/aneei ieieioiii aeey aieueoeinoaa ni?oia
eoeueoo?iie aeuie [13,27,28,34,58,82].

Aeey nic?aaaiey ieiaeia aeuie noiia yooaeoeaiuo oaiia?aoo? aicaeooa auoa
10 0N ca aanue aaaaoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae aeieaeia auoue ia ieaea 2800-3200
0N [29].

Ii aeaiiui ioa/anoaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia oaiia?aoo?o aicaeooa i?e
aicaeaeuaaiee aeuie a oaieeoea iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ia 2-3 0N
auoa, /ai i?e eoeueoo?a iao?oea: 26-28(0N ( aeiai e ia ieaea 18 0N
ii/ueth [24,26,34].

Ano?a/athony oaeaea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, /oi a ieaii/iie oaieeoea aei
ia?aciaaiey ?anoaieyie caaycae iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oaiia?aoo?o
ia ieaea 25-300N, iinea ( 30-400N, a a ianio?ioth iiaiaeo 22-240N.
Ii/iay oaiia?aoo?a oaeaea ia aeieaeia iioneaoueny ieaea 180N [11,13].

Iaeiaei a Aa?iia i?e aicaeaeuaaiee aeuie a oaieeoea iiaeaea?aeeaatho
aieaa oia?aiiue oaieiaie ?aaeei. N/eoatho, /oi iiieaeaiiua oaiia?aoo?u
noeioee?otho caeeaaeeo aeaineeo oeaaoia (iniaaiii i?e aanaiiae iinaaeea,
a oneiaeyo aeeeiiiai aeiy), oaaee/eaatho i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaea
caaycuaaiea ieiaeia — nic?aaaiea e, eae neaaenoaea, iiauoatho iaeiieaiea
anneieeyioia (naoa?ia) a ieiaeao [38,42,46,58,95,108].

Ii-aeaeeiiio oaeea ?aciiaeaney aucaaiu oai, /oi ia o/eouaathony oneiaey
inaauaiiinoe aeey eioi?uo ?aeiiaiaeothony aeaiiua oaiia?aoo?u. I?e
ieceie inaauaiiinoe iioeiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a cia/eoaeueii ieaea, /ai i?e
aunieie [45,58].

Iinea aunaaeee ?annaaeu aieeaiaeneea niaoeeaeenou ?aeiiaiaeotho nieceoue
oaiia?aoo?o aicaeooa ia aeaa aeiy aei 20 0N aeaiue/ii/ue aeey eo/oae
i?eaeeaaaiinoe ?annaaeu [95,108], a a aeaeueiaeoai — iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ia
o?iaia 18 0N ii/ueth e 21-22 0N aeiai [79,95,108]. Iinea caaycuaaiey
ieiaeia /anoi ?aeiiaiaeotho oaiia?aoo?u 19-20 0N aeiai e 15-16 0N
ii/ueth. I?e yoii oeacuaaaony, /oi ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ia?eiae
caaycuaaiea – nic?aaaiea ieiaeia oaaee/eaaaony n 40-42 aeiae (i?e
au?aueaaiee a aea?eea eaoiea ia?eiaeu) aei 50-60 aeiae, ea/anoai ieiaeia
oaaee/eaaaony ca n/ao oiai, /oi anneieeyiou ia ?anoiaeothony ia
aeuoaiea, a iaeaieeaathony a ieiaeao [77,96]. A ia?eiae ?inoa e
nic?aaaiey ieiaeia aunieea oaiia?aoo?u (auoa 35-40 0N) aaaeoo e
oiaiueoaieth niaea?aeaiey naoa?ia a ieiaeao [63,96,110]. I?e aieueoeo
ia?aiaaeao oaiia?aoo?u a ni/aoaiee n aunieie aeaaeiinoueth aicaeooa ia
ieiaeao ia?acoaony eiiaeainao e iie caaieaatho [96].

Aeuiy o?aaiaaoaeueia e oaiia?aoo?a noano?aoa [45,109]. Iioeiaeueiie
oaiia?aoo?ie noano?aoa n/eoaaony 20-240N [26,43,95].I?e oaiia?aoo?a
ei?iaiaeoaaiie n?aaeu a ieaii/iie oaieeoea +20-210 N aeuiy aac
nouanoaaiiiai nieaeaiey o?iaeay ia?aiineea iiieaeaiiua (120 N-150 N )
ii/iua oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa [75,110].

3.3.3. Aeaaeiinoue.

Aeuiy yaeyaony aeiaieueii canooionoie/eaie eoeueoo?ie, a oi aea a?aiy
iia eiaao aunieee o?ainie?aoeeiiiue eiyooeoeeaio, eioi?ue ?aaai 621, oi
anoue aeey ia?aciaaiey o?iaeay aeuiy iio?aaeyao aeiaieueii iiiai aiaeu
[27].

Iio?aaeaiea aeuiae aiaeu eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io ia?eiaea ?inoa
?anoaiee. Iiauoaiiay iio?aaiinoue ?anoaiee aeuie a aiaea iaaethaeaaony
ai a?aiy ieaoaia?aciaaiey e ?inoa ieiaeia [28].

N/eoatho, /oi 21% iauaai eiee/anoaa aiaeu aeuiy iio?aaeyao a ia?eiae io
iiyaeaiea anoiaeia aei oeaaoaiey, 37% — a ia?eiae oeaaoaiea —
caaycuaaiea ieiaeia, 32% — ai a?aiy ?inoa ieiaeia e 10% — a ia?eiae
ieii/aiey ?inoa ieiaeia — nic?aaaiey [41,77]. A iiuoao ii au?aueaaieth
aeuie ia aeae?iiiieea onoaiiaeaii, /oi iieiaeua ?anoaiey iio?aaeytho
0,7-0,8 eeo?ia ?anoai?a a aeaiue (aei 1,2-1,5 eeo?ia a nieia/ioth
iiaiaeo), a ia?eiae ?inoa ieiaeia ( aei 3,0-3,5 eeo?ia aaeaiue [81,103].

A oaieeoeao aei caaycuaaiey ieiaeia ?anoaiey aeuie iieeaatho ianeieueei
oia?aiiaa, /ai iao?aoe a nayce ni neeiiiinoueth ?anoaiee e neeueiiio
aaaaoaoeaiiio ?inoo a oua?a ieiaeiiioaieth. Oneeeaatho iieea oieueei ai
a?aiy iaeeaa ieiaeia, aeaaay i?e yoii e iiaeei?iee [26].

I?e iieeaao ?aeiiaiaeotho ecaaaaoue iiiaaeaiey aiaeu ia iaaecaiiua /anoe
?anoaiee, iineieueeo yoi aaaeao e ?ani?ino?aiaieth a?eaiuo e
aaeoa?eaeueiuo aieaciae. Iniaaiii neaaeoao ecaaaaoue neeueiiai
oaeaaeiaiey ei?iaaie oaeee [13,26,34,79].

I?e aunieie aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa aeuiy iiaeao ii?aaeaoueny aieaciyie,
iiyoiio ioiineoaeueioth aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa, iniaaiii ai a?aiy
oeaaoaiey, ?aeiiaiaeotho iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ia o?iaia 60-70%. Iniaaiii
iaiaoiaeei aeuia nooie aicaeoo a ia?eiae nic?aaaiey ieiaeia
[26,28,43,108].

3.3.4. Ieia?aeueiia ieoaiea.

Aeey iinaaeee aeuie iaiaoiaeei ieiaei?iaeiue a?oio n aeoaieei (30 ni)
ei?iaiaeoaaiui neiai e oi?ioei ae?aiaaeai. ?aeiiaiaeoaiia niaea?aeaiea
iniiaiuo yeaiaioia ieoaiey a a?oioa ia?aae iinaaeeie: E — 1,50; Na —
1,50; Mg — 1,25; N — 3,00; S — 2,00; P — 0,15 iiieue/ eeo? aiaeiie
auoyaeee (1:2 ii iauaio), i?e ?I 6-7 e AN 3 iN/ni [55,80,82,95].

Ii aeaiiui O. Aaennea?a i?e ?aaiie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe au?aueaaiey
auiin ieia?aeueiuo yeaiaioia aeuiae ninoaaeyao oieueei 25-33% oaeiaiai o
iao?oea (oaae. 1) [45,82].

I?e o?iaeaa 5,2 ea ieiaeia ia ?anoaiey aea?eaea F1 Galia a oaieeoea
auiineee (a/?anoaiea): 10,97 — N; 2,67 — P; 21,20 — K; 15,06 — Ca; 4,68
— Mg. Iio?aaeaiea acioa, oinoi?a e eaeey iaeaieaa eioaineaii
i?ienoiaeeei n 10-e ii 12-th iaaeaeth iinea iinaaeee, a ia?eiae
iaeneiaeueiiai i?iaeooee?iaaiey ieiaeia, a iio?aaeaiea eaeueoeey e
iaaiey ( n 4-e ii 6-th iaaeaeth iinea iinaaeee, a ia?eiae iaeneiaeueiiai
aaaaoaoeaiiai ?inoa [97].

Iio?aaiinoue aeuie a yeaiaioao ieoaiey eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io
ia?eiaea ?inoa [40,41]. Iniiauaaynue ia aeeiaieea iio?aaeaiey aeuiae
ieia?aeueiuo yeaiaioia ec ieoaoaeueiiai ?anoai?a Oaeaaiueneeie
enneaaeiaaoaeyie auaeaeaii 4 noaaeee ?acaeoey aeuie a oaiee/iie
eoeueoo?a: aaaaoaoeaiue ?ino, caaycuaaiea ieiaeia, ?ino ieiaeia e
nic?aaaiea ieiaeia. Iaeaieueoaa iio?aaeaiea aeuiae ieoaoaeueiiai
?anoai?a iaaethaeaeinue a ia?eiae ?inoa ieiaeia e iieiaeeoaeueii
ei??aee?iaaei n ?acia?ii ieiaeia [103].

Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea a ieia?aeueiii ieoaiee aeuie ea?aao eaeee. I?e
iiauoaiiii o?iaia eaeeeiiai ieoaiey oaaee/eaaaony i?iaeoeoeaiinoue,
onoie/eainoue e aieaciyi, a oaeaea oeo/oaaony oeie/aneee ninoaa ieiaeia,
iniaaiii a ioiioaiee anei?aeiiaie eeneiou e naoa?ia [82,87]. Eaeee
niinianoaoao eo/oaio oeaaoaieth aeaineeie oeaaoeaie. I?e oneeaiiii
eaeeeiii ieoaiee aeaineea oeaaou ?aniieaaathony ia ieaoyo iecoaai
ii?yaeea, /oi niinianoaoao aieueoae nei?iniaeinoe [8].

I?e au?aueaaiee aeuie a oaieeoea yooaeoeaiui i?eaiii yaeyaony iiaeei?iea
?anoaiee oaeaeeneui aacii. I?e inaauaiiinoe 10000 ee e aieaa
?aeiiaiaeoaony iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eiioeaio?aoeeth NI2 a aicaeooa ia o?iaia
700 ??m, i?e iaiueoae inaauaiiinoe — 400 ppm [79].

4. Nenoaiaoeea e ni?oa aeuie.

4.1. Nenoaiaoeea.

Aeuiy (Cucumis melo L.) i?ienoiaeeo ec Acee e, aiciiaeii, Ao?eee. N?aaee
eiathueony eeanneoeeaoeee aeey naeaeoeeiia?ia iaeaieaa oaeiaia nenoaia
E.E. Iaiaaei ( E. A?aaaiueeiaa, niaeanii eioi?ie aeae aeeth/aao iyoue
iiaeaeaeia:

I. subsp. agrestis (Naud.) Greb. ( aeuiy ni?iiiieaaay, ninoieo ec aeaoo
?aciiaeaeiinoae:

1) var. agrestis ( ieiaeu iiiai/eneaiiua, iaeeea, ai?ueeea,
naeaeoeeiiiay oeaiiinoue ia eco/aia;

2) var. figari (Pang.) Greb. ( ieiaeu aieaa e?oiiua, iyeioue ieioiay,
ianuaaeiaiay, naeaeoeeiiiay oeaiiinoue ia auyniaia;

II. subsp. dudaim (L.) Greb. ( ieiaeu iaeeea, n neeueiui a?iiaoii,
iaeineaaeeea, naeaeoeeiiiay oeaiiinoue ia auyniaia;

III. subsp. melo ( aeuiy eoeueoo?iay, aeeth/aao oanoue a?oii
?aciiaeaeiinoae (convar.). Niaea?aeeo aiaaoue enoiaeiue iaoa?eae aeey
naeaeoeee;

1) convar. cassaba (Pang.) Greb. ( aeuiy Eannaaa ec Iaeie Acee. Ieiaeu n
ninoeaaeaeiui au?inoii o ieiaeiiiaeee, /aua ii?ueienoua. Iyeioue
oienoay, ni/iay, neaaeeay, aeic?aaaao i?e o?aiaiee. I?aaenoaaeyao
eioa?an aeey naeaeoeee ia eaaeeinoue, o?ainii?oaaaeueiinoue,
i?eaiaeiinoue e iaoeiiie oai?ea;

2) convar. adana (Pang.) Greb. ( aeuiy aa?iiaeneay, iauaaeeiyao iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiua ioa/anoaaiiua ni?oa. Ieiaeu iaeeea e n?aaeiea, iyeioue
oiieay, /aua aaeay, iau/ii ea?oioaeenoay. I?aaenoaaeyao oeaiiinoue aeey
naeaeoeee ia nei?iniaeinoue. Anoue oi?iu, onoie/eaua e aaeoa?eico e
aio?aeiico;

3) convar. cantalupa (Pang.) Greb. ( aeuiy eaioaeoia, iauaaeeiyao ni?oa
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Ieiaeu n?aaeiea, ie?oaeua, e niethniooua, /aua
naaiaiaoe?iaaiiua, n ieioiie a?iiaoiie iyeioueth. E iei aeecee ni?oa
oeia ?iee-oi?ae, eoeueoeae?oaiua a NOA (aea?eaeu eaioaeoiu e eannaau).
Enoi/iee onoie/eainoe e io/ienoie ?ina;

4) convar. chandalak (Pang.) Greb. ( aeuiy oaiaeaeye, aeeth/aao
nei?iniaeua ni?oa N?aaeiae Acee. Ieiaeu n?aaeiea e e?oiiua. Iyeioue
oienoay, ?uoeay, ineeciythuayny. Neeueii ii?aaeaaony aieaciyie.
I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an aeey naeaeoeee ia nei?iniaeinoue;

5) convar. ameri (Pang.) Greb. ( aeuiy aia?e, i?aaenoaaeaia
n?aaeianiaeuie ni?oaie ec N?aaeiae Acee. Ieiaeu e?oiiua, iau/ii
oaeeeiaiiua eee aa?aoaiiaeaeiua, n o?onoyuae, i/aiue neaaeeie iyeioueth.
Aini?eei/ea e aieaciyi. I?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an aeey naeaeoeee ia aeoniaua
ea/anoaa e naoa?enoinoue;

6) convar. zard (Pang.) Greb. ( aeuiy ca?ae, iauaaeeiyao iicaeianiaeua
eaaeeea e o?ainii?oaaaeueiua ni?oa N?aaeiae Acee. Ieiaeu e?oiiua, /aua
yeeeioe/aneea. Iyeioue ieioiay, neaaeeay. aini?eei/eaa e aieaciyi.
Oeaiia aeey naeaeoeee ia eaaeeinoue, o?ainii?oaaaeueiinoue, ea/anoai
ieiaea;

IV. subsp. flexuosus (L.) Greb. ( aeuiy ciaaaeaeiay, ninoieo ec o?ao
?aciiaeaeiinoae: convar. flexuosus, convar. adzhur, convar. tarra. Ana
iie i?aaenoaaeaiu iieoeoeueoo?iuie oi?iaie. Ieiaeu aeeeiiua, o oa??u (
ciaaaeaeiua. Iyeioue ?uoeay, iaaeoniay. Iau/ii eniieuecoaony a
iaaeic?aeii aeaea eae iao?aoe. Naeaeoeeiiiay oeaiiinoue ia auyniaia.

V. subsp. conomon (Thunb.) Pang. ( aeuiy eeoaeneay. Aeeth/aao aeaa
a?oiiu ?aciiaeaeiinoae:

1) convar. common ( aeeeiiiieiaeiua oi?iu n iao?a/iui aeonii iyeioe,
naeaeoeeiiiay oeaiiinoue ia auyniaia;

2) convar. chinensis (Pang.) ( aeuiy eeoaeneay. Ieiaeu ie?oaeua eee
niethniooua. Iyeioue iaeineaaeeay. Eioa?ania aeey auaaaeaiey oi?i
aeaineiai oeia [27,28,30].

4.2. Ni?oeiaio aeuiue caueuaiiiai a?oioa.

Ii aeaiiui aieueoeinoaa ioa/anoaaiiuo aaoi?ia a aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee
aeuie n?aaeiaaceaoneiai iiaeaeaea ec-ca aunieie aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa
neeueii ii?aaeathony aieaciyie, iiyoiio iai?eaiaeiu aeey au?aueaaiey
aeaaea a nooeo oneiaeyo ia thaa. A nayce n yoei aeey oaieeoe neaaeoao
iiaeae?aoue ni?oa aeuiue aa?iiaeneiai iiaeaeaea [27,28,29,34].

Ni?oa aeuie aeey oaieeoe aeieaeiu ni/aoaoue nei?iniaeinoue,
o?iaeaeiinoue, oi?ioea aeoniaua ea/anoaa ieiaeia e onoie/eainoue e
iaaeaaii?eyoiui oneiaeyi n?aaeu a oaieeoea. Iaiaoiaeeii oaiee/iua ni?oa
eiaee iyeioue ia oiiueoa 3 ni n niaea?aeaieai naoa?ia ia iaiaa 7-8 %
naoa?ia [4,24,40].

Iaeiaei iaaeaeo iineaaeieie aeaoiy i?eciaeaie nouanoaoao neeueiay
io?eoeaoaeueiay ei??aeyoeey [27,32,47,111]. Iiea aua nouanoaoao iaei
nei?iniaeuo ni?oia n oi?ioeie aeoniauie ea/anoaaie ieiaeia [28]. Iiyoiio
a ceiia-aanaiiai iai?ioa a oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/iie inaauaiiinoe iau/ii
au?aueaatho n?aaeianiaeua ni?oa n i/aiue aunieeie aeoniauie ea/anoaaie
ieiaeia, a a aieaa iicaeiea n?iee eoeueoo?u ia ia?aue ieai auoiaeyo
o?aaiaaiey e nei?iniaeinoe [40].

A oaieeoeao Aa?iiu iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee o?e ni?oioeia
aeuie: Oa?aioa, Aaeey e Iaeai [10,44,49].

Aeuith-eaioaeoio Oa?aioa (Nharentais) ecaeaaia au?aueaaee a ia?ieeiaie
eoeueoo?a ai O?aioeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ai O?aioeee ieiei 80 % io
iauaai eiee/anoaa i?iecaiaeeiuo aeuiue i?eoiaeeony ia aeuie yoiai
ni?oioeia [46,82]. Ieiaeu iaaieueoiai ?acia?a (600-1200 a), niethniooua
eee ie?oaeua. Iiaa?oiinoue ieiaeia naaiaioe?iaaiiay, ie?anea a iac?aeii
ninoiyiee na?i-caeaiay, i?e nic?aaaiee i?eia?aoaao e?aiiaue iooaiie.
Iyeioue i?aiaeaaay. Iieiaeeoaeueiua ea/anoaa yoiai ni?oioeia — aunieay
yeieiae/aneay ieanoe/iinoue, ?aiianiaeinoue, i/aiue neaaeeay e a?iiaoiay
iyeioue, onoie/eainoue e ei?iaaui aieeyi e iaeay oaieio?aaiaaoaeueiinoue
[10,44,49,76,82,94].

Ii n?aaiaieth n ni?oioeiii Iaeai ?anoaiey ni?oioeia Oa?aioa eiatho
ooaeooth caaycuaaaiinoue ieiaeia aieaa neeueiue aaaaoaoeaiue ?ino e
o?aaotho aieueoeo cao?ao o?oaea ia oi?ie?iaeo. Ni?oa oeia Oa?aioa
o?aaotho aieaa ieceeo oaiia?aoo? i?e aicaeaeuaaiee a oaieeoea e aieaa
ei?ioeee, i?eia?ii ia iaaeaeth, ia?eiae ieiaeiiioaiey. A oneiaeyo
inoaeeaiiuo oaieeoe ioee/aaony aunieie nei?iniaeinoueth [5,44,94].

Iaeiaei, a oneiaeyo aunieeo oaiia?aoo? ii neeiiai e auno?ie
oa?iaioaoeee iyeioe. Ieiaeu iaeio?ainii?oaaaeueiu, iaeaaeeea [21,110].

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoio ni?oioei ?ani?ino?aiai a oaieeoeao O?aioeee,
Eoaeee, Aieaa?ee. N?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii aeuie oeia Oa?aioa ia/aee
aicaeaeuaaoue e a oaieeoeao Aieeaiaeee [21,26,41,49,94,96].

Nouanoaoao aieueoia eiee/anoai ni?oia e aea?eaeia yoiai oeia aeuiue.
?aiiee ni?o Nantalun e n?aaeianiaeua ni?oa Vedrantais e Troubadur
onoie/eau e 0 e 2 ?anai ooca?eica. Aea?eaeu F1(Alpha, F1 Athos, F1
Cantor, F1 Delta ( ?aiiea. Aea?eaeu F1 Jet, F1 Presto, F1 Talma, F1
Carmel ( n?aaeia?aiiea, onoie/eaua e 0, 1 e 2 ?anai ooca?eica. E?iia
oiai iiaua aea?eaeu F1 Presto e F1 Carmel onoie/eau e iaeeoio [7]. A
oaieeoeao au?aueaatho aea?eaeu F1 Pancha, F1 Laro, F1 Alienor e ae?oaea
[40,44,49,80,82,94].

Auaeaeytho a?oiio ni?oia oeia Oa?aioa n nao/aoie iiaa?oiinoueth ieiaeia
( ni?oioei A?iaea. Iyeioue ieiaeia aieaa ieioiay, ii iaiaa neaaeeay, /ai
o ni?oia n aeaaeeie iiaa?oiinoueth ieiaeia. Ieiaeu yoiai ni?oioeia aieaa
o?ainii?oaaaeueiu aneaaenoaea aieueoae ieioiinoe iyeioe e caueoiiai
aeaenoaey nao/aoie iiaa?oiinoe. Aea?eaeu yoiai oeia: F1 Romeo, F1
Sprint, F1 Rasto, F1 Bredor, F1 Pacio, F1 Dogo [10,49,76,82].

Iiuoaie Aieeaiaeneeo niaoeeaeenoia ec ?yaea ni?oia e aea?eaeia aeuie
Oa?aioa oeia ii eiiieaeno oicyenoaaiii oeaiiuo i?eciaeia aeey
inoaeeaiiuo oaieeoe auaeaeaiu aea?eaeu F1 Pallium (A?iaea) e F1(Jet (n
aeaaeeie iiaa?oiinoueth). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiua a oaieeoeao Aieeaiaeee aea?eaeu yoiai oeia [44,95].

Ni?oioei Aaeey (Galia) — ioiineoaeueii iiaue, oaeaea ec?aeeueneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iaeiaei anoue aeaiiua, /oi yoio ni?oioei ec Eniaiee
[10,106]. Ieiaeu yoiai oeia aeuiue ie?oaeie eee iaaeueiie oi?iu, iannie
ieiei 1 ea. Iiaa?oiinoue ieiaeia aeaaeeay, iie?uoa iaaeiie nayciie
naoeie, a c?aeii ninoiyiee aeaeoay. Iyeioue caeaiiaaoi-aaeiai oeaaoa,
naiaiiia aiacaei iaeaiueeia. Yoio ni?oioei auno?i caaiaaae iiioey?iinoue
aeaaiaea?y i?eaeaeaoaeueiiio aiaoiaio aeaeo e aunieei aeoniaui ea/anoaai
ieiaeia, ?aiianiaeinoe, onoie/eainoe e io/ienoie ?ina e oi?ioae
o?ainii?oaaaeueiinoe. Iiaua aea?eaeu yoiai ni?oioeia eiatho oaeaea
aaiaoe/aneoth onoie/eainoue e ooca?eiciiio oayaeaieth. ?ani?ino?aiai a
oaieeoeao no?ai thaeiie Aa?iiu e Aieeaiaeee. N ni?oaie yoiai oeia
aaaeaony i/aiue aeoeaiay naeaeoeeiiiay ?aaioa e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
auaaaeaii iiiai aea?eaeia yoiai oeia: F1 Makdimon, F1 Regal, F1 Polydor,
F1 Inbar e ae?. [37,46,51,54,63,106].

Ni?oioei Iaeai (Ogen), ec?aeeueneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. N?aaeiaaeianiaeue,
n oi?ioei ea/anoaii ieiaeia. Ieiaeu iaaieueoea (500-1200a), iaaeueiua,
aac naoee. Iiaa?oiinoue ieiaeia naaiaioe?iaaiiay, a c?aeii ninoiyiee
aeaeoay n caeaiuie iieinaie a oaeoaeaieyo naaiaioia. Iyeioue
caeaiiaaoi-aaeay, n niaea?aeaieai naoa?ia i?e au?aueaaiee a oaieeoea
9-13% . ?anoaiey ei?ioeiieaoenoua, /oi i/aiue oaeiaii i?e oiaea?iie
eoeueoo?a. Ni?oa yoiai oeia oi?ioi caaycuaatho ieiaeu e onoie/eau e
aaeoa?eico, a iiaua — e io/ienoie ?ina e ooca?eico. Aieaa
oaieio?aaiaaoaeai, /ai Oa?aioa. Neeiiai ia?aciauaaoue o?iaeeeaua ieiaeu
n /aeiiaeaeiui au?inoii ia ianoa ianoe/iiai ?oaoea (aiaeiioey).
ssaeyaony iniiaiui ni?oioeiii a ceiieo oaieeoeao Aieeaiaeee. Ni?oa:
Ogen, Sieger, Mastokazy. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu ni?oa Haon e Hemed
[7,28,44,51,54,108,109].

A Eoaeee iiioey?iu ni?oa e aea?eaeu aeuie-eaioaeoiu Eoaeueyineiai oeia.
Ieiaeu naaiaioe?iaaiiua iannie 1,2 ( 1,4 ea, oaeeeiaiiua, iiaa?oiinoue
iie?uoa aonoie a?oaie naoeie. Aea?eaeu yoiai oeia: F1 Calipso, F1 Dogo,
F1 Fox, F1 Pacio, F1 Record onoie/eau e 0,1 e2 ?anai ooca?eica [7].

Ni?oioei Eaia?e (eniaineia iacaaiea Aia?eeei) iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai a
Eoaeee e Eniaiee, aaea aai /anoi au?aueaatho a caueuaiiii a?oioa. Ieiaeu
oaeeeiaiiua, ianaaiaioe?iaaiiua, aeaeoua, iiaa?oiinoue ii?ueienoay, aac
naoee. Aea?eae yoiai oeia F1 Canador ?aiiee, onoie/ea e ooca?eico ?an 0
e 1 [7].

Aeuie-eaioaeoiu aia?eeaineiai oeia aeiaieueii iiioey?iu a ie?a.
Ioa/anoaaiiua enneaaeiaaoaee auaeaeytho ianeieueei ni?oioeiia
aia?eeaineeo aeuiue, iaeiaei ca ?oaaaeii aai /anoi auaeaeytho a iaeei
iauee ni?oioei eee aeaaea iauaaeeiytho n eoaeueyineei ni?oioeiii ca
noiaenoai aiaoiaai aeaea e iio?aaeoaeueneeo ea/anoa ieiaeia [10,80].

Ieiaeu ni?oia yoiai oeia ie?oaeie eee neaaea oaeeeiaiiie oi?iu,
naaiaioe?iaaiua, iie?uou aonoie a?oaie naoeie. Iyeioue i?aiaeaaay,
oienoay, a?iiaoiay, ni aeonii, naienoaaiiui aeey eaioaeoi. Ni?oa a
iniiaiii n?aaeianiaeua, ii eiaaony iiiai n?aaieoaeueii ?aiieo ni?oia,
i?eaiaeiuo aeey au?aueaaiey iiae ieaieie. Aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi aeuiy a
NOA yaeyaony aeiaieueii e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiie iaiuiie eoeueoo?ie n iae
aeaaii aaaeaony eioaineaiay naeaeoeeiiiay ?aaioa e nicaeaii aieueoia
eiee/anoai ni?oia e aea?eaeia onoie/eainoueth e aieaciyi ( ianoiyuae e
eiaeiie io/ienoie ?ina, ae?oniui aieaciyi e ae?. [21,40]. A
iaeiaaaa?eoiuo ieaii/iuo oe?uoeyo a NOA au?aueaatho ni?oa Mainstream,
Perlita, Iroquis, Magnum 45, Classic, Chilton [7].A ssiiiee, THaeiie
Ei?aa e ia Oaeaaia a oaieeoeao eoeueoeae?otho ni?oa n e?oiiuie ieiaeaie,
e aunieei niaea?aeaieai a ieo naoa?ia, auaaaeaiiua aeaaiui ia?acii ia
iniiaa eio?iaeooee?iaaiiuo ia?acoeia. Iaeiaei iie ioiineoaeueii
iicaeianiaeua e iaeio?iaeaeiua. A inoaeeaiiuo oaieeoeao au?aueaatho a
iniiaiii aea?eae F1 Earl`s Favorit, a ieaii/iuo ( ni?oa Kurume 1, Pearl,
Homeron Star, Crete, Bonus, Milky Way, Sky Rocket [7,28,35,44,46,55,71].

A oaieeoeao no?ai naaa?iie Aa?iiu (Ieaea?eaiaeu, Aeaiey, Neaiaeeiaaneea
no?aiu) /anoi eoeueoeae?otho ni?oa aeuie n neeueiui a?iiaoii, ii n
i/aiue ieceei niaea?aeaieai naoa?ia a ieiaeao (ie. 2-5 %), oae
iacuaaaiua Netmelonen. Iaeiei ec oaeeo ni?oia yaeyaony iiioey?iue a
Oaaoeee F1 Aroma [10,45,50].

A iaoae no?aia aeey au?aueaaiey a caueuaiiii a?oioa ?aeiiaiaeothony
oaeaea ae?oaea ni?oa e aea?eaeu aeuie. Iiieii ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a Aa?iia
ni?oioeiia Iaeai e Oa?aioa auaeaeaiu iaeaieaa i?eniiniaeaiiua e
oaiee/iui oneiaeyi ioa/anoaaiiua ni?oa, eioi?ua ioiinyony e ni?oioeiai
Aeana?oiay, ?aiiyy, O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea, Eieoicieoea e Aeoaeneay
[9,28,32].

Ni?oioei Aeana?oiay aeeth/aao ni?oa Aeana?oiay 5, Naia?neay e Eeeeneay.
Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai ni?o Aeana?oiay 5 n?aaeiaai n?iea nic?aaaiey, n
i/aiue oi?ioeie aeoniauie ea/anoaaie ieiaeia. Ieiae iaaeueiue, n?aaeiaai
?acia?a. Ni?o i?eaiaeai aeey au?aueaaiey a ceiieo e ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao.
A ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao a oneiaeyo Naaa?i-Caiaaea ?innee ni?o Aeana?oiay 5
aeae 4,4 ea/i2 ieiaeia n niaea?aeaieai 9 % nooeo aauanoa. Iaeiaei anoue
aeaiiua, /oi a oneiaeyo ceiieo oaieeoe ni?o Aeana?oiay 5 neeiiai e
oi?ie?iaaieth o?iaeeeauo ieiaeia a ?acia?a 16-26 % [1,10,26,35,105].

Ni?oioei ?aiiyy, i?aaenoaaeai ni?oaie ?aiiyy 133, Cieioenoay,
Oa?ueeianeay ?aiiyy. N?aaieoaeueii ?aiianiaeue, i?iaeoeoeaiue, n
ae?oaeiie ioaea/ae o?iaeay. Aeoniaua ea/anoaa io oi?ioeo aei
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuo, iyeioue ea?oioaeenoie eiinenoaioeee. Oeacuaaaony,
/oi ni?o Oa?ueeianeay ?aiiyy neeiiai e neeueiiio ?ano?aneeaaieth
ieiaeia. Au?aueaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii a ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao [4,11,26].

Ni?oioei O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea ni/aoaao aunieoth nei?iniaeinoue e oi?ioaa
ea/anoai ieiaeia. Ni?oa yoiai oeia (O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea 507, Aetheiiai/ea,
Aieyiea) yeieiae/anee ieanoe/iu e i?eaiaeiu aeey ceiia-aanaiieo e
aanaiia-eaoieo n?ieia au?aueaaiey. Ni?oa Aetheiiai/ea e
O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea 507 i?e aunieie nei?iniaeinoe eiatho aunieia ea/anoai
ieiaeia [1,4,26,32].

Ni?oioei Eieoicieoea (Eieoicieoea 749/753, Eieoicieoea 593, Oaaieeiea)
i/aiue iiioey?ai a iaoae no?aia aeaaiaea?y ioee/iui aeoniaui ea/anoaai
ieiaeia. N?aaeianiaeue. A iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo n?aaeu nio?aiyao
aunieoth naoa?enoinoue iyeioe. Iaaeinoaoie yoiai ni?oioeia — iaaunieay
o?iaeaeiinoue [21,26,28,34,35].

Ni?oioei Aeoaeneay iauaaeeiyao i/aiue nei?iniaeua ni?oa naaa?iie ciiu
aao/aaiaenoaa — Aeoaeneay, A?oioiaay A?eaianeay, Ai?ueeianeay 310,
Aa?iaoeea 191, Eoia. Iie ioee/athony aunieie o?iaeaeiinoueth e
oieiaeinoieeinoueth i?e iaaunieeo aeoniauo ea/anoaao ieiaeia [26,28,32].

A ONOA A.E.(Oa?aeaiiaui e I.O. Aoiaaeiaui nicaeai aea?eae F1 Aa?eion,
?aeiie?iaaiiue a ceiieo oaieeoeao aeey ceiia-aanaiiaai iai?ioa. Ii
eioi?iaoeee Ainoaea?noaaiiie Eiiennee ii ni?oieniuoaieth
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ii inoaaony
aaeeinoaaiiui aea?eaeii aeuie ?aeiie?iaaiiui a ?innee aeey caueuaiiiai
a?oioa. Aea?eae ?aiianiaeue, n oi?ioeie aeoniauie ea/anoaaie ieiaeia.
Ieiaeu iaeeea, naaiaioe?iaaiiua, aeaaeeea. ?enoiie ( oaiii-caeaiua
iieinu a oaeoaeaieyo naaiaioia. Oii ?enoiea a?ycii-aeaeoue. Iyeioue
naaoei-i?aiaeaaay, a?iiaoiay, oathuay, neaaeeay, ni/iay. O?iaeaeiinoue a
ceiieo oaieeoeao ( 6,8 ea/i2. A ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao iauee o?iaeae
ninoaaeye 7,6 ea/i2, o?iaeae oiaa?iuo ieiaeia ( 6,8(ea/i2,
aeaaonoaoeeiiiay ioeaiea ( 4,5 aaeeia.

Ni?o Eoia aue auaaaeai ia Caiaaeii-Neae?neie iiuoiie noaioeee aeey
ieaii/iuo oaieeoe. Ieiaeu iaaeueiua, aeaaeeea, a c?aeii ninoiyiee
aeaeoiai oeaaoa. Naoea nieioiay, iaeeiy/aenoay, ei?a oiieay. Iyeioue
e?aiiaay, naiaiiia aiacaei iaaieueoia, ianna 1000 naiyi ( 25,8 a. Ni?o
?aiianiaeue, o?iaeaeiue. Iauee o?iaeae a ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao ( 9,2
ea/i2, oiaa?iue ( 8,1 ea/i2. Aeaaonoaoeeiiiay ioeaiea ieiaeia ( 3,9
aaeeia. Ni?o onoie/ea e noaaeaaiio aneioeoico [23].

5. Aa?ioaoieea aeuie a caueuaiiii a?oioa.

5.1. N?iee eoeueoo?u.

I?e i?aaiecaoeee eoeueoo?u aeuie iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue iinooieaiea
i?iaeoeoeee aei ia/aea aaaonoa ( a?aiaie ianniaiai caaica aeuiue n thaa.
Iinooieaiea i?iaeoeoeee aeuie ia naaa? ?innee ec o?aiaiey caeai/eaaaony
a ai?aea – iaa, a ec ioe?uoiai a?oioa ia/eiaaony n aaaonoa. Iiyoiio, a
ia?eiae n iay ii aaaono i?iecaiaenoai aeuie a oaieeoea iaeaieaa
?aioaaaeueii [11,13,28].

I?e iinaaeea aeuie a oaieeoeo a 1-5 ia?oa ieiaeiiioaiea o ?aiieo ni?oia
ia/eiaaony a eiioea ai?aey – na?aaeeia iay e caeai/eaaaony a ethea
[4,10,26,109]. A inoaeeaiiuo oaieeoeao /anoi i?aeoeeotho eoeueoo?o ia
aeaa aieiu ieiaeiiioaiey, iieo/ay o?iaeae aoi?ie aieiu a ?acia?a 50-120%
ia?aie. Aoi?ay aieia ieiaeiiioaiey cao?oaeiaia ec-ca ineaaeaiiinoe
?anoaiee e iaeiieaiey iaoiaaiia, iiyoiio /anoi auaaao iaei?aioaaaeueia.
Iinea ia?aie aieiu ieiaeiiioaiey aeey oeo/oaiey oneiaee ?inoa /anoi
oaeaeytho iieiaeio ?anoaiee. Iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueii oaeaeyoue eaaeaeue
aoi?ie ?yae [46,50,79,95,109].

N?ie iinaaeee aeuie a ieaii/iua oaieeoeu ii?aaeaeyaony oaiia?aoo?iuie
oneiaeyie. A iiuoao ioa/anoaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia iaeeo/oea ?acoeueoaou
iieo/aiu i?e naiuo ?aiieo n?ieao aunaaeee ?annaaeu. A iaia?aaaaiuo
ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao Caiaaeiie Neae?e iaeaunoee o?iaeae iieo/atho i?e
iinaaa 24 oaa?aey e iinaaeea 25 ia?oa. A oneiaeyo E?uia, oaeaea,
iaeaunoee o?iaeae iieo/atho i?e naiuo ?aiieo n?ieao iinaaeee ?annaaeu —
a ia/aea ia?oa [4,11,24].

5.2. Au?aueaaiea ?annaaeu.

Oaoiieiaey au?aueaaiey ?annaaeu aeuie noiaeia n oaoiieiaeae au?aueaaiey
?annaaeu iao?oea. Aei iiyaeaiey anoiaeia oaiia?aoo?o noano?aoa
?aeiiaiaeotho iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ia o?iaia 30 0N, iinea iiyaeaiey (
nieaeaoue aei 20-25 0N. Oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa a yoio ia?eiae — 23 0N
aeiai ( + 1-20N a caaeneiinoe io inaauaiiinoe) e 210N ii/ueth. I?e
?aiieo n?ieao iinaaeee a ceiiea oaieeoeu ?anoaiey aeinaeaatho ii 12-17
/ania a nooee ia o?iaia 5000-6000 ee, a i?e aieaa iicaeiae aunaaeea a
ieaii/iua oaieeoeu ?annaaeo ia aeinaa/eaatho [26,34,77,79].

I?e au?aueaaiee ?annaaeu aeuie aeey ia?ieeia ?aeiiaiaeoaony aieaa
oieiaeiue oaiia?aoo?iue ?aaeei: aei iiyaeaiey anoiaeia oaiia?aoo?o
noano?aoa iiaeaea?aeeaatho ia o?iaia 25 0N, iinea iiyaeaiey anoiaeia
oaiia?aoo?o aicaeooa iiaeaea?aeeaatho a oa/aiee /aou?ao aeiae ia o?iaia
17-18 0N, aeaeaa oaiia?aoo?a aeiai a ianio?ioth iiaiaeo ( 20-22 0N, a
nieia/ioth ( 25 0N, ii/ueth ( 16-17 0N [27].

Aeey caueou io ii/aaiiuo iaoiaaiia e iiieaeaiiie oaiia?aoo?u a?oioa
aeuith /anoi i?eaeaatho ia ?anoaiey naiaenoaa oueaaiiua — ?acee/iua
aeaeu oueau, onoie/eaua e ooca?eico ni?oa aeuie, eaaaia?eth e ae?.
[9,21,34,71,81,109].

Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iaoiae i?eaeaee aeuie ia oueaaiiua iaoae a
ssiiiee, aaea i?eaeoie ?annaaeie caiyoi ieiei 60 % aeuie a ieaii/iuo
oaieeoeao e 48 ( a inoaeeaiiuo [71].

Eeanne/aneei iauaeoii iiaeaiy aeey i?eaeaee aeuie yaeyaony oueaa. I?e
yoii ioia/aaony, /oi i?e i?eaeaea ia neeueii?ineua aeaeu oueau ca/anooth
iaaethaeaaony oooaeoaiea caaycuaaaiinoe ieiaeia e nieaeaiea eo ea/anoaa,
iiyoiio a ea/anoaa iiaeaiy a iaeaieueoae noaiaie iiaeoiaeyo neaai?ineua
aeaeu oueau, a /anoiinoe C. moschata [53,71].

Iienaii iiiai niiniaia i?eaeaee aeuie, ii iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiuie
yaeythony niiniau i?eaeaee i?e eioi?uo ia o?aaoaony iineaaeothuae
iaaycee eiiiiiaioia. Iaeiei ec oaeeo niiniaia yaeyaony (i?eaeaea a
oeie(, eioi?oth i?iaiaeyo ia iiaeaiyo n auiieiaiiui noaaeai ( eaaaia?ee,
oueaa aaieieaca e ae?. [13,21,71,77,109].

Iinaa iiaeaiy i?iaiaeyo ia 2-3 aeiy iicaea, /ai i?eaiy. Eo/oa a?aoue
iiaeaie n iaeiei ianoiyuei eenoii. Aeey eo/oaai n?anoaiey eiiiiiaioia
?aeiiaiaeoaony iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oaiia?aoo?o aicaeooa ia o?iaia 25-30 0N
e aeaaeiinoue 95-98 % [9].

I?eaeaea iiauoaao aaeaioeaiinoue aeuie e iaaeaaii?eyoiui oneiaeyi
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. I?eaeoua ?anoaiey aieaa o?iaeaeiu, eo ieiaeu
niaea?aeao aieueoa ?anoai?eiuo nooeo aauanoa, ii neeueiaa ii?aaeathony
eiaeiie io/ienoie ?inie, ?anoaiey neeueii ?anooo e ooaea caaycuaatho
ieiaeu. E?iia oiai, ieiaeu auno?aa oa?iaioe?othony e ia ieo iiyaeythony
caeaiua iyoia [13,51,60,71].

I?eaeaea o?aaoao aieueoeo cao?ao o?oaea e n?aaenoa. Iaeiaei yoe cao?aou
/anoi ia ii?aaaeuaaaony [45,109]. Nieaeaiea cao?ao aiciiaeii ca n/ao
iaiueoae ieioiinoe iinaaeee i?eaeouo ?anoaiee, eioi?ua ioee/athony
iiuiui ?inoii. Aeey aua aieaa ?ac?aaeaiiiai ?aciauaiey ?anoaiee eo
oi?ie?otho a aeaa noaaey [95].5.3. Iinaaeea.

Aunaaeeaatho ?annaaeo a aic?anoa 30 ( 35 aeiae, i?e iinaaeea ia?a?inoae
?annaaeie (aieaa 30-35 aeiae) cia/eoaeueii nieaeaaony o?iaeae
[31,45,46]. ?annaaeo aunaaeeaatho, ia caaeoaeyy ei?iaaie oaeee, oae eae
iiaenaiyaeieueiia eieaii aini?eei/eai e a?eaiui aieaciyi [45,95].

Noaia iinaaeee caaeneo io neeu ?inoa ?anoaiee, oi?ie?iaee, aa?ioaoieee,
oneiaee n?aaeu e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia [40,77]. Caaouaiiay iinaaeea aaaeao e
oiaiueoaieth ?acia?a ieiaeia e nieaeaieth niaea?aeaiey naoa?ia a ieo.
I?e caaouaiiie iinaaeea iaaethaeaaony eioaineaiue ?ino aeaaiuo noaaeae a
aunioo, iacaaeneii io niiniaa oi?ie?iaee (a iaeei eee aeaa noaaey)
[24,27].

A iaoae no?aia ?aeiiaiaeotho iinaaeeo aeuie a ceiithth oaieeoeo ii noaia
160 o 50 ni, a neaai?ineua ni?oa oeia Iaeai aieaa caaouaiii ( 160 o
30-40 [26].

A inoaeeaiiuo oaieeoeao iau/ii naaeatho ii aeaa ?anoaiey ia eaaae?aoiue
iao?. A Aieeaiaeee aaeieue naeoeee oaieeoeu n i?ieaoii 3,2 i aeuith
aunaaeeaatho a aeaa eee /aou?a ?yaea. Aeaoo?yaeiay noaia iinaaeee (160 X
30-50) c V-ia?aciie iiaeayceie noaaeae a aieueoae noaiaie iiaeoiaeeo
aeey i?iaeeaiiie eoeueoo?u, iineieueeo iiaaae aoi?ie aieiu ieiaeiiioaiey
?anooo a eo/oeo oneiaeyo inaauaiiinoe. Aeey i?iaeeaiiiai e ei?ioeiai
iai?ioia aieaa ia?niaeoeaia /aou?ao?yaeiay noaia iinaaeee n ?annoiyieai
a ?yaeo 60-80 ni (1,8-2,1 ?ano/i2 ). I?e oaeii ?aciauaiee ?anoaiey eo/oa
inaauathony a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae ?inoa. I?e oi?ie?iaea a aeaa noaaey
?anoaiey naaeatho ?aaea [45,46,47,48,79,80,95].

A ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao aonoioo iinaaeee ?aeiiaiaeotho oaaee/eoue aei 3-5
?anoaiee/i2 [26,41,43,77,88]. A oneiaeyo E?uia iaeaunoee o?iaeae e
iaeaieueooth ?aioaaaeueiinoue iieo/eee i?e aunaaeea 4 ?ano/i2 [11].

5.4. Oi?ie?iaea.

Niinia oi?ie?iaee aeuie a oaieeoea caaeneo io ni?oa, aa?ioaoieee,
ninoiyiey ?anoaiee e o. ae. N/eoatho, /oi /ai iaiueoa aaaaoaoeaiie iannu
oaeaeyaony n ?anoaiey, oai auoa aai i?iaeoeoeaiinoue [40,52,77].

A ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou /anoi aeaao naiaiaeiay
oi?ie?iaea, i?e eioi?ie aa?oeeaeueii iiaeaycuaatho oieueei aeaaiue
iiaaa. Anoue aeaiiua, /oi ni?o Aetheiiai/ea iaeaaeaao naii?aaoeyoeeae
aaoaeaiey e ia ioaeaeaaony a oi?ie?iaea [7,11,13,24].

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay nenoaia oi?ie?iaee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
?anoaiey oi?ie?otho a iaeei eee aeaa noaaey, (ineaieytho( ia
ii?aaeaeaiioth aunioo ieaeithth /anoue aeaaiiai noaaey (noaaeae i?e
iiiainoaaaeueiie oi?ie?iaea) e i?eueiuaatho aieiaua iiaaae
[45,59,80,96].

O?aaeeoeeiiiie n/eoaaony oi?ie?iaea a iaeei noaaaeue, iaeiaei
ii?aaeaeaiiue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao oi?ie?iaea a aeaa noaaey, eioi?oth
i?iaiaeyo i?eueiuaay iiaaa ia?aiai ii?yaeea iaae aoi?ui – /aoaa?oui
eenoii e inoaaeyy aeaa naiuo iiuiuo iiaaaa a ea/anoaa caiauathueo. A
iaeieo neo/ayo ioia/atho oaaee/aiea n?aaeiae iannu ieiaeia,
o?iaeaeiinoe, onei?aiea oeaaoaiey aeaineeie oeaaoeaie e oaaee/aiea eo
eiee/anoaa, a ae?oaeo — caaea?aeeo anooieaiey a ieiaeiiioaiea e
o?iaeaeiinoue ia auoa, /ai i?e iaeiinoaaaeueiie oi?ie?iaea
[32,43,46,55,59,80,102,109].

Iineieueeo i?e oi?ie?iaea ?anoaiee a aeaa noaaey oiaiueoatho ieioiinoue
iinaaeee ?anoaiee oi oiaiueoaaony iio?aaiinoue a ?annaaea e nieaeathony
cao?aou ia 1 i2 [47,48,95].

A iiuoao Caiaaeii-Neae?neie iiuoiie noaioeee n ni?oii Aa?iaoeea 191
iaaethaeaeinue i?aauoaiea o?iaeay i?e aeaoonoaaaeueie eoeueoo?a iaae
iaeiinoaaaeueiie i?e caaouaiee io 1,8 aei 3,6 ?ano/i2. Iaeaunoee o?iaeae
aue iieo/ai i?e i?eueiea ?anoaiee iaae o?aoueei eenoii, oi?ie?iaea
?anoaiee a aeaa noaaey e aonoioa noiyiey 3,6 ?ano/i2 ?ino noaaey a
aunioo aei ianniaiai oeaaoaiey aeaineeie oeaaoeaie i?e iaeiinoaaaeueiie
eoeueoo?a oae eioaineaiaa, /ai i?e aeaoonoaaaeueiie eoeueoo?a. I?e
aonoioa iinaaeee 1,8 ?ano/i2 aunioa aeaaiiai noaaey i?e iaeiinoaaaeueiie
eoeueoo?a ninoaaee a n?aaeiai 166 ni, i?e aeaoonoaaaeueiie — 139 ni, a
i?e aonoioa iinaaeee 4,2 ?ano/i2 ( 194 e 171 ni niioaaonoaaiii [24].

?aiiyy i?eueiea iiaaaa ioeaaiai ii?yaeea niinianoaoao onei?aieth
caoeaaoaiey aeaineeie oeaaoeaie, ii ia oaaee/eaaao ie ?aiiaai, ie iauaai
o?iaeay, iineieueeo ?anoaiey ia?aa?oaeathony ieiaeaie, eioi?ua iaaeeaiii
?anooo. E?iia oiai, i?eueiea aeaaiiai iiaaaa i?eaiaeeo e oneeaieth
aaoaeaiey ?anoaiee e ia?aciaaieth aieueoiai eiee/anoaa eenoueaa ia
caeii/eaoeo ?ino, /oi naeaeaaao iaoaaieeci ?anoaiee a noi?iio aieueoae
iicaeianiaeinoe e caaea?aeeaaao eo noa?aiea [5,51].

A caaeneiinoe io iiuiinoe ?anoaiee aieiaua iiaaae oaeaeytho ia aunioo io
50 aei 150 ni (7-16 oceia) [40,77,80,95,96].

I?e ineaieaiee ia aoeueooth aunioo caaea?aeeaaaony anooieaiea ?anoaiee a
ieiaeiiioaiea, ii oaaee/eaaaony n?aaeiyy ianna ieiaeia. Ineaieaiea ia
iaaieueooth aunioo e ?aiiyy iaa?ocea o?iaeaai oaiaoaao ?ino ?anoaiee , a
ieiaeu eaaeao ia caiea e iiaoo caaieoue [40,80].

I?e ?aiieo n?ieao aunaaeee aeaaiue noaaaeue iau/ii ineaieytho ia aunioo
70-150 ni (14-16 oceia), i?e iicaeieo (a ieaii/iua oaieeoeu) — ia 50 ni
(7 oceia) [40,43,80,96,98,102,108].

AEaineee eee aa?iao?iaeeoiue oeaaoie (oi anoue ieiaeiiinyuee oeaaoie)
?aniieiaeai a ia?auo oceao aieiaiai iiaaaa [46,96]. Anee aieiaua iiaaae
ia i?eueiiooue iaae caaycueth ?anoaiey iiaoo na?ineoue aeaineea oeaaoee,
iiyoiio aieiaua iiaaae i?eueiuaatho ia iaeei eeno (ei?ioeay i?eueiea)
eee inoaaeytho aeaa – o?e eenoa iaae caaycueth (aeeeiiay i?eueiea)
[51,77,80,88,96,109].

Anoue iiaiea, /oi i?e ei?ioeie i?eueiea o?iaeae ianeieueei auoa eee ia
ioee/aaony io o?iaeay i?e aeeeiiie i?eueiea [43,109] , iaeiaei
aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae n/eoatho eo/oae aeeeiioth i?eueieo
[26,32,40,43,77,83],. Ioa/anoaaiiuie niaoeeaeenoaie /aua anaai
?aeiiaiaeoaony oaeaeyoue iaieiaeiiinyuea aieiaua iiaaae eee i?eueiuaaoue
eo iaae ia?aui eenoii, a ieiaeiiinyuea i?eueiuaaoue iaae aoi?ui eee
o?aoueei eenoii iinea caayce [13,24,32].

I?e ei?ioeii ia?eiaea au?aueaaiey i?e aeinoeaeaiee aeaaiui noaaeai
oiaea?u, aai iau/ii i?eueiuaatho iaae oiaea?ie [51,98]. I?e aieaa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiii ia?eiaea au?aueaaiey (eoeueoo?a ia aeaa aieiu
ieiaeiiioaiey) aeaaiue noaaaeue iioneatho aiec /a?ac oiaea?o eiiaaea.
Aeey yoiai a Aieeaiaeee /anoi eniieuecotho niaoeeaeueiua
iiaeaea?aeeaathuea ono?ienoaa ec ieanoeea, oae iacuaaaiue (kophaak(
[43,79,95].

A ia?ieeao ia naaa?a ?innee ?anoaiey aeuie oi?ie?iaaee neaaeothuei
ia?acii. Ia?aoth i?eueieo i?iaiaeeee iaae 2-4 eenoii aeaaiiai iiaaaa, a
iineaaeothuai iiaaae ia?aiai ii?yaeea i?eueiuaaee iaae 5-i eenoii.
Aieiaua iiaaae, ?anoouea ec naiyaeieueiiai ocea oaeaeyee [27].

A oaieeoeao eiiaaea i?eiaiytho ai?eciioaeueioth eoeueoo?o au?aueaaiey
aeuie. A Aieeaiaeee ?anoaiey aunaaeeaatho ii e?ayi naeoeee n i?ieaoii
3,2 i (ii noaia 2,5+0,7×20-30). Aeaaiue iiaaa i?eueiuaatho, a aeaa
aieiauo — iai?aaeytho a na?aaeeio naeoeee. I?e iieeaao eenouey e ieiaeu
ia oaeaaeiythony e ?anoaiey iaiueoa ii?aaeathony aieaciyie. I?e yoie
nenoaia au?aueaaiey oi?ioi ca?aeiiaiaeiaae naay aea?eae F1 Galia
[81,89].

5.5. Ooiae ca ?anoaieyie a ia?eiae caaycuaaiea ieiaeia — nic?aaaiea.

Aeey oi?ioaai caaycuaaiey ieiaeia aeinoaoi/ii eniieueciaaoue i/ae (iaeia
naiuey ia 1000-5000 i2) [57,65,80,96]. Oeae iiiauatho caaeaaia?aiaiii
aei ia/aea oeaaoaiey aeaineeo oeaaoia. AEaeaoaeueii aai ?aciauaoue ca
10-15 aeiae aei oeaaoaiey aeaineeo oeaaoia [13]. Oi?ioi iiueaiiua ieiaeu
niaea?aeao aieueoa naoa?ia, eiatho eo/oee oiaa?iue aeae e eiinenoaioeeth
iyeioe [101].

Iaeiaei /anoi, iniaaiii a ceiiea n?iee au?aueaaiey, ec-ca
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee ieioi caaycuaathony ieiaeu ia ia?auo aeaineeo
oeaaoeao, caayce iiaaeatho. I?e/ai, ionoonoaea caaycae ia ia?auo
oeaaoeao io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia caaycuaaiee iineaaeothueo ieiaeia
[21,57].

I?e/eiaie ieioiai caaycuaaiey iiaoo auoue: ieceay oaiia?aoo?a noano?aoa,
iiieaeaiiay inaauaiiinoue ( iaiaa 5000 ee), ecauoie ii/aaiiie aeaae e
yeaiaioia ieia?aeueiiai ieoaiey, i?eaeaea ia neeueii?ineue iiaeaie,
iniaaiiinoe ni?oa [21,26,57,71,77,94,95,96].

Ieiaeiia?aciaaiea oeo/oatho ia?aaioeie aeaineeo oeaaoeia ?aaoeyoi?aie
?inoa Tomatoset, Fruiton, Procarpil, Tomatoton, Tomatofix e ae?. I?e
yoii aeinoaoi/ii ia?aaioaoue oieueei 1-2 ia?auo aeaineeo oeaaoea
[57,77,96,108].

Ai a?aiy ?inoa ieiaeia ?anoaiey aeuie iio?aaeytho iaeneiaeueiia
eiee/anoai yeaiaioia ieoaiey e aiaeu, e aneaaenoaea aoo?aae?othuae
niiniaiinoe ieiaeia caiaaeeyaony aaaaoaoeaiue ?ino [4,27].

I?e oaiee/iie eoeueoo?a aeuie /anoi i?iaiaeyo ii?ie?iaaiea ieiaeia ia
?anoaiee. I?e oaeaeaiee /anoe caaycae aic?anoaao n?aaeiyy ianna ieiaeia,
oeo/oaaony eo aiaoiee aeae, ii nieaeaaony iauee o?iaeae [83,60,108,109].
Ia yoio n/ao nouanoaotho ?acee/iua iiaiey. Ii iiaieth E.E. Iaiaaei a
oneiaeyo aeeeoaeueiiai aaaaoaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea ia thaa ?innee ii/oe ana
caaycaaoeany ieiaeu nic?aaatho. Iaeiaei a naaa?iuo ?aeiiao aao/aaiaenoaa
n ei?ioeei ia?eiaeii aaaaoaoeee iicaeii caaycaaoeany ieiaeu ia
auc?aaatho. A yoii neo/aa aeey oaaee/aiey ?aiiaai o?iaeay yooaeoeaii
oaeaeyoue iicaeii iiyaeaoeany caayce [27]. Iiiai ni?oia, a /anoiinoe
ni?o Oa?ueeianeay ?aiiyy, iaeaaeatho naii?aaoeyoeeae iaa?ocee ?anoaiee
o?iaeaai e ia o?aaotho i?i?aaeeaaiey caaycae [11].

Niaoeeaeenou iaoae no?aiu ?aeiiaiaeotho iiaeaycuaaoue ?anoouea ieiaeu a
naoee, iaeiaei anoue iiaiea, /oi iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeaycuaaoue ieiaeu
a naoee, oae eae ?anoaiey oi?ioi auaea?aeeaatho ieiaeu iannie aei 4-4,5
ea. A Aa?iia au?aueaatho ni?oa n iaaieueoeie ieiaeaie ia o?aaothueie
iiaeaycee (oeia Ogen), a a ssiiiee e?oiiua ieiaeu iiaeaycuaatho ca
ieiaeiiiaeeo [13,26,74].

Iaeia ec i?iaeai aeuie caueuaiiiai a?oioa ( iaaunieia ea/anoai ieiaeia.
Iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iaeiieaiea naoa?a ieacuaatho: aunieay
inaauaiiinoue, ieceay aeaaeiinoue noano?aoa, iiieaeaiiua ii/iua
oaiia?aoo?u, aunieay yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue (aei 8 iN/ ni) ii/aaiiiai
?anoai?a, aunieee o?iaaiue niaea?aeaiey NI2 a
aicaeooa[42,46,52,56,82,110,111,112].Aunieay iaa?ocea ?anoaiee o?iaeaai
iaei aeeyao ia niaea?aeaiea nooeo aauanoa a ieiaeao [52,111]. Aieueoia
aeeyiea ia niaea?aeaiea naoa?ia a ieiaeao ieacuaaao aeeeoaeueiinoue oacu
caaycuaaiea ieiaeia — nic?aaaiea, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeaia eae
ieceie oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa, oae e ni?oiauie iniaaiiinoyie [41,96,111].
Iaeaunoea aeoniaua ea/anoaa eiatho ieiaeu, nia?aiiua a noaaeee iieiie
niaeinoe [52,82,111].

Nai? ieiaeia iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue 2-3 ?aca a iaaeaeth, o/eouaay, /oi
nic?aaoea ieiaeu iiiaeo ni?oia eaaei ioaeaeythony io ieiaeiiiaeee e
iaaeatho. Iinea eeeaeaeaoeee eoeueoo?u inoaaeytho ia aeic?aaaiea ieiaeu,
eioi?ua iiaoo nic?aoue ca 10 aeiae, inoaeueiua oaeaeytho [13,26].

5.6. Iniaaiiinoe eoeueoo?u ia aeae?iiiieea.

Ia aeae?iiiieea aeuith au?aueaatho a ssiiiee, Ieaea?eaiaeao, ai
O?aioeee, Oaaoeee a ae?oaeo no?aiao. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaia eoeueoo?a
ia ieia?aeueiie aaoa, NFT, oi?oi-ia?eeoiaie niane [75,85,87].
Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua aeaiiua ii aeeyieth niiniaa aeae?iiiiiie eoeueoo?u
e aeaea noano?aoa ia o?iaeae e ea/anoai ieiaeia aeuie. Ii iaeiei aeaiiui
ia ieia?aeueiie aaoa niaea?aeaiea naoa?ia auoa, /ai ia niane oi?oa n
ia?eeoii, ii ae?oaei ( iaeiaiueoaa niaea?aeaiea naoa?ia a ieiaeao auei
i?e au?aueaaiee ia ieia?aeueiie aaoa, aieueoa ( ia ianea e ia?eeoa e
iaeaunoaa niaea?aeaiea nooeo aauanoa ( i?e au?aueaaiee ia a?oioa.
Iaeiaei ai anao iaaethaeaieyo i?ineaaeeaaaony caeiiiia?iinoue: /ai auoa
o?iaeae, oai ieaea ( niaea?aeaiea nooeo aauanoa a ieiaeao [66,85,87].
E?iia oiai, ioia/aaony, /oi ?ino aeuie ia aeae?iiiieea aieaa
naea?aeaiiue, /ai ia a?oioa, iiyoiio aonoioa iinaaeee ?anoaiee
ianeieueei auoa [48,108].

Aeuiy o?aaoao aeiaieueii aunieiai o?iaiy yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe
ieoaoaeueiiai ?anoai?a: i?e AN 1,0 iN/ni ieiaeu ?anooo eo/oa, /ai i?e AN
0,5 iN/ni. I?e aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee ii/aaiiiai ?anoai?a iaaethaeaaony
oaaee/aiea o?iaeay, oeo/oaiea aiaoiaai aeaea, oiaa?iinoe e aeona ieiaeia
[67,85].

Iaeia ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai aeae?iiiiiie eoeueoo?u aeuie — iaeeea ieiaeu e
nieaeaiea niaea?aeaiey a ieo nooeo aauanoa [46,48,50,87,108]. Anee
ia?aoth i?iaeaio iiaeii ?aoeoue, au?aueaay ni?oa n e?oiiuie ieiaeaie
[42], oi oeo/oaiea aeoniauo ea/anoa ieiaeia — aieaa neiaeiay caaea/a.
Oaaee/aiea yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe ?anoai?a n 2,0 iN/ni aei 4,4 iN/ni ia
aeeyao ia niaea?aeaiea naoa?ia a ieiaeao [87]. Aeey oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa
ieiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaony iiauoaoue yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue ?anoai?a aei 6-8
iN/ni, oaaee/eaay aai eiioeaio?aoeeth eee aeiaaaeyy aaeeanoiua
niaaeeiaiey (NaCl+CaCl2) [46,52,87,91,108].

Ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi aieeaiaeneeo niaoeeaeenoia i?e iaeiiauaiiie
eoeueoo?a aeuie aei oeaaoaiey yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue ?anoai?a (AN)
iiaeaea?aeeaatho ia o?iaia 3-3,5 iN/ni, a ia?eiae ?inoa ieiaeia — 2,5
iN/ni, iinea ieii/aiey ?inoa ieiaeia — 6-8 iN/ni. Auoiae ae?aiaaea
aeieaeai ninoaaeyoue 25% io iauaia iiaeaaaaiiai ?anoai?a [48,79,81,95].

ssiiineea niaoeeaeenou, iai?ioea, aeey oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa ieiaeia i?e
aiaeiie eoeueoo?a aeuie, ?aeiiaiaeotho a oaco ieii/aiey ?inoa ieiaeia (
ia/aea ia?aciaaiey naoee (ca 10 aeiae aei nic?aaaiey ieiaeia) oaeaeeoue
yeaiaiou ieoaiey ec ?anoai?a. I?e iiieaeaiiii o?iaia ieia?aeueiiai
ieoaiey ioia/aaony oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey nooeo aauanoa a ieiaeao e
oeo/oaiey eo aiaoiaai aeaea. Aiaoiee aeae ieiaeia oeo/oaeny ca n/ao
ia?aciaaiey aieaa aonoie e ?aaiiia?iie, ?aaoey?iie naoee [70].

6. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey naeaeoeee.

I?e naeaeoeee aeuie iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeyoue aieiaiea oaeei oicyenoaaiiui
i?eciaeai aeuie, eae nei?iniaeinoue, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, aunieia ea/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee, onoie/eainoue e aieaciyi, oieiaeinoieeinoue e iaeioi?ui
ae?oaei [30].

6.1. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

Nicaeaiea aunieio?iaeaeiuo ni?oia e aaoa?iceniuo aea?eaeia aeuie auei e
inoaaony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo iai?aaeaiee naeaeoeee. O?iaeaeiinoue (
neiaeiue i?eciae, iineieueeo iia caaeneo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia: aeeeiu
aaaaoaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea, aaaeoona ?anoaiee, onoie/eainoe e aieaciyi e
a?aaeeoaeyi, auiineeainoe e iaaeaaii?eyoiui aaeioe/aneei oaeoi?ai
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e o.i. A iniiaa o?iaeaeiinoe eaaeeo i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
?anoaiey, neaaaaiua eioi?ie ( /enei e n?aaeiyy ianna ieiaea [30].

I?e/ai iaaeaeo /eneii ieiaeia ia ?anoaiee e o?iaeaeiinoueth nouanoaoao
aieaa oaniay iieiaeeoaeueiay ei??aeyoeey (r = 0,99), /ai iaaeaeo
o?iaeaeiinoueth e n?aaeiae iannie ieiaea (r = 0,56). Iaeiaei ec yoeo
aeaoo i?eciaeia ioiineoaeueii aieaa noaaeeueiue ( n?aaeiyy ianna ieiaea.
Eiyooeoeeaio ianeaaeoaiinoe aeaiiiai i?eciaea a ioe?uoii a?oioa a
oneiaeyo i?ioaiey ninoaaeyao 0,51-0,55 [109,130].

A iaia?aaaaiuo ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao Caiaaeiie Neae?e iaeaunoee o?iaeae
aeaee ni?oa Iooeaoie, Aeoooa, Gold Star, Eannaaa 166, ?eiia 89, e
ia?acaoe AE? a/i e.5756. O?iaeae yoeo ia?acoeia ninoaaee 9,6-14,2 ea/i2
[24].

A iaiaia?aaaaiuo ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao Naaa?i-Caiaaea ?innee eae enoi/iee
aunieie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aue auyaeai ni?o Early Gold, o?iaeaeiinoue
eioi?iai auea 4,8 ea/i2. Yoi naienoai ni?o Early Gold oi?ioi ia?aaeaaae
iioiinoao. Oae, iaeaunooth o?iaeaeiinoue a iiuoao eiae aea?eae F1
Aeana?oiay 5 o Early Gold ( 7,8 ea/i2. E?iia oiai yoio ni?o, a oaeaea
ni?o Parisien eiaee iaeaunooth oiaa?iinoue ieiaeia [35].

6.2. Nei?iniaeinoue.

Aeey oneiaee caueuaiiiai a?oioa, iniaaiii aeey ieaii/iuo oaieeoe
iaiaoiaeeiu ni?oa aeuie, ioee/athueany iniaie nei?iniaeinoueth [40].

Auaaaeaiea nei?iniaeuo ni?oia aao/aauo eoeueoo? aaaeii aeey anao ?aeiiia
aao/aaiaenoaa, ii iniaaiii aeooaeueii aeey naaa?iuo iaeanoae ciiu
aao/aaiaenoaa e aeey oaieeoe oia?aiiie ciiu. Nicaeaiea nei?iniaeiai
ni?oa ( oeaeue ia i?inoi iieo/aiey ?aiiae i?iaeoeoeee, ii e i?iaeoeoeee
oi?ioaai ea/anoaa, /oi o?aaoao ni/aoaiey ?aiianiaeinoe n aunieei
niaea?aeaieai naoa?ia a ieiaea. Aunieea aeoniaua ea/anoaa e
nei?iniaeinoue ni/aoatho ni?oa oeia O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea:
O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea, Aetheiiai/ea, Aieyiea [1,30].

I?e ioai?a ia nei?iniaeinoue o/eouaatho oeaeue ?yae i?eciaeia,
ei??aee?othueo n iniiaiui. I/aiue oanii ei??aee?oao ni nei?iniaeinoueth
oaeie i?eciae, eae ocae ?ane?uoey ia?aiai aeaineiai oeaaoea. O
nei?iniaeuo ni?oia aeuie ia?aua aeaineea oeaaoee ?ane?uaathony a iacooao
1-3 eenoueaa noaaeae I e II ii?yaeeia, ia?acothueony a naiuo ieaeieo
oceao aeaaiiai noaaey.

Nei?iniaeinoue ni?oa naycaia n aai onoie/eainoueth e iiieaeaieyi
oaiia?aoo?u, o.a. n ieanoe/iinoueth ii ioiioaieth e oaiia?aoo?iiio
oaeoi?o. Ni?oa, niiniaiua ?acaeaaoueny a aieueoai aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo?
e i?e aieaa ieceeo ieieiaeueiuo oaiia?aoo?ao, eae i?aaeei aieaa
nei?iniaeu, ia?niaeoeaiu aeey naaa?iuo ?aeiiia aao/aaiaenoaa e aeey
au?aueaaiey a ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao naaa?iie ciiu[30].

Ia?aua niiauaiey i aaoa?icena o aeuie ioiineeenue e i?eciaeo
?aiianiaeinoe. Nei?iniaeinoue ( aeaaiia i?aeiouanoai aaoa?iceniuo
aea?eaeia aeuie, iineieueeo yaeyaony aeiieiaioiui i?eciaeii e
eiio?iee?oaony o?aiy a?oiiaie aaiia. A nayce n yoei ii?aaeaeaiiue
eioa?an aeey naeaeoeee ia nei?iniaeinoue i?aaenoaaeyao oaeaea
eniieueciaaiea aaoa?iceniuo aea?eaeia aeuie [12].

I.O. Aoiaaeiaui a oaiee/iie eoeueoo?a auyaeaiu aeiii?u nei?iniaeinoe
aeuie: O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea 507, Oaiaeaeye-Eie/a 14, Ai?ueeianeay 310,
Oa?ueeianeay ?aiiyy, Ni?ieiaeiaaea, Blenheim orange self, Pennsweet
[5,32]. Eioa?an aeey naeaeoeee aeuie ia nei?iniaeinoue i?aaenoaaeytho
oaeaea ni?oa O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea, Aetheiiai/ea, Ae?iaea, Oaiaeaeye-Eie/a
14, Mainerosk Hybrid, Super market, Eo?oia 1 [18].

6.3. Ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee.

Aunieea aeoniaua ea/anoaa ieiaeia aeuie i/aiue oanii ei??aee?otho n
niaea?aeaieai a ieo ?anoai?eiuo nooeo aauanoa, a iniaaiiinoe naoa?ia.
Ia?yaeo n naoa?aie a ioeaiea ea/anoaa ieiaeia aao/aauo eoeueoo? aaaeiia
cia/aiea eiatho anei?aeiiaay eeneioa e ea?ioei, iiauoathuea
nii?ioeaeyaiinoue i?aaiecia e iaaeaaii?eyoiui oneiaeyi [30,104].

A nayce n yoei i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an naeaeoeey ni?oia n i?aiaeaaie
iyeioueth, aiaaoie ea?ioeiii. Oaeeie ni?oaie yaeythony aeuie eaioaeoiu,
iiiaea ia?acoeu eioi?ie e?iia oiai aua e oi?ioi i?eniiniaeaiu e oneiaeyi
caueuaiiiai a?oioa [10,27].

Oi?ioea aeoniaua ea/anoaa ieiaeia a ceiieo oaieeoeao eiaee ni?oa
Iaoeoeae ? 3, Aeana?oiay 5, Eieoicieoea 749/753, ?aiiyy Eieoicieoea,
Aaoa?iai, Aetheiiai/ea, Aoeyae ?aiiyy, Ogen, Sieger, Mastokazy, Harvest
Queen, Honey Dew, a oaeaea aea?eaeu F1 O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea x Iaoeoeae ? 3,
Oaiaeaeye-Eie/a 14 o Ogen, Ogen x Charentais, Eo?oia 1 x Ogen,
O?eaeoeaoeaeiaaea 507 o Ogen (aeaaonoaoeeiiiay ioeaiea 4( 4,5 aaeea)
[5,105].

Aunieea aeoniaua ea/anoaa a ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao Caiaaeiie Neae?e eiaee
ni?oa Ogen, Meteor, Gooker, ssioa?iay, Aeoooa, Eaca/ea 244 e F1(Hermes.
Niaea?aeaiea ?anoai?eiuo nooeo aauanoa a iyeioe yoeo ni?oia ninoaaeyei
10-15 % [24].

Oieueia iyeioe oaeaea yaeyaony aaaeiui iieacaoaeai ea/anoaa ieiaeia
aeuie. Ieiaeu n oienoie iyeioueth aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiu aeey
iio?aaeoaey. Iiea aua nouanoaoao iaei ioa/anoaaiiuo ?aaio ii
ni?oieco/aieth e naeaeoeee ia?acoeia aeuie ia oaeie i?eciae eae oieueia
iyeioe. Iaeiaei yoio i?eciae eiaao nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea aeey
iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee, oae eae iieiaeeoaeueii ei??aee?oao n auoiaeii
nuaaeiaiie /anoe ieiaeia aeuie. Oienooth iyeioue eiatho ia?acoeu
aa?iiaeneiai e aia?eeaineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey ( eaioaeoiu e ?ieeoi?aeu
[27].

Nuaaeiaiay /anoue ieiaeia aeuie ?acee/iuo ni?oia ec oaieeoeu ninoaaeyao:
Sieger ( 75 %, Aeana?oiay 5 ( 70 %, Eieoicieoea 749/753 ( 62 % [14].

6.4. Oaiaauiineeainoue.

Iiea aua iaei eco/ai ?aaeoeey aeuie ia oneiaey ieceie inaauaiiinoe.
Aianoa n oai, yoio aii?in eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea i?e aicaeaeuaaiee
aeuie a caueuaiiii a?oioa: a oneiaeyo iiieaeaiiie inaauaiiinoe
nieaeaaony niaea?aeaiea naoa?ia a ieiaeao, neeueii oaeeeiyaony
aaaaoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae, iniaaiii ia?eiae anoiaeu ( oeaaoaiea aeaineeie
oeaaoeaie [27].

Ii aeaiiui I.O. Aoiaaeiaa ?aaeoeey aeuie ia ieceoth inaauaiiinoue
i?iyaeyaony ia o?iaia iiaeaeaeia. Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai nu?ie iannu
iaeaieeaaee ni?oa n?aaeiaaceaoneie a?oiiu Oaiaeaeye. Iaeaieaa
/oanoaeoaeueiu e iiieaeaiiie inaauaiiinoe ni?oa aa?iiaeneiai iiaeaeaea (
?aciiaeaeiinoe eaoiyy e nei?iniaeay. ?acee/atho o?e oeia ?aaeoeee aeuie
ia ieceoth inaauaiiinoue a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae ?acaeoey a ceiiae
oaieeoea:

I ( inoaiiaea ?inoa (aeaoa?ieiaioiinoue), en/acathuay i?e iiauoaiee
inaauaiiinoe (n?aaeianiaeua ni?oa aa?iiaeneiai iiaeaeaea);

II ( auoyaeaaiea noaaeae (nei?iniaeua ni?oa aa?iiaeneiai iiaeaeaea);

III ( ?anoaiey oi?ioi ?acaeou, iaaeaeioceey oei?i/aiu, ii oeaaoaiea
caaea?aeeaaaony, oeaaoee iiaaeatho (?aiiaeaoiea e eaoiea ni?oa
n?aaeiaaceaoneiai iiaeaeaea).

I?e yoii auei ioia/aii, /oi a oneiaeyo iiieaeaiiie inaauaiiinoe o
aea?eaeia F1 aaoa?icen ia i?iyaeyaony [5].

Eiaaony iiiai aeaiiuo, /oi a oneiaeyo iiieaeaiiie inaauaiiinoe iiiaea
ni?oa e aea?eaeu aeuie eiatho ieiooth caaycuaaaiinoue ieiaeia, /anoi
iaaethaeaaony na?anuaaiea caaycae [57,77]. A iiuoao onoaiiaeaii, /oi
nio?aiiinoue caaycae o ni?oa Cristel ninoaaeea 93-100 %, Valeria ( 50-75
%, Sieger ( 40 ( 82 %. Aanieiaeiuo ?anoaiee o ni?oa Aeiineay ?aiiyy auei
5 %, Sieger ( 7,3 %, Ai?ueeianeay 310 ( 10 %, Valeria ( 80 %, o ni?oia
Aieaeaiea 157, Iiaea?ie e Cristel ( 60 % [105].

6.5. Oieiaeinoionoie/eainoue.

Eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea i?e au?aueaaiee aeuie a iaiaia?aaaaiuo ieaii/iuo
oaieeoeao. Ieceea oaiia?aoo?u, eioi?ua /anoi auaatho a ia/aeueiue
ia?eiae ?acaeoey ?anoaiee, neeueii oaeeeiytho aaaaoaoeeiiiue ia?eiae
aeuie e nieaeatho ?aiiee o?iaeae. A nayce n yoei nicaeaiea ni?oia n
iaeie oaieio?aaiaaoaeueiinoueth /anoe/ii ?aoaao aii?inu naeaeoeee aeuie
ia nei?iniaeinoue. [7,35].

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi o anao ni?oia iioeiaeueiua e ieieiaeueiua oaiia?aoo?u,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?acaeoey, ?ani?aaeaeythony a oa/aiee aaaaoaoeee ii
ia?aaiee/aneie e?eaie. Iaeaieaa aunieea iioeiaeueiua oaiia?aoo?u
niaiaaeatho n ia/aeii oeaaoaiey[30].

6.6. Naea?aeaiiue ?ino.

Naeaeoeey ni?oia n ia?aie/aiiui ?inoii iiaaaia eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea
aeey iiauoaiey o?iaeaeiinoe e oi?iuaiey ooiaea ca aeuiae a caueuaiiii
a?oioa. Iaeeaeaaony, /oi ca n/ao oaaee/aiey aonoiou iinaaeee eonoiauo
aeuiue ii n?aaiaieth n aeeeiiiieaoenouie a 6-7 ?ac, noiia?iay
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue eonoiauo aeuiue iiaeao auoue a 2-3 ?aca auoa [25].

O aeuie iaia?oaeaii aeaa oeia eonoiainoe o aeuie ( Aoo e Oaoie. Ia?acaoe
aeuie Oaoie eonoiaie oi?iu ec a?oiiu Oaiaeaeye aue iaeaeai E.E.
Aaaeeiaui a Aoaaienoaia. Naeaeoeeiiiia eniieueciaaiea yoiai ia?acoea
cao?oaeiaii oai, /oi i?eciae eonoiainoe ianeaaeoaony iieeaaiii e
noeaieai n ieceeie aeoniauie ea/anoaaie ieiaeia. Ia iniiaa ia?acoea
Oaoie aue nicaeai eonoiaie ni?o Eonoiaay 11. Aieaa ia?niaeoeaai a
naeaeoeeiiiii ioiioaiee ia?acaoe eonoiaie aeuie ec NOA Aoo. Ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi i?eciae eonoiainoe o iaai oaeaea noeaieai n ieceei ea/anoaii
ieiaeia, ii ianeaaeoaony iiiiaaiii e aieaa i?ino a naeaeoeeiiiie ?aaioa
[27].

Aianoa n oai a oneiaeyo ceiieo oaieeoe i?eciae eonoiainoe aeuie
i?aeoe/anee ia i?iyaeyaony, iiyoiio i?e naeaeoeee ni?oia aeuie ni
naea?aeaiiui ?inoii aeey oaieeoe aieaa ia?niaeoeaii eniieueciaaiea
ia?acoeia ni naea?aeaiiui ?inoii aieiauo iiaaaia[5].

A NOA R.E. Foster e W.T. Bond a ni?oa PMR-45 iaia?oaeeee iooaio aeie o
eioi?iai ia iiaaaa ioeaaiai ii?yaeea niaa?oaiii ionoonoaiaaee aieiaua
iiaaae. Iiieii iiaaaa ioeaaiai ii?yaeea ia ?anoaiee ia?aciauaaeenue
oieueei aeaa iiaaaa, eioi?ua ?inee ec naiyaeieueiiai ocea. Iaeiaei
?anoaiey aeaee oieueei oa?oeeueiua ioaeneea oeaaoee e ii/oe ia eiaee
aeaineeo e ia ia?aciauaaee ieiaeia. Nio?aiaiea iooaioa auei aiciiaeiui
oieueei a aaoa?iceaioiii ninoiyiee eee n iiiiuueth aaaaoaoeaiiai
?aciiiaeaiey. I?e aiaeeca iioiinoaa F1 e F2 auynieeinue, /oi i?eciae
ianeaaeoaony ?aoeanneaii e eiio?iee?oaony iaeiei aaiii. Iiaue aai
iieo/ee iacaaiea ab (abrachiate). Ii ianeaaeoaony ?aoeanneaii [62].

A 1966 aiaeo E. E. Aethoeiui auaeaeai ia?acaoe aeuie n ia?aie/aiiui
?acaeoeai aieiauo iiaaaia. ?anoaiey ia?acotho 2-3 oei?i/aiiuo aieiauo
iiaaaa aeeeiie 0,2-0,5 i, iiyaeythueany ec iacoo ia?auo ianoiyueo
eenoueaa, a oi a?aiy eae ?anoaiey iau/iuo ni?oia aeuie ia?aciauaaee
10-15 iiaaaia aeeeiie 0,7-1,5 i. Auyaeaii, /oi i?eciae (ia?aie/aiiia
?acaeoea aieiauo iiaaaia( ianeaaeoaony iiiiaaiii e ?aoeanneaii [17].

6.7. Onoie/eainoue e aieaciyi e a?aaeeoaeyi.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a caueuaiiii a?oioa aieacie aeuie ( ooca?eic,
io/ienoay ?ina, aneioeoic, eeaaeinii?eic, aaeoa?eaeueiua e ae?oniua
aieacie [26,30].

Ooca?eiciia oayaeaiea. Aicaoaeeoaeai aieacie yaeyaony a?ea Fusarium
oxysporium f. melonis Schlecht., ioiinyueeny e oaeoeueoaoeaiui
ia?aceoai. Nio?aiyaony aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy a ii/aa. Aieaciue i?iyaeyaony
ia anao oacao ?acaeoey a aeaea iiaeaeoaiey e iiaeayaeaiey eenoueaa,
auno?iai onuoaiey ieaoae, ea?eeeiainoe ?anoaiee. Ea/anoai ieiaeia
ii?aaeaiiuo ?anoaiee ?acei oooaeoaaony [30].

Aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae auaeaeytho o aeuie aeaa aaia onoie/eainoe e
ooca?eiciiio oayaeaieth (Fusarium oxysporium f. melonis): Fom1 e Fom2.
Aai Fom1 eiio?iee?oao onoie/eainoue e ?anai 0 e 1, a aai Fom2 ( e ?anai
0 e 2 Fusarium oxysporium f. melonis.

Ii onoie/eainoe e ooca?eiciiio oayaeaieth K. Buitelaar auaeaeyao /aou?a
a?oiiu ni?oia:

A?oiia 1(ia eiathuea aaiaoe/aneie onoie/eainoe): Charentais, Enkle Net,
Galia, Haon, Ogen, Oranje Ananas, Suiker.

A?oiia 2 (aaiaoe/anee onoie/eau e ?anai 0 e 2): Doublon, Polidor.

A?oiia 3 (aaiaoe/anee onoie/eau e ?anai 0 e 1): NM 17187, Overgen, TR.

A?oiia 4 (aaiaoe/anee onoie/eau e ?anai 0, 1 e 2): Fusano, Cantor,
Creon, Pharo, Printadou [82].

Ii aeaiiui A.Y. Eaaiiaie (1987) a oneiaeyo N?aaeiae Acee a iaeiaiueoae
noaiaie ooca?eiciui oayaeaieai ii?aaeaeny ni?o Charentais ec O?aioeee, a
oaeaea yiiineee ni?o Eo?oia 1 [18].

Aeiii?u onoie/eainoe aeuie e ooca?eiciiio oayaeaieth: Grognois Fus. W.R.
(e.6477) (*eee), Doublon (e.6599) (O?aioeey), Valeria (e.6773), Christel
(e.6774), Nreon (e.6815) (Ieaea?eaiaeu), Eieoicieoea (e.5451) (?inney)
[28].

Io/ienoay ?ina. Io/ienoay ?ina ii?aaeaao ana aao/aaua eoeueoo?u, ii
iniaaiii a?aaeiiinia aeey aeuie. Aicaoaeeoaeyie aieacie neoaeao aeaa
a?eaa: Erysiphe cichoracearum Do. e Sphaeroteka fuliginea Poll.
I?aiaeaaeathuaa cia/aiea eiaao aoi?ie. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi E.
cichoracearum ?acaeaaaony a aieaa oe?ieii aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? (io 10
aei 27 0N), a S. fuliginea ( eeoue i?e 20-27(0N [30].

Aunieie onoie/eainoueth e io/ienoie ?ina ioee/athony ni?oa ec NOA,
iineieueeo oai oaea aeaaii aaaeaony naeaeoeeiiiay ?aaioa a yoii
iai?aaeaiee. Yoi oaeea ni?oa, eae Rio-Gold, Halest Best ? 5, Seminole,
Edisto 47 e iiiaea ae?oaea [21,28].

A iiuoao ii au?aueaaieth a oaieeoea auyaeaiu onoie/eaua e io/ienoie ?ina
ia?acoeu aeuie: Oaaieeiea (AIEEIA), PMR-45 (NOA), Eo?oia 1 (ssiiiey), F1
Eo?oia 1 x Ogen. N?aaeiaonoie/eau e io/ienoie ?ina ni?o Rio-Gold e
aea?eaeu F1 a eioi?uo a ea/anoaa iaoa?eineie oi?iu eniieueciaaeny ni?o
Oaaieeiea [5,51].

Aneioeoic. ssaeyaony iaeiie ec naiuo a?aaeiiiniuo aieaciae aeuie a
ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao. Ii aeaiiui Caiaaeii-Neae?neie iiuoiie noaioeee
ni?oa Aeoaeneay, Aa?iaoeea(191 e Eoia neaai ii?aaeathony noaaeaaui
aneioeoicii. Ni?o aeuie Eoia ia eneonnoaaiiii eioaeoeeiiiii oiia a
ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao ii?aaeaeny noaaeaaui aneioeoicii ia 61 %, a oi a?aiy
eae F1 Aa?eion ia 91 % [23,24].

Aeiii?u onoie/eainoe aeuie e noaaeaaiio aneioeoico: Jaga (e.6788),
Takada (e.6787), Ooron ?9 (e.6779), Mizuho nynymeron (e.6784) (ssiiiey),
Ogen (e.5976), Valeria (e.6773) (Ieaea?eaiaeu), Pennsweet (e.5607)
(Eaiaaea), Muskatello (e.5169) (Aaia?ey) [28].

Eiaeiay io/ienoay ?ina. ?yae aaoi?ia oeacuaatho ia aunieoth noaiaiue
onoie/eainoe e EI? aia?eeaineiai ni?oa Seminole, o eioi?iai iia
ni/aoaaony n onoie/eainoueth e e ianoiyuae io/ienoie ?ina. Oi?ioae
onoie/eainoueth e EI? iaeaaeaao oaeaea ni?o Aeana?oiay 5 ec
E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay. Ia iniiaa yoiai ni?oa e ni?oa Oaaieeiea ai AIEEIA
nicaeaia na?ey ni?oia n eiiieaeniie onoie/eainoueth e ianoiyuae e
eiaeiie io/ienoie ?ina ( Eaaea, Aaaa, Cieioeiea e ae?. [16,28].

Aeiii?u onoie/eainoe: Edisto 47 (e.6094), Perlita (e.6572), Planter
Jumbo (6440) (NOA), ia?acoeu e.5896, e.5897 (Eeoae), e.5367, e.5369
(I?eii?neee e?ae) [28].

Aaeoa?eaeueiua aieacie. Iniiaiua aicaoaeeoaee aaeoa?eaeueiuo aieaciae
aeuie ( Bacillus mesenterious vulgatus e Pseudomonas lacrimans Sm. et
Br. Ia?aue ec ieo ?acaeaaaony a noooth aea?eoth iiaiaeo, aoi?ie ( ai
aeaaeioth e i?ioeaaeioth, iiyoiio iie i?eo?i/aiu a iniiaiii e ?aciui
ciiai. ?aaea ano?a/aaony Ervinia tracheiphila (E.F.Sm) Holl.

Aeiii?u onoie/eainoe: Iiney Dew (e.115), La Jolla (e.5790) (NOA),
Valeria (e.6773), Ogen (e.5976), Sieger, Iiaea?ie, I/aeea (e.6710)
(?inney) [28,30,47].

Ae?oniua aieacie. Aeiii?u onoie/eainoe: Iiney Dew (e.115), Rio-Gold
(e.5922), Hales Best (e.5501) (NOA), Eieoicieoea 593 (e.5451) (?inney),
Delicious (e.5617), Surprise (e.277), Jrokwois (e.5644) [28].

6.8. Naeaeoeey aaoa?iceniuo aea?eaeia.

A ?acaeouo no?aiao ia?yaeo n ni?oiauie iinaaaie aeuie cia/eoaeueiua
ieiuaaee caiyou aea?eaeaie. I?e/ai iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey oaaee/aiey
ieiuaaeae aea?eaeiuo iinaaia. A ?innee aiaae?aiea a i?iecaiaenoai
aaoa?iceniuo aea?eaeia aeuie oi?iiceony yooaeoeaiuo niiniaia aea?eaeiiai
naiaiiaiaenoaa. Aieueoeinoai ni?oia aeuie eiatho ioaeneea e
aa?iao?iaeeoiua oeaaoee (iieiaie oei aiae?iiiiioeey), e oieueei
iaeioi?ua nei?iniaeua ni?oa aa?iiaeneiai iiaeaeaea ( ioaeneea e aeaineea
oeaaou (iieiaie oei iiiioeey). Yoi cao?oaeiyao iieo/aiea aaoa?iceniuo
aea?eaeia aeuie [28,30].

A yoii neo/aa aeey iieo/aiey aaoa?iceniuo aea?eaeia aeuie aiciiaeii
ianeieueei iooae. A ia?aii neo/aa a ea/anoaa iaoa?eineie oi?iu iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue aiae?iiiiioeeeiua ni?oa, ii iie o?aaotho aieueoeo cao?ao
o?oaea ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth eano?aoeeth, ecieyoeeth e iiueaiea
oeaaoeia. Oaeie niinia i?eiaiei oieueei aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iaaieueoeo
ia?oee naiyi aeey oaieeoe [21].

Nieceoue cao?aou o?oaea ca n/ao ono?aiaiey iia?aoeee eano?aoeee iiaeii,
eniieuecoy a ea/anoaa iaoa?eineie oi?iu ia?acoeu n iiiioeeeiui oeiii
oeaaoaiey. A yoii neo/aa /anoi aeey iieo/aiey naiyi aea?eaeia F1
iaoa?eineea eeiee ia?aaaouaatho ?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoa, naeaeaathueie iie
?anoaiey a aeaineoth noi?iio. I?e yoii iaaethaeaaony ia?eiae ?acaeoey
?anoaiee a oa/aiea eioi?iai ia ?anoaiee niaa?oaiii ionoonoaotho ioaeneea
oeaaoee [39,73].

Aeey iaeneiaeueiiai nieaeaiey cao?ao o?oaea ia iieo/aiea naiyi aea?eaeia
F1 aeuie iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaii eniieueciaaiea eeiee n aeaineei oeiii
oeaaoaiey (iieiaie oei aeiiiiiioeey) eee ia?acoeia n ioaeneie
noa?eeueiinoueth [21].

Enoiaeiui iaoa?eaeii aeey naeaeoeee aeiiiiiioeeeiuo eeiee aeuie yaeyaony
aeeeee aeae aeuie ec Eeoay n /enoi aa?iao?iaeeoiuie oeaaoeaie ( Cucumis
monoclinus. E.E. Iaiaaei aea?eaeecaoeeae iiiioeeeiiai ia?acoea aeuie n
Cucumis monoclinus iieo/ee ?anoaiey n /enoi aeaineei oeiii oeaaoaiey.
Iaeiaei, iaeia ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai naeaeoeee aeiiiiiioeeeiuo eeiee aeuie
ia iniiaa N. monoclinus ( ieceea aeoniaua ea/anoaa ieiaeia, naienoaaiiua
yoiio aeaeo aeuie e ia?aaeathueany iioiinoao, iiyoiio aeey iieo/aiey
iaoa?eineeo oi?i aaoa?iceniuo aea?eaeia aeuie n aeaineei oeiii oeaaoaiey
iaiaoiaeeia aeeeoaeueiay naeaeoeeiiiay ?aaioa [12,20,28].

Ia Eoaaineie noaioeee AE? auee nicaeaiu aeiiiiiioeeeiua eeiee aeuie, a
oii /enea n ia?ea?iui i?eciaeii aeaeoi-caeaiue eeno (AEE703, AEE727,
AEE723, AECAEE313). Iieo/ai aea?eae F1 Cieooea (AEE727 o Cieioenoay) (
nei?iniaeue, aunieio?iaeaeiue, onoie/eaue e io/ienoie ?ina [33].

Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaii eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa iaoa?eineeo oi?i aeey
iieo/aiey aaoa?iceniuo aea?eaeia aeuie eeiee n aeaineei oeiii oeaaoaiey.
Auyaeaii ianeieueei aaiia ioaeneie noa?eeueiinoe aeuie. Aeaenoaea aaiia
ioaeneie noa?eeueiinoe ms-1 e ms-2 i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi iueueieee a
oeaaoeao ia ?ano?aneeaathony, iueueoea ia ?acaeoa. A Aieaa?ee
iaia?oaeaiu ?anoaiey aeuie n ooieoeeiiaeueiie ioaeneie noa?eeueiinoueth.
Iie eiatho ?acaeooth iueueoeo, ii ia?ane?uaathueany iueueieee [21,30].

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aithoianeay E., Oaaeaaa C. Aao/aaua a ?annaaeiuo ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao //
Naeuene. oic-ai Iieaeaaee. — 1978. — ? 3. — N. 38.

Aoiaaeia I. O. Aeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeuie a oaiee/iie eoeueoo?a //
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Aoiaaeia I. O. Iniaaiiinoe ?inoa e ?acaeoey aeuie a oaiee/iie eoeueoo?a
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(1978). — Aui. 236. — N. 34-36.

Aoiaaeia I. O. Ni?oieco/aiea aeuie a ieaii/iuo oaieeoeao a oneiaeyo
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Aoiaaeia I. O. Yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe e oi?ie?iaaiea o?iaeay ni?oia e
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Aaeaoia O. I. Eco/aiea aa?iiaeneeo aeuiue eae enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea aeey
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Aaiao?iaa A. N. I?eaiu iieo/aiey ?aiiae i?iaeoeoeee aeuie (ca?oaaaeiue
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Aaeee A. O. Aao/aaua eoeueoo?u. — 2-a ecae., ia?a?aa. e aeii. — I. :
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A?ucaaeia A. A., A?inaa?a A. Y., Eaaaaeaaa N. I. A?aocu e aeuie ia
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A?ucaaeia A. A., Iaeeieia I. E., Aeeaeaiei E. I. Aeuiy a ceiieo
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Ae?iuoaaiiy aeeiue i eaaoiia o ieiaeiaeo oaieeoeyo a E?eio / Ai?eniaa ?.
E.,Iaiinueea A. A., Ineiiaa O. I., Iyioeiia A. I. // Iai/iaieoeoai i
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Aaoa?icen / Eie. aaoi?ia; Ia?. n aiae. A. A. Eiicaioeaaa e O. A.
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Aeaauaeia A. Ae. Ni?aai/iee ii iaiuaaiaenoao e aao/aaiaenoao / Nino. A.
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Aeeaeaiei E. I. Ni?oa e iniiaiuai?eaiu au?aueaaiey aeuie a ceiieo
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Ae?aaaeue O. A., Aeeaeaiei A. I., Eunaiei A. I. Iiaua ni?oa aeuie aeey
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Aethoei E. A. Oa?aeoa? ianeaaeiaaiey i?eciaea (ia?aie/aiiia ?acaeoea
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Eaaiiaa A. Y. Ia?niaeoeaiua ia?acoeu aeuie aeey ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaiee
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eoeueoo?. ( 1982. ( Aui. 15. ( c. 28-31.

Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii naeaeoeee iaoa?eineeo oi?i aaoa?iceniuo
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Ieoia A., Eicaiia I. Aeeie e iuaiaoe. — 2-i ia?a?aa. e aeii. ecae. —
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Iaaaoiaa O. A. Aao/aaua eoeueoo?u a oaieeoeao // Ieiaeiiaiuiia
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Iaoi?ioaaa O. E. Ni?o aeuie Eoia aeey oaieeoe / Aa?ioaoieea e naeaeoeey
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Iaoi?ioaaa O. E. Oaoiieiaey au?aueaaiey aeuie a ieaii/iuo iaia?aaaaiuo
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