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География растениеводства Российской Федерации

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Ieienoa?noai aunoaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

?inneeneay Yeiiiie/aneay Aeaaeaiey ei A.A. Ieaoaiiaa

Eaoaae?a yeiiiie/aneie aaia?aoee

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii aeenoeeieeia «Yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey»

ia oaio

« Aaia?aoey ?anoaieaaiaenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee »

Auiieiee nooaeaio 1 eo?na

Iineianeiai Aaieianeiai Einoeoooa

aeiaaiiai ioaeaeaiey a?oiiu 1NA – 15

Aa?aiia Aeaenae Aeaenaiae?iae/

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

Aaaa?eia Aaeeia TH?ueaaia

Iineaa , 1998

Ieai :

Aeaaa 1 : No?oeoo?a naeueneiai oicyenoaa . Ioeaiea i?e?iaeii –
yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee ?acaeoey ?anoaieaaiaenoaa

Aeaaa 2 : Ciiaeueiay niaoeeaeecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa

Aeaaa 3 : Cia?aiaiiay aaia?aoey ?anoaieaaiaenoaa , iniiaiua ?aeiiu e
oeaio?u , ioeaiea yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey
iauanoaa , aeeyiea IOI ia ?acaeoea e ?aciauaiea ?anoaieaaiaenoaa ,
io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu

Caeeth/aiea : I?aaeeiaeaiey ii ia?aniaeoeaiiio ?acaeoeth e ?aciauaieth
io?anee . Ia?a/eneeoue iniiaiua auaiaeu naiae eo?niaie

I?eeiaeaiey

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u Aeaaa 1

No?oeoo?a naeueneiai oicyenoaa

Naeueneia oicyenoai ninoieo ec aeaoo iniiaiuo /anoae : ?anoaieaaiaenoaa
(caieaaeaeey) e aeeaioiiaiaenoaa . Ia ?anoaieaaiaenoai i?eoiaeeony a
n?aaeiai ieiei 40% aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa .

?anoaieaaiaenoai ninoieo a naith i/a?aaeue ec neaaeothueo iiaeio?aneae :

1)IIEAAIAeNOAI – aicaeaeuaaao :

ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u , eioi?ua aeaeyony ia oeaaiua (ioaieoea , ?iaeue
,y/iaiue , iaan , eoeo?oca, a?a/eoa , i?ini , ?en , ni?ai) e
ca?iiaiaiaua (ai?io , oanieue , niy)

oaoie/aneea eoeueoo?u – i?yaeeeueiua (oeii/aoiee) , eoayiua
(eai-aeieaoiaoe , eiiiiey) , ianee/iua eoeueoo?u (iiaenieia/iee) ,
e?aoiaeiiinu (ea?oioaeue) , naoa?iiinu (naoa?iay naaeea) , ia?eioe/aneea
?anoaiey (oaaae) , e?aneeueiua ?anoaiey (ia?aia e?aneeueiay)

ei?iiaua – o?aau (eeaaa? , oeiioaaaea , ethoea?ia) , ca?iiaua (aeea ,
/a/aaeoea) , ei?iaieiaeu (oo?iain)

ea?oioaeue e aao/aaua eoeueoo?u

2)IAIUAAIAeNOAI (ioe?uoiai e caueuaiiiai a?oioa)

3)IEIAeIAIAeNOAI (nianoaaiii ieiaeiaiaenoai , yaiaeiaiaenoai
,ieoiiieeiaiaenoai)

4)AEIAA?AAeA?NOAI

5)EOAIAIAeNOAI (caieiaaony eniieueciaaieai e oeo/oaieai anoanoaaiiuo
eoaia , nicaeaieai e eniieueciaaieai eneonnoaaiiuo naiieinia e ianoaeu)

6)EANIAIAeNOAI

7)OeAAOIAIAeNOAI

Ioeaiea i?e?iaeii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee ?acaeoey ?anoaieaaiaenoaa

A 1993-1994 aa. a aa?a?iii naeoi?a yeiiiieee ?innee i?iaeieaeaeenue
e?oiiua einoeoooeeiiaeueiua eciaiaiey, ia/aei eioi?ui auei iieiaeaii a
1992 a. a oiaea i?iaaaeaiey ia?aiai yoaia aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu. I?iecioea
?aceay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa ii o?iaith aeioiaeiinoe,
aic?inei /enei oao, eoi ioeaieaaao eoiae naiae aeayoaeueiinoe iaaaoeaii
e ia aeaeeo ia?niaeoea aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aac ?aaeueiie
oe?ieiianooaaiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee. Aaeeea caaeneiinoue yoeo
oicyenoa io aicaeaenoaey i?e?iaeiuo oaeoi?ia, /oi oaaee/eaaao ?ene
aaaeaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aua ia ?ac?aaioai iaoaieci
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey o/anoeia a iieueco yooaeoeaii oicyenoaothueo iaeeeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua oicyenoaa
ninoaaeytho i?eia?ii 30% anao e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa, nicaeaiiuo a
?acoeueoaoa ?acaeaea e?oiiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Aiaeec ?aaeiiaeueiuo ?acee/ee oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo no?oeoo? iieacuaaao, /oi iaeaieueoaa
?aciiia?acea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?aaeiiia aunieie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie inaiaiiinoe: Naaa?i-Eaaeacneiai, Iiaieaeuey,
Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiiai e Oeaio?aeueiiai ?aeiiia.

Iaeaieaa aeoeaii ?ai?aaiecaoeey iauanoaaiiuo oicyenoa i?ioiaeeea a
caiaaeiuo ?aeiiao eaniie, eaninoaiiie e noaiiie cii aa?iiaeneie
oa??eoi?ee no?aiu. A oi aea a?aiy a ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiao O?aei-Iiaieaeuey
aieueoay /anoue i?aaei?eyoee nio?aieea naie noaoon. Oae, i?ioeann
?ai?aaiecaoeee i?aeoe/anee ia cao?iioe oicyenoaa ia oa??eoi?ee Oaoa?ee ,
aaea eieoicu e niaoicu ninoaaeytho nae/an ieiei 90%, Aaoee?ee e
Oaeio?oee — aieaa 60, Eaeiueee — aieaa 70%. Niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe
eiaea naeueneioicyenoaaiiay ?aoi?ia ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca. Ia oa??eoi?ee
E?aniiaea?neiai, Noaa?iiieueneiai e?aaa e ?inoianeie iae. i?ioeann
oi?ie?iaaiey iiiaioeeaaeiie yeiiiieee i?ioiaeee iaeaieaa aeoeaii, oiaaea
eae a ?anioaeeeao Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca noaoon niaoicia e eieoicia nio?aieee
io 70 aei 90% oicyenoa. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi n?aaee oicyenoa,
nio?aieaoeo i?aaeiee noaoon, eieoicia aaeaia aieueoa, /ai niaoicia.
Ioiineoaeueii aieueoia eiee/anoai niaoicia, nio?aieaoeo naie noaoon,
ioia/aii a noaiiuo ?aeiiao E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay, a Neae?e (Aeoaeneee
e?ae, Iiaineae?neay iae. e ae?.), o. a. oai, aaea noi?ie?iaaeenue
e?oiiua oiaa?iua oicyenoaa. e E 1995 a. a no?aia ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 17
oun. iiauo oi?ie?iaaiee e 10 oun. eieoicia e niaoicia.

Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa noi?ie?iaaeinue ia Naaa?iii
Eaaeaca (aieueoa 1/4) e a Iiaieaeuea (Na?aoianeay e Aieaia?aaeneay
Iaeanoe). Aieaa 20% anao oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa nicaeaii a Neae?e,
ioiineoaeueii aieueoia eo eiee/anoai ia oa??eoi?ee Aeoaeneiai e?ay,
Iiaineae?neie e Iineie iaeanoae. I?e yoii a caiaaeiuo e oeaio?aeueiuo
i?iaeioeeyo anao i?e?iaeiuo cii /enei oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa cia/eoaeueii
i?aauoaao eo eiee/anoai a ainoi/iuo i?iaeioeeyo yoeo aea cii (a 5 ?ac e
aieaa). Neeueii ?acee/athony e ?acia?u caiaeueiuo o/anoeia oa?ia?neeo
oicyenoa. «Oae, anee a n?aaeiai ii ?innee aieueoay /anoue oicyenoa eiaea
ieiuaaeue aei 20—50 aa, oi a ainoi/iuo /anoyo iniiaiuo i?e?iaeiuo cii
auoa aeiey oicyenoa ?acia?ii aei 200 aa e aieaa. Ii oi?iai nianoaaiiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ?ani?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii:
ainoaea?noaaiiay (oaaea?aeueiay e noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee) — 28%,
ioieoeeiaeueiay — 3, /anoiay — 64, niaoaiiay — 5%. Oaeei ia?acii,
iniiaiie oi?iie nianoaaiiinoe a naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa
yaeyaony /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue. A oiaea inouanoaeaiey aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu
i?ienoiaeeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie eaoaai?eyie oicyenoa. Oae, ii n?aaiaieth n ia/aeii 90-o
aiaeia ia 20% nie?aoeeanue ieiuaaeue naeueoicoaiaeee a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeanue a
oa?ia?neeo oicyenoaao ianaeaiey.

Nouanoaothuea e?anoueyineea (oa?ia?neea) oicyenoaa iiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

-i?eia?ii 40% oicyenoa aicaeaaeytho i?ioanneiiaeu, eiathuea aunoaa e
n?aaeiaa niaoeeaeueiia naeueneioicyenoaaiiia ia?aciaaiea, iiuo ?aaiou a
naeueneii oicyenoaa, i?iaeeaaaoea e i?aaeaea a naeueneie ianoiinoe;

-yeeoa?iua oicyenoaa – nicaeaiiua ?aaioieeaie auaoae iiiaieeaoo?u (eee
eo ?iaenoaaiieeaie), eiaaoeie i?aeiouanoaa a neeo naiaai neoaeaaiiai
iieiaeaiey i?e iieo/aiee caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, iiaie oaoieee, e?aaeeoiuo
?ano?nia ia ia/aeueiii yoaia i?iaaaeaiey aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu;

-eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua oicyenoaa iaaieueoiai ?acia?a, i?aaieciaaiiua
?aaioieeaie nioeeaeueiie noa?u a naeueneie ianoiinoe, a iniiaiii aeey
iaania/aiey naay i?iaeoeoaie ieoaiey;

-oicyenoaa, nicaeaiiua i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ia?aeiaeueiie a?oiiu,
ninoaaeythuae iaiiiaei aieaa 21% iauaai /enea oa?ia?ia. A iaa aoiaeyo
iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ?aaioieee, ethaee, ia yaeythueany niaoeeaeenoaie a
iaeanoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa. A /enea ?aniaaoeony oicyenoa ioiinyueany e
yoie a?oiia caieiatho aieueoia ianoi.

I?aaiecaoeey naiaeiuo oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa .

Ianeaaeiaaiiua oa?ia?neea oicyenoaa auee nicaeaiu ia i?ioyaeaiee
1990-1993 aa. A?aiy e ianoi eo i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea iiceoeey ianoiuo
aeanoae a nouanoaaiiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeytho e?oa oeie/iuo i?iaeai, n
eioi?uie ei i?eoeinue noieeiooueny.

A oeaeii cia/eoaeueii eaa/a i?eoeinue oai, eoi ?aoee nicaeaoue naia
oicyenoai a 1990-1991 aa. Oiaaea aua oa?ia?u iiaee auae?aoue
ianoiiieiaeaiea e ?acia?u o/anoeia, auee aeinooiiaa eueaioiua e?aaeeou.
Iaeiaei iaiiiai iaiueoa, /ai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, auei aiciiaeiinoae
i?eia?aoaiey ioaeiie oaoieee, iniaaiii iiaie, iiyoiio oa?ia?u e iniiaiii
iieoiaee noa?ia, eciioaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea e ainnoaiaaeeaaee aai naieie
neeaie.

Aoi?ay aieia oa?ia?neiai aeaeaeaiey (1992-1993 aa.) naycaia n
?ai?aaiecaoeeae eieoicia e niaoicia e aiciiaeiinoueth auoiaea ec ieo n
caiaeueiui , aeaiaaeiui iaai e iaaeaeaieai oaoieeie. Eiaiii n iieo/aieai
iay a aeaea oaoieee auee naycaiu iaeaieaa neiaeiua i?iaeaiu ec-ca
aieueoiai ?ac?uaa iaaeaeo aaee/eiie aeaiaaeiiai iay e ?uii/iie oeaiie
oaoieee. I?e yoii eieoicu e niaoicu i?iaeaaaee oa?ia?ai naioth ieiooth
oaoieeo. Iaeioi?ua oa?ia?u iay aiiaua ia niiaee iieo/eoue.

Eioa?aueth naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi i?aaeii/oaiey oa?ia?ia n oi/ee
c?aiey aeaeaoaeueiuo ?acia?ia caiaeueiiai iaaeaea aeey aaaeaiey
oicyenoaa i?aoa?iaee nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey ia i?ioyaeaiee 1991-1993 aa.
Ia ia/aeueiii yoaia oa?ia?neiai aeaeaeaiey, .eiaaea iieo/eoue caieth
auei n?aaieoaeueii eaaei, iiiaeo ioaaea iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue a ioiioaiee
eae nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, oae e aiciiaeiinoae i?eia?aoaiey oaoieee.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai oa?ia?u a iniiaiii i?eaioe?iaaeenue ia ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoea caiaeueiua iaaeaeu, eioi?ua iiaeii auei au ia?aaaouaaoue n
ieieiaeueiui iaai?ii oaoieee e/eee ca n/ao i?eaea/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiiai
/enea ?aaioieeia. *anoue oa?ia?ia, eae i?aaeei, iaineiia?u, e ia
no?aieeenue e i?aaiecaoeee oiaa?iiai oicyenoaa, aeaaiui aeey ieo auei
iaania/aiea naay i?iaeoeoaie ieoaiey.

Oa?ia?u aoi?ie aieiu, a iniiaiii auoiaeeaoea ec eieoicia e niaoicia,
i?aaeii/eoaee o/anoee cia/eoaeueii aieueoae ieiuaaee (ia iaiaa 50-60
aa), iaeiaei e yoiio iiiaioo eiieo?aioeey ca caieth iaino?eeanue e
iiiaei oaea ia oaeaeinue iieo/eoue caiaeueiue iaaeae aeaeaaiiai ?acia?a.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, eiaaea oaoie/aneay iniauaiiinoue ?yaea oa?ia?neeo
oicyenoa nouanoaaiii aic?inea e aicieeea iaoi?iaeueiay eiiia?aoeey
iaaeaeo ieie, iaeioi?ua oa?ia?u oioaee au ia?aaaouaaoue o/anoee
ieiuaaeueth 150-300 aa, ii ana iie iieo/eee ioeacu io ianoiuo aeanoae,
iineieueeo aiciiaeiinoe aeey yoiai, iniaaiii a ciiao, i?eeaaathueo e
e?oiiui ai?iaeai, i?aeoe/anee en/a?iaiu.

Anee o ?aniiiaeaioia, aeeaoueo a Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiii ?aeiia,
iniiaiua i?aoaicee aucuaaao oaeaeaiiinoue auaeaeaiiuo iaaeaeia io ianoa
aeeoaeuenoaa (40-50 ei), oi o ?aniiiaeaioia a Ia/a?iicaiuea – ea/anoai
caiee. Ia?aaeee neo/ae, eiaaea /anoue auaeaeaiiiai caiaeueiiai iaaeaea
ia iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia ec-ca iecei , aieio . E?iia oiai,
iaaethaeathony ?anoiaeaeaiey a eaaeano?iaie e oaeoe/aneie ioeaieao
caiee. Oaeei ia?acii, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oa?ia?neea oicyenoaa iauaeoeaii
iinoaaeaiu a ooaeoea ii n?aaiaieth n auaoeie eieoicaie e niaoicaie
yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey.

Ec-ca ieceiai ea/anoaa ia?aaeaaaaiie oa?ia?ai caiee o?aaothony ia?iiiua
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a i?iaeou ii i?iaaaeaieth iaeei?aoeaiuo ?aaio,
nicaeaieth o?ainii?oiie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea a
yoie iaeanoe yaii iaaeinoaoi/ia ie n oi/ee c?aiey aaee/eiu auaeaeyaiuo
n?aaenoa, ie ii n?ieai i?iaaaeaiey ?aaio.

Aieueoeinoai ianeaaeiaaiiuo oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa ia ?aniieaaaei
naiaiaeiuie aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie aeey inouanoaeaiey eiaanoeoeee a
i?aaiecoaiua oicyenoaa. O?iaaiue eo oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe iieiinoueth
caaenae io iieo/aiey e?aaeeoia. ?acia?u i?eaeaeaaiuo ee/iuo naa?aaeaiee
a oeaeii ianiiinoaaeiu n iauaiaie iieo/aiiuo e?aaeeoia. Iineaaeiea auee
eae ieieioi ia ii?yaeie auoa. A iniiaiii ee/iua naa?aaeaiey auee
eniieueciaaiu ia ia?aacae e iaono?ienoai ia iiaii ianoa.

Iniiao oa?ia?neiai aeaeaeaiey a ?innee ninoaaeytho naiaeiua oicyenoaa.
Aeaaea oai, aaea oa?ia?u aaaeoo aeaea ianeieueeeie naiueyie niaianoii,
ioaeaeueiua “naiaeiua oicyenoaa” inoathony th?eaee/anee
naiinoiyoaeueiuie e i?e ?anoiaeaeaiee eioa?ania iiaoo a ethaie
iiiaio ?anianoueny.

Iiaeaaeythuay /anoue oa?ia?ia aaniethoii ia iiaeaioiaeaiu e oiio, /oiau
aunooiaoue a ?iee i?iaeaaoea naiae i?iaeoeoeee, ia oiatho caeeth/aoue
aeiaiai?a ia iinoaaeo, ia ciatho th?eaee/aneeo aniaeoia oaeeo naeaeie.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iao/aiee oa?ia?ia ?uii/iiio iiaaaeaieth nouanoaoao.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeii ioiaoeoue neaaeothuea oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee
naiaeiuo oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa: oaaee/aiea ianooaaia i?eiaiaiey iaaiiiai
o?oaea; i?aa?auaiea oa?ia?ia a iaiaaeaea?ia oicyenoa; aicieeiiaaiea
iaoi?iaeueiie eiiia?aoeee iaaeaeo oa?ia?neeie oicyenoaaie .

A yooaeoeaii ?acaeaathueony, oicyenoaao /anoue oa?ia?ia, eniieuecothueo
a oe?ieeo ianooaaao iaaiiue o?oae, iinoaiaiii aa?oo ia naay
oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee. Iie iaeaieaa oniaoii ?aoatho i?iaeaiu
niaaaeaiey, nauoa, iienea e?aaeeoia.

Iineieueeo naiaa?aiaiiia i?iaaaeaiea aa?ioaoie/aneeo ?aaio a naiaeiuo
oa?ia?neeo oicyenoaao cao?oaeiaii aneaaenoaea eo ieceie oaoie/aneie
iniauaiiinoe, oa?ia?u aeoeaii eiiia?e?othony ae?oa n ae?oaii . Oi?iu
yoie eiiia?aoeee ?acee/iu: niaianoiay ia?aaioea caiee e oai?ea o?iaeay,
acaeiiia eniieueciaaiea oaoieee, ieacaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneoa ca iiiiuue
a ?aaioa.

Oyaeaeia oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea aieueoeinoaa oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa
auioaeaeaao oa?ia?ia yeiiiieoue ia nioeeaeueiuo ?anoiaeao. Eeoue
iaiiiaea ec ieo ieaoyo iaycaoaeueiua aciinu a Ainoaea?noaaiiue
iaineiiiue oiiae, oae eae ia o/eouaatho a naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee
cao?aou nianoaaiiiai o?oaea. Neaai ?acaeoi iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea.
I/aaeaeii, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy naiaeiua oa?ia?neea oicyenoaa nioeeaeueii
caueuaiu i/aiue neaai. Iineieueeo aieueoeinoai oa?ia?ia aeoeaiiai
o?oaeiniiniaiiai aic?anoa, oi iie ia iniciatho yoo i?iaeaio, iaeiaei a
aeaeueiaeoai iia iaino?eony.

Ana ii?ioaiiua oa?ia?u e?aeia ianneienoe/ii ioeaieaaee o?iaaiue naiaai
aeaaininoiyiey. Oaeay ioeaiea iauyniyaony oai, /oi i?aeoe/anee ai anao
oicyenoaao ionoonoaotho naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa. Yoi naycaii eae
n naciiiinoueth naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai o?oaea, caaea?aeeaie a iieaoa ca
i?iaeaiiue o?iaeae, oae e n oai, /oi any iieo/aaiay i?eaueue
eniieuecoaony ia ?acaeoea oicyenoaa.

Anee aea ioeaieaaoue o?iaaiue aeaaininoiyiey oicyenoaa n oi/ee c?aiey
aai oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe, oi ea?oeia ieaaeaony eiie. Oeaiie aeaaioneeo
oneeee, ia?aie/aiey ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey oa?ia?neea oicyenoaa niiaee
caeiaeeoue iniiao aeey naiaai ?acaeoey a aoaeouai.

Ia ace?ay ia ana o?oaeiinoe, eeoue iaeei ec ii?ioaiiuo oa?ia?ia
niaeaeaao i aua?aiiii iooe. Aeey inoaeueiuo iaeaieaa aaaeiuie yaeythony
aiciiaeiinoue i?iyaeoue naay, naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee e
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acoeueoao, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao aunieoth noaiaiue
oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe naiei o?oaeii.

Ia acaeiiioiioaiey oa?ia?ia n ianoiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe a ?acee/iuo
?aaeiiao ?innee a aieueoae noaiaie iaeeaaeuaaao ioia/aoie oaeie oaeoi?,
eae iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea a ?aaeiia naiaiaeiie caiee. A inoaeueiii
ioiioaiea aeanoae e oa?ia?ai caaeneo io noauaeoeaiuo i?e/ei –
eaeaieiae/aneeo acaeyaeia aeaau aaeieieno?aoeee ?aeiia eee io
iieeoe/aneie eiiuthieoo?u.

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie oaea io/aoeeai i?iyaeeanue aeeooa?aioeeaoeey a
ioiioaieyo aeanoae e oa?ia?noao. A Iiaeiineiauea a iniiaiii
i?aiaeaaeatho iaaaoeaii-iaeo?aeueiua ioiioaiey, a oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao
?innee – iaeo?aeueii-aeaaii?eyoiua. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo Iineianeie
iaeanoueth e i?iaeioeeaeueiuie ?aeiiaie ai acaeiiioiioaieyo aeanoae e
oa?ia?ia caaeneo io iaee/ey naiaiaeiuo ieiuaaeae. A Iineianeie iaeanoe
eo ai?acaei iaiueoa, /ai a i?iaeioeee, a aeaeathueo iieo/eoue
-cia/eoaeueii aieueoa..

I?aeoe/anee ana oa?ia?u aeaeothony ia ?ac?inoeeny ath?ie?aoe/aneee
aiia?ao ia ianoao. Ioia/aaony, /oi i?e nicaeaiee oa?ia?neiai oicyenoaa
oa?ia?ai i?eoeinue ioi?ieyoue iiiaeanoai aeieoiaioia. Yoi caieiaao io
iieooi?a ianyoeaa aei aiaea, i?e yoii ca ana i?eoiaeeony ieaoeoue a
ioeoeeaeueiii e iaioeoeeaeueiii ii?yaeea.

*anoue oa?ia?ia ioia/atho iaaaoeaioth ?ieue ianoiuo aaeieieno?aoeee i?e
?ani?aaeaeaiee e?aaeeoia: aeanoe ia?aaeei ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea auaoei
eieoicai e niaoicai. A ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao oa?ia?u oeacuaatho ia
o?oaeiinoe i?e nauoa naiae i?iaeoeoeee ec-ca ioe?iaaiiiai
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey aeanoae. Iai?eia?, ii ?anii?yaeaieth aeaau
aaeieieno?aoeee Ai?iiaaeneie iaeanoe aue cai?auai auaic i?iaeoeoeee ca
aa i?aaeaeu.

Naiia aieueiia ianoi ai acaeiiioiioaieyo eieoicia (niaoicia) e
oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa – ?ani?aaeaeaiea caiee. Eieoicu (niaoicu),
i?ioeaiaeaenoaoy iieo/aieth caiee oa?ia?aie, ?ani?iaeatho aa iiae aea/e
– iniaaiii yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey iineianeiai ?aaeiia. A i?iaeioeee aua
eiaaony aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue caieth ioeoeeaeueiui iooai n iieiui
ioi?ieaieai iaiaoiaeeiuo aeieoiaioia.

A oneiaeyo ieceie oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa a?aiaea
oaoieee o eieoicia eee niaoicia iiaea au ?aoeoue /anoue eo i?iaeai.
Iaeiaei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a?aiaeiaaoue oaoieeo noaei o?oaeii eee i?inoi
iaaiciiaeii .

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi nauo
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee – iaeia ec iniiaiuo i?iaeai oa?ia?neeo
oicyenoa . Eiie?aoiua oi?iu aa i?iyaeaiey caaenyo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io
oiai, yaeyaony ee aeaiiia oa?ia?neia oicyenoai oiaa?iui eee iii
ni?eaioe?iaaii a iniiaiii ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee naiiai oa?ia?a e /eaiia aai naiuee.

A eioa?anao noaaeeecaoeee e ?acaeoey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee iaiaoiaeeii
nicaeaoue i?aaeiinueee aeey aicieeiiaaiey oiaa?iuo oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa,
?inoa eo /enea. Aiciiaeiinoue aaaeaiey oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa
iaoneiaeaia oaeoi?aie, iaei caaenyueie io o?oaeiauo oneeee oa?ia?a:
?acia?ii oa?ia?neiai oicyenoaa, aai aa?ioaoie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e
oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoueth. O?e yoeo oaeoi?a aeanoei ia?aie/eaatho
auai? ia oieueei iioaioeeaeueii oiaa?iuo, ii e aiciiaeiuo a i?eioeeia
aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe.

Caiey, ia?aoiaeyuay ai aeaaeaiea oa?ia?a, ecia/aeueii ie ii ieiuaaee, ie
ii ea/anoao ia ioaa/aao oai iai?aaeaieyi naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua ii oioae au ?acaeaaoue. E?iia oiai, aeaeaei ia
aeey eaaeaeiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe o oa?ia?a anoue iieiue eiiieaeo
oaoieee. Aua iaiueoa oaoieee, niaoeeaeueii i?eniiniaeaiiie aeey ?aaiou
ia ioiineoaeueii iaeuo ieiuaaeyo. Ieceay oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoue
oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo i?aiyonoaee aeey iiaeuaia
eo yooaeoeaiinoe.

A oeaeii oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa iaaeaaii?eyoiu aeey
iiauoaiey eo oiaa?iinoe. Aeiiieieoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe nicaeathony
ia?acaeoinoueth eio?ano?oeoo?u nauoa, ionoonoaeai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey a yoie iaeanoe.

I?e oiaa?iii i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aae oa?ia?ii noieo caaea/a ?aaeecaoeee
iniiaiie iannu i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ia?aie/aiiiai anni?oeiaioa
iioiauie e iaeeiiioiauie ia?oeyie. Naaiaeiy nouanoaotho aeaa eaiaea
nauoa: i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noao e eiiia?/aneei i?aaiecaoeeyi. Aeey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoiie oa?aeoa?iu aieaa ieceea oeaiu, aieueoee iauai
caeoiie, caiacaeuaaiea ?an/aoia a n?aaeiai ia 3 ianyoea. Eiiia?/aneea
no?oeoo?u ieaoyo aei?iaea, caeoiatho iaiueoeie ia?oeyie, auno?aa
?ann/eouaathony, a eiiaaea n?aco iiea/eaatho iaee/iuie. Iiea
eiiia?/aneeo caeoii/iuo no?oeoo? iaei, oa?ia?u i ieo ieioi inaaaeiieaiu.
?aaeueii eiioaeo caaycuaaaony, eiaaea naie eiiia?naiou “auoiaeyo” ia
oa?ia?a.

Anee oa?ia?neia oicyenoai iaeaaeaao i?eciaeaie iaoo?aeueiiai, oi iii
?aaeecoao a iniiaiii inoaoee o?iaeay naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? e
i?iaeoeou aeeaioiiaiaenoaa iooai iaeeiiioiaie e ?icie/iie i?iaeaaee.
?uiie naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aea?aaaiue e iaaieueoeo
ai?iaeia, oaeaeaiiuo io e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia, aania?niaeoeaai
aeey oa?ia?ia. Ia oaeii ?uiea neiaeii /oi-eeai i?iaeaoue, ianiio?y ia
aaaeiinoue anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey a iaaaceiao. I?aeoe/anee ana
aeeoaee yoeo iano iaania/eaatho naay naeueoici?iaeoeoeeae ni naieo
iai?iaeia: Aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeai ?uiie e?oiiuo ai?iaeia, i?iiuoeaiiuo
oeaio?ia, ii eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue oa?ia?ia iiaeao naiinoiyoaeueii
i?iaeaoue oai eceeoee naiae i?iaeoeoeee: iao naiaiaeiuo ?oe, nouanoaoao
oa?ica ?yeaoa, iiae/an iao o?ainii?oa e aaeeee iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu.

Iaeei ec ia?niaeoeaiuo iooae ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu nauoa – nicaeaiea
nianoaaiiie ia?a?aaaouaathuae aacu. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a yoii iuouatho
aieueoeinoai oa?ia?ia iacaaeneii io iauaiia nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa .
Naaiaeiy aiciiaeiinoae aeey ?acaeoey ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?iecaiaenoa o
ioaeaeueiuo oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa iao, a iio?aaiinoue a eiiia?e?iaaiee
iniciatho iiea iaiiiaea.

Nauo i?iaeoeoeee caaeneo io iieeoeee oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Neaaeoao
auaeaeeoue o?e aa aniaeoa: o/ao cao?ao; iacia/aiea ieii/aoaeueiie oeaiu
i?iaeaaee; niioiioaiea oeai iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aeaeaie
naeueoici?iaeoeoeee e iaaeaeo ieie e oeaiaie ia i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u.

*oi eanaaony o/aoa cao?ao, oi iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai oa?ia?ia
n/eoatho cao?aoaie eeoue oi, ca /oi iie naie ieaoyo (ai?th/a-niaci/iua
iaoa?eaeu, cai/anoe, naiaia, oaeia?aiey e o.ae.). Ec-ca ia?aie/aiiinoe
n?aaenoa iianaianoii yeiiiiyo ia iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeao: oa?ia?u ia
caeoiatho oaeia?aiey, naie ?aiiioe?otho oaoieeo, ia no?aootho o?iaeae,
iieuecothony naieie naiaiaie e ei?iaie iacaaeneii io eo ea/anoaa.
Cao?aou nianoaaiiiai o?oaea eae yeaiaio naaanoieiinoe o/eouaatho oieueei
ioaeaeueiua oa?ia?u , oioy o?oae ia ii?ie?iaai. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
naaanoieiinoue naeueoici?iaeoeoeee eneonnoaaiii caieaeaaony ca n/ao
nie?auaiey /enea yeaiaioia cao?ao.

Eiieo?aioeey ia ?uiea naeueoici?iaeoeoeee ii/oe iieiinoueth i?eia?aea
oeaiiaie oa?aeoa?. A yoii niunea aeey oa?ia?ia eiieo?aiou – eieoicu e a
aieueoae ia?a eiii?oe?oaiay naeueoici?iaeoeoeey. Iaeioi?ua ec
?aniiiaeaioia ioia/atho, /oi eieoicu i?iaeatho i?iaeoeou ii aieaa ieceei
oeaiai naaa a oauoie, iaaeaynue ia oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo
ainoaea?noaa. ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie noaee aeaeiau ia ieceea oeaiu ia
eiii?oiia i?iaeiaieuenoaea, eioi?ua iiae/an ieaea o?iaiy naaanoieiinoe
oa?ia?neie i?iaeoeoeee.

Ia?acaeoinoue eio?ano?oeoo?u nauoa, iaauaiaeiinoue oneiaee i?iaeaae
i?eaiaeyo e oiio, /oi oa?ia?u ia ?aaeecotho iieo/aiiue o?iaeae, o?aiy
aai aei “eo/oeo a?aiai”, nie?auatho i?iecaiaenoai aei ieieiaeueiuo
?acia?ia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey nouanoaiaaiey naiae, ioeacuaathony io ?aiaa
a?aiaeiaaiiuo o/anoeia.

I?aeoe/anee ana ?aniiiaeaiou iiae/a?eeaaee, /oi ?aaioatho a oneiaeyo
aeaoeoeeoa aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Ii iaoneiaeeaaaony neaaeothueie
oaeoi?aie.

Iacia/eoaeueiua ?acia?u ia?aiia/aeueiiai eaieoaea. Iieo/aaiie i?e
auoiaea ec eieoica (niaoica) oaoieee ieacaeinue iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey
naiinoiyoaeueiiai aaaeaiey oicyenoaa. A ia/aea aeayoaeueiinoe aue acyo
e?aaeeo (iau/ii eueaioiue), ii aeaiueae auee auaeaeaiu n iiicaeaieai e
ia a iaiaoiaeeiii iauaia, n?aaenoa ia iiiaia ia oaaoeei, iioiio e
yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee, e oii /enea e i?eaueue, ieacaeenue ieaea
?an/aoiuo. Inoaoee n?aaenoa oie/oiaeeea eioeyoeey, e aieueoay /anoue
i?eauee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecoaony ia iie?uoea cao?ao e auieaoo
i?ioeaioia ii e?aaeeoo.

Nauoiaua o?oaeiinoe. Aeaaea i?e aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaii aaaeaiee
oicyenoaa e aunieeo o?iaeaeiinoe e ea/anoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee oa?ia?u iaaeiiieo/atho aeioiae ec-ca ionoonoaey ?acaeoie
nenoaiu nauoa, ieceeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeoii/iuo oeai e aieueoeo cao?ao
i?e o?aiaiee i?iaeoeoeee ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo eee eieoiciuo yeaaaoi?ao,
neeaaeao e i?.

Iaaeaaii?eyoiua iiaiaeiua oneiaey. Iai?eia?, a 1993 a. ec-ca ieioie
iiaiaeu (aeiaeaeeeaia eaoi, ?aiiee niaaiiaae) naeueneia oicyenoai
iiianei aieueoea iioa?e. I iioa?yo eieoicia, niaoicia eioi?iaoeey
oeaio?aeeciaaiii niae?aeanue, oua?a ei /anoe/ii eiiiaine?iaaeny. Iioa?e
oa?ia?ia ieeoi ia o/eouaae e ia eiiiaine?iaae.

Iaeue ?acia? caiaeueiiai iaaeaea e anaai oicyenoaa. Yoio oaeoi?
i?aa?auaao aai, ii nooe, a iaoo?aeueiia, i?eaiaeeo e ieceie
?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa eee aeaaea e aai o?iie/aneie oauoi/iinoe.
Iiieii i?aiyonoaee ni noi?iiu aeanoae ii auaeaeaieth aeiiieieoaeueiuo
caiaeueiuo ieiuaaeae, eiathony neo/ae ioeaca io caiee ec-ca iauae
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee, iaaeaaii?eyoiie aeey ?acaeoey oa?ia?noaa.

*?acia?ii aeanoeea oneiaey e?aaeeoiaaiey. Oa?ia?u iau/ii aa?oo naciiiue
e?aaeeo (ia iinaaioth, ia oai?i/ioth) iiae caeia caiee eee oaoieee. N
o/aoii ?inoa ieieiaeueiie noaaee i?ioeaioa n 28 aei 213 % (a oneiaeyo
aunieie eioeyoeee) aica?aoeoue e?aaeeo noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeii.
Caaea?aeaiiua i?ioeaiou i?eiethniauaathony e aeieao e ia ieo oaeaea
ia/eneythony i?ioeaiou. A eoiaa noiia aeieaa i?aauoaao noieiinoue
caeiaa.

I?iaeaiu n auieaoie iaeiaia. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi oa?ia?u a ia?aua 5 eao
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe inaiaiaeaeaiu io aieueoae /anoe iaeiaiauo
io/eneaiee, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ei i?eoiaeeony ieaoeoue.
Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ecuyoeth ii/oe anae iieo/aaiie i?eauee.

Ii?in iicaieee auyaeoue neaaeothuea aa?eaiou ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey
oeiainiauo n?aaenoa e iooe eo iiiieiaiey:

-caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?a n e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiie i?aaiecaoeeae a ai?iaea:
eiaanoeoeee a iaiai ia i?iaeoeoeeth aeey ?aai/eo. A aeieoiaioao yoi
ioi?ieyeinue eae i?aaiecaoeey caaiaeneiai iiaeniaiiai oicyenoaa.
N?aaeiee n?ie aeiaiai?a – 5 eao;

– iiauoaiea i?eaueueiinoe oicyenoaa. Iaeaieaa auaiaeiuie ieacuaathony
aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, ia o?aaothuea iiiai caiee e oa?aeoa?ecothueany
n?aaeiae o?oaeiaieinoueth: ianaee, au?aueaaiea ?annaaeu
ieiaeiai-yaiaeiuo eoeueoo?, naiaiiaiaenoai, oneoae naeueneiio
ianaeaieth;

– aani?ioeaioiue e?aaeeo ia ei?ioeia a?aiy, iieo/aiiue o ae?oaeo
oa?ia?ia; .

– ioi?ieaiea /anoe oicyenoaa eae ee/iiai iiaeniaiiai, i?e yoii
nieaeathony iauai io/aoiinoe e noiia iaeiaiauo io/eneaiee;

– eniieueciaaiea aunieeo oaiiia eioeyoeee iooai neoiee aieueoeo ia?oee
eiiaeei?iia, ai?th/aai e o.i. n eo iineaaeothuae ia?ai?iaeaaeae;

-eueaioiua e iau/iua e?aaeeou.

A iniiao yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee caiaeue iieiaeaiu niioiioaiey noieiinoe
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e ?acia?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao ia
aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee, eniieuecoaiie iiae ioaeaeueiuie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie oaiaeueyie e au?aueaaaiuie eoeueoo?aie. A
ea/anoaa eiia/iuo iieacaoaeae ioeaiee i?eieiatho aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue
aeioiae, eee aeeooa?aioeeaeueioth caiaeueioth ?aioo ia 1 aa iinaaia
ioaeaeueiuo eoeueoo?, iauae ieiuaaee iaoai e iiiaieaoieo ianaaeaeaiee,
i?e?iaeiuo ei?iiauo oaiaeee. Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea caiaeue, au?aaeathuay
eo n?aaieoaeueioth iioaioeeaeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue, ninoaaeyao iniiao
caiaeueiiai eaaeano?a, iaoa?eaeu eioi?iai eniieuecotho aeey
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, naea/e caiee a a?aiaeo, aa
eoiee-i?iaeaaee, a oaeaea aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey oa??eoi?eaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Iinea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?a?uaa a eiioea 70-o — ia/aea 80-o aiaeia aue
i?iaaaeai ia?aue niaaoneee eaaeano? caiaeue ii iaoiaeeea, ?ac?aaioaiiie
a Ainoaea?noaaiiii einoeoooa caiaeueiuo ?ano?nia e a ?yaea ae?oaeo
iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee. Caiaeueii-ioeaii/iua ?aaiou iicaieeee iieo/eoue
n?aaieoaeueioth ioeaieo iaoai e iniiaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?
i?eiaieoaeueii e ?acee/iui oeiai ii/a e aa?ieeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee ia
oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie ?innee e no?ai Niae?oaeanoaa . Cia/eoaeueiay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ioeaii/iuo iieacaoaeae i?iyaeeanue ia oieueei a
ioiioaiee i?e?iaeiuo cii e i?iaeioeee, ii e a i?aaeaeao ioaeaeueiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia. Oae, aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue aeioiae ia 1 aa iaoie
eciaiyaony a i?aaeaeao io 1:2 aei 1:10 aeey ?aciuo oeiia ii/a ii aeaiiui
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ?aeiiia A aeaiiua ii iaeanoyi Oeaio?aeueiiai
yeiiiie/aneiai ?aeiia e E?aniiaea?neiio e?ath aeinoeaatho niioiioaiee
1:10.

Cia/aiea yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee caiaeue ?acei aic?anoaao a oneiaeyo
ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi, aaaaeaiey ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe,
iainiiaaiiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee caiaeueiiai iaeiaa, ?ac?aaioee iooae
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaa e iiauoaiey
aai yooaeoeaiinoe n ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo iiceoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, oicyenoaaiiay ioeaiea i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu o?aaoao
i?eiaiaiey eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea ia iniiaa niaianoiiai eniieueciaaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo e yeieiae/aneeo e?eoa?eaa a oeaeyo iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa e aa?iiie/aneiai ?acaeoey eaiaeoaooiie noa?u.

Acaeiiioiioaiey i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee enoi?e/anee
eciaiythony a ?acoeueoaoa eae ?aaoee?iaaiey aeeyiey ?acee/iuo
eiiiiiaioia eaiaeoaooa a i?ioeanna iaeei?aoeee caiaeue, oae e
i?aia?aciaaiey aeaeia e ni?oia naieo ?anoaiee ia iniiaa aeinoeaeaiee
aaiaoeee e naeaeoeee. Aaaeioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee iai?aaeaiiie naeaeoeee
eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee nua?aei ioe?uoea I. E. Aaaeeiaui caeiia
aiiieiae/aneeo ?yaeia a ianeaaenoaaiiie eciai/eainoe e auyaeaiea
oeaio?ia i?ienoiaeaeaiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee. Nia?aiaiiua aeinoeaeaiey
iieaeoey?iie aeieiaee e aaiaoeee ioe?uaatho iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey
iai?aaeaiiiai eciaiaiey naienoa eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee e nicaeaiey aieaa
i?iaeoeoeaiuo ni?oia ia iniiaa aea?eaeecaoeee e aaiiie eiaeaia?ee.
Aeooaeueiie inoaaony i?iaeaia ?anoe?aiey ninoaaa eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee ca
n/ao eio?iaeoeoeee iiauo aeaeia n oeaiiuie oicyenoaaiiuie i?eciaeaie.
?aaioa ii eio?iaeoeoeee iiiaeo iieaciuo ieuaauo ?anoaiee, iniaaiii
ieiaeiauo, yaiaeiuo, i?aoiieiaeiauo, i?iaiaeeony ai iiiaeo aioaie/aneeo
naaeao, iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaieyo e ia iiuoiuo noaioeeyo
.

Iiiaea aa?iyeieiae/aneea i?eciaee eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee (o?aaiaaiey e
oneiaeyi oaieiaiai e naaoiaiai ?aaeeia , oaeaaeiaiey a ?aciua ia?eiaeu
aaaaoaoeee, oeie/aneie ?aaeoeee ii/a e ae?.) naycaiu n oeaio?aie eo
i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Oae, o?iie/aneea ?anoaiey ia/eiatho ?ino i?e aeiaieueii
aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao (10—15°), eiatho ?anoyiooue ia?eiae aaaaoaoeee e
o?aaotho aieueoeo caiania oaiea ia anao noaaeeyo ?acaeoey. Yoi eoeueoo?u
ei?ioeiai aeiy, oa?aeoa?ecothueany iaeaieueoei iio?aaeaieai aeaae a
na?aaeeia aaaaoaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea.

Eoeueoo?iua ?anoaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea ec oia?aiiiai iiyna eee
aaaaoe?othuea a oieiaeiue ia?eiae a noao?iie/aneii iiyna, nouanoaaiii
iaiaa o?aaiaaoaeueiu e caianai oaiea, eiatho aieaa ei?ioeee ia?eiae
aaaaoaoeee, ia/eiatho ?anoe i?e iaaunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao, onoie/eau e
caii?iceai. Ni/aoaiey iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ioiioaiey
eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee e oneiaeyi oaiei- e aeaaiiaania/aiiinoe a ?acee/iua
oacu aaaaoaoeee, neoaeao iniiaie aeey ?ac?aaioee aeieeeiaoe/aneeo
eeanneoeeaoeee eoeueoo? .

Oicyenoaaiiua i?eciaee eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee ii?aaeaeythony oeaeaaui
iacia/aieai i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee: i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiui, ei?iiaui,
aeey oaoie/aneie ia?a?aaioee e eaea?noaaiii-ia?eioe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey. N
o/aoii niiniaia aicaeaeuaaiey ?anoaiee, iaoneiaeaiiuo eo yeieiae/aneeie
iniaaiiinoyie, oicyenoaaiiua i?eciaee ?acee/iuo eoeueoo? neoaeao iniiaie
aeey eeanneoeeaoeee io?aneae ?anoaieaaiaenoaa.

Aeaaa 2

Ciiaeueiay niaoeeaeecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa

I?e?iaeiua oneiaey ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee eciaiythony ii i?e?iaeiui ciiai
. Iiyoiio ninoaa ?acaiaeeiuo eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee oaeaea ?acee/aaony ii
ciiai . A eaaeaeie ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiie ciia ?acaeaathony oaeea
io?anee caieaaeaeey , eioi?ua i?e aeaiiuo oneiaeyo aeatho auni/aeoea
?acoeueoaou e o?aaotho iaiueoeo cao?ao o?oaea e n?aaenoa .

Ioaieoea eae aaaeiaeoay i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay ca?iiaay eoeueoo?a
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aieaa aunieeie o?aaiaaieyie e oneiaeyi oaieiaiai ?aaeeia
e ieiaei?iaeeth ii/a ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie ca?iiauie eoeueoo?aie
oia?aiiiai iiyna. Iia ieioi ia?aiineo eeneoth ?aaeoeeth ii/a, /oi
ia?aie/eaaao aa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ciia aea?iiai-iiaecieenouo ii/a. Aeey
iaa aieaa aeaaii?eyoiu noaeeienoua ii/au, /ai noian/aiua, ooaea
iaania/aiiua ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie. Yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe e
ioiineoaeueii aunieay canooionoie/eainoue ioaieoeu iaoneiaeeaatho aa
aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a eaninoaiiie e noaiiie ciiao.

A?aaeu ?ani?ino?aiaiey iceiie e y?iaie ioaieoeu iaoneiaeaiu oaeeie
aa?ieeeiaoe/aneeie oaeoi?aie, eae no?iainoue cei e iiuiinoue niaaiaiai
iie?iaa, io eioi?uo caaeneo nio?aiaiea ?anoaiee a ceiiee ia?eiae.
Iiyoiio iceioth ioaieoeo au?aueaatho i?aeiouanoaaiii a Aa?iiaeneie
?innee, iniaaiii a aa caiaaeiuo e oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao n aieaa iyaeeie
ceiaie. Iceiua ni?oa ioaieoeu iieiaa eniieuecotho inaaeee inaiiaai e
aanaiiaai ia?eiaeia, /oi iaoneiaeeaaao aa aieaa aunieoth o?iaeaeiinoue
ii n?aaiaieth n y?iaie. Oae, o?iaeaeiinoue iceiie ioaieoeu a 70—80-a
aiaeu ninoaaeyea 21—23 oe/aa, a y?iaie — 12—13 oe/aa ai anao eaoaai?eyo
oicyenoa ?innee.

?iaeue, a ioee/ea io ioaieoeu, iaiaa o?aaiaaoaeueiay eoeueoo?a a
ioiioaiee oaieiaiai ?aaeeia e ieiaei?iaeey ii/a. A ?innee aicaeaeuaatho
i?aeiouanoaaiii iceiua ni?oa ?aee, oa?aeoa?ecothueany ai?acaei aieueoae
ceiinoieeinoueth ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie iceiuie ca?iiauie ceaeaie.
Yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe ?aee iaoneiaeaiu aua e oai, /oi yoa eoeueoo?a
a ia?auo i/aaao caieaaeaeey ano?a/aeanue eeoue a aeaea ni?iyeia a
iinaaao ioaieoeu.

Iceiay ?iaeue eiaao ei?ioeee ia?eiae aaaaoaoeee, o?aaoao iaaieueoeo
oa?ie/aneeo ?ano?nia, aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaa e aanaiiae canooa.
Aeaaiaea?y oi?ioi ?acaeoie ei?iaaie nenoaia oniaoii aicaeaeuaaaony ia
noian/aiuo ii/aax, oi?ioi ia?aiineo neaaieeneoth ?aaeoeeth, ii ec-ca
ia?aoaeaaeiaiey iaoioiiai ai?eciioa eaaei iiaeaa?aaaony auiieaieth e
aui?aaaieth. Yoa eoeueoo?a aieaa onoie/eaa ei iiiaei caaieaaaieyi, /ai
ioaieoea, a i?e iiauoaiee ieiaei?iaeey ii/a aeaao nouanoaaiiue i?e?ino
o?iaeay. Iai?eoioeeainoue ?aee e oneiaeyi ianoiiaeoaiey iaania/eaaao ae
?yae i?aeiouanoa ii n?aaiaieth n ioaieoeae a ?aeiiao n iaiueoeie
oaieiauie ?ano?naie, eiuie ii/aaie n eeneie ?aaeoeeae.

ss/iaiue, eae e ioaieoea, aue oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiai a ?aeiiao ae?aaiaai
caieaaeaeey oia?aiiiai iiyna. Yoi iaeia ec naiuo ?aiianiaeuo ca?iiauo
eoeueoo?, ia?aiinyuay caii?icee e ioee/athuayny canooionoie/eainoueth.
Aai eniieuecotho i?aeiouanoaaiii aeey ei?iiauo oeaeae, oioy ca?ia y/iaiy
eiatho e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia cia/aiea, a i?i?inoea naiaia (nieiae)
i?eiaiytho a ieaiaa?aiee. Yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe y/iaiy
iaoneiaeeaatho aai oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia cia/eoaeueiie /anoe
caieaaeaeue/aneie oa??eoi?ee no?aiu — io naaa?iuo aei thaeiuo canooeeauo
?aeiiia. A ai?ao iinaau aai aeioiaeyo aei n?aaeieo iiynia, aaea aua
aiciiaeii caieaaeaeea. Cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae
y/iaiy a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey naycaii n ?inoii iio?aaiinoae a
oo?aaeiii ca?ia, a /anoiinoe ec-ca oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa eiiaeei?iia.
?anoe?aieth iinaaia y/iaiy niinianoaiaaei oaeaea ieoeueoo?eaaiea ii/a a
i?ioeanna eioaineoeeaoeee caieaaeaeey, aieueoaai i?eiaiaiey ieia?aeueiuo
e i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee. N ia/aea 60-o aiaeia ?ino o?iaeaeiinoe y/iaiy
i?ienoiaeee aieaa aunieeie oaiiaie ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie ca?iiauie
eoeueoo?aie ia oa??eoi?ee eaniie ciiu Aa?iiaeneie ?innee.

Iaan, a ioee/ea io y/iaiy, aieaa o?aaiaaoaeai e oaieiaui ?ano?nai e
oneiaeyi oaeaaeiaiey, ooaea ia?aiineo eaoithth canooo, ii iai?eoycaoaeai
a i?ioaiee ieiaei?iaeey ii/a, eo neaaieeneie ?aaeoeee. Iinaau iana
?ani?ino?aiaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii a eaniie, io/anoe a noaiiie ciiao, ii iie
iaoiaeyo oae aeaeaei, eae y/iaiue, a naaa?iua oieiaeiua e thaeiua
canooeeaua ?aeiiu. A i?ioeii au?aueaaiea iana auei a aieueoie ia?a
naycaii n o/aieai ei?ia aeey eioaaeae. A ia?eiae eiaeono?eaeecaoeee
naeueneiai oicyenoaa iinaau iana cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeeenue. Yoa
oaiaeaioeey nio?aieeanue iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae, ii n ia/aea 60-o aiaeia
iinaau aiiaue au?inee e [aaeenue ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiuie. Yoi naycaii
n oai, /oi iaan caieiaao ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi ai iiiaeo naaiiai?ioao, a
aai i?iaeoeoeey eiaao oe?ieee ni?in a eiiaeei?iiaie e ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Eoeo?oca eiaao aaaeiia ei?iiaia cia/aiea, eniieuecoaony a ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Yoa eoeueoo?a o?iie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey ia/eiaao
?anoe aeiaieueii aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao (10°), ia?eiae aa aaaaoaoeee
?anoyioo aei 160 aeiae, iia ieioi ia?aiineo caii?icee (aei —2°),
ioaeaeaaony a aieueoeo caianao oaiea. Aeey auc?aaaiey ca?ia ?aiianiaeuo
ni?oia o?aaoaony 1—2200° aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo oaiia?aoo?, a aeey aieaa
i?iaeoeoeaiuo n?aaeia- e iicaeianiaeuo ni?oia -2500-2900°. I?e yoii
eoeo?oca canooionoie/eaa, iniaaiii a ia?aua oacu aaaaoaoeee, ii
iaaeinoaoie aeaae ia?aae aua?anuaaieai iaoaeie caiaoii nieaeaao
o?iaeaeiinoue.

Aunieay iioaioeeaeueiay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue eoeo?ocu, niiniaiinoue aa
aeoeaii ecaeaeaoue ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa ec ii/au e ?acei oaaee/eaaoue
o?iaeaeiinoue i?e aianaiee oaeia?aiee, iniaaiii ia aiaeii?iieoeaaiuo e
ay?e?iaaiiuo ii/aao, i?eaeaeee e iae aieiaiea iiiaeo aaiaoeeia e
naeaeoeeiia?ia. A ?acoeueoaoa auee nicaeaiu aa aunieio?iaeaeiua
aea?eaeiua e ?aiianiaeua aeaeu e ni?oa.

Ca?iiaua aiaiaua eoeueoo?u (ai?io, /a/aaeoea, oanieue, niy e ae?.)
niaea?aeao iiiai aaeea, oeaiiiai a ei?iiaii e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiii
ioiioaiee. A i?ioeanna eioaineoeeaoeee ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa n 60-o aiaeia
oaaee/eaaeenue ieiuaaee iinaaia aiaiauo eoeueoo?. Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea
n?aaee ieo caieiaao eoeueoo?a ai?ioa, o?aaiaaoaeueiiai e oneiaeyi
oaeaaeiaiey e ieiaei?iaeeth ii/a; aeey aai aaaaoaoeee aeinoaoi/iu
oia?aiiua caianu oaiea. Ai?io au?aueaatho a eaniie e eaninoaiiie ciiao.
*a/aaeoeo a aieueoae ia?a aicaeaeuaatho a caiaaeiuo e oeaio?aeueiuo
?aeiiao eaninoaie. Oanieue i?iec?anoaao a aieaa thaeiuo /anoyo no?aiu..

Ca?iiaua e?oiyiua eoeueoo?u (i?ini, a?a/eoa, ?en) caieiatho 3—4% anao
iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae ca?iiauo eoeueoo?. Iie eiatho ?aciua a?aaeu
?ani?ino?aiaiey, iaoneiaeaiiua yeieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie eaaeaeie ec
iniiaiuo e?oiyiuo eoeueoo?.

I?ini caieiaao ioiineoaeueii aieueoea ieiuaaee a ninoaaa e?oiyiuo
eoeueoo?. Ia/aei ?inoa i?ienoiaeeo i?e aeiaieueii aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao
(10— 12°), eoeueoo?a /oanoaeoaeueia e caii?iceai e a oi aea a?aiy
ioee/aaony aunieie canooionoie/eainoueth, eiaao ieceee eiyooeoeeaio
o?ainie?aoeee (E = 250—300), oi?ioi ia?aiineo neaaia canieaiea ii/a, ii
iaaeaaii?eyoii ?aaae?oao ia eeneoth ?aaeoeeth ii/aaiiie n?aaeu.

Naiaia?aciua yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe iicaieytho aicaeaeuaaoue i?ini a
?aciuo oeiao eaiaeoaooia eaniie, eaninoaiiie, noaiiie e nooinoaiiie cii.
I?ini aeaao oi?ioea o?iaeae ia aiiaue inaiaiiuo oeaeeiiuo e caeaaeiuo
caieyo, iniaaiii ia ii/aao eaaeiai iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaa. Ioiineoaeueii
aieueoea ieiuaaee iinaaia iaoiaeyony a noaiiie e nooinoaiiie ciiao.

A?a/eoa ieioi ia?aiineo canooo, aunieea e ieceea oaiia?aoo?u, iniaaiii a
ia?eiae oeaaoaiey, o?aaiaaoaeueia e oneiaeyi oaeaaeiaiey, e
ieiaei?iaeeth Ii/a: aeey iaa aieaa i?eaiaeiu ?uoeua, oi?ioi i?ia?aaaaiua
ii/au, aiaaoua ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie, aeeth/ay oi?oyieee n
iaeo?aeueiie e neaaieeneie ?aaeoeeae.

Ioia/aiiua yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe iaoneiaeeaatho aicaeaeuaaiea
a?a/eoe i?aeiouanoaaiii a caiaaeiuo e oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao eaniie e
eaninoaiiie cii n iyaeei eeeiaoii. O?iaeaeiinoue eoeueoo?u caiaoii
iiauoaaony, eiaaea a ?aeiiao aa aicaeaeuaaiey ?acaiaeyo i/ae, iiueythueo
oeaaoee a?a/eoe, yaeythueany oeaiiuie iaaeiiinaie.

?en, eae eoeueoo?a o?iie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ia/eiaao naie ?ino i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 12—15°, eiaao ?anoyiooue ia?eiae aaaaoaoeee, ia ia?aiineo
caii?iceia, o?aaoao aieueoeo caiania oaiea — io 2200 aei 3300°,
niioaaonoaaiii aeey ?aiieo e aieaa i?iaeoeoeaiuo iicaeianiaeuo ni?oia. A
ioee/ea io ae?oaeo eoeueoo? ?en iio?aaeyao aieueoia eiee/anoai aeaae (E
= 1000), iiyoiio cia/eoaeueioth /anoue aaaaoaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea
eoeueoo?o aicaeaeuaatho ia iai?iaeaiiuo caieyiuie aaeaie iieyo (/aeao),
caeeouo aiaeie. Aeey ?ena aeaaii?eyoiu aeethaeaeueiua ii/au, ec eioi?uo
ia?eiaee/anee auiuaathony niee.

Oaoie/aneea eoeueoo?u

A eo ninoaa aoiaeyo ?aciiia?aciua eoeueoo?iua ?anoaiey, ioiinyueany e
aieieienoui, ianee/iui, naoa?iiiniui eoeueoo?ai, eioi?ua eniieuecothony
a ea/anoaa nu?uey aeey ?yaea io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe: ianeiaieiie,
naoa?iie, oaenoeeueiie e ae?., iiyoiio oa?aeoa? oa??eoi?eaeueiie
eiioeaio?aoeee iniiaiuo oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo? oanii naycai n
iniaaiiinoyie oi?ie?iaaiey nu?ueaauo cii ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoee,
aoiaeyueo a ninoaa ?acee/iuo oeiia AIE

Iauay ieiuaaeue iinaaia anao oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo? ianeieueei aic?anoaea
a oa/aiea 60-o aiaeia n iineaaeothuei oiaiueoaieai ia 14% ca 1970—1991
aa. Iinaau naoa?iie naaeeu oaaee/eaaeenue a 60—70-a aiaeu, caoai
i?ienoiaeeei eo oiaiueoaiea n 1,6 aei 1,4 iei aa ca 1980—1991 aa.

A ninoaaa ianee/iuo eoeueoo? nauoa 2/3 ieiuaaee caieiatho iinaau
iiaenieia/ieea. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae ca
iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey auei oa?aeoa?ii aeey aieieienouo eoeueoo?. Oae,
ieiuaaee eueia-aeieaoioea n 60-o aei ia/aea 90-o aiaeia nie?aoeeenue
ao?ia, a aeey eiiiiee oaeia aea nie?auaiea i?iecioei ca 1980—1991 aa.
?aceia oiaiueoaiea iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae aieieienouo eoeueoo? io/anoe
iauyniyaony ?inoii i?iecaiaenoaa neioaoe/aneeo aieieii. Iaeiaei a
oneiaeyo ?aceiai nie?auaiey a 90-a aiaeu ioa/anoaaiiiai nu?uey aeey
oeii/aoiaoiaaeiie io?anee eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oiaiueoaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa eueiiaieieia ia iiaeao auoue ii?aaaeaiiui.

Eai-aeieaoiaoe aaaeao naia i?ienoiaeaeaiea- ec i/aaia ae?aaiaai
caieaaeaeey noao?iie/aneiai e oia?aiiiai iiynia, aaea aai aicaeaeuaaee
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeey iieo/aiey ianea. I?iaeaeaeaiea eueia a aieaa
naaa?iua ?aeiiu n iyaeei e aeaaeiui eeeiaoii niinianoaiaaei eo/oaio
?acaeoeth noaaeae, /oi i?eaaei e oi?ie?iaaieth iiauo aeaeia
eueia-aeieaoioea, aeathuaai oeaiiia aieieii, a a ea/anoaa iiaeai/iie
i?iaeoeoeee — oaeaea e ianei ec aai naiyi.

Eoeueoo?a eueia ia/eiaao naie ?ino i?e iaaunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao (3—5°), a
iioeiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a iniiaiuo oac ?acaeoey ninoaaeyao 15—18°, i?e/ai
iaaieueoea caii?icee a ia/aeueiii ia?eiaea aaaaoaoeee ia aeeytho ia
aeaeueiaeoaa aai ?acaeoea. Eai o?aaoao ?aaiiia?iiai oaeaaeiaiey,
iniaaiii a ia/aea ?inoa, iaeiaei ieioi ia?aiineo ecauoie aeaae. Ec-ca
neaaie ei?iaaie nenoaiu ?anoaiea ioaeaeaaony a aieueoii eiee/anoaa
eaaeionaiyaiuo ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa, iiyoiio aeey iaai aieaa i?eaiaeiu
noaeeienoua ii/au n aieueoie aeaaiaieinoueth, /ai ian/aiua. Eai
ia?aiineo neaaieeneoth ?aaeoeeth, oioy iioeiaeueiie aeey iaai yaeyaony
iaeo?aeueiay ?aaeoeey ii/aaiiie n?aaeu, i?e eioi?ie iieiaa
eniieuecothony oaeia?aiey, i?aaeaea anaai acioiua. Eoeueoo?o iau/ii
aicaeaeuaatho a ca?iio?aayiuo naaiiai?ioao, aaea iiiaieaoiea o?aau,
iniaaiii eeaaa?, neoaeao oi?ioei i?aaeoanoaaiieeii.

Yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe eueia-aeieaoioea iaoneiaeeaatho aai oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a caiaaeiuo e oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao eaniie ciiu n
aeaaeiui e iyaeei eeeiaoii , iniaaiii a eaiaeoaooao n aieaa
ieiaei?iaeiuie noaeeienouie aea?iiai-iiaecieenouie ii/aaie,
oi?ie?othueieny ia aiaaouo ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie iiaenoeeathueo
ii?iaeao (ia iie?iaiuo noaeeieao, ea?aiiaoiie ii?aia e ae?.). A yoeo
ianoiinoyo enoi?e/anee neiaeeeanue e aieaa aunieay ieioiinoue naeueneiai
ianaeaiey, /oi eiaao aaaeiia yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea aeey oaeie
o?oaeiaieie eoeueoo?u, eae eai. Nie?auaiea /eneaiiinoe naeueneiai
ianaeaiey a aiaiiue e iineaaiaiiue ia?eiaeu, a iicaeiaa e a nayce n
eeeaeaeaoeeae «iaia?niaeoeaiuo» iaeeeo aea?aaaiue, niinianoaiaaei
iinoiyiiiio oiaiueoaieth iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae eueia-aeieaoioea.
Iaeaieueoea cao?aou o?oaea a i?ioeanna aicaeaeuaaiey eueia i?eoiaeyony
ia ia?eiae oai?ee e iineaoai?i/iie ia?aaioee noaaeae (nieiiee), aeeth/ay
eo ?annoeeaiea, auia/eaaiea e i?aa?auaiea a o?anoo iiae aicaeaenoaeai
iee?iaeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. Iinea i?inooeaaiey o?anoo ia?aaicyo ia
eueiicaaiaeu aeey aeaeueiaeoae ia?aaioee. A ?acoeueoaoa iaoaiecaoeee
iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia au?aueaaiey, oai?ee e
iineaoai?i/iie ia?aaioee eueia n iiiiuueth eueiieiiaaeiia e ae?oaeo
iaoei cao?aou aeeaiai o?oaea a yoie io?anee nie?aoeeenue aieaa /ai
aaeaia. Aiaae?aiea iiaie oaoiieiaee iineaoai?i/iie ia?aaioee eueia ia
i?iiuoeaiiie iniiaa, aeeth/ay auia/eaaiea nieiiee e aunooeaaiea o?anou
ia eueiicaaiaeao, iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e ea/anoai
aieieia i?e no?iaii niaethaeaiee anaai oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea
au?aueaaiey e oai?ee yoie eioaineaiie e yeiiiie/anee aunieiyooaeoeaiie
eoeueoo?u. Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao oaeaea oeo/oaiea ?aciauaiey
eueiicaaiaeia ii ioiioaieth e ia?niaeoeaiui ?aeiiai au?aueaaiey
eueia-aeieaoioea. Eueiiaiaenoai eae iniiaiay io?aneue ?innee,
iaania/eaathuay i?iecaiaenoai aunieioeaiiiai nu?uey aeey oaenoeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ioaeaeaaony a nicaeaiee aieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey
naiaai aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey.

Eiiiiey ecaeaaia aicaeaeuaaaony aeey iieo/aiey i?i/iiai oiieiai e
a?oaiai aieieia, eaeouaai aeey ecaioiaeaiey oeaiae, eaiaoia, ?uaieiaiuo
naoae e ae?oaeo ecaeaeee, a a ea/anoaa iiai/iie i?iaeoeoeee ec aa naiyi
iieo/atho oaeaea aee?iua ianea, eiathuea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia e
oaoie/aneia iacia/aiea. Ecaeaeey, ?aiaa ecaioiaeyaoeany ec aieieia
eiiiiee, oaia?ue nouanoaaiii i?eaioe?iaaiu ia eniieueciaaiea
neioaoe/aneeo aieieii, /oi a aieueoie ia?a aeeyao ia cia/eoaeueiia
nie?auaiea iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae yoie eoeueoo?u.

Ianee/iua eoeueoo?u a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia caieiaee ieiei 2/3 ieiuaaee
anao oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo?, aicaeaeuaaaiuo a ?innee. Iaeaieueoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea eiatho iinaau iiaenieia/ieea, i?e iaiueoai cia/aiee
eueia-eoae?yoa, ?uaeeea, ai?/eoeu. Yoe eoeueoo?u iaania/eaatho
i?iecaiaenoai iniiaiie /anoe ?anoeoaeueiiai ianea, a iiai/iua i?iaeoeou
ianeiaieiiai i?iecaiaenoaa — aeiuo e o?io — eniieuecothony eae oeaiiue
ei?i n aieueoei niaea?aeaieai aaeea e aee?a, a oaeaea neoaeao nu?ueai
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiuo eiiaeei?iia.

Iiaenieia/iee ia/eiaao aaaaoaoeeth i?e oaiia?aoo?a ieiei 8°, i?aaeuyaeyy
oia?aiiua o?aaiaaiey e iauei caianai oaiea (aei 2300° aeey iicaeianiaeuo
ni?oia). Aeaaiaea?y oi?ioi ?acaeoie ei?iaaie nenoaia yoi ?anoaiea
niiniaii ecaeaeaoue aeaao ec aeoaieeo neiaa ii/aaiiiai ai?eciioa, /oi
iaoneiaeeaaao aai aicaeaeuaaiea a oneiaeyo canooeeaiai eeeiaoa, oioy i?e
iiauoaiee oaeaaeiaiey o?iaeaeiinoue nouanoaaiii aic?anoaao. Eoeueoo?a
o?aaiaaoaeueia e ieiaei?iaeeth ii/a, iineieueeo n o?iaeaai auiineony
aieueoia eiee/anoai iniiaiuo yeaiaioia ieoaiey.

Naoa?iay naaeea — iniiaiia naoa?iiiniia ?anoaiea oia?aiiiai iiyna,
eniieuecoaiia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa naoa?a n XIX a., ioaeaeaaony a
cia/eoaeueiuo caianao oaiea (2000—2800°), eiaao ?anoyiooue ia?eiae
aaaaoaoeee (120—160 aeiae), o?aaiaaoaeueia e oneiaeyi oaeaaeiaiey. Aieaa
aunieay naoa?enoinoue ei?iaieiaeia nia?aiaiiuo ni?oia iiaeao auoue
aeinoeaiooa a ?aeiiao n aieueoei /eneii nieia/iuo aeiae. Aeey yoie
eoeueoo?u aeaaii?eyoiu noaeeienoua, oi?ioi i?ia?aaaaiua e aiaaoua
ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie ii/au, oa?aeoa?ecothueany aunieie
aeaaiaieinoueth e iaeo?aeueiie ?aaeoeeae. Ia?yaeo n i?e?iaeiuie
oneiaeyie ia ?aciauaiea naoa?iie naaeeu aeeytho oaeaea yeiiiie/aneea
oaeoi?u: iaania/aiiinoue o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie, iniaaiiinoe YAI naeueneeo
ianoiinoae, o/eouaay aieueooth o?oaeiaieinoue yoie eoeueoo?u e iaeoth
o?ainii?oaaaeueiinoue aa i?iaeoeoeee.

Iniiaiie a?aae aicaeaeuaaiey naoa?iie naaeeu aeeth/aao caiaaeiua e
oeaio?aeueiua ?aeiiu eaninoaiiie e io/anoe noaiiie cii, aaea
iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey oaiei- e aeaaiiaania/aiiinoe ni/aoathony n
ieiaei?iaeiuie /a?iicaiiuie ii/aaie, a a naeueneie ianoiinoe e n
enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny nenoaiie naoa?iuo caaiaeia . Yoe ?aeiiu eiatho
aunieoth ieioiinoue naeueneiai ianaeaiey, ?acaaoaeaiioth naoue aaoi- e
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iaaeno?aeae. Nu?ueaaua ciiu ?aniieaaathony iau/ii a
?aaeeona aei 30 ei io naoa?iuo caaiaeia.

Ea?oioaeue eiaao aaaeiia i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia e ei?iiaia cia/aiea, a
oaeaea neoaeeo nu?ueai aeey i?iecaiaenoaa e?aoiaea e nie?oa. Ia/aei
?inoa ea?oioaey i?ienoiaeeo i?e ioiineoaeueii aunieie oaiia?aoo?a —
ieiei 10°, ii ieioi ia?aiineo caii?icee, ii eiaao n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeee
ia?eiae aaaaoaoeee (io 60 aei 120 aeiae niioaaonoaaiii o ?aiia- e
iicaeianiaeuo ni?oia), o?aaoao oia?aiiiai oaeaaeiaiey. I?e yoii
ia?aoaeaaeiaiea ii/a e aunieea eaoiea oaiia?aoo?u ieacuaatho
iaaeaaii?eyoiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea yoie eoeueoo?u, aaaeouae naia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea ec ai?iuo ?aeiiia Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee. A aea?eoth
iiaiaeo i?e iiauoaiee n?aaeianooi/iie oaiia?aoo?u aei 29° i?ae?auaaony
?acaeoea eeoaiae. Aeey ea?oioaey iioeiaeueiu ioiineoaeueii eaaeea ii/au,
oi?ioi ieoeueoo?aiiua, aiaaoua niaea?aeaieai iniiaiuo yeaiaioia ieoaiey
(N, E, ?), a aieueoii eiee/anoaa iio?aaeyaiuo a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey
eeoaiae.

Iinaau ea?oioaey ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia i?aiaeaaeathuae /anoe
caieaaeaeue/anee inaiaiiie oa??eoi?ee iaoae no?aiu. Iaeiaei iaeaieaa
aunieay oa??eoi?eaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey aai iinaaia oa?aeoa?ia aeey
thaeiuo ?aeiiia eaniie e naaa?iuo /anoae eaninoaiiie cii, a oaeaea
ieiuaaeae, i?eiueathueo e e?oiiui ai?iaeai, aaea eiathony aeaaii?eyoiua
i?e?iaeiua e yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey yoie io?anee . N?aaeiea
iiiaieaoiea iieacaoaee i?iecaiaenoaa ea?oioaey ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 70-o
aiaeia ninoaaeyee 41, a a ia?aie iieiaeia 80-o — 38 iei o. Ca 1986— 1994
aa. iie ianeieueei iiieceeenue (aei 36 iei o). I?e yoii n ia/aea 90-o
aiaeia i?ienoiaeeee nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a ninoaaa iniiaiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae ea?oioaey. Oae, anee a 80-a aiaeu ia aeieth eieoicia,
niaoicia e ae?oaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee i?eoiaeeeinue 40%
aaeiaiai nai?a eeoaiae, oi a 1990 a. — 34%, a 1991 a.—28, a a 1994
a.—11%. A oi aea a?aiy a 1994 a. a oicyenoaao ianaeaiey auei
i?iecaaaeaii ieiei 30 iei o, eee 88%, a a e?anoueyineeo (oa?ia?neeo)
oicyenoaao — ieiei 1 iei o, eee 0,1% aaeiaiai nai?a ea?oioaey ai anao
eaoaai?eyo oicyenoa ?innee.

Oaaae — oaieiethaeaay eoeueoo?a, ieioi ia?aiinyuay caii?icee,
o?aaiaaoaeueiay e oneiaeyi oaeaaeiaiey e niaea?aeaieth ieoaoaeueiuo
aauanoa a ii/aao, ioee/athuayny aieueoie o?oaeiaieinoueth.

Eoeueoo?a /aeiiai eonoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieeie o?aaiaaieyie e oneiaeyi
oaeaaeiaiey e oaieiaiai ?aaeeia, e niaea?aeaieth ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a
ii/aao, eioi?ua aeieaeiu eiaoue oi?iooth aeaai- e
aicaeooii?iieoeaaiinoue i?e neaaieeneie ?aaeoeee n?aaeu.

Iaiuaaiaenoai

Yoa io?aneue aeeth/aao aieueoie iaai? eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee, ioiinyueony
e ?aciui aioaie/aneei aeaeai. Ana iie o?aaiaaoaeueiu e oneiaeyi
oaeaaeiaiey, niaea?aeaieth ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a ii/aa. Yoe eoeueoo?u
aicaeaeuaatho n i?eiaiaieai aunieeo aeic i?aaie/aneeo e ieia?aeueiuo
oaeia?aiee a ninoaaa niaoeeaeueiuo iaiuiuo naaiiai?ioia, iiae eioi?ua
ioaiaeyo /aua anaai iiieaeaiiua, aiaaoua i?aaie/aneeie aauanoaaie
ianneau caiaeue ii aeieeiai ?ae, oa??anai ica?, ia iaeei?e?iaaiiuo
oi?oyienouo ii/aao, aaea anoue enoi/ieee aiaeu aeey i?ioaiey. Iaiuiua
eoeueoo?u aicaeaeuaatho eae a ioe?uoii, oae e a caueuaiiii a?oioa, a
ia?ieeao e oaieeoeao. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua eoeueoo?u ioe?uoiai
a?oioa a ?innee — eaionoa, oiiao, naaeea, ii?eiaue, eoe, iao?aoe.
Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo eoeueoo? iniai i?iaeoeoeaiuo ni?oia au?aueaatho oaeaea
e a caueuaiiii a?oioa, ia?yaeo n oeaaoiie eaionoie, naeaoii, ?aaeenii e
ae?.

Iaiue eniieuecotho aeey ieoaiey eae a naaaeai, oae e a eiina?ae?iaaiiii
aeaea iinea eo ia?aaioee ia ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Ii ia?a
?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey iaiuaaiaenoai eiioeaio?e?iaaeinue a
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, ?aniieiaeaiiuo eae aaeece e?oiiuo
ai?iaeia e ai?iaeneeo aaeiia?aoeee, oae e a ianoiinoyo n aeaaii?eyoiuie
i?e?iaeiuie e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie oneiaeyie aeey i?iecaiaenoaa e
ia?a?aaioee i?iaeoeoeee iaiuiuo eoeueoo?. Iinaaiua ieiuaaee iaiuiuo
eoeueoo? a 60—80-a aiaeu ninoaaeyee ieiei 7 iei aa, a a ia?aie iieiaeia
90-o aiaeia iie ianeieueei oiaiueoeeenue. Aaeiaua nai?u iaiuiuo eoeueoo?
a n?aaeiai ca aiae ai anao eaoaai?eyo oicyenoa ca 70—80-a aiaeu
ninoaaeyee 10—12 iei o, a a 1991— 1994 aa. — ieiei 10 iei o. I?e yoii a
90-a aiaeu nouanoaaiii eciaieeinue niioiioaiea i?iaeoeoeee,
i?iecaaaeaiiie ?acee/iuie eaoaai?eyie oicyenoa. Oae, anee a 70—80-a
aiaeu i?aiaeaaeathuay /anoue iaiuae (ieiei 70%) i?iecaiaeeeanue a
eieoicao, niaoicao e ae?oaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, oi a
ia/aea 90-o aiaeia aeiey eo nieceeanue aei 1/2, a a 1994 a. — aei 1/3 a
iauai aaeiaii nai?a iaiuae ai anao eaoaai?eyo oicyenoa ?innee.
Niioaaonoaaiii a 90-a aiaeu i?iecaiaenoai iaiuae a oicyenoaao ianaeaiey
aic?inei n 1/2 aei 2/3, a a e?anoueyineeo (oa?ia?neeo) oicyenoaao iii ia
i?aauoaei 1%.

Aao/aaiaenoai

Aao/aaua eoeueoo?u (a?aoc, aeuiy, oueaa) ioiinyony e oaiei- e
naaoiethaeaui eoeueoo?iui ?anoaieyi, i?ienoiaeyuei ec ?acee/iuo ?aeiiia
o?iie/aneiai e noao?iie/aneiai iiyna Acee, Ao?eee, Aia?eee. Iie eiatho
?anoyiooue ia?eiae aaaaoaoeee, ieioi ia?aiinyo caii?icee. Eo
aicaeaeuaatho ia eaaeeo, oi?ioi i?ia?aaaaiuo e ay?e?iaaiiuo ii/aao ni
cia/eoaeueiui niaea?aeaieai ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa, iniaaiii oinoi?a e
eaeey. Iioeiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a eo ?inoa e ?acaeoey ninoaaeyao 25—30°, a
i?e iiieaeaiee oaiia?aoo?u aei 12—15° i?ioeann aaaaoaoeee nouanoaaiii
caiaaeeyaony. Aeaaiaea?y neeueii ?acaeoie ei?iaaie nenoaia, i?iieeathuae
a aeoaue ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey ia aeoaeio io 0,5—1 aei 3—5 i, aao/aaua
eoeueoo?u oi?ioi i?eniiniaeaiu e i?iec?anoaieth a neeueii canooeeauo
ianoiinoyo nooeo e ionouiiuo noaiae, oioy eneonnoaaiiia i?ioaiea
niinianoaoao cia/eoaeueiiio oaaee/aieth eo o?iaeaeiinoe, iniaaiii ia
aiiaue inaaeaaaiuo oeaeeiiuo e caeaaeiuo caieyo.

Ieiaeiaiaenoai

Yoa io?aneue aeeth/aao a?oiio i?aeiouanoaaiii ae?aaaniuo e eonoa?ieeiauo
eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee, au?aueaaaiuo aeey iieo/aiey o?oeoia, yaiae e
i?aoia. A ninoaaa ieiaeiauo eoeueoo? auaeaeytho a?oiio naia/eiauo
(yaeiiy, a?ooa, aeaa e ae?.), einoi/eiauo (aeoiy, /a?aoiy, neeaa,
aa?eein e ae?.), yaiaeiuo (/a?iay e e?aniay nii?iaeeia, e?uaeiaiee,
iaeeia, caieyieea e ae?.), i?aoiieiaeiauo (a?aoeeee i?ao, ooiaeoe e
ae?.). I?e?iaeiua i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey ieiaeiaiaenoaa naycaiu ia
oieueei n aa?ieeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie oaieiai ia?eiaea, ii e n
oneiaeyie ia?aceiiaee ieiaeiauo eoeueoo?. Iiyoiio iniiaiua ?aeiiu
aicaeaeuaaiey ieiaeiauo eoeueoo? iaoiaeyony a Aa?iiaeneie ?innee.

Aeiia?aaea?noai i?aaenoaaeaii ?acee/iuie aeaeaie noieiauo e oaoie/aneeo
ni?oia aeiia?aaeiie eicu, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aeey ieoaiey eae a
naaaeai e nooaiii aeaea, oae e a ea/anoaa nu?uey aeey i?eaioiaeaiey
nieia, aei, eiiiioia, aa?aiuey e ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia. Eoeueoo?a
aeiia?aaea oi?ioi i?eniiniaeaia e oneiaeyi oia?aiii oaieiai e
noao?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa, oniaoii aicaeaeuaaaony ia eaaeeo, o?yuaaaouo,
uaaienouo, oi?ioi i?ia?aaaaiuo e ay?e?iaaiiuo ii/aao ii neeiiai oieiia e
ai?. Aeaaiaea?y oi?ioi ?acaeoie, aeoaiei i?iieeathuae ia neaeaoiuo
ii/aao ei?iaaie nenoaia aeiia?aaeiay eica niiniaia ecaeaeaoue aiaeo n
aieueoie aeoaeiu (aei 7 i io iiaa?oiinoe). Iiae aeiia?aaeieee iau/ii
eniieuecotho caiee, iaeii?eaiaeiua aeey aicaeaeuaaiey iieaauo e ae?oaeo
ieiaeiauo eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee.

Ei?iiaua eoeueoo?u

Ei?iiaua eoeueoo?u ia/aee aicaeaeuaaoue iicaeiaa ae?oaeo eoeueoo?iuo
?anoaiee. A eo ninoaaa iaeaieueoea ieiuaaee caieiatho iiiaieaoiea e
iaeiieaoiea o?aau, eniieuecoaiua a ea/anoaa caeaiiai ei?ia, aeey
i?eaioiaeaiey naia, naiaaea, a oaeaea neeiniua eoeueoo?u (eoeo?oca,
iiaenieia/iee e ae?.), ei?iiaua ei?iaieiaeu e aao/aaua. Ca iineaaeiea
o?e aeanyoeeaoey i?ienoiaeeei iiauoaiea iauae ieiuaaee iinaaia ei?iiauo
eoeueoo? n 37 aei 44 iei aa ca 1960—1991 aa., a eo aeiey a ninoaaa anao
iinaaia au?inea ca yoio aea ia?eiae n 30 aei 38%.

Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiue ?ino iinaaia oa?aeoa?ai aeey iiiaieaoieo o?aa,
ieiuaaee eioi?uo ii/oe oaeaieeenue n 1960 ii 1991 a. Yoi iaoneiaeei e
nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u iinaaia ei?iiauo eoeueoo?

Aeaaa 3

Nia?aiaiiay aaia?aoey ?anoaieaaiaenoaa

Oa??eoi?eaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey iinaaia y?iaie ioaieoeu aic?anoaao a
ainoi/iuo /anoyo eaninoaiiuo e noaiiuo ?aeiiia Aa?iiaeneie ?innee, a
ia/eiay n Caaieaeuey e aeaeaa a I?eo?aeuea e Neae?e iie ainiiaenoaotho a
ninoaaa iinaaia ca?iiauo eoeueoo? . A ?aeiiao aieaa nooiai eeeiaoa
au?aueaatho oeaiiua ni?oa oaa?aeuo ioaieoe, aeathueo «noaeeiaeaeiia»
ca?ii, iaeaaeathuaa aunieeie oeaaiiaea?iuie ea/anoaaie e oe?iei
eniieuecoaiia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iaea?iiiuo ecaeaeee. Yoe i?aeiouanoaa
oaa?aeuo ioaieoe a ecaanoiie ia?a eiiiaine?otho iiieaeaiea o?iaeaeiinoe
a oneiaeyo nooiai eeeiaoa.

I?iyaeaoayny a 60—80-a aiaeu iauay oaiaeaioeey iiauoaiey aeiee iinaaia
iceiie ioaieoeu ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee iiaeao auoue ioeaiaia
iieiaeeoaeueii, oae eae iia niinianoaiaaea oaaee/aieth i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai ca?ia. E?iia oiai, au?aueaaiea iceiie ioaieoeu
niinianoaoao aieaa ?aaiiia?iiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth o?oaeiauo cao?ao a
inaiiee e aanaiiee ia?eiaeu aaaaoaoeee, /oi eiaao aaaeiia oicyenoaaiiia
cia/aiea, iniaaiii a oneiaeyo aeaoeoeeoa o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

Aaeiaua nai?u iceiie e y?iaie ioaieoeu, ninoaaeyaoea a 70—80-a aiaeu
50—55 iei o ca?ia a n?aaeiai ca aiae, a iniiaiii iaania/eaatho
iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey a oeaaiaoei/iuo ioaie/iuo ecaeaeeyo. A ?an/aoa ia
aeooo ianaeaiey yoi ninoaaeyao 350—420 ea, /oi i?aauoaao o?iaaiue
aeooaaiai i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu a NOA.

Iniiaiua a?aaeu aicaeaeuaaiey iceiie ?aee i?eo?i/aiu e ciia
aea?iiai-iiaecieenouo ii/a Aa?iiaeneie ?innee, iniaaiii a aa
oeaio?aeueiuo e noi/iuo ?aeiiao. ?aeaiie oeaa a yoeo ?aeiiao yaeyaony
o?aaeeoeeiiii eiui i?iaeoeoii ieoaiey naeueneeo e ai?iaeneeo aeeoaeae,
ian/eouaathueo aieueoa 60 iei /aeiaae. Iiyoiio caiaoiia nie?auaiea
iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae ?aee a?yae ee iiaeii n/eoaoue ii?aaaeaiiui.

Naiaia?aciua yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe eoeo?ocu e i?aaeaea anaai aunieea
o?aaiaaiey e oa?ie/aneei ?ano?nai iaoneiaeeaatho ia?aie/aiiua a?aaeu
au?aueaaiey aa ia ca?ii a ?aeiiao I?aaeeaaeacuey, Ieaeiaai I?eaeiiuey e
Iiaieaeuey. A noaiiuo, eaninoaiiuo, io/anoe a thaeiuo eaniuo ?aeiiao
?innee n iaiueoeie oaieiauie ?ano?naie eoeo?oco au?aueaatho aei noaaeee
iiei/ii-aineiaie niaeinoe, eioi?ay ianooiaao i?e noiiao oaiia?aoo? io
1800 aei 2200° niioaaonoaaiii aeey ?aiianiaeuo e n?aaeiaiicaeieo ni?oia.

Niy, eae aeaaiethaeaia e oaieiethaeaia ?anoaiea, eiaao ia?aie/aiiua
a?aaeu ?ani?ino?aiaiey e caieiaao cia/eoaeueiua ieiuaaee ia thaa
Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, aaea ainiiaenoaoao aeaaeiue ionniiiue eeeiao

Iinaaiua ieiuaaee ?ena ia/aee caiaoii aic?anoaoue a ?innee iinea
?anoe?aiey ianneaia i?ioaaiuo caiaeue n na?aaeeiu 60-o aiaeia. A?aaeu
au?aueaaiey ?ena i?eo?i/aiu e ieciaueyi e?oiiuo ?ae Aa?iiaeneie ?innee e
o?aaeeoeeiiiui ?eniaiae/aneei ?aeiiai Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea.

Eoeueoo?a eiiiiee ioee/aaony aunieeie o?aaiaaieyie e niaea?aeaieth
ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a ii/aao, ioaeaeaaony a aieueoii eiee/anoaa aeaae e
oaiea a ia?eiae eioaineaiiai ?inoa. Ana yoi enoi?e/anee iaoneiaeei
i?eo?i/aiiinoue «i/aaia» eiiiieaaiaenoaa e ianoiinoyi n oi?ioi
ieoeueoo?aiiuie aiaaouie ii/aaie ii aeieeiai ?ae a eaninoaiiie e noaiiie
ciiao Aa?iiaeneie ?innee. Aieaa oaieiethaeaua ni?oa thaeiie eiiiiee
au?aueaatho a ?yaea ?aeiiia Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca.

Iniiaiua ?aeiiu aicaeaeuaaiey iiaenieia/ieea i?eo?i/aiu e noaiiie ciia e
ainoi/iie /anoe eaninoaie Aa?iiaeneie ?innee. Ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoea
ieiuaaee iinaaia iaoiaeyony a THaeiii I?eo?aeuea e a nooinoaiiuo ?aeiiao
Aeoaeneiai e?ay n ioiineoaeueii aunieie iaania/aiiinoueth oaieiauie
?ano?naie . N?aaeiyy iiiaieaoiyy o?iaeaeiinoue naiyi iiaenieia/ieea ii
?innee a oeaeii ninoaaeyao 10—12 oe/aa, a aaeiaua nai?u ca aiae a
n?aaeiai ii iyoeeaoeyi eciaiythony io 2,3 aei 3,1 iei o. A 1990—1991 aa.
a ?innee auei i?iecaaaeaii ieiei 1,16 iei o, eee ieiei 8 ea ia aeooo
ianaeaiey, iiaenieia/iiai ianea, /oi ia iaania/eaaao iio?aaiinoe
ianaeaiey, o/eouaay iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa a 1992—1994 aa. Ae?oaea
ianee/iua eoeueoo?u eiatho ia?aie/aiiua a?aaeu ?ani?ino?aiaiey.
Eai-eoae?yo (ianee/iue) eoeueoeae?otho a oeaio?aeueiuo e ainoi/iuo
?aeiiao eaninoaiiie ciiu, ?uaeee, ioee/athueeny aieaa ei?ioeei ia?eiaeii
aaaaoaoeee, — a eaninoaie Caiaaeiie Neae?e, a canooionoie/eaoth ai?/eoeo
— a Ieaeiai Iiaieaeuea e Noaa?iiieueneii e?aa.

Ioaeaeueiua i/aae naaeeiaiaenoaa ?aniieiaeaiu a eaninoaiiuo ?aeiiao
N?aaeiaai Iiaieaeuey, I?eo?aeuey (Aaoee?ey), ia naaa?i-caiaaea
I?aaeeaaeacuey (E?aniiaea?neee e?ae), a oaeaea a i?aaeai?ueyo Aeoay n
ioiineoaeueii aieaa aeaaii?eyoiuie aa?ieeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie. A ?yaea
yoeo ?aeiiia naaeeiaiaenoaii ia/aee caieiaoueny a aiaeu Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieiu e a iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae, eiaaea iniiaiua naaeeiaiae/aneea ?aeiiu
auee ieeoie?iaaiu.

N?aaeiaaiaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai naoa?iie naaeeu n 1976—1980 aei 1986— 1990
it. au?inei n 25,4 aei 33,2 iei o i?aeiouanoaaiii ca n/ao ?inoa
o?iaeaeiinoe (ni 158 aei 225 oe/aa). A 1990 a. auei i?iecaaaeaii 3,6 iei
o naoa?a-ianea, eee 24 ea ia aeooo ianaeaiey, /oi eeoue /anoe/ii
iaania/eaaao iio?aaiinoe aeeoaeae ?innee a yoii aeaea i?iaeoeoeee.
Iaaeinoaoie nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ainiieiyeny ca n/ao eiii?oa
naoa?a, ninoaaeaoaai a 1994 a. nauoa 2,2 iei o.

Iniiaiua ieiuaaee iinaaia oaaaea iaoiaeyony a i?aaeai?ii-ai?iuo ?aeiiao
Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca, aaea i?aiaeaaeatho auuaei/aiiua ii/au. Iaiaa oeaiiua
ni?oa oaaaea (iaoi?eo) aicaeaeuaatho oaeaea a iaeioi?uo eaninoaiiuo
?aeiiao Oeaio?aeueiie ?innee.

Ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee /ae eiaao ia?aie/aiiue a?aae ?ani?ino?aiaiey a
i?ea?aaeiuo noao?iie/aneeo ?aeiiao *a?iiii?neiai iiaa?aaeuey
E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay. Yoi iaeei ec naiuo naaa?iuo ?aeiiia /aaaiaenoaa a
ie?a, aaea auaaaeaiu i?eniiniaeaiiua e ianoiui oneiaeyi ni?oa /ay.

A i?aaeaeao eaniie ciiu e?oiiua i/aae iaiuaaiaenoaa enoi?e/anee
neiaeeeenue a eioeiaeia ica?a Ia?i ieiei ?inoiaa Aaeeeiai, a aeieeiao
?ae Iee e Iineau, ia iieiaiiuo e ieceiiuo caieyo aaeece Iineau,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa e ae?oaeo e?oiiuo ai?iaeia. A thaeiuo ?aeiiao n
aieueoeie oaieiauie oa?ie/aneeie ?ano?naie ia ianneaao i?ioaaiuo caiaeue
au?aueaatho aieaa oaieiethaeaua iaiuiua eoeueoo?u. E?oiiua a?aaeu
iaiuaaiaenoaa n ?acaeoie iaiuaeiina?aiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth iaoiaeyony ia
Naaa?iii Eaaeaca, a ieciaueyo Aeiia e Aieae. Aieai-Aoooaeineay aeieeia e
aeaeueoa Aieae — e?oiiaeoea ?aeiiu iaiuaaiaenoaa a ?innee, aaea
au?aueaatho i?iaeoeoeaiua ni?oa oiiaoia e ae?oaeo oaieiethaeauo
eoeueoo?.

Yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe iniiaiuo aao/aauo eoeueoo? iaoneiaeeaatho eo
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a canooeeauo ?aeiiao Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca e
Ieaeiaai Iiaieaeuey.

A i?aaeaeao eaniie ciiu, iniaaiii a aa caiaaeiuo e oeaio?aeueiuo
?aeiiao, iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiatho yaeiiaaua naaeu n ?aciiia?aciuie
aeaeaie e ni?oaie, ioee/athueieny ioiineoaeueii aunieie
ceiinoieeinoueth. Ii ia?a ia?aoiaea a eaninoaiioth e noaiioth ciiu
ninoaa ieiaeiauo eoeueoo? ?anoe?yaony ca n/ao au?aueaaiey aieaa
oaieiethaeauo ?anoaiee. Iaeaieueoaa ?aciiia?acea ieiaeiauo aea?aaueaa e
i?aoiieiaeiauo ianaaeaeaiee oa?aeoa?ii aeey i?aaeai?iuo ?aeiiia
Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca, aaea eiathony e iiiai/eneaiiua ieiaeieiina?aiua, e
ae?oaea ia?a?aaaouaathuea i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia aceaoneie oa??eoi?ee ?innee iaaieueoea i/aae ieiaeiauo eoeueoo?,
i?aeiouanoaaiii eonoa?ieeiauo, ano?a/athony a ianoiinoyo n aieaa
aeaaii?eyoiuie iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie (a I?eo?aeuea, a
i?aaeai?ueyo Aeoay, a I?eii?neii e?aa). A ia/aea 70-o aiaeia a Aeoaeneii
e?aa nicaeai aaeeinoaaiiue a Neae?e IEE naaeiaiaenoaa, a eioi?ii
aaaeaony ?aaioa ii auaaaeaieth iiauo ii?icionoie/eauo aeaeia ieiaeiauo
eoeueoo?.

Iniiaiua ieiuaaee ianaaeaeaiee aeiia?aaea ?innee nin?aaeioi/aiu ia
Naaa?iii Eaaeaca: a i?e/a?iiii?neeo ?aeiiao E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay, a
i?aaeai?iuo ?aeiiao *a/aineie ?anioaeeee, Aeaaanoaia, a I?eoa?a/iie
iieina. Iaaieueoea ianneau aeiia?aaeieeia ?aniieiaeaiu ia ian/aiuo
ianneaao a ieciaueyo Aeiia e a aeaeueoa Aieae, aaea aua a XVIII a. auee
caeiaeaiu ia?aua ia ?one aeiia?aaeieee.

Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu naeueneiai oicyenoaa

I?yiieeiaeiay i?aaiecaoeey iieae a caieaiieueciaaiee n iaia?oai
cae?aieaiiie nenoaiie iieacaueoiuo iiein , iaaeio/ao ianoiuo oi?i
?aeueaoa nicaeaee aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey iianaianoiiai ?acaeoey
aao?iaie e aiaeiie y?icee

Nicaeaiea iiei/ii-iyniuo aeaaioia iaa?ioeinue oneeaiiui auoaiouaaieai
ianoaeu e iioieaie ia/enoio , noaeathueo a aeeaeaeoea aiaeiaiu .

Ia?aoeeiiaeueiay aiaeiay iaeei?aoeey i?eaaea e oiio ,/oi aeanyoee
ieeeeiiia aaeoa?ia i?iaeoeoeaiuo caiaeue auiaee ec
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey

Iaoiaeay oeiecaoeey – aeaaiay aaaea naeueneiai oicyenoaa . I?eiaiaiea
aa?aeoeeaeia e ianoeoeeaeia ia oieueei niinianoaoao ai?ueaa n a?aaeiuie
ni?iyeaie e aeeaioiuie , ii e ii?aaeaao iieaciua iee?ii?aaieciu , oei?o
e oaoio ieiaei?iaeey , io ianniaiai i?eiaiaiey oeieeaoia caa?yciythony
enoi/ieee ieoueaaie aiaeu , aeaioo eana – caueoieee iaoie .

Ino?u yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu a iaoae no?aia : aanoicyenoaaiiinoue,
oeuie/aneia ioiioaiea e i?e?iaeiui aiaaonoaai , auiieiaiea ieaiia ethaie
oeaiie , oicyenoaaiiay aeaaioiiaiey , iaaeinoaoie oeiainiauo ,
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia , ionoonoaea a oa/aiee aeieaeo eao i?ia?aiiu
caueou e icaei?iaeaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu i?eaaee e o?aae/aneei
iineaaenoaeyi .

Iainiiaaiea iooae ?aoaiey i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie i?iaeaiu ?innee
iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue a oaniie nayce n ?ac?aaioeie ia? ii
iiaeaea?aeaieth aeeiaie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, ii caueoa
eaiaeoaooiie noa?u io caa?yciaiey e ?ac?ooaiey.

A eaninoaiiie e noaiiie ciiao, aaea iaoie caieiatho ieiei 3/4 anae
ieiuaaee, ia?ooaiea yeieiae/aneiai ?aaiiaaney naycaii n oe?ieei
?ani?ino?aiaieai aiaeiie e aao?iaie y?icee, iniaaiii a eaiaeoaooao
N?aaeia?onneie e I?eaieaeneie aicauoaiiinoae. Iiuo nicaeaiey eoeueoo?iuo
eaiaeoaooia, iaeaaeathueo yeieiae/aneie onoie/eainoueth, aue caeiaeai A.
A.Aeieo/aaaui a eiioea XIX a. a o?i/eua Eaiaiiay noaiue ia oa??eoi?ee
Ai?iiaaeneie iae., aaea iuia ?aniieiaeai IEE naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Yoio
iiuo iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue i?e niaa?oainoaiaaiee oi?i i?aaiecaoeee
oa??eoi?ee a ?aeiiao Oeaio?aeueiie ?innee.

A caieaaeaeue/anee inaiaiiuo ?aeiiao eanioaaaeiie e eenoaaiii-eaniie cii
ia?ooaiea yeieiae/aneiai ?aaiiaaney ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia?aaeei naycaii
n /?acia?iie au?oaeie eania, inooaieai aieio, yaeythueony enoi/ieeaie
ieoaiey iiiaeo ?ae. I?e yoii aea?iiai-iiaecieenoua e na?ua eaniua ii/au
oa?aeoa?ecothony aieaa aunieie iioaioeeaeueiie y?iceiiiie iianiinoueth
ii n?aaiaieth n /a?iicaiaie eaninoaiiie e noaiiie cii.

Iooe ?aoaiey yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai

No?aoaaey nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey – yoi naaeaine?iaaiiia yeieiae/aneia
?acaeoea e ?aaeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea .

Ia nouea yeiiiieee e yeieiaee ?iaeeeanue iiaay iaoea – yeiiiieea
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey (yeiiiie/aneay yeieiaey eee yeieiae/aneay
yeiiiieea) . Aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae iiaie iaoee yaeyaony ia i?inoi ioeaiea
nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey yeiiiieee e i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu , eo
acaeiiaeaenoaey , ii e i?iaiice?iaaiea ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie e
yeieiae/aneie nenoai , iiiuoea i?aaeaeaeaoue aoaeouaa e oi?aaeyoue ei
oaea naaiaeiy .

?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeey iaoeeiiaeueiie yeieiae/aneie i?ia?aiiu ?innee
aeieaeiu aeeth/aoue iniaua oneiaey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey , aieioue aei
aeanoeiai ia?aie/aiey ?aciauaiey i?iecaiaenoaa . Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
?aaeecaoeee yeieiae/aneie i?ia?aiiu yaeyaony nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiay
yeiiiieea , o/eouaathuay ia oieueei eioa?anu aeeoaeae , ii e oneiaey
aeecie ianaeaiey . A naeueneii oicyenoaa eioaineoeeaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa
aeieaeia auoue inouanoaeaia ca n/ao niaa?oaiiuo aeioaoiieiaee ,
no?oeoo?u eciaiaiee a caieaiieueciaaiee , ?aoeeiiaeueiie iaeei?aoeee .

Iaeii ec iai?aaeaiee yeieiaecaoeee caieaiieueciaaiey – aica?auaiea aa a
eiii i?e?iaeu , nio?aiaiea aeieiae/aneeo i?aaieciia , ii/au , nicaeaiea
aeieiae/aneeo oaeia?aiee , iaiaauathueo aoioniaue ai?eciio a?eaaie ,
aaeoa?eyie e aiaei?ineyie a oaeaea aeieaoaeecaoi?aie . Iiyaeaiea oaeie
iaoee , eae aeioaoiieiaey aoiona , yoi naeueneia oicyenoai caao?aoiaai
aeiy .

Naaiaeiy a E?aniiaea?neii e?aa i?eiaiythony aacaa?aeoeeaeiua oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa eoeo?ocu e ?ena . A Iineie iaeanoe ?yae oicyenoa ,
ioeacaaoenue io i?eiaiaiey aa?aeoeeaeia e ianoeoeeaeia iieo/eee n?aaeiee
o?iaeae ninoaaee 22-32,7 oe/aa , /oi auoa n?aaeiaiaeanoiuo iieacaoaeae .

Iiaue niinia eaiaeueiiai i?ioaiey iicaieyao iiaeaanoe aiaeo ii
eaiaeey?iui o?oai/eai iaiin?aaenoaaiii e eaaeaeiio ?anoaieth aianoa n
?anoai?aiiuie a iae ieia?aeueiuie oaeia?aieyie . Aacioaaeueiay aniaoea
ia oieueei eneeth/aao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ai?icaeeoue caieth , eniieuecoy
oyaeaeoth oaoieeo , ii e naa?aaaao ii/ao io aao?iaie y?icee .

Iaiaoiaeeii aa?iooueny e io iiiieoeueoa e naaiiai?ioo , aica?aoea ii/aa
aa anoanoaaiiue aeieiae/aneee iai?io .

Aeey iia?aoeaiiai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey ia yeieiae/aneie iianiinoe a ?innee
iaiaoiaeeii iaeaaeeoue ananoi?iiiee e eiiieaeniue IIIEOI?EIA (nenoaia
iaaethaeaiey ca ninoiyieai i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu a ?acoeueoaoa aa ?acaeoey
eee aeeyiey ia iaa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea .

Aeenoaioeeiiiue iiieoi?eia o?aaoao :

aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey e niaa?oainoaiaaiey ?inneeneie einie/aneie
i?ia?aiiu

eiiieaeniiai yeieiai-aaia?aoe/aneiai ianeaaeiaaiey oa??eoi?ee

?acoeueoaou eiiieaeniuo enneaaeiaaiee io?aaeathony ia niaoeeaeueiuo
ea?oao , ia iniiaa eioi?uo iiaeii ?ac?aaioaoue noaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
inaiaiey oa??eoi?ee . Ana yoi o?aaoao nicaeaiey niaoeeaeueiiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey ea?oia?aoee i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey .

?aoaiea yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai aoaeao ai iiiaii caaenaoue io i?eiyoey
niioaaonoaothueo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia , /oiau naa?aaeaiea ?iaeiie
i?e?iaeu noaei i?ei?eoaoiie caaea/ae ainoaea?noaa .Anoaao aii?in i
?ai?aaiecaoeee iaeiaiaie nenoaiu oaeei ia?acii , /oiau noeioee?iaaoue
nio?aiaiea eeai ainnoaiiaeaiea i?e?iaeiie noa?u .

Caeeth/aiea

Eoae , ?anoaieaaiaenoai , eae iaiouaieaiay ninoaaeythuay /anoue
aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena ianiiiaiii ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a no?oeoo?a
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa . Io ninoiyiey ?anoaieaaiaenoaa iai?yioth caaeneo
o?iaaiue AII . Ii , ea?ay noieue aaaeioth ?ieue a aeecie no?aiu , yoa
io?aneue a aeaiiue io?acie a?aiaie i?aauaaao a iea/aaiii ninoiyiee .
Eieoicu e niaoicu ec-ca ?yaea i?e/ei , oaeeo eae iiieaeaiea /anoiuo
eiaanoeoeee e ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioaoeee , ionoonoaea iiaeaea?aeee
ainoaea?noaa , ec-ca oeuaiee eiouanoaa e eciina naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
oaoieee iii?inoo i?inoaeaatho , i?eiiny aieueoa oauoeia , /ai i?eauee .
O oa?ia?ia aeaea ianoiyo ia eo/oa : aeooauea iaeiae , ath?ie?aoey ia
ianoao , ?yeao – ana yoi ianiiiaiii iaoaao ii?iaeueiiio ?acaeoeth e
ooieoeeiie?iaaieth ?anoaieaaiaenoaa .

ss aeaeo ianeieueei iooae auoiaea ec aeaiiie neooaoeee . Ai-ia?auo
iaiaoiaeeii ioaeaoue io?aneue ?anoaieaaiaenoai oeaeeeii a ?oee /anoiiai
naeoi?a (eiathony a aeaeo oa?ia?neea oicyenoaa). Caoai ainoaea?noai ia
aeaa – o?e aiaea aeieaeii iinoaaeoue oa?ia?ia a i?eaaeaae?iaaiioth
eaoaai?eth th?eaee/aneeo eeoe (yoi iaiaoiaeeii aeey oiai , /oiau oa?ia?
iia “anoaoue ia iiae” , i?aaeinoaaeoue ei eueaioiua e?aaeeou . Nae/an
ioaeii iicaaioeoueny i i?eauee a aeieain?i/iii ia?eiaea .Eiaaea-oi
aaaeue ?inney auea aaeeeie yeiiiie/aneie aea?aeaaie , e iu niiaeai
eni?aaeoue oaeouaa iieiaeaiea aauae , ainnoaiaaeeaay ?ac?ooaiiua e
oo?a/aiiua ca ianeieueei eao nioou io?anee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa .
?aoaiea i?iaeaiu – /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue . Iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeinoaaeoue
?aaeueiua n?aaenoaa e ?aaeueioth caieth a ?oee oa?ia?ia . Anee ia
iaoaoue ei ?acaeaaoueny , aiciiaeii iieo/eoue iaieioea ?acoeueoaou a
ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa .

I?eeiaeaiey

Oaaeeoea 1

Ciiaeueiay niaoeeaeecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa

I?e?iaeiua ciiu Eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey Noaiaiue oaeaaeiaiey Oei ii/au
?anoaieaaiaenoai

Ooiae?a , eaniooiae?a Oieiaeiue iiyn

S 400-1000 aeaaeiay ciia

K>1.0 ooiae?iai-aeaaaua , iaeiieiaei?iaeiua , aeeienoua i/aaiaue
oa?aeoa? , a cae?uoii a?oioa

Oaaaeiay , eaniay oieiaeii-oia?aiiue iiyn

S 1000-2000 K>1.0 iiaecieenoua eai-aeieaoiaoe , ?iaeue, y?iaay ioaieoea
, iaan, y/iaiue , nayiua o?aau , ea?oioaeue, iaiue

Eaninoaiiay oia?aiiue iiyn

S 2200-3400 neaai-canooeeaay ciia

0,55 3400 nooay ciia

K<0,33 na?icaiu i?inyiua , yoe?iianee/iua ?anoaiey : iieuiue , e?enuNoao?iieee S > 3600 K>1.0 e?aniicaiu ieiaeiaiaenoai , aeiia?aaenoai ,
/aaaiaenoai

Iaeanoe aunioiie iiyniinoe

K>1.0 ai?ii-

-eoaiaua

-eaniua

-noaiiua

Ionniiiua eana I?eii?neiai e?ay S 1600-2200 K>1.0 ao?ua eaniua ?en ,
niy

Oaaeeoea 2

Nia?aiaiiay aaia?aoey ?anoaieaaiaenoaa

Eoeueoo?a Iniiaiua ?aeiiu i?iecaiaenoaa

Ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u

ioaieoea iceiay Naaa?iue Eaaeac , Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue ?aeii ,
Iiaieaeuea

ioaieoea y?iaay Iiaieaeuea , THaeiue O?ae , Neae?ue , Ia/a?iicaiuea

?iaeue iceiay Ia/a?iicaiuea , Iiaieaeuea ,O?ae , Neae?ue

?iaeue y?iaay ?anioaeeea Naoa , Ao?yoey

y/iaiue O?ae , Neae?ue , Naaa?iue Eaaeac , Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue
?aeii , Iiaieaeuea

iaan Aieai-Ayoneee y.?. , O?ae , Caiaaeiay e Ainoi/iay Neae?ue

eoeo?oca Naaa?iue Eaaeac , Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue ?aeii , Ieaeiaa
Iiaieaeuea

i?ini Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue ?aeii , Iiaieaeuea , Naaa?iue Eaaeac
,O?ae

a?a/eoa Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue ?aeii , Iiaieaeuea

?en Naaa?iue Eaaeac , ieciauey Aieae , I?eii?neee e?ae

Oaoie/aneea eoeueoo?u

eai-aeieaoiaoe Aieai-Ayoneee , Oeaio?aeueiue , Naaa?iue ,
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue

iiaenieia/iee Naaa?iue Eaaeac , Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue ?aeii ,
Iiaieaeuea

eiiiiey Naaa?iue Eaaeac , Ia/a?iicaiuea

Ea?oioaeue Aieai-Ayoneee , Oeaio?aeueiue , Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue
?aeii

Iaiue Naaa?iue Eaaeac , Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue ?aeii , Iiaieaeuea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u :

1. E.A. ?iaeeiiiaa «Yeiiiie/aneay aaia?aoey ?innee»

2. TH.E. Ao?aiia «I?e?iaea iiae no?aiu» , Iineaa , «Iuneue» , 1989

Aoean «No?aiu e ia?iaeu»

N.E. Naeiaiia «Aa?ii?iiuoeaiiue eiiieaen ?NON? . Nouiinoue , oeaee ,
caaea/e» , Iineaa , «Niaaoneay ?inney» , 1989

Iaci? «Ia?iaeiia oicyenoai ?O» , Iineaa , «Iuneue» , 1987

AEo?iae «Aii?inu yeiiiieee» ? 1 , 1995

AEo?iae «Aii?inu yeiiiieee» ? 7 , 1996

AEo?iae «Yenia?o» io 01.11.1997

Iiaeaioiaeaii ii iaoa?eaeai noaouee O.Aeeiiaa , A.Aoaaa , I.Aaeo?iaa
“No?aoaaey iiaaaeaiey naiaeiuo oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa” . AEo?iae “Aii?inu
yeiiiieee” ?1 , 1995

Enneaaeiaaiea inouanoaeyeinue aaniie-eaoii 1994 a. Ia iniiaa
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiiai noeaia?ey auei i?iaaaeaii 20
iaoi?iaeeciaaiiuo eioa?aueth n oa?ia?aie a Oeaio?aeueiii, Oeaio?aeueii –
*a?iicaiiii e Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii ?aaeiieo.

Ca i e i a I. E. Iaoiaeu yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee caiaeue e caiaeueiue
eaaeano?. – Aaia?aoey ?NON?. O. 14 Aaia?aoey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. – I.:
AEIEOE, 1989. Yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu Iineianeiai ?aaeiia. –
I.: Ecae-ai IAO, 1989.

Ni. ?acaeae “I?eeiaeaiey” , Oaaeeoea 1

Ni. ?acaeae “I?eeiaeaiey” Oaaeeoea 2

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