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Экономическая эффективность производства кормов в ОАО Молодая гвардия

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Niaea?aeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea.

1. Iaci? eeoa?aoo?u.

2. I?e?iaeii-yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea oicyenoaa.

3. Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia a
IAI “Iieiaeay aaa?aeey”.

3.1. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea.

3.2. I?aaiecaoeey ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa.

3.3. Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia
a AI “Iieiaeay aaa?aeey”.

4. Iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia.

5. Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aaaaeaiea.

A nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee iaoae no?aiu naeueneia oicyenoai
caieiaao iniaia ianoi. Yoi iaeia ec iniiaiuo io?aneae ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa, iaania/eaathuay ianaeaiea i?iaeoeoaie ieoaiey, a
i?iiuoeaiiinoue iaiaoiaeeiui nu?ue?i. I?iaeoeou naeueneiai oicyenoaa e
i?iaeoeou, /oi i?iecaiaeyony ec naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai nu?uey,
ninoaaeytho 75% oiiaea ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey.

Eiia/ii, iniiaiay ?ieue a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee no?aiu
i?eiaaeeaaeeo io?aneyi i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ii iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna yaeyaony oaaee/aiea yooaeoeaiinoe
naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

A aaeiaii iauanoaaiiii i?iaeoeoa naeueneia oicyenoai caieiaao ieiei
15%, ii n?aaeiaaiaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee iinoiyiii
iaaeaao.

?aoaiea i?iaeaiu oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee e oeo/oaiey aa ea/anoaa o?aaoao ?aaeeeaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, onei?aiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e
nioeeaeueiie ia?ano?ieee naea. Oniaoiia auiieiaiea noiyueo ia?aae
aa?ii?iiuoeaiiui eiiieaenii caaea/ aiciiaeii oieueei ia iniiaa iao/iie
i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea e i?iecaiaenoaa, niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?i oi?aaeaiey
yeiiiieeie, iaoa?eaeueiiai e ii?aeueiiai iiiu?aiey ?aaioieeia,
eniieueciaaiey aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee, a oaeaea ia?aaeiaiai iiuoa.

Eioaineoeeaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia aiciiaeia aac oaaee/aiee
aeiaeaiee a i?iecaiaenoai e aieaa yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia
i?aaei?eyoee, iao/iiai ciaiey i iiauo oaoiieiaeyo, eco/aiey ni?ina ia
i?iaeoeoeeth, eco/aiey aeaeiaie eiiuthieoo?u .

?aoaiea yoeo i?iaeai iaoiaeeony a eiiiaoaioeee oeaeiai ?yaea iaoe,
iaeiie ec eioi?uo yaeyaony yeiiiieea.

Yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa – iaoea, eioi?ay eco/aao aeaenoaea
iauaeoeaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia e oi?iu eo i?iyaeaiey a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa n oeaeueth eo eniieueciaaiey a
eioa?anao iauanoaa.

Naeueneia oicyenoai ninoieo ec iiiaeo io?aneae e iiae io?aneae,
iaeaieueoeie ec eioi?uo yaeythony ?anoaieaaiaenoai e aeeaioiiaiaenoai.
Naycue iaaeaeo ieie iaaeyaeii iiaeii oaeaeaoue ia ?enoiea 1.

?en.1 Naycue iniiaiuo io?aneae naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Iaeiei ec iaeaaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, iiieii oeo/oaiey ii?iaeiiai ninoaaa, oneiaee
niaea?aeaiey aeeaioiuo, no?oeoo?u noaaea, o?iaiy iaoaiecaoeee e i?i/aai,
yaeyaony iaania/aiiinoue aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ei?iaie.

Caaea/a yoie eo?niaie ?aaiou iieacaoue eae ia i?aeoeea ii?aaeaeyaony
yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia a

AI ”Iieiaeay aaa?aeey” Aaeica?neiai ?aeiia Oa?niineie iaeanoe.

Iaci? eeoa?aoo?u.

N?aaee aeaaiuo i?iaeai, aieiothueo ianaeaiea Oe?aeiu, aaconeiaii, a
iuiaoiae neooaoeee yaeyaony i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiay. Caieiay aeaeaei ia
iineaaeiaa ianoi a ie?a ii eiee/anoao ianaeaiey, iaoa no?aia ?aniieaaaao
ii/oe naiuie eo/ouie caiaeueiuie ?ano?naie, eiaao aunieee i?ioeaio
?aniaoaiiinoe caiaeue, iniiaioth ieiuaaeue eioi?uo caieiatho iinaau
ioaieoeu, y/iaiy, ?aee, iana, naaeeu, ianoaeu, iiiaieaoieo o?aa. Ia
Oe?aeia aei iaaeaaieo a?ai?i auee i/aiue aieueoea iiaieiauey aeeaioiuo –
e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa, ei?ia, naeiae, iaaoe, ioeoeu. Eacaeinue au,
i?iaeiaieuenoaey o ian aeieaeii auoue a aeinoaoea, iaeiaei ana ciatho,
/oi yoi aeaeaei ia oae. iio?aaeaiea aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee ia
ioaa/aao iao/ii-iainiiaaiiiio iio?aaeaieth.

E aeaei ai iiiaii a oii, /oi ia ?aoaia i?iaeaia ei?iia. Iiyoiio aeaaiui
oneiaeai aeaeueiaeoaai i?ia?anna aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, eae e anaai AIE,
yaeyaony oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ca?iioo?aaeiuo eoeueoo?, ei?iia,
aiaiauo e ianee/iuo eoeueoo?, nicaeaiea ia yoie iniiaa ei?iiaie aacu e
?aoaiea i?iaeaiu aaeea. Iiae ei?iiaie aacie iiieiatho enoi/ieee, nenoaio
i?e?iia e iaoiaeia ii i?iecaiaenoao, o?aiaieth e eniieueciaaieth ei?iia,
iaania/eaathueo ana aeaeu aeeaioiuo e ioeoeo aeinoaoi/iui eiee/anoaii
iaiaoiaeeiuo ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa.

Ianoiyueo oicyei caiee anaaaea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue caaioeeny i
i?iecaiaenoaa nianoaaiiuo ei?iia e iieiii iaania/aiee eie aeeaioiuo, a
ii caianai ei?iia ii?aaeaeye eo iiaieiauea e i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee
(Aaae/ A.A. AEeaioiiaiaenoai: i?iaeaia ei?iia. Naeueneia oicyenoai. ?11,
1991, no?. 3.). Io o?iaiy aea i?iecaiaenoaa e naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ei?iia
anaaaea caaeneo i?iaeoeoeaiinoue neioa e ioeoeu (ia 50-80%), eiee/anoai
a iaaaceiao iieiea, iyna e yeoe, a eoiaa yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea,
o?iaaiue aeecie, iaania/aiea i?iaeiaieuenoaea ianaeaiey.

?acaeoea nia?ai?iiiai ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa aeieaeii iniiauaaoueny ia
i?i/iii iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneii ooiaeaiaioa. A no?aia aeieaeiu ieaiiia?ii
inouanoaeyoueny ia?ii?eyoey ii iaeneiaeueiiio iaania/aieth
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aeaoaauie ei?iaie eae ca n/?o i?e?iaeiuo ei?iiauo
oaiaeee oae e ca n/?o iieaaiai ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia aeaiiue iiiaio a Oe?aeia, a oiaea aa?ioicyenoaaiiuo ianeaaeiaaiee e
eco/aiee ?anoeoaeueiuo ?ano?nia, iaeiieai aiaaoue iao/iue iaoa?eae ii
ei?iii?iecaiaenoao, auyaeaii iaeaieaa oeaiiua a ei?iiaii ioiioaiee
iiiai- e iaeiieaoiea ?anoaiey, ?aeiie?iaaiu iiaua ni?oa e aea?eaeu
ei?iiauo eoeueoo?. Iaiaeiaaaeiua oniaoe aeinoeaioou a ioa/anoaaiiie
iaoea a iaeanoe iaeei?aoeee i?e?iaeiuo ei?iiauo oaiaeee.
O/?iua-eoaiaiaeu ?ac?aaioaee e ?aeiiaiaeiaaee iiiaiia?aciua niiniau
iiaa?oiinoiiai e ei?aiiiai oeo/oaiey anoanoaaiiuo ei?iiauo oaiaeee.
I?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey, iai?aaeaiiua ia ?ac?aaioeo e
oniaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu ianoaeuiiai niaea?aeaiey neioa (oai?aoe/aneea
?ac?aaioee ?aaeeiia ianoaeuiiai eniieueciaaiey iiiaieaoieo o?aa,
i?eiaiaiea i?ioaiey e oaeia?aiee), i?e/?i i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea
iao/iuo ?ac?aaioie iicaieyao iiauneoue auoiae i?iaeoeoeee e iaa?oceo
ia 1 aa a ianeieueei ?ac. Ii n?aaiaieth aea ni n?aaeiae
i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth iaoeo/oaiiuo ianoaeu, i?eiaiaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo oi?i
ooiaea ca o?aainoiai e aai eniieueciaaiea iiauoaao auoiae ei?ia, a
niioaaonoaaiii e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a 3-4 ?aca, a i?e
iaeneiaeueiie eioaineoeeaoeee a 8-10 ?ac.

A iieaaii ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa oaeaea eiaaony iaai? aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo
eoeueoo? e ni?oia, nenoaia aa?ioaoieee, ianoeoeeaeia e oaeia?aiee,
niiniaiuo oaaee/eoue iieaaia ei?iii?iecaiaenoai a 5-8 ?ac.

Ia iniiaa aeioeie/aneeo e iee?iaeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee auee
?ac?aaioaiu e aiaae?ythony ?aoeeiiaeueiua niiniau neeiniaaiey ?acee/iiai
?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey (o?aa, ei?iaieiaeia, ea?oioaey) n i?eiaiaieai
oeie/aneeo eiina?aaioia, ?ac?aaioaia oaoiieiaey i?eaioiaeaiey naiaaea,
iaeaeaiu yooaeoeaiua niiniau iiauoaiey ieoaoaeueiie oeaiiinoe ?acee/iuo
ei?iia.

Ii anoue e iaaeinoaoee a iaoea ii ei?iii?iecaiaenoao – i?aaeaea anaai
yoi neaaia ?acaeoea aioo?eciiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ii ianoaeuiiio
oicyenoao e nicaeaieth eoeueoo?iuo i?ioaaiuo ianoaeu.

?acthie?oy auoaneacaiiia, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aeoe/aneea
caaea/e a iaeanoe ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa ia iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu aac
iiaeaea?aeee iao/iuie o/?aaeaeaieyie (e eioi?ui ioiinyo e OAAO) e
eioi?ua ii?aaeaeeee iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aeaeueiaeoeo iao/iuo ?ac?aaioie
a iaeanoe ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa:

A iaeanoe eoaiianoaeuiiai ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa.

1. Aeaeueiaeoay ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea a i?iecaiaenoai i?ia?anneaiuo
i?e?iia ieoeueoo?eaaiey i?e?iaeiuo ei?iiauo oaiaeee n oeaeueth ?aceiai
iiauoaiey eo i?iaeoeoeaiinoe (niaa?oainoaiaaiea nouanoaothueo niiniaia
ei?aiiiai e iiaa?oiinoiiai oeo/oaiey ia iniiaa iiaea?iecaoeee
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey oeie/aneeo
n?aaenoa aeey ai?ueau n ae?aaanii-eonoa?ieeiaie e ni?iie
?anoeoaeueiinoueth, i?eiaiaiey aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie aa?i- e
eoeueoo?oaoieee). E?iia oiai iaiaoiaeeii oe?a ?acaa?iooue ?aaiou ii
iiaeai?o ia?niaeoeaiuo o?aainianae aeey ?acee/iuo yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee
e auaaaeaieth iiauo ni?oia eoaiianoaeuiuo o?aa n caaeaiiuie
oicyenoaaiiuie naienoaaie.

2. ?ac?aaioea yooaeoeaiuo i?e?iia e iaoiaeia ii ooiaeo ca eoeueoo?iuie
ianoaeuaie e naiieinaie e ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee eo eniieueciaaiey n oeaeueth
iaania/aiey iaeneiaeueiie o?iaeaeiinoe e i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeieaieaoey
iinaaia eoaiianoaeuiuo o?aa (iioeiecaoeey aiaeiiai e ieuaaiai ?aaeeia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeoioeaiicia, aeeth/ay i?eiaiaiea i?ioaiey /enouie e
noi/iuie aiaeaie, aianaiey iee?i- e iae?ioaeia?aiee, a oaeaea i?eiaiaiea
iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia no?aaeeaaiey e neaoeaaiey).

3. Iiiainoi?iiiaa eiiieaeniia eco/aiea e aiaae?aiea a i?iecaiaenoai
i?ia?anneaiuo niiniaia niaea?aeaiey e?oiiiai e iaeeiai ?iaaoiai neioa ia
iniiaa eniieueciaaiey eoeueoo?iuo ianoaeu, a oii /enea n i?ioaieai.

A iaeanoe iieaaiai ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa.

?ac?aaioea eiiieaena ia?ii?eyoee ii oaaee/aieth nai?ia
aunieiea/anoaaiiuo ei?iia n 1 aa iaoie, a oii /enea:

1. Ii?aaeaeaiea oicyenoaaiiie oeaeaniia?aciinoe ni/aoaiey iieaaiai e
eoaiaiai ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa ii ciiai no?aiu.

2. Auyaeaiea iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiiai iaai?a ei?iiauo eoeueoo? aeey
iieaaiai ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa a eaaeaeie ciia e ?ac?aaioea iioeiaeueiie
aa?ioaoieee.

3. Oeo/oaiea naeaeoeee nenoaiu naiaiiaiaenoaa ei?iiauo eoeueoo?,
eniieuecoy iiaaeoea aeinoeaeaiey aaiaoeee e aeieiae/aneie oeiee.

4. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe niiniaia caaioiaee e o?aiaiey ei?iia,
aeeth/ay ?ac?aaioeo i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiaee e iaoaieciia, i?eiaiaiea
aeieiae/aneeo e oeie/aneeo n?aaenoa.

Aieueoei oie/eii a ?acaeoee aeaiiie iaoee yaeythony
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiioa?aioeee ii aii?inai iao/iiai iaania/aiey
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa. Oae a ethea 1992 aiaeo a ?innee ai Ana?inneeneii
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneii einoeoooa ei?iia ei. A.?. Aeeueyina auea
i?iaaaeaia aieueoay eiioa?aioeey, a eioi?ie i?eiyei o/anoea aieaa 250
/aeiaae ec 53 iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeee, aocia,
ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa (Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai. ?4, 1992, no?. 6. ). Oeaeue
iiaeiaiuo eiioa?aioeee – au?aaioea iiaie eiioeaioeee e oaeoeee
eiiieaeniiai ?aoaiey caaea/ iao/iiai iaania/aiey ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa n
o/?oii ia?niaeoea e i?iaiica ?acaeoey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, aai iio?aaiinoae
a ei?iao nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa n aunieie i?ioaeiiaie e
yia?aaoe/aneie ieoaoaeueiinoueth a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e iiaui oi?iai
oicyenoaiaaiey, ei?aiiie ia?ano?ieee nenoaiu oeiaine?iaaiey e
i?aaiecaoeee iaoee e inaiaiea iao/iuo e oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee ia
i?aeoeea.

Eoiaii ?inneeneie eiioa?aioeee noaea ?ac?aaioea i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee
?acaeoey iaoee a ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa:

1. ?ac?aaioea aunieiyooaeoeaiuo yeieiae/anee aaciianiuo nenoai
iieo/aiey ii ciiai no?aiu aeieiae/anee iieiioeaiiiai aaeea.

2. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oai?ee e iaoiaeia nicaeaiey eioaineaiuo ciiaeueiuo
nenoai iieaaiai ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa n o/?oii ?aciauaiey e niaoeeaeecaoeee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

3. Iao/iia iainiiaaiea nenoai, oaoiieiaee e iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey
i?iaeoeoeeiiiui i?ioeannii ia naiieinao e ianoaeuao e n oeaeueth
iiauoaiey eo i?iaeoeoeaiinoe.

4. ?ac?aaioea iiauo oaoiieiaee e oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa
aunieiaaeeiauo eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo e iau?ienouo ei?iia e niiniaia eo
eniieueciaaiey a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa i?e nieaeaiee ?anoiaea ca?iioo?aaea.

5. Nicaeaiea ia iniiaa yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia, onei?ythueo naeaeoeeiiiue
i?ioeann, ni?oia e aea?eaeia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo e iiauo ei?iiauo eoeueoo? n
aunieie ei?iiaie e naiaiiie i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth, eiiieaeniie
onoie/eainoueth e iniiaiui aieaciyi e iaaeaaii?eyoiui oaeoi?ai n?aaeu e
iao/iii iaania/aiee.

6. I?aaiecaoeey yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaiuo nenoai ni?oiaiai naiaiiaiaenoaa
iiauo ni?oia e aea?eaeia ei?iiauo eoeueoo? ii ciiai no?aiu.

7. ?ac?aaioea i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeo iiaeaeae eioaineaiuo nenoai
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa ii ciiai, iaania/eaathueo yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea
ei?iiauo oaiaeee, iieiia e onoie/eaia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe a
aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo aeeaioiuo a ei?iao.

Iiaeiaiua eiioa?aioeee a ianooaaao Oe?aeiu iiaeii auei au i?iaiaeeoue
aaeaaiaeii n oeaeueth au?aaioee iiauo iiaeoiaeia e aii?inai
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

Aiaeec ninoiyiey ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa a Oe?aeia iieacuaaao, /oi ec anao
enoi/ieeia ei?iiauo ?ano?nia iniiaiui yaeyaony iieaaia
ei?iii?iecaiaenoai, aai oaeaeueiue aan ninoaaeyao 80%. Iauay ieiuaaeue
ei?iiauo eoeueoo? a Oe?aeia aei 1990 aiaea ?inea, n 1990 – eieaaaeanue
ia o?iaia 11,5-11,7 iei. aa, iaeaieueooth ieiuaaeue caieiaea eoeo?oca ia
neein e cae?iue ei?i – a 1992 a. 4,6 iei. aa, ia 1997 a. – a? ieiuaaeue
inoaeanue oaeie aea. Ieiuaaeue iiiaieaoieo o?aa a 1997 a. ninoaaeea 4,1
iei. aa, ei?iiauo ei?iaieiaeia – 0,64 e ieiuaaeue iaeiieaoieo o?aa –
2,24 iei. aa. I?e/?i oaeaeueiue aan i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia ii aeaeai
neaaeothuee:

Oaaeeoea 1.

No?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia a Oe?aeia.

Ei?ia

Ii?iaoea, % N?aaeiee o?iaaiue ca aiaeu

_______________________________________________________

1986-1996 | 1994-1996

1996

Eiioeaio?e?iaaiiua 36,4 38,2 33,6 30,6

Naii anao aeaeia 4,9 5,1 5,2 5,1

Caeaiay ianna neeiniuo eoeueoo? e o?aa ia ei?i 19,7 18,5 20,4 21,9

Ei?iaieiaeu e aaooaiiua eoeueoo?u 4,4 3,1 2,4 1,9

Nieiia anao aeaeia 12,2 13,2 16,0 18,6

Neein 17,2 15,5 14,2 14,1

Naiaae 5,2 6,4 8,2 7,8

Anaai 100 100 100 100

Aeaiiua oaaeeoeu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi oiaiueoaiea eniieueciaaiey
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ei?iia iaoneiaeei oaaee/aiea eniieueciaaiey a?oauo
ei?iia, eioi?ua a no?oeoo?a oaaee/eeenue n 17,4% ca ii?iaoeaii aei 24,2%
a n?aaeiai ca iineaaeiea o?e aiaea e aei 26,4% a 1996 a. E?iia oiai,
iaaethaeaaony ?aceia nieaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ni/iuo
ei?iia. Iniaaiii yoi ioiineony e ei?iiauo ei?iaieiaeia, i?iecaiaenoai
eioi?uo nie?aoeeinue ca yoio ia?eiae aieaa /ai a 5 ?ac. Oaeay
ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue ei?iia ii aaeeo oa ae?oaeo ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoaao
io?eoeaoaeueii iiaeeyea ia ?acaeoea aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, aaea
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeeaioiuo ca yoe aiaeu nie?aoeeanue a ianeieueei ?ac
(Yeiiiieea AIE. ?10, 1997, no? 39.).

E?iia oiai ca yoe aiaeu o?oaei?ieinoue i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia aic?inea a
1,5-2 ?aca, a ii ioaeaeueiui ei?iiaui eoeueoo?ai iia i?aauoaao ii?iaoea
a ianeieueei ?ac. An? yoi iauyniyaony ieceie o?iaeaeiinoueth e ae?oaeie
oaeoi?aie, eioi?ua aeeth/atho i?aaeaea anaai oaoie/aneea e
oaoiieiae/aneea ?ano?nu.

Oaaeeoea 2.

Aeeiaieea cao?ao ei?iia aeeaioiui a Oe?aeia e NOA.

Cao?aou ei?iia ia 1 oneiaioth aieiao e?n, oe. ei?i. aae. 1970 1975 1980
1985 1990 1992

A Oe?aeia 25,8 26,6 27,5 29,8 32,5 30,6

A NOA 40,9 41,3 43,3 43,3 – –

AEeaioiiaiaenoai a Oe?aeia aoaeao iaania/aii ei?iaie oieueei oiaaea,
eiaaea aiaeiaua cao?aou ei?iia ia 1 oneiaioth aieiao ninoaayo 35-40 oe.
ei?i. aae. Yoi o?aaoao oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia ia 20-30 % (ia
1992 aiae i?iecaiaenoai ei?iia ninoaaeyei 89,6 oun. o. ei?i. aae., /oi
ioaa/aao o?iaith 1980 aiaea).

Iiieii cao?ao ei?iia ia 1 oneia. aie. aeeaioiuo ninoiyiea ei?iiaie aacu
oa?aeoa?ecoao aua iaeei iieacaoaeue – i?iecaiaenoai ei?iia ia 1 aa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee eee ei?iiaie ieiuaaee – i?eiaiyaony aeey
n?aaiaiey ninoiyiea ei?iiiaie aacu a ?aciuo oicyenoaao (Iaoeeai?a A.(.
Aeiiii(ea n(euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. E.:Aeua oeiea,1994). Ca iineaaeiea
10-15 eao i?iecaiaenoai ei?iia a Oe?aeia oaaee/eeinue n 15,6 oe. ei?i.
aae. a 1980 a. aei 25 oe. ei?i. aae. a 1990 a., a 1992 a. i?iecaiaenoai
ei?iia ninoaaeyei 23,2 oe. ei?i. aae. A ioaeaeueiuo aea oicyenoaao yoio
iieacaoaeue ninoaaeyao 32-55 oe. ei?i. aae. n 1 aa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
oaiaeee.

N?aaee iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ninoiyiea ei?iiaie aacu aaaeiia
cia/aiea eiatho ea/anoai ei?iia, ei?iii?ioaeiiaia niioiioaiea, iieaoa
ei?ia i?iaeoeoeeae, ia eioi?oth aeeyao aeaa oaeoi?a – o?iaaiue ei?ieaiey
e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ei?ieaiey; i?e/?i iieaoa ei?ia i?iaeoeoeeae –
aeaaiue iieacaoaeue, oa?aeoa?ecothuee yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
ei?iia.

A i?aeoeea naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia?aaeee ?aciiaeaney
iaaeaeo niaoeeaeenoaie ?anoaieaaiaenoaa e aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Ciioaoieee
o?aaotho io aa?iiiiia au?aueaaiey oaeeo eoeueoo?, eioi?ua
niioaaonoaiaaee iioeiaeueiiio ii ieoaoaeueiinoe ?aoeeiio aeeaioiuo, a
naith i/a?aaeue aa?ineoaeaa ?oeiaiaenoaoaony i?aaeaea anaai
niaethaeaieai /a?aaeiaaiey eoeueoo? a iieyo naaiiai?ioia. A auai?a
iioeiaeueiiai ieaia i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia e ?ac?aaioea no?oeoo?u iinaaiuo
ieiuaaeae i?ei?eoaoiia ia/aei aeieaeii i?eiaaeeaaeaoue
ieaiiai-yeiiiie/aneie neoaeaa oicyenoaa. Aeey yoiai ia yoaia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ninoaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oeiainiaiai ieaia
oicyenoaa iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeoue ioeaieo yooaeoeaiinoe ei?iia.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei iaoiaeee ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia.

E iei ioiineony iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia n iiiiuueth iieacaoaeae i?eauee e
?aioaaaeueiinoe (Oeao?ei A.E. Yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia. Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai, ?4, 1992,
no?.2.). Yoa iaoiaeeea eniieuecoaony aeey i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u
i?iecaiaenoaa, ooieoeeiie?othuae a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e ninoieo
ec i?iecaiaeeoaeae ei?iia, iin?aaeieee, i?iecaiaeeoaee
aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee. Nenoaia oeai aeey aeaiiie
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u ninoieo ec caeoii/iuo e ?aaeecaoeeiiiuo oeai
ia ei?ia e aeeaioiiaiae/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth, iniiaa eioi?ie – ?uii/iay
oeaia ?aaeecaoeee e naaanoieiinoe aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee.
?an/aou i?iaiaeyo a o?e yoaia:

1. Ia iniiaa iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee ii?aaeaeytho iioeiaeueioth no?oeoo?o
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa ai acaeiinayce n iio?aaiinoueth aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

2. Ii?aaeaeytho nenoaio oeai ia ei?ia e aeeaioiiaiae/aneoth
i?iaeoeoeeth.

3. Ii?aaeaeytho yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue a oeaeii e eaaeaeie
eoeueoo?u ioaeaeueii.

Aoi?ay iaoiaeeea (Iaca?ia A.A. Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ei?iia.
Ei?iiaua eoeueoo?u.?6, 1991a., no?. 11 iniiauaaaony ia ii?aaeaeaiee
eioaa?aeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ei?iia ia iniiaa
?an/aoa /anoiuo iieacaoaeae iooai eniieueciaaiey iaoiaea iiiaiia?iie
n?aaeiae. E /anoiui iieacaoaeyi ioiinyo :

– auoiae ei?iiauo aaeeieoe n 1 aa, oe;

– auoiae i?ioaeia n 1 aa, oe;

– auoiae ei?iiauo aaeeieoe ia 1 a?i. i?iecaaaeaiiuo cao?ao, oe;

– auoiae ei?iiauo aaeeieoe ia 1 /ae.-/an., oe;

– iaania/aiiinoue 1 oe ei?iiauo aaeeieoe ia?aaa?eiui i?ioaeiii, ea.

Ia iniiaa yoie iaoiaeeee ii?aaeaeyaony – eaeoth aea eoeueoo?o auaiaeiaa

i?iecaiaeeoue eee ia eaeoth eoeueoo?o auaiaeiaa caiaieoue oo eee eioth
eoeueoo?o.

O?aouey iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
ei?iia iniiauaaaony ia iieacaoaeyo yia?aaoe/aneie ieoaoaeueiinoe ei?iia
ia a ei?iiauo aaeeieoeao, a a iaiaiiie yia?aee (Iaea?iaa E.A.
Ii?aaeaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ei?iia. Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai.
?6, 1991a.no?. 40.). Nooue yoie iaoiaeeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ei?ia
yaeythony yia?aeae, ?aaeecaoeey eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony /a?ac
?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Oaeei ia?acii ciay
naaanoieiinoue i?iecaaaeaiiie yia?aee e noieiinoue aa ?aaeecaoeee iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue i?eaueue. Yoa iaoiaeeea i?eiaiyaony a iani-iiei/iii
neioiaiaenoaa e oa?noii-iyniii iaoeaaiaenoaa.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu ana aieueoee oii? aeaeaaony ia iaoiaeeeo
yeieiai-yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa (Neaaia
A.I. Iaoiaeeea aeieiai-aeiiii(/ii( ioe(iee ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa. Aeiiii(ea
AIE. ?12, 1996?, no?.65), e?eoa?eai eioi?ie yaeyaony iaeneiaeueiue
auoiae ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa, n o/aoii yia?aaoe/aneie oeaiiinoe ei?iia. A
iniiaa iaoiaeeee eaaeao neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:

– yia?aaoe/aneay o?iaeaeiinoue ei?iiauo eoeueoo?;

– o?oaeiaieinoue;

– niaea?aeaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai oeacey.

Iaoiaeeea iiaeao i?eiaiyony ia oieueei ia oa??eoi?eyo, caa?yciaiiuo
?aaeeiaeoeaiuie yeaiaioaie, ii e aeey ei?iiauo oaiaeee, caa?yciaiiuo
ieo?aoaie eee ieo?eoaie.

Aua ii iaeiie iaoiaeeea (Aeiiii(ea AIE. Aeua oeiea, 1994?., no?.348.)
aeey i?iaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee ei?iiauo eoeueoo? eniieuecotho
neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:

– auoiae n 1 aa iinaaa ei?iiauo aaeeieoe, oe;

– auoiae n 1 aa iinaaa ia?aaa?eiiai i?ioaeia, oe;

– naaanoieiinoue 1 oe ei?iiauo aaeeieoe, a?i.;

– i?yiua cao?aou o?oaea ia 1 oe ei?iiauo aaeeieoe, /ae.-/an.

Aeey niaieoiiie ioeaiee ei?iiauo aaeeieoe eniieuecotho iieacaoaeue
auoiaea ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe n 1 aa ioaeaeueiuo ei?iiauo eoeueoo?.

I?iaeaiu yooaeoeaiinoe ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa nae/an /?acau/aeii aeooaeueiu.
Io oiai eae iie aoaeoo ?aoaoueny caaeneo ninoiyiea io?anee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa e yeiiiieee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a
oeaeii. aeey eeeaeaeaoeee iaaaoeaiuo yaeaiee a ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo aeieaeiu inouanoaeyoueny
ia?ii?eyoey, eioi?ua aoaeoo iai?aaeaiu ia ananoi?iiithth
eioaineoeeaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia. Eioaineoeeaoeey aeeth/aao a naay
eiiieaen i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
no?oeoo?u iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae ei?iiauo eoeueoo?, iiauo oi?i i?aaiecaoeee
o?oaea e iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey ia i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia. (THae(i
A.A. Oeyoe i(aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino( ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa. Aeiiii(ea AIE.
?10, 1997?. no?. 38)

Eiiieaen i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee iai?aaeai ia
ieaie?iaaiea ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa (ia iniiaa ?an/aoa iio?aaiinoe a
ei?iao), aianaiea iioeiaeueiuo aeic i?aaie/aneeo e ieia?aeueiuo
oaeia?aiee iiae iinaau ei?iiauo eoeueoo?, iaeei?aoeaiua ia?ii?eyoey
(ecaanoeiaaiea, aeiniaaiea, inooaiea, i?ioaiea, oeo/oaiea e
ieoeueoo?eaaiea ianoaeu e ae?.) (I?ia?anneaiua iai?aaeaiey a
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa. Naeueneia oicyenoai. ?9, 1988a.)

Aiaae?aiea iioeiaeueiuo iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae iicaieeo oaaee/eoue
i?iecaiaenoai ei?iia ia 40% (AEeaioiiaiaenoai: i?iaeaia ei?iia.
Naeueneia oicyenoai. ?11, 1990a.). Einoeooo caieaaeaeey OAAI
?aeiiaiaeoao neaaeothuoth no?oeoo?o iinaaia ei?iiauo eoeueoo?:
iiiaieaoiea o?aau – 49,2, neeiniua eoeueoo?u- 29,6, iaeiieaoiea o?aau –
18,7, ei?iiaua ei?iaieiaeu – 7%, ae?oaea eoeueoo?u – 0,5%.

Iaeiei ec iooae oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia a iieaaii
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony ?anoe?aiea iiaoi?iuo iineaoeiniuo e
iineaoai?i/iuo iinaaia, a oaeaea aiaae?aiea iinaaia iiiaieiiiiiaioiuo
nianae o?aa.

Eioaineoeeaoeey ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeaeaeeo aiaae?aiea i?ia?anneaiuo
oaoiieiaee nai?a, nio?aiaiey e i?eaioiaeaiey ei?iia. Yoi aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/aiey ea/anoaa ei?iiauo ?aoeeiiia e cia/eoaeueii
nie?aoeoue iioa?e ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea a oeo/oaiee ei?iiaie aacu e ea/anoaa caaioaaeeaaaiuo
a?oauo ei?iia eiaao i?iecaiaenoai o?aayiie ioee.

Ea/anoai ei?iiauo ?aoeeiiia iiauoaaony e ca n/ao iieiioeaiiuo
a?aioe?aaiiuo e a?eeaoiaaiiuo ei?iia. I?eiaiaiea oaeeo ei?iia
iaania/eaaao eiiieaenioth iaoaiecaoeeth e aaoiiaoecaoeeth eae a
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa oae e i?e i?aaiecaoeee ei?ieaiey aeeaioiuo.

Iaeiei ec ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey ei?iiauo ?ano?nia yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea
iooiaeia ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. I?aaei?eyoey ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
ia?a?aaaouaathuea naeueneioicyenoaaiiia nu?uea, iieo/atho aieueoia
eiee/anoai iooiaeia (aeii, o?io, iaeooa, iaeyna, iyni-einoioth ioeo),
eioi?ua yaeythony i/aiue oeaiiuie ei?iaie aeey aeeaioiuo.

I?e?iaeii-yeiiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea oicyenoaa.

Caieaiieueciaaiea aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa “Iieiaeay aaa?aeey”
?aniieiaeaii a 25 ei io iaeanoiiai oeaio?a a. Oa?niia.

Oeaio?aeueiay onaaeueaa iaoiaeeony a n. Eenaeaaea. ?annoiyiea io
oeaio?aeueiie onaaeueau aei ?aeiiiiai oeaio?a iao. Aaeic??ea – ieiei 40
ei, aei aeeaeaeoae aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie noaioeee *aeoiae/e – 1,5 ei,
iiieii yoiai oa??eoi?ey aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ?aniieiaeaia ca 2 ei io
aei?iae iaeanoiiai cia/aiey Oa?nii-Ieeieaaa. Aeeaeaeoei e?oiiui
ianaeaiiui ioieoii (e?iia Oa?niia) yaeyaony a. Ieeieaaa.

Ia oa??eoi?ee oicyenoaa i?ieiaeaiu aei?iae n anoaeueoiaui e oaa?aeui
iie?uoeai: Eenae?aea-Iao?ianeia, Eenae?aea-Eiiaie, Eenae?aea-Aa?aeiie e
ae?oaea. Yoe aei?iae naycuaatho oicyenoai n aaeieieno?aoeaiuie e
eoeueoo?ii-auoiauie oeaio?aie, a oaeaea ioieoaie naea/e
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. e?iia ainoaea?noaaiiuo, a oicyenoaa
eiaaony naoue iaaeno?aeueiuo aei?ia, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho naycue
ianaeaiiuo ioieoia e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaio?ia n ianneaaie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee. Ii a?aieoeai naaiiai?ioia oaeaea nicaeaia
naoue iieaauo aei?ia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ianeoaeeaaiey iieae e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo o/anoeia.

Oa??eoi?ey caieaiieueciaaiey AI “Iieiaeay aaa?aeey” Aaeic??neiai ?aeiia
?aniieiaeaia a THaeiie noaie ai aoi?ii aa?ieeeiaoe/aneii ?aeiia
iaeanoe.

Ii oa?aeoa?o eeeiaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia ?anniao?eaaaiue ?aeii ioiineony e
noaiiie canooeeaie ciia Oe?aeiu. Naiue oaieue ianyoe aiaea, ii aeaiiui
Iaeanneie e Eaoianeie aeae?i-aaieiai-iaeei?aoeaiuo yeniaaeeoeee, etheue,
iaeaieaa oieiaeiue – yiaa?ue – n?aaeiaiany/iay oaiia?aoo?a eioi?iai
ninoaaeyao -3,6 0N. iineaaeiea aanaiiea caii?icee iaaethaeathony a
n?aaeiai 29 ia?oa – 21 ai?aey, a ia?aua inaiiea – 25 naioya?y – 1
aeaeaa?y. Aeeeia aacii?iciiai ia?eiaea a n?aaeiai – 200 aeiae. N?aaeia
nooi/iay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa +5C ianooiaao a eiioea ia?oa e aeeeony 227
aeiae. N?aaeiyy iiiaieaoiyy aiaeiaay oaiia?aoo?a ninoaaeyao +9,8 0N.

Iaania/aiiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? aeaaie iaaeinoaoi/iia.
N?aaeiaaiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 361 – 457 ii.
Aieaa iieiaeiu aiaeiaie ii?iu inaaeeia auiaaeaao ia?aaiiia?ii a oaieue
ia?eiae aiaea – n ai?aey ii naioya?ue. A eaoiee ia?eiae inaaeee
auiaaeatho a aeaea eeaiae. Ii/oe aaeaaiaeii a o?ieue ia?eiae auaatho
aacaeiaeaeueeeaua ia?eiaeu i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth aei 20-30 aeiae. Ceia
ei?ioeay e iyaeay, auiaaeaao i/aiue iaeia eiee/anoai inaaeeia e iie
ia?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeythony oaieuie iooaiaeyie, niaaeiue iie?ia ia
aeoaieee / aei 10ni / e iaonoie/eaue. N?aaeiyy aeoaeia niaaeiiai
iie?iaa ca ceio ?aaia 35ii.

Ioiineoaeueiay aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa a eaoiea ianyoeu / iae – aaaono /
ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 42 – 50 . *anoi iaaethaeathony aoiinoa?iua
canooe. Neeueiua aao?u / ieiei 15i/n / iaaethaeathony a n?aaeiai 10
aeiae a aiae. I?e canooeeauo e neeueiuo aao?ao aicieeatho iueueiua ao?e,
iaiinyuea aieueoie oua?a naeueneiio oicyenoao.

?aeii ?aniieiaeaiey AI ”Iieiaeay aaa?aeey” ioee/aaony /anoie
iiaoi?iinoueth canooeeauo ia?eiaeia. Anee a i?aaeuaeouaa aeanyoeeaoea
canooe iaaethaeaeenue 1 ?ac a 5 eao, oi a ianoiyuaa- 1 ?ac a 2 aiaea.
Iiyoiio aeey yooaeoeaiiai aaaeaiey oicyenoaa ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?ioaiea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? e eaniiieacaueoiia ?acaaaeaiea.

Iaeaieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a oicyenoaa eiatho oaiii – eaooaiiaua ii/au,
oa?aeoa?acothueany inoaoi/ii – neaainieiioeaaaoie iueaaaoi –
n?aaeianoaeeienoie no?oeoo?ie. Iniiaiie ii/aiia?acothuae ii?iaeie
yaeyaony n?aaeianoaeeienoue, iueaaaoie ie?anee, ea?aiiaoiue eann.
Iieiaiiua ii/au noi?ie?iaaeenue ia aeethaeaeueiuo ioeiaeaieyo.
A?oioiaua aiaeu a i?ioeanna i/aiia?aciaaiey o/anoey ia i?eieiaee.
Iiuiinoue aoioniiai ai?eciioa 5 – 7 ni.

Ii iaoaie/aneiio ninoaao ii/au ioiinyony e iueaaaoi –
n?aaeianoaeeienoui ?aciiaeaeiinoyi. A iaoioiii ai?eciioa oaiii –
eaooaiiauo ii/a niaea?aeeony 489 – 234 a. aoiona, eiee/anoai eioi?iai n
aeoaeiie oiaiueoaaony.

Ii/au oa?aeoa?acothony ieceie ieo?eoeeaoeeiiiie niiniaiinoueth.
Niaea?aeaiea iiaeaeaeiiai oinoi?a a iaoioiii neia ieceia. ?aaeoeey
ii/aaiiiai ?anoai?a iaeo?aeueiay.

A?oioiaua aiaeu noi?ie?iaaeenue ia oa??eoi?ee oicyenoaa a
?acoeueoaoa i?ioaiey. Aeey nieaeaiey a?oioiauo aiae aue iino?iai
ae?aiaae n iaoaie/aneei ioaiaeii ae?aiaaeiiai noiea a nouanoaothuee
eieeaeoi? E – 17. Iinea /aai aeoaeia caeaaaiey o?iaiy a?oioiauo aiae
noaea aa?uee?iaaoue io 1 i. a i?eeaiaeueiuo ciiao aei 2 i. e ieaea ia
inoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee. Ia aiaa?iuo caieyo o?iaaiue a?oioiauo aiae
iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao 3 – 5 i.

Ii oeie/aneiio ninoaao a?oioiaua aiaeu aeinoaoi/ii i?aniua. Aiaeu
iiaeiauo ioeiaeaiee, a iniiaiii, noeueoaoii –
oei?eaeiiaeae?iea?ai-iaeueiiai ninoaaa, n nooei inoaoeii 0,9 – 3,0 a/e.

Ia 1.01.98 IAI “Iieiaeay aaa?aeey” a nai?i caieaiieueciaaiee eiae 7118
aa caiaeueiie ieiuaaee. Ninoaa caiaeueiiai oiiaea i?aaenoaaeaiu a
oaaeeoea 1.

Oaaeeoea 3.

Caieaiieueciaaiea aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa “Iieiaeay aaa?aeey”

Aeaeu oaiaeee Ieiuaaeue, aa

————————————————————-

1995 1996 1996

Naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey 6690 6686 6687

a oii /enea iaoiy 6582 6579 6579

ianoaeua 108 107 108

Eana 116 116 116

I?oaeu 20 46 46

I?i/ea caiee 320 270 269

Anaai caiee a ia?aaioea 6582 6579 6687

a oii /enea i?ioaaiie 1523 1523 1523

Iauay caiaeueiay ieiuaaeue 7146 7118 7118

Caieaiieueciaaiea aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ioiineoaeueii noaeia. Eciaiaiea
ieiuaaeae ii aeaeai oaiaeee i/aiue iacia/eoaeueii. Oicyenoai
oa?aeoa?ecoaony ieceei oaeaeueiui aanii i?ioaaiuo caiaeue – 23%.
Iaaeyaeii ?acia?u oaiaeee i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?enoiea 2.

Iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan a iauae caiaeueiie ieiuaaee caieiatho
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey – 96,3%, eiyooeoeeaio aea eniieueciaaiey
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee ?aaiyaony 0,98.

Aieueoia cia/aiea i?e yeiiiie/aneie oa?aeoa?enoeea oicyenoaa eiaao aai
niaoeeaeecaoeey.

Oaaeeoea 4.

?an/?o niaoeeaeecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeaeu ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee Au?o/ea, oun.a?i. % e eoiao Iiia? ii
?ai-aee?o (?() ?((2(-1)

Ca?iiaua e ca?iiaiaiaua 1301 48,81 1 48,81

Iiaenieia/iee 163 6,12 3 30,6

Naoa?iay naaeea 17 0,64 9 10,88

Iaiue e aao/a 115 4,31 5 38,79

I?i/aa ii ?anoaieaaiaenoao 60 2,26 8 33,9

Eoiai ii ?anoaieaaiaenoao 1656 62,14 – –

Iieiei 5 0,19 12 4,37

Iyni e?n 98 3.68 6 40,48

Iyni naeiae 6 0,23 11 4,83

I?i/aa ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao 8 0,3 10 5,7

Eoiai ii aeeaioiiaiaenoao 117 4,39 – –

Iieiei iinea ia?a?aaioee 69 2,59 7 33.67

Iyni io caaiy neioa 157 5,89 4 41.23

I?i/ay i?iiuoeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey 433 16.24 2 48,72

Eoiai ii i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee 659 24.7 – –

?aaeecaoeey i?i/ae i?iaeoeoeee 233 8.75 – –

Eoiai ii oicyenoao 2665 100 – 341,98

Ii?aaeaeei eiyooeoeeaio niaoeeaeecaoeee ii oi?ioea: Eni=(?((2(-1)

Eni=100/341,98=0,29

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo ?an/?oia iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
o?iaaiue niaoeeaeecaoeee oicyenoaa ieceee. Iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan a
no?oeoo?a au?o/ee i?aaei?eyoey eiaao i?iecaiaenoai ca?iiauo e
ca?iiaiaiauo eoeueoo?.

Oicyenoai eiaao ca?iiaia iai?aaeaiea. Iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan
caieiaao ?anoaieaaiaenoai – 62% e i?iiuoeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey – 24,8%.

Oaaeeoea 5.

Ninoaa iniiaiuo e iai?ioiuo oiiaeia, oun. a?i.

Noieiinoue oiiaeia 1996 1997

Iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey
37334 36241

Iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai iai?aaeaiey
5397 5284

Iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua n?aaenoaa 5529 5411

Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa, anaai 48260 46936

Iai?ioiua oiiaeu 77 117

Aiaeece?oy aaee/eio oiiaeia iiaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi noieiinoue
oiiaeia eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e oiaiueoaieth.

A oicyenoaa eiaaony oaiaeaioeey e oiaiueoaieth /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia (n
1995 aiaea eo /eneaiiinoue nie?aoeeanue ia 137 /aeiaae e ninoaaeea 454
/aeiaaea).

E iaeaieaa aaaeiui yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi, aac eioi?uo oa?aeoa?enoeea
oicyenoaa ia eiaea au niunea, ioiinyo ?aioaaaeueiinoue e i?eaueue.
Niaeanii aeaiiui aiaeiauo io/?oia i?aaei?eyoey, a 1997 aiaeo i?eauee io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee iaauei, oauoee ninoaaeee 333 oun. a?i., o?iaaiue
?aioaaaeueiinoe io?eoeaoaeueiue -2,3% (oiaaea eae a 1996 aiaeo aue
-1,3%, a a 1995 6,3%); ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa auea
i?eaueueiie (124 oun. a?i.), ii aieueoea oauoee i?eianei
aeeaioiiaiaenoai – 274 oun. a?i. e io?aneue i?iiuoeaiiie ia?a?aaioee
iieiea – 241 oun. a?i.

Iai?aoeaaaony auaiae – ioaeii eneaoue iiaua iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa. Iaeiei ec oaeeo iooae yaeyaony iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia a oicyenoaa.

Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia a AI
“Iieiaeay aaa?aeey”.

Ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a oicyenoaa iaaiciiaeii
aac ei?iiaie aacu, iiae eioi?ie iiieiatho ?acia?u e ninoaa enoi/ieeia
iieo/aiey ei?iia, eo anni?oeiaio, ea/anoai, i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa
e eniieueciaaiey.

Aeey aeaeueiaeoaai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa
iaiaoiaeeii iinoiyiiia niaethaeaiea i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe a ?acaeoee
?anoaieaaiaenoaa e aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, naycuaathuei caaiii iaaeaeo
eioi?uie yaeyaony ei?iiaay aaca.

Oa?aeoa?eciaaoue ei?iii?iecaiaenoai a oicyenoaa iaaiciiaeii aac e?aoeiai
iienaiey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 6.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee io?anee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

Iniiaiua iieacaoaee 1995 a. 1996 a. 1997 a.

Iiaieiauea aeeaioiuo, oneia. aie. 1594,6 1252 1027,9

a oii /enea, aie iniiaiia noaaei e?n 800 631 500

e?n ia ioei?ia 1189 916 762

iniiaiia noaaei naeiae 30 48 61

I?iecaaaeaii i?iaeoeoeee

iieiea, oe 14586 14250 6407

i?eieiae, aie. e?n 791 671 565

naeiae – 174 158

i?e?ino, oe. e?n 1787 1133 746

naeiae 35 89 35

Aeeiaieea iiaieiauey i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
iieacuaaao i ?aceii nieaeaiee iniiaiiai noaaea e i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
aeeaioiuo, i?e/?i nieaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo ii anai eaoaai?eyi iiaieiauey e
aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee.

A oicyenoaa aeeaioiiaiaenoai caieiaao i/aiue iacia/eoaeueiia ianoi – iii
aea?o anaai eeoue 5 % anae au?o/ee io ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oiaaea
eae ?anoaieaaiaenoai – 62%; iaeiaei aeeaioiiaiaenoai aea?o nu?ue? aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay aea a no?oeoo?a au?o/ee
caieiaao a 2 ?aca aieueoa ( 8-9%).

AEeaioiiaiaenoai a oicyenoaa aace?oaony iieiinoueth ia nianoaaiiie
ei?iiaie aaca. Aeey niaea?aeaiey aeeaioiuo i?eiaiytho o?aayiie oei
ei?ieaiey – a eaoiee ia?eiae, e neeinii-naiaaeii-eiioeaio?aoiue – a
noieeiaue.

Aeey iaania/aiey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ei?iaie a oicyenoaa eiaaony aeaa
naaiiai?ioa, iaoiaeyueany a ?anii?yaeaiee iieaaiae/aneie a?eaaaeu:

Ei?iiaie i?ioaaiue naaiiai?io.

1. ss?iaua ca?iiaua n iiaenaaii ethoea?iu.

2. Ethoea?ia.

3. Ethoea?ia.

4. Iceiay ioaieoea + iiaeieaiua.

5. Eoeo?oca ia neein.

Ei?ii-iaiuiie i?ioaaiue naaiiai?io.

1. ss?iaua ca?iiaua n iiaenaaii ethoea?iu.

2. Ethoea?ia.

3. Ethoea?ia.

4. Ethoea?ia.

5. Ethoea?ia.

6. Iceiay ioaieoea + iiaeieaiua.

7. Iaiue.

8. Eoeo?oca ia cae?iue ei?i.

9. Eoeo?oca ia ca?ii.

10. Ei?iaieiaeu + iaiue + iaeiieaoiea o?aau.

Oaaeeoea 7.

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a ei?iiauo oaiaeee.

Aeaeu ei?iiauo oaiaeee 1995 a. % 1996 a. % 1997 a. %

Ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u 2460 54,35 2480 59,85 3300 67,62

Eoeo?oca ia ca?ii – – – – 190 3,82

Ei?iiaua ei?iaieiaeu 20 0,44 – – 30 0,61

Iiiaieaoiea o?aau ia

caeaiue ei?i

naii

540

50

11,93

1,1

530

10

12,79

0,24

500

10,24

Iaeiieaoiea o?aau ia

caeaiue ei?i

naii

957

21,14

624

15,06

455

5

9,32

0,1

Eoeo?oca ia neein e cae?iue ei?i 500 11,04 380 9,17 360 7,31

Neeiniua eoeueoo?u aac eoeo?ocu – – 120 2,89 40 0,82

Eoiai 4527 100 4144 100 4880 100

A 1997 aiaeo iinaau ei?iiauo eoeueoo? caieiaee 4880 aa, ec eioi?uo 3300
aa caieiaee ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u aac eoeo?ocu. Neaaeoao ooi/ieoue, /oi ia
ei?iiaua oeaee (ca?iioo?aae) a 1997 aiaeo eniieueciaaeinue anaai 25%
iinaaia, ii a oiaea a?aiy ii/oe any nieiia (ca eneeth/aieai iiaenoeeee)
oea ia ei?i aeeaioiui

Iaeioi?ua eoeueoo?u a ioaeaeueiua aiaeu a oicyenoaa ia au?aueaaeenue
(ei?iiaua ei?iaieiaeu, iaeiieaoiea ia naii, neeiniua aac eoeo?ocu),
iiyoiio i?ineaaeeoue eo aeeiaieeo i/aiue o?oaeii. Oiaiueoeeenue iinaau
eoeo?ocu ia neein e caeaiue ei?i, e a oiaea a?aiy nie?aoeeny aa
oaeaeueiue aan n 11,04% a 1995 aiaeo aei 7,68% a 1997 aiaeo. Iniiaiua
eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a ei?iiauo oaiaeee i?iecioee ca n/ao ?inoa iinaaia
ca?iiauo eoeueoo? n 2460 aa a 1995 aiaeo aei 3300 aa a 1997 aiaeo,
niioaaonoaaiii au?in eo oaeaeueiue aan n 54,35% aei 67,62%.

Oaaeeoea 8.

Auoiae ei?iiauo aaeeieoe, ia?aaa?eiiai i?ioaeia e ei?iii?ioaeiiauo
aaeeieoe n 1 aa iinaaia ei?iiauo eoeueoo?.

Eoeueoo?a A 1 oe ei?ia niaea?aeeony O?iaeaeiinoue, oe/aa Auoiae n 1 aa

Ei?i. aae., oe Ia?. i?ioaeia, oe 1995 aiae 1996 aiae 1997 aiae 1995
aiae 1996 aiae 1997 aiae

Ei?i. aae,oe Ia?.i?ioaeia,oe Ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aae.,oe Ei?i. aae,oe Ia?.
i?ioaeia,oe Ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aae.,oe Ei?i. aae,oe Ia?. i?ioaeia,oe
Ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aae.,oe

Ca?iiaua:

Ca?ii

Nieiia

1,20

0,32

0,08

0,023

37,9

56,9

19

28,5

34

51

45,5

18,2

3,03

1,31

37,9

15,7

22,8

9,1

1,52

0,66

19

7,9

28,3

16,3

2,72

1,17

27,8

14

Eoeo?oca ia ca?ii 1,3 0,078 – – 106 – – – – – – 137,8 8,27 110,3

Ei?iiaua ei?iaieiaeu

0,12

0,01

124,8

127

15,0

1,25

13,8

15,2

1,27

13,9

Iiiaieaoiea ia:

Cae.ei?i

Naii

0,2

0,5

0,038

0,108

130,7

70,9

111,3

1,6

131,5

26,1

34,5

4,97

7,66

37,9

55,6

22,3

0,8

4,2

0,17

13,3

12,4

9,1

1,0

9,6

Iaeiieaoiea ia:

Cae.ei?i

Naii

0,2

0,5

0,022

0,06

80,5

59,0

45,4

86

16,1

1,77

16,9

11,8

1,3

12,4

9,1

43

1,0

5,16

9,6

47,3

Eoeo?oca ia neein e cae.ei?i

0,2

0,014

141,1

106

198

28,2

1,98

24

21,2

1,48

18

39,6

2,77

28,7

Neeiniua aac eoeo?ocu

0,2

0,014

45

119

9

0,63

7,7

23,8

1,67

20,3

* ?an/ao ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe i?iecaiaeeeny ii oi?ioea

EA+10*II

EIA=——————, aaea

2

EA – ei?iiaua aaeeieoeu, oe

II – auoiae ia?aaa?eiiai i?ioaeia, a

O?iaeaeiinoue nieiiu ?ann/eouaaeanue /a?ac eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey
auoiaea iiai/iie i?iaeoeoeee e iniiaiie – 1,5:1.

Aiaeece?oy aeaiiua oaaeeoeu iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue – 1996 aiae
aue aeey oicyenoaa ia o?iaeaeiui, ii/oe ii anai ei?iiaui eoeueoo?ai,
(ca eneeth/aieai iaeiieaoieo ia caeaiue ei?i) iaaethaeaaony ?aceia
nieaeaiea o?iaeaeiinoe. A 1997 aiaeo o?iaeaeiinoue eoeueoo? iiauneeanue
e ii iaeioi?ui eoeueoo?ai noaea auoa o?iaiy 1995 aiaea – ei?iiaua
ei?iaieiaeu, eoeo?oca ia neein e caeaiue ei?i e ae?.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ei?iiauo eoeueoo? a
oicyenoaa ii?aaeaeytho cao?aou ia 1 aa iinaaia ei?iiauo eoeueoo?.

Oaaeeoea 9.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua e o?oaeiaua cao?aou ia 1 aa iinaaia ei?iiauo eoeueoo?.

Eoeueoo?u I?iecaiaenoaaiiua cao?aou, oun. a?i. O?oaeiaua cao?aou, oun.
/ae.-/an. Cao?aou ia 1 aa

a?i. /ae.-/an.

1996 1997 1995 1996 1997 1996 1997 1995 1996 1997

Ca?iiaua 748,3 1189 142 157 195 302 360 57,7 63,3 59,1

Ei?iiaua

ei?iaieiaeu – 19 3 – – – 633 150 – 66,7

Iiiaieaoiea o?aau

ia caeaiue ei?i

Ia naii

109

8,7

154

26

8

26

3

32

205,7870

308

48,1

160

49,1

300

64

Iaeiieaoiea o?aau

ia caeaiue ei?i

Ia naii

99,3

95

5

6

28

15

1

159,1

208,8

1000

6,3

44,9

33,0

200

Eoeo?oca ia neein e caeaiue ei?i 114,8 58 14 32 9 302 161 28 36,8 25

Neeiniua aac eoeo?ocu 51,6 22 – 14 3 430 550 – 116,7 75

Eoeo?oca ia ca?ii – 159 – – 27 – 837 – – 142,1

* i?iecaiaenoaaiiua cao?aou ca 1995 aiae iaaiciiaeii n?aaieoue n
cao?aoaie a 1996-1997 aiaeao, oae eae a yoio ia?eiae a no?aia
inouanoaeyeanue aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia e eciaieeanue aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea –
n ea?aiaaioeaa ia a?eaio.

Ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi i?aeoe/anee ii anai eoeueoo?ai a 1997
aiaeo i?iecioei oaaee/aiea oaeoueo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao ia 1 aa
iinaaia (oieueei cao?aou ia eoeo?oco ia neein e caeaiue ei?i
nie?aoeeenue ii/oe aaeaia ca n/ao ?inoa o?iaeaeiinoe). A 1996 aiaeo
o?iaeaeiinoue ii anai eoeueoo?ai ?acei oiaiueoeeanue e n?aco aea
aic?inee cao?aou o?oaea ia 1 aa iinaaia.

I?iecaaaey ?an/aou, iu iiaeai i?iaiaeece?iaaoue – eaeoth aea eoeueoo?o
auaiaeiaa anaai i?iecaiaeeoue a oicyenoaa.

Oaaeeoea 10.

Yooaeoeaiinoue au?aueaaiey ei?iiauo eoeueoo? a oicyenoaa.

Eoeueoo?a Auoiae ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe n 1 aa, oe O?oaeiaua

cao?aou ia 1 aa, /ae.-/an. I?iecaiae-noaaiiua cao?aou ia 1 aa, a?i.
N?aaeiea

cia/aiey

1995 1996 1997 1995 1996 1997 1996 1997 Auoiae EIA O?oae. cao?a-

ou I?iecaiaeno

aaiiua cao?a

ou

Ca?iiaua 37,9 19 27,8 57,7 63,3 59,1 302 360 28,2 60 335

Iiiaieaoiea o?aau ia caeaiue ei?i 37,9 13,3 38,2 48,1 49,1 64 205 308
29,7 53,5 255

Iaeiieaoiea o?aau ia caeaiue ei?i 16,9 12,4 9,6 6,3 44,9 33 159 208 13,8
24,1 180

Eoeo?oca ia neein e caeaiue ei?i 24 18 28,7 28 84,2 25 302 161 23,5 44,4
233

Yoe /aou?a eoeueoo?u acyou iioiio, /oi iie au?aueaathony a oicyenoaa
iinoiyiii e ia eiatho yieciaee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Ec ieo auaiaeiaa anaai
au?aueaaoue iiiaieaoiea eoeueoo?u ia caeaiue ei?i, eioi?ua i?e aieueoii
auoiaea ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe n 1 aa iinaaia (29,7 oe) eiatho
cao?ao ia 1 aa: o?oaeiaua – 53,5 /ae.-/an., i?iecaiaenoaaiiua – 255
a?i. e eoeo?oco ia neein e caeaiue ei?i, eioi?ua i?e auoiaea
ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeie ia 1 aa 23,5oe. eiatho i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
o?oaeiaua cao?aou ieaea /ai iiiaieaoiea o?aau – 233 a?i. e 44,4
/ae.-/an. niioaaonoaaiii.

I?e yoii naaanoieiinoue 1 oe ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe eaaeaeie ec yoeo
eoeueoo? ninoaaeyao:

Oaaeeoea 11.

Naaanoieiinoue 1 oe. ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe ei?iiauo eoeueoo?.

Eoeueoo?a Naaanoieiinoue 1 oe. ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe

ei?iiauo eoeueoo?, a?i

1996 1997 N?aaeiyy

Ca?iiaua 15,9 12,96 13,95

Iiiaieaoiea o?aau ia caeaiue ei?i 15,5 8,1 10,5

Iaeiieaoiea o?aau ia caeaiue ei?i 12,8 21,7 16,0

Eoeo?oca ia neein e caeaiue ei?i 16,8 5,6 10,1

N?aaeiyy naaanoieiinoue 1 oe. ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe ii?aaeaeyeanue
ii oi?ioea n?aaeiae a?eoiaoe/aneie

( O(

On?=————————, aaea

( Y(

O – i?iecaiaenoaaiiua cao?aou ca ( aiae, a?i.

Y – aaeiaia i?iecaiaenoai ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe ca ( aiae.

Naiay ieceay naaanoieiinoue 1 oe. ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe – 10,1 a?i.
i?eoiaeeony ia eoeo?oco ia neein e iiiaieaoiea ia caeaiue ei?i.

Iaaeyaeii eciaiaiea naaanoieiinoe iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue ia a?aoeea:

Oaaeeoea 12.

O?oaeiaieinoue 1 oe. ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe.

Eoeueoo?a O?oaeiaieinoue 1 oe. ei?iii?ioaeiiauo

aaeeieoe, /ae.-/an.

1995 196 1997 N?aaeiyy

Ca?iiaua 1,5 3,3 2,1 1,97

Iiiaieaoiea o?aau ia

caeaiue ei?i 1,3 3,7 1,7 1,8

Iaeiieaoiea o?aau ia

caeaiue ei?i 0,4 3,6 3,4 1,7

Eoeo?oca ia neein e

caeaiue ei?i 1,2 2,0 0,87 1,89

Iaeiaiueooth o?oaeiaieinoue 1 oe. ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe – 1,7
/ae.-/an. eiatho iaeiieaoiea o?aau ia caeaiue ei?i, iaiiiai auoa
o?oaeiaieinoue iiiaieaoieo o?aa ia caeaiue ei?i e eoeo?ocu ia neein e
caeaiue ei?i.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, /oi ia iieyo
oicyenoaa auaiaeii au?aueaaoue iiiaieaoiea o?aau ia caeaiue ei?i,
eioi?ua eiatho aunieee auoiae ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe n 1 aa iinaaia
(29,5 oe.) i?e aanueia ieceie (10,5 a?i./oe) naaanoieiinoe e iaaieueoie
o?oaeiaieinoe (1,8 /ae.-/an./oe); eoeo?oco ia neein e caeaiue ei?i – i?e
auoiaea 23,5 oe. ei?iii?ioaeiiauo aaeeieoe n 1 aa, naaanoieiinoue 1 oe.
EIA ninoaaeyao 10,1 a?i, a o?oaeiaieinoue – 1,89 /ae.-/an./oe. Naiua
ieceea aea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e o?oaeiaua cao?aou ia 1 aa iinaaia eiatho
iaeiieaoiea ia caeaiue ei?i e eoeo?oca ia neein e caeaiue ei?i (180 e
233 a?i., 24,1 e 44,4 /ae.-/an. niioaaonoaaiii) i?e yoii iaeiieaoiea
o?aau ia caeaiue ei?i eiatho i/aiue ieceee auoiae ei?iii?ioaeiiauo
aaeeieoe n 1 aa – 13,8 oe. i?e aanueia aunieie naaanoieiinoe – 16
a?i./oe. Neaaeiaaoaeueii iaeaieaa auaiaeiie eoeueoo?ie aeey oicyenoaa
yaeyaony eoeo?oca ia neein e caeaiue ei?i.

Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ei?iia ii?aaeaeyaony
neaaeothueie iieacaoaeyie: eniieueciaaii ei?iia ia 1 aieiao neioa,
naaanoieiinoue 1 oe. ei?iiauo aaeeieoe, cao?aou ei?ia ia i?iecaiaenoai
aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee e i?i/ea.

Oaaeeoea 13.

Cao?aou ei?iia ii aeaeai aeeaioiuo.

Aeaeu aeeaioiuo Ei?iiaua aaeeieoeu, oe. a oii /enea eiioeaio?aou, oe.
ei?i. aae. Noieiinoue, anaai,

a?i.

1995 1996 1997 1995 1996 1997 1995 1996 1997

Iniiaiia noaaei 16279 28218 15332 7900 4201 1889 18567 182,1 225

E?N ia

ioei?ia 10137 19735 11705 4637 4040 1833 11566 118,4 171

Naeiuee 361 1037 695 287 938 647 412 6,2 10

Ae?oaea aeaeu 216 280 195 24 31 17 246 1,7 3

Eoiai 26993 49270 27927 12848 9210 4386 30791 308,4 409

Naaanoieiinoue 1 oe. ei?iiauo aaeeieoe a 1995 aiaeo ninoaaeyea 1,14 iei.
e?a., a 1996 aiaeo – 6,26 a?i., a 1997 – 14,6 a?i.

Aiaeece?oy eniieueciaaiea eiioeaio?e?iaaiiuo ei?iia, a eo oaeaeueiue aan
a iauai eiee/anoaa nei?ieaiiiai ei?ia ninoaaee 47,6%, 18,7 e 15,7% a
1995-1997 aiaeao niioaaonoaaiii, iiaeii oaeaeaoue, /oi ii anai a?oiiai
aeeaioiuo i?ienoiaeeei nieaeaiea o?iaiy eiioeei?iia. Iauaa aea
eiee/anoai eniieueciaaiiuo ei?iia ii aiaeai eciaiyeinue oaioe/anee. A
1996 aiaeo auei eniieueciaaii a 1,8 ?aca aieueoa ei?iia /ai a 1995
aiaeo. I?e yoii 1996 aiae aue iao?iaeaeiui aeey ei?iiauo eoeueoo? e
iiaieiauea aeeaioiuo a oicyenoaa a yoii aiaeo nieceeinue ia 359 oneiaiuo
aieia.

Noieiinoue ei?iia a 1997 aiaeo aic?inea ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii ia
100 oun. a?i. i?e nieaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia ia 21 oun. oe. ei?iiauo
aaeeieoe, neaaeiaaoaeueii e naaanoieiinoue 1 oe. ei?iiauo aaeeieoe a
1997 aiaeo a 2,3 ?aca auoa.

Oaaeeoea 14.

O?iaaiue ei?ieaiey aeeaioiuo.

Aeaeu aeeaioiuo Iiaieiauea , aie. Ei?iiaua aaeeieoeu, oe.

Iniiaiia noaaei 20,3 44,7 30,7 800 631 500

E?N ia ioei?ia 8,5 21,5 15,4 1189 916 762

Naeiuee 12,03 21,6 11,4 30 48 61

Ia 1 oneiaioth aieiao 19,8 39,4 27,2 1360,2 1252 1027

A 1996 aiaeo o?iaaiue ei?ieaiey aeeaioiuo ?acei oeo/oeeny – yoi aeaei
naie ?acoeueoaou – i?e oaaee/aiee cao?ao ei?iia ia 20 oe. ei?iiauo
aaeeieoe iaaeie io iaeiie ei?iau oaaee/eeenue n 1800 aei 2260 e.a aiae.
I?e?ino aeeaioiuo e?n a 1997 aiaeo ninoaaee 98 ea., oiaaea eae a 1996 –
123 ea. a aiae, naeiae – 57 ea. a 1997 e 185 ea. a 1996 aiaeo.

Oaaeeoea 15.

Cao?aou ei?iia ia i?iecaiaenoai aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee,

oe. ei?iiauo aaeeieoe.

Aeae i?iaeoeoeee 1995 aiae 1996 aiae 1997 aiae

Iieiei 1,12 1,98 2,39

I?e?ino e?n 15,67 17,4 15,6

I?e?ino naeiae 12,03 11,8 20,4

Ia i?iecaiaenoai 1 oe. iieiea a 1997 aiaeo i?eoiaeeeinue 2,39 oe.
ei?iiauo aaeeieoe, /oi a 2 ?aca auoa o?iaiy 1995 aiaea e a 1,5 ?aca auoa
o?iaiy a iaeanoe. Ia i?iecaiaenoai 1 oe. iyna e?n ?anoiaeiaaeinue a 1997
aiaeo 15,6 oe. ei?iiauo aaeeieoe, ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii i?iecioei
nieaeaiea ?anoiaea ei?iia ia 2 oe. ei?iiauo aaeeieoe. I?iecaiaenoai 1oe.
iyna naeiae cao?aaiaaei 20,4 oe. ei?iiauo aaeeieoe, /oi ia 8 oe. auoa
o?iaiy 1995 aiaea.

Oaeei ia?acii iu aeaeei , /oi ei?iii?iecaiaenoai a oicyenoaa o?aaoao
ei?aiiuo eciaiaiee e iieiie ia?ano?ieee.

Iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia a
oicyenoaa.

Aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey ei?iia a
oicyenoaa iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe oeaeue eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee. I?aaeaea
anaai ioaeii ?ai?aaieciaaoue ieaiiai-yeiiiie/aneoth neoaeao oicyenoaa,
naeaeaoue aa ?aoaiey e auaiaeu i?ei?eoaoiuie, ia iniiaa eioi?uo no?ieoue
anth aeaeueiaeooth ?aaioo.

Ieaie?iaaiea ei?iii?iecaiaenoai iaiaoiaeeii iaycaoaeueii oaycuaaoue n
ieaie?iaaieai ?acaeoey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, o/eouaaoue iio?aaiinoue a
ei?iao aeey neioa, niaea?aeauaainy a ee/iuo iiaeniaiuo oicyenoaao
?aaioieeia. Aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao ieaie?iaaiea caeaiiai eiiaaa?a,
eioi?ue ?ann/eouaatho enoiaey ec iauae iio?aaiinoe a caeaiuo ei?iao,
eioi?oth onoaiaaeeaatho iiiany/ii e iiaeaeaaeii a eaoia-ianoaeuiue
ia?eiae, iaai?a eoeueoo?, n?ieia eo iinaaa e eniieueciaaiey n o/aoii
n?aaeiaiany/iiai iiaieiauey neioa e iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae eoeueoo? aeey
iieo/aiey caeaiiai ei?ia.

Iinea ?ac?aaioee ieaiia ?acaeoey ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa ioaeii
iioeiece?iaaoue iinaaiua ieiuaaee ei?iiauo eoeueoo? n o/aoii eo
yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiee, niaoeeaeecaoeee oicyenoaa e iioeiaeueiuo n?ieia
oai?ee.

I?e iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai
i?enoonoaiaaoue eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiue ia oeo/oaiea o?iaiy
eoeueoo?u caieaaeaeey, i?eiaiaiey nia?aiaiiuo n?aaenoa iaoaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia, aiaae?aieth iao/ii-iainiiaaiiie nenoaiu
aianaiey oaeia?aiee e ai?ueau n ao?ueyiaie, a?aaeeoaeyie e aieaciyie,
oeo/oaiey ni?oiaiai ninoaaa ei?iiauo eoeueoo?.

Oaaee/eoue i?iecaiaenoai caeaiuo ei?iia iiaeii i?aaeaea anaai ca n/ao
ianoaeu, eo ieoeueoo?eaaiea – yoi aeiiieieoaeueiue ?aca?a iiauoaiey
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiiaiaenoaa e i?iecaiaenoaa iieiea e iyna,
nieaeaiey eo naaanoieiinoe.

Aianoa n i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie ia?ii?eyoeyie, iai?aaeaiiuie ia oaaee/aiea
i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia, i/aiue aieueooth ?ieue a ?acaeoee io?anee
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?aaiecaoeeiiiui oaeoi?ai. Oi anoue
ioaeii eciaieoue oi?io i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea – e i?eia?o ia?aeoe e
ia?ae/iui o?oaeiaui eieeaeoeaai, eioi?ua nianoaaiiuie neeaie auiieiytho
eiiieaen acaeiinaycaiiuo ?aaio e ianoo oic?an/aoioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee, e ca auiieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie noaaeee a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, i?e yoii iie aeieaeiu eiaoue iioeiaeueioth
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e eiiia?/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue.

Anee i?aaeeueii iiaeoiaeeoue e auiieiaieth auoaneacaiiuo ioieoia, oi
?acoeueoao neaaeaony iacaiaaeeeoaeueii.

Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai “Iieiaeay aaa?aeey” Aaeica?neiai ?aeiia
Oa?niineie iaeanoe ?aniieaaaaony a oaeiaiii ia?ana/aiee iaaeno?aeueiuo
iooae – a 2 ei io oinna Oa?nii-Ieeieaaa, a 2 ei io aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie
noaioeee *aeoiae/e, a 30 ei io a. Oa?nii e a 40 ei io a. Ieeieaaa, aicea
eioi?uo iaoiaeyony ay?iii?ou. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi i?e iaaeeaaeauai
oiaiee aanoe oicyenoai i?aaei?eyoea eiaao ana oainu aueoe ec e?eceniie
neooaoeee e iieo/aoue i?eaueue. Ii aeey yoiai ioaeii aeoeaece?iaaoue ana
iniiaiua io?anee i?iecaiaenoaa – ?anoaieaaiaenoai, aeeaioiiaiaenoai e
i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. Aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, eioi?ia eiaao i/aiue ieceee oaeaeueiue aan a no?oeoo?a
au?o/ee, ioaeii i?iaanoe oeaeue eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, iaeiei ec eioi?uo
aoaeao iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
eniieueciaaiey ei?iia a oicyenoaa.

Ia eiiaoe 1997 aiaea ninoiyiea aeeaioiiaiaenoaa auei i/aiue ieioei –
o?iaaiue ei?ieaiey ninoaaeye 30 oe. ei?iiauo aaeeieoe ia 1 ei?iao, i?e
ii?ia 45 oe., ia 1 eeo? iieiea i?eoiaeeeinue 2,39 i?e ii?ia ?anoiaea 1,3
ea ei?iiauo aaeeieoe, ia 1 ea i?e?inoa – 15,6 ea ei?iiauo aaeeieoe i?e
ii?ia – 8,5 ea, ia 1 ea i?e?inoa naeiae – 20,4 oe ei?iiauo aaeeieoe i?e
ii?ia 8,9 (Eiiiiaiei I.I. Yeiiiie/aneee naeueneioicyenoaaiiue
ni?aai/iee. E.: O?iaeae, 1978). Oaeia ninoiyiea aeeaioiiaiaenoaa a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io ninoiyiey ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa.

A oicyenoaa ieiei 4,8 oun. aa caiyoi iiae ei?iiauie eoeueoo?aie
(iaeaieueoay /anoue eioi?uo – ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u). Aiaeec ninoiyiey
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa iieacae, /oi ei?iiaua oaiaeuey eiatho ieceoth
o?iaeaeiinoue, aunieea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e o?oaeiaua cao?aou. Iniiaiuie
eoeueoo?aie yaeythony ca?iioo?aaeiua eoeueoo?u, iaeiieaoiea e
iiiaieaoiea o?aau ia caeaiue ei?i, eoeo?oca ia neein e caeaiue ei?i. Ec
ieo ii anai iieacaoaeyi iaeaieaa auaiaeii au?aueaaoue iiiaieaoiea o?aau
ia caeaiue ei?i.

Ia aeaiiii yoaia oicyenoai noieo ia?aae aeaaiie i?iaeaiie – ionoonoaeai
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie yoio aii?in /anoe/ii
?aoaeny ca n/ao nie?auaiey iiaieiauey aeeaioiuo, a eoiaa iiaieiauea
nie?aoeeinue ia 300 ei?ia e 400 aieia iieiaeiyea e?n. Aeaeueiaeoaa
nie?auaiea iiaieiauey iiaeao a?iceoue iieiaeoae eeeaeaeaoeee
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa.

Nae/an, i?e iiaieiauea aeeaioiuo a 500 ei?ia e 760 aieia iieiaeiyea e?n
ia ioei?ia oicyenoai i?e oaeoueo ieiuaaeyo iiae ei?iiauie eoeueoo?aie a
ninoiyiee iaania/eoue aeeaioiiaiaenoao iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue ei?ieaiey.
Ioaeii oieueei auiieieoue eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiue ia
iiauoaiea yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey
ei?iia, ii e?aeiae ia?a inouanoaeoue oa , eioi?ua o?aaotho ieieiaeueiuo
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee – ?ai?aaieciaaoue oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea,
iioeiece?iaaoue no?oeoo?o iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae e i?i/aa. Yoi aeano
aiciiaeiinoue aueoe ia caieaie?iaaiiua o?iaie i?iecaiaenoaa
aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. A?aaoeia A.Ae. Ni?aai/iee ii ieaie?iaaieth a aa?aii-i?iiuoeaiiii
eiiieaena. Eeaa, “O?iaeae”, 1991

2. Aiae?aaa I.A. Oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia. Iao/iua o?oaeu.
Iineaa, 1992

3. Iaca?aiei I.E. Eioaineaiia i?iecaiaenoai ca?iioo?aaeiuo eoeueoo?.
“Naeueneia oicyenoai” ?5, 1991

4. Aeooiei Ae.A. Eioaineoeeaoeey eoaiianoaeuiiai ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa.
“Naeueneia oicyenoai” ?9, 1993

5. Othothiieeia A.E. I?ia?anneaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa. “Naeueneia oicyenoai” ?9, 1993

6. I?ineo?a E.I. Iooe oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ?anoeoaeueiiai aaeea.
“Naeueneia oicyenoai” ?5, 1993

7. Aaae/ A.A. AEeaioiiaiaenoai: i?iaeaia ei?iia. “Naeueneia oicyenoai”
?11, 1995

8. Aaae/ A.A. Iniaaiiinoe ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa a NOA. “Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai”
?1, 1990, no?.45

9. Oeao?ei A.A. yeiiiie/aneay ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
eniieueciaaiey ei?iia. “Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai” ?4,1992, no?.2

10. sseooaa Ae.A. Iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay eiioa?aioeey ii aii?inai
iao/iiai iaania/aiey ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.
“Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai” ?4, 1992, no?.6

11. Iaca?ia A.A. Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ei?iia.
“Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai” ?5, 1989, no?.11

12. Aeaaiaauaineee A.A. Iooe nieaeaiey cao?ao a ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa.
“Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai” ?2, 1990, no?.6

13. Iaea?iaa A.A. ii?aaeaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ei?iia.
“Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai” ?6, 1991, no?.39

14. Aaneeaiei A.I. oeyoe i(aeaeuaiiy aeiiii(/ii( aoaeoeaiino(
ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i(a a oiiaao Oeaio?aeueiiai E(ninoaio. “Aeiiii(ea AIE”
?7, 1995, no?.61

15. NeaaiaA.I. Aeieiai-aeiiii(/ia ioe(iea aoaeoeaiino(
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa. “Aeiiii(ea AIE” ?12, 1996, no?.65

16. Aoneyeiaa I.E. ?ieue ca?iioo?aaeieo eoeueoo? o ci(oeiaii( ei?iiai(
aace. “Aeiiii(ea AIE” ?6, 1997, no?.32

17. THae(ia A.A. Oeyoe i(aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino( ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa.
“Aeiiii(ea AIE” ?10, 1997, no?.38

18. Aeia?uiei A.A. Yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa. I.:
Aa?ii?iiecaeao,1990.

19. Iaoeeai?a A.(. Aeiiii(ea n(euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. E.:Aeua
oeiea,1994

Ieienoa?noai aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena Oe?aeiu

Oa?niineee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a

oai?aoe/aneie e aa?a?iie

yeiiiieee

EO?NIAAss ?IAIOA

ia oaio: Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey
ei?iia a

AI “Iieiaeay aaa?aeey”

Aaeic??neiai ?aeiia

Oa?niineie iaeanoe

Auiieiee: no. 3 eo?na YO 9 a?oiiu

Nieiiueei N. I.

I?iaa?ee: aeioeaio Eioiiy I.(.

Oa?nii 1998

Naeueneia oicyenoai

ei?iii?iecaiaenoai

AEeaioiiaiaenoai

?anoaieaaiaenoai

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