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Ieienoa?noai naeueneiai oicyenoaa e i?iaeiaieuenoaey

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Aeiineie Ainoaea?noaaiiue Aa?a?iue Oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a aa?ioeiee, ii/aioeiee e caueou ?anoaiee.

Aa?ii?iecaiaenoaaiiay a?oiie?iaea ii/a, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
eniieueciaaieth e ?anoe?aiiiio aini?iecaiaenoao ieiaei?iaeey ii/a AI
«Aaeiaeeineee» Aaeiaeeineiai ?aeiia E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay.

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA.

Eniieieoaeue: nooaeaio I eo?na,

aa?iiiie/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

Eoeueyiia

Ay/aneaa Ieeieaaae/

?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

iin. Ia?neaiianeee, 1999aiae

Ieai eo?niaie ?aaiou:

Aaaaeaiea.

I?e?iaeiua oneiaey e oaeou ii/aiia?aciaaiey ia enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee.

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea oicyenoaa.

Eeeiao.

?aeueao.

Ii/aiia?acothuea ii?iaeu.

?anoeoaeueiinoue.

Nenoaiaoe/aneee nienie iniiaiuo oeiia ii/a e eo ii?oieiae/aneay
oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Iniiaiua oeiu ii/a oicyenoaa (a?eaaaeu, ioaeaeaiey, aa?ioe?iu).

Ii?oieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe iniiaiuo oeiia ii/a.

Aiaeii-oece/aneea naienoaa ii/a.

A?aioeiiao?e/aneee ninoaa.

Iauaoece/aneea naienoaa ii/a.

Aa?aaaoiue ninoaa ii/a.

4. Oeie/aneee ninoaa ii/a.

Aoion.

Iiaeiuaiea eaoeiiu.

Nieaaie ninoaa.

Niaea?aeaiea iiaeaeaeiuo oi?i ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa

Aa?ii?iecaiaenoaaiiay a?oiie?iaea e ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaiey
ieiaei?iaeey aa?ia?oii.

5.1 *a?iicaiu i?aaeeaaeacneea.

5.1 Eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua ii/au.

5.3 Ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaieth ieiaei?iaeey ii/a.

Auaiaeu.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aaaaeaiea

Aa?ioeie/aneia enneaaeiaaiea ii/a i?iecaiaeeony n oeaeueth eo
aa?ioeie/aneie ioeaiee e eiio?iey ca eciaiaieai ieiaei?iaeey.

?acoeueoaou aa?ioeie/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony iniiaie aeey
?ac?aaioee iao/ii iainiiaaiiie nenoaiu oaeia?aiey e ia?ii?eyoee ii
iiauoaieth ii/aaiiiai ieiaei?iaeey e o?iaeaeiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo?. Iie eniieuecothony aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iio?aaiinoe e ninoaaeaiey
ieaiia i?eiaiaiey oaeia?aiee ia iniiaa yeiiiieei-au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee, aeey ?ac?aaioee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?iaeoii-niaoiie
aeieoiaioaoeee, aicaeaeuaaieth naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? ii
eioaineaiui oaoiieiaeyi, au?aueaaieth i?ia?aiie?iaaiiuo o?iaeaaa ia
i?ioaaiuo caieyo e aeey ae?oaeo oeaeae aa?ioeie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey ia
anao o?iaiyo naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iniaia cia/aiea a iiauoaiiie yooaeoeaiinoe ieia?aeueiuo e i?aaie/aneeo
oaeia?aiee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eia?aoaao ?aoeeiiaeueiia eo
eniieueciaaiea. Oi anoue aianaiea a caaeneiinoe io ieiaei?iaeey ii/a ia
eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii iiea e iio?aaiinoe aunaaaaiie eoeueoo?u.

Oaeia?aiea – neeueiia n?aaenoai iiauoaiey o?iaeay naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo?. Iie aeatho ia iaiaa iieiaeiu i?e?inoa o?iaeay.

?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ieia?aeueiuo e i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee,
iiauoaiea o?iaiy aa?ioaoieee e ae?oaea ia?ii?eyoey iicaieeee iiauneoue
o?iaeaeiinoue ca?iiauo a aeaa n eeoiei ?aca, iiaenieia/ieea a 1/6 ?aca.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a iiaeuaia o?iaeaeiinoe ea?atho i?aaie/aneea oaeia?aiey,
eioi?ua niaea?aeao iniiaiua yeaiaiou ieoaiey aeey ?anoaiee: acio,
oinoi?, eaeee, a oaeaea iee?iyeaiaiou.

Anee aianoe 30-40 oiii iaaica ia aaeoa?, iiauoaaony o?iaeae ca?ia iceiie
ioaieoeu ia 8-10 oe, naoa?iie naaeeu ia 50-60 oe, a oaeaea oaaee/eaaao
o?iaeaeiinoue eoeo?ocu, iiaenieia/ieea e iaiuae.

Iniaia cia/aiea a iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ieia?aeueiuo e i?aaie/aneeo
oaeia?aiee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eia?aoaao ?aoeeiiaeueiia eo
eniieueciaaiea, o.a. aianaiea a caaeneiinoe io ieiaei?iaeey ii/au ia
eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii iiea e iio?aaiinoe aunaaaaiie eoeueoo?u.

N yoie oeaeueth Naaa?i-Eoaaineee oeeeae e?aaaie noaioeee oeiecaoeee
naeueneiai oicyenoaa a niaoica «Aaeiaeeineee» i?iaaaeaii aa?ioeie/aneia
ianeaaeiaaiea ii/a, ioia?aiu niaoaiiua ii/aaiiua ia?acoeu, eaaeaeue ec
eioi?uo ninoaaeai ec 15-20 eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?ia ?aaiiia?ii acyouo ia
yeaiaioa?iii o/anoea 10 aa n aeoaeiu iaoioiiai neiy ia iaoia e n 5 aa ia
iiiaieaoieo ianaaeaeaieyo e i?ioaaiuo caieyo n aeoaeiu iaoioiiai e
iiaeiaoioiiai ai?eciioia.

Ioai? ia?acoeia i?iaaaeai a ai?aea 1997 aiaea iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
aa?ioeieea E?eaaiei A.O.

Ii?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuea iieacaoaee:

1.Ieo?ioeeaoeeiiiay niiniaiinoue ii/a ii iaoiaeo E?aaeiaa e
iiaeeoeeaoeee OeEIAI ino. 4649-76

2.Niaea?aeaiea iiaeaeaeiiai oinoi?a e iaiaiiiai eaeey ii iaoiaeo
Ia/eaeia a iiaeeoeeaoeee OeEIAI ino. 4642-76

3.Niaea?aeaiea aoiona ii iaoiaeo Oth?eia, iauaai acioa ii Eueaeueaeaeth.

4.Oeie/aneee ninoaa aiaeiie auoyaeee ii/a.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaeecia ii/a ninoaaeaiu aa?ioeie/aneea ea?oia?aiiu a
ianooaaa 1:25000 e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?eiaiaieth oaeia?aiee.

1. I?e?iaeiua oneiaey e oaeoi?u ii/aiia?aciaaiey ia enneaaeoaiie
oa??eoi?ee.

1.1 Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea oicyenoaa.

Niaoic «Aaeiaeeineee» Aaeiaeeineiai ?aeiia ?aniieiaeai a
naaa?i-ainoi/iie /anoe E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay. Niaoic i?aaieciaai a 1932
aiaeo i?e ?acoe?oiiaiee niaoicia «Aeaaio» e «Eoaaineee». Iai?aaeaiea
oicyenoaa – ca?iiaia.

Oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue. *oi niaoic «Aaeiaeeineee» ?aniieiaeai a ciia
iaaeinoaoi/iiai e iaonoie/eaiai oaeaaeiaiey, n neeueii au?aaeaiiui
eaoiei iaeneioiii inaaeeia, i?e ieieioia a inaiiee e ?aiiaaanaiee
ia?eiaeu, n aieaa ei?ioeie, /ai a ae?oaeo ?aeiiao e?ay, aieaa no?iaie
ceiie, ae?oaeiie aaneie e aea?eei eaoii.

Ia?aua caii?icee ianooiatho a ieoya?a ianyoea, a iineaaeiea aanaiiea a
ai?aea e i/aiue ?aaeei a iaa, eiaaea eo aeaenoaea iniaaiii aoaeoaeueii
aeey ?anoaiee.

Oaiia?aoo?a ii/au ceiie caaeneo ia oieueei io oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa, ii e
io oieueiu niaaeiiai iie?iaa. A iau/iua ceiu, eiaaea oieueia niaaeiiai
iie?iaa ia i?aauoaao 15-20 ni, ii/aa i?iia?caao ia aeoaeio 25-30 ni, a
aanniaaeiua ceiu – i?iia?caao aei 30-40 ni. Iaeaieaa ieceea oaiia?aoo?u
auaatho a oaa?aea ianyoea.

Aao?u ai ana ia?eiaeu i?aiaeaaeatho a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo:
naaa?i-ainoi/iue e thai-caiaaeiue. Ainoi/iua aao?u ninoaaeytho 60% io
aao?ia anao iai?aaeaiee, oooaeoatho ianoiue eeeiao, oneeeaatho aai
eiioeiaioaeueiinoue. Inaiueth iie aucuaatho ianooieaiea ?aiieo
caii?iceia e iaoatho ?acaeoeth iceiuo eoeueoo?. Ceiie aeaaiaea?y ei,
onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?iciay e aao?yiay iiaiaea, /anoi niineony niaa n
iieae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e auia?caieth iceiuo. ?aiiae aaniie iie aucuaatho
iueueiua ao?e, auaaaay iinaau. Eaoii iie i?eiiny nooiaae, eioi?ua ?acei
nieaeatho o?iaeae anao naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?, a iniaaiiinoe
y?iauo.

Oa??eoi?ey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iieiai-aieienooth ?aaieio. Ii/au
i?aaeeaaeaceea naa?oiiuiua ea?aiiaoiua iaeiaoioniua /a?iicaiu. Ii
aeieuai aaeie ia eniuouaathueo aeeyiey a?oioiauo aiae, caia/atho
uaei/iua /a?iicaiu, ?acee/iie noaiaie uaei/iinoe e oieioiaiey. Ii
aeieuai aaeie n aeeceei o?iaiai a?oioiauo aiae caeaaatho eoaiaua e
eoai-aieioiua ii/au.

Ii/aiia?acothueie ii?iaeaie ia oa??eoi?ee niaoica yaeythony oyaeaeua
eaniaeaeiua noaeeiee, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony ao?iaaoi-iieaaie
ie?aneie.

Aoiono a iaoioiii ai?eciioa niaea?aeeony io 3,69 aei 4,11% n aeoaeiie
eiee/anoai aai iinoaiaiii oiaiueoaaony. Iauee caian a aeaooiao?iaie
oieueia aai (ii O.ss. Aaa?eethea) ninoaaeyao 745 oiii ia aa.
Niaea?aeaiea iauaai acioa a iaoioiii ai?eciioa ninoaaeyao 0, 24% n
aeoaeiie iaaethaeaaony oiaiueoaiea acioa, a iiaeiaoioiii ai?eciioa aai
niaea?aeeony 0,21%, a ai?eciioa A ia aeoaeia 70-80 ni – 0,14%, a
ai?eciioa A2 (110-120ni) – 0,08%.

Eae ii caianai aoiona, oae e ii caianai iauaai acioa ea?aiiaoiua
/a?iicaiu ioiinyony e auniei iaania/aiiui ii/aai. Aeae?ieecoaiuo oi?i
aeinooiiuo aeey ?anoaiee acioa e oinoi?a niaea?aeeony iaeaieueoaa
eiee/anoai. Oinoi?a a iaoioiii ai?eciioa niaea?aeeony 40-80 ia, a
iiaeiaoioiii ai?eciioa nieaeaaony aei 20-30 ia ia 1 ea ii/au.

Oaeia iaaieueoia eiee/anoai eaaeiaeinooiiuo oi?i oinoi?iie eeneiou a
ea?aiiaoiuo /a?iicaiao iauyniyaony aeaaiui ia?acii oai, /oi oinoi?iay
eeneioa iiae aeeyieai oaeaeeneiai eaeueoeey auno?i ia?aoiaeeo a o?oaeii
?anoai?eioth oi?io, iiyoiio ec anao ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee i?eiaiaiea
oinoi?iuo aoaeao iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui.

Iauay ieiuaaeue caieaiieueciaaiey niaoica – 12.963 aa, iaoie – 11.376
aa. Iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiea a ieiuaaee i?ienoiaeeee a nayce n
eciaiaieai ninoaaa e ?acia?ia iinoi?iiieo caieaiieueciaaoaeae. E?iia
yoie ieiuaaee – iniiaiiai caiaeueiiai o/anoea, ca?iiniaoic eiaao a
noaieoea Aaeiaeeineay 4 o/anoea iauae ieiuaaee 5,83 aa, eioi?ua
iaoiaeyony iiae aeeeuie e oicyenoaaiiuie iino?ieeaie.
Caieaono?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou ia yoeo o/anoeao ia i?iaiaeeeenue e iie ia
o?aaothony.

Iinoi?iiieie caieaiieueciaaoaeyie ia oa??eoi?ee ca?iiniaoica yaeythony:

a) aacii?iaiae Noaa?iiieue – Iineaa – 16,9 aa

a) aei?iaa Aaeay Aeeia – N?.Aai?eue – 13,5 aa

a) aei?iaa Aaeiaeeineee ca?iiniaoic – Ian/aiieiineay – 23,7 aa

a) aei?iaa ai?iae ?inoia – Noaa?iiieue -12,3 aa

1.2 Eeeiao.

Oa??eoi?ey niaoica ?aniieiaeaia a caiaaeiie i?iaeioeee iaaeinoaoi/iiai
oaeaaeiaiey, ia a?aieoea n ainoi/iie canooeeaie i?iaeioeee.

Aeecinoue Acianeiai ii?y ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia eeeiao,
aeaaiaea?y /aio inaiue caeanue i?iaeieaeeoaeueiay e cia/eoaeueii oaieaa
aaniu. Ceia iaonoie/eaa. Niaaeiue iie?ia iiaeaa?aeai cia/eoaeueiui
eieaaaiey. Neeueiua, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua ii a?aiaie, aao?u naeoaatho ia
oieueei niaa, ii e aa?oiee iaoioiue neie. Ceiie iaaethaeathony /anoua
iooaiaee.

Aaniie neeueiua ennooathuea ii/ao ainoi/iua aao?u yaeythony oa?aeoa?iuie
aeey aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee. ?aceea eieaaaiey oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa a ia?oa e
ia/aea ai?aey, ieceay aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa ia aeaaii?eyoii neacuaathony
ia ?inoa e io?anoaiee iceiuo eoeueoo? ia?aaeei i?eaiaeyo e aeaaee
eoeueoo?u iceiiai y/iaiy.

Ana yoi onoaoaeyaony aua e iueueiuie ao?yie, iiaoi?ythueieny a yoeo
ianoao ii/oe aaeaaiaeii.

Ni. eeeiaoia?aiio. (anoaaea)

1.3 ?aeueao.

Oa??eoi?ey niaoica – ?aaieia, neaaea aieienoay ca n/ao iaee/ey iyoe
iaaieueoeo aaeie, aa?oueo naia ia/aei io aiaei?acaeaea ia oa??eoi?ee
niaoica. Neeiiu aaeie iieiaii?ioyaeaiiua n oeeiiii 1-1,5 a?aaeona,
aiieia aeinooiiua aeey ia?aaioee. Y??iceeiay naoue au?aaeaia neaai.
Ia?aaia e ?aciuaia ia iaaethaeaaony. ?aeueao oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae aanueia
aeaaii?eyoiue aeey ?aaiou ethauo iaoaieciia.

1.4 Ii/aiia?acothuea ii?iaeu.

Niaoic ?aniieiaeai a ciia caiaaeii-i?aaeeaaeacneeo ea?aiiaoiuo
/a?iicaiia aeeienouo e oyaeaeinoaeeienouo. Iaoa?eineeie
ii/aiia?acothueie ii?iaeaie yaeythony eanniaeaeiua aeeiu, eioi?ua
iiaenoeeathony e?anii-ao?uie aeiniiiniuie aeeiaie.

Ii/aaiiue iie?ia aanueia iaeii?iaeai. Ii/au, a iniiaiii, i?aaenoaaeaiu
neaaeothueie ii/aaiiuie ?aciinoyie, caeaaathueie aieueoeie ianneaaie
niia?acii ?aeueaoo: caiaaeii-i?aaeeaacacneeie ea?aiiaoiuie iaeiiiuiuie
/a?iicaiaie e caiaaeii-i?aaeeaaeacneeie n?aaeiaiiuiuie
neaai-ea?aiiaoiuie /a?iicaiaie. Aeieeiu aaeie i?aaenoaaeaiu
aeaethaeaeueii-aeethaeaeueiuie ii/aaie.

Caiaaeii-i?aaeeaacaneea /a?iicaiu yaeythony iaeieie ec eo/oeo ii/a
E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay ii naiei oeceei-oeie/aneei naienoaai.

1.5 ?anoeoaeueiinoue.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi ni?iyeia ia iieyo niaoica aua iiiai. Iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ia iieyo e a nouanoaothueo
eaniiieinao yaeythony: iu?ae, inio, iuoae, iiei/ae, no?aiea, auethieiaay
a?a/eoieea, aeiiiee aeaeoue e aaeue, a oaeaea eanoiaaiue.

Iaiaoiaeeiu naiua ?aoeoaeueiua ia?u ai?ueau n ni?iie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth
eae aa?iiiie/aneiai, oae e oeie/aneiai ii?yaeea, /oi e aeaeaaony ii ia?a
aiciiaeiinoe iieoiee yaeioeieeaoia.

Nenoaiaoe/aneee nienie iniiaiuo oeiia ii/a e eo ii?oieiae/aneay
oa?aeoa?enoeea.

2.1 Iniiaiua oeiu anao ii/a oicyenoaa.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeei ec iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae ieiaei?iaeey ii/a
yaeyaony oinoi?. Aa?ioeie/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea ii/a iieacaei, /oi caianu
oinoi?a a ii/aao oicyenoaa ia aunieea, iaaethaeaaony iano?ioa ii/a ii
niaea?aeaieth oinoi?a a iieyo naaiiai?ioa. Oeie/aneeie aiaeecaie
onoaiiaeaii neaaeothuaa niaea?aeaiea ?2I5 a ii/aao oicyenoaa:

Ieiuaaee ii/a n i/aiue ieceei niaea?aeaieai oinoaoia ninoaaeytho 1287 aa
eee 11,3%. Caian ?2I5 a 100 a ii/au 100 ia. A iaoioiii ai?eciioa ii/au
(0-30 ni) niaea?aeeony iaiaa 30 ea ?2I5 ia aaeoa?a.

Ieiuaaee ii/a n ieceei niaea?aeaieai oinoi?a ninoaaeyao 73,65 aa eee
64,7 %. Caian ?2I5 i?e yoii 1,01 – 1,50 ia ia 100 a?aii eee 30-45 ea a
iaoioiii ai?eciioa ia aaeoa?a. Ieiuaaee ii/a ni n?aaeiei niaea?aeaieai
oinoi?a ninoaaeytho 2650 aa eee 23,2 %. Caian ?2I5 a 100 a ii/au
1,51-3,00 ia. A iaoioiii ai?eciioa ia aaeoa?a niaea?aeeony 45-90 ea
oinoaoia.

Ieiuaaee ii/a n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai oinoi?a ninoaaeyao anaai 74 aa
eee 0,8%. Caian ?2I5 a 100a ii/au 3,01-4,05 ia. A iaoioiii ai?eciioa ia
aaeoa?a niaea?aeeony 90-135 ea ?2I5.

Aeey ii/a niaoica iioeiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea iiaeaeaeiiai oinoi?a
aeieaeii auoue ia ieaea 3,0-4,5 ia ia 100 a ii/au. I?e oaeii
niaea?aeaiee oinoaoia a ii/aa iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii eniieuecothony e
ae?oaea yeaiaiou ieoaiey. Aeiiieieoaeueiia aianaiea a ii/ao iiauoaiiuo
aeic oinoi?iuo oaeia?aiee i?e iioeiaeueiii iiauoaiiii niaea?aeaiee ?2I5
ia iaania/eaaao nouanoaaiiie i?eaaaee o?iaeay, a iaiai?io, aaaeao e
iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiiio ?anoiaeo oaeia?aiee.

Iiyoiio niaoeeaeenoai oicyenoaa iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeeueii ?ani?aaeaeyoue
oinoi?iua ooee ii iieyi naaiiai?ioia n o/aoii niaea?aeaiey iiaeaeaeiuo
oinoaoia a ii/aa.

Niaea?aeaiea iaiaiiiai eaeey a ii/aao oicyenoaa a iniiaiii iiauoaiiia
82,7 %, a 100 a ii/au niaea?aeeony 30-40 ia E2I – 16,4% ianeaaeiaaiiuo
ii/a eiaao aunieia niaea?aeaiea E2I (40-60 ia ia 100a ii/au).

Ii/au niaoica eo/oa iaania/aiu eaeeai, /ai oinoi?ii. Iaeiaei auiin eaeey
o?iaeaai a 3-4 ?aca auoa, /ai oinoi?a.

Iiyoiio aeey iiauoaiey ieiaei?iaeey ii/au e iieo/aiey aunieeo o?iaeaaa
iaiaoiaeeii aiineoue eaeee a ninoaaa iieiiai ieia?aeueiiai oaeia?aiey e
n iaaicii.

A ii/aao niaoica ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie iieacaoaeyie ii?aaeaeyeanue
ieo?eoeeaoeeiiiay niiniaiinoue ii/au iaoie e iiiaieaoieo ianaaeaeaiee.

Ieo?eoeeaoeeiiiay niiniaiinoue ii/a – yoi niiniaiinoue ii/a iaeaieeaaoue
ieo?aoiue acio, a iioeiaeueiuo oneiaeyo aa ay?aoeee.

2.2 Ii?oieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe iniiaiuo oeiia ii/a.

*a?iicaiu caieiatho thaeioth /anoue noaiiie ciiu e iaiin?aaenoaaiii
a?aie/ao n oaiii-eaooaiiauie. Ai?eciio A iiuiinoueth 25-40 ni eiaao
oaiii-na?oth eee oaiii-ao?oth ie?aneo /anoi iaaieueoei ei?e/iaaui
iooaieii, eiieiaaoie no?oeoo?u. Ai?eciio A oa?aeoa?ecoaony
ei?e/iaai-ao?ie ie?aneie eiieiaaoi-i?eciaoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie. Iauay
iiuiinoue aoioniaiai neiy ( A+A) 45-60 ni

A eeethaeaeueiii ea?aiiaoiii ai?eciioa iau/ii io/aoeeai au?aaeaia
aaeiaeacea. Eeiey aneeiaiey ?aniieiaeaia a ieaeiae /anoe ai?eciioa A eee
a ieaeiae /anoe aoioniaiai neiy.

A ieaeieo ai?eciioao ia aeoaeia 0,5-2 iao?a eee aeoaeiithaeiua /a?iicaiu
/anoi niaea?aeao aein a aeaea iaeeeo e?enoaeeia, caiieiythueo ii?u
ii?iaeu, a eiiaaea ia yoie aeoaeia ioia/aaony e iiauoaiiia niaea?aeaiea
eaaei?anoai?eiuo nieae. THaeiua /a?iicaiu iiae?acaeaeythony ia
neaaeothuea ?iaeu: iau/iua, nieiioeaaaoua, ea?aiiaoiua, aeoaiei
aneeiathuea.

*aua anaai iiyaeythony ea?aiiaoiinoue, nieiioeaaaoinoue e
nieii/aeiaanoue.

3. Aiaeii-oece/aneea naienoaa.

Oi?ioay no?oeoo?iinoue /a?iicaia ii?aaeaeyao eo aunieoth ii?enoinoue a
aoioniauo ai?eciioao. Oi?ioay no?oeoo?iinoue /a?iicaiia ii?aaeaeyao eo
aunieoth ii?enoinoue a aoioniauo ai?eciioao. Aeey /a?iicaiiuo ii/a
oa?aeoa?ii aeaaii?eyoiia ni/aoaiea eaieeey?iie e iaeaieeey?iie
ii?enoinoe.

Iaeaieeey?iay ii?enoinoue iiaeao ninoaaeyoue 1/3 iauae ii?enoinoe, /oi
iaania/eaaao oi?iooth aicaeooi- e aiaeii?iieoeaaiinoue /a?iicaiia.
Iaeaieueoay aiaeii?iieoeaaiinoue ec iiaeiaoioiuo ai?eciioia A e aa?oiae
/anoe ai?eciioa A, aaea oi?ioi au?aaeaia aiaeii?i/iay eiieiaaoay e
ca?ienoay no?oeoo?a. Iaoioiay aeaaa /ania ai?eciioa aieouaaao aeaao
iaaeeaiiaa, /ai iiaeiaoioiay, /oi iaoneiaeaii ?aniueaieai no?oeoo?u e
oieioiaieai ai?eciioa. Aeoaieay ia?aaioea ii/au e iiaeaea?aeaiea
iiaa?oiinoe a ?uoeii ninoiyiee niinianoaotho iaeeo/oaio iiaeiuaieth
inaaeeia. Iiuiue aoioniaue neie ii?aaeaeyao aunieoth aeaaiaieinoue
/a?iicaiia. Caiaoii oooaeoathony aiaeii-oece/aneea naienoaa o eeinoiuo
/a?iicaiia.

Eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua ii/au aeecee e /a?iicaiai, ii iniaua aeae?ieiae/aneea
oneiaey i?eaeatho ?yae niaoeeoe/aneeo i?eciaeia: aieaa eioaineaiay
ie?anea aa?oiae /anoe aoioniaiai i?ioeey, iaeioi?ay ?anoyiooinoue
aoioniaiai neiy e aeeienoinoue ieaeieo ai?eciioia.

3.1 A?aioeiiao?e/aneee ninoaa.

*a?iicaiiua ii/au aanueia ?aciiia?aciu ii iaoaie/aneiio ninoaao (io
noniai/aouo aei aeeienouo ?aciiaeaeiinoae).

Iauay iniaaiiinoue ii/a /a?iicaiiiai oeia – ionoonoaea caiaoiuo
eciaiaiee iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaa a i?ioeanna ii/aiia?aciaaiey.

A ieia?aeiae/aneii ninoaaa /a?iicaiia i?aiaeaaeatho ia?ae/iua ieia?aeu.
Ec aoi?e/iuo (aunieiaeenia?niuo) ieia?aeia a aieueoeinoaa /a?iicaiiuo
ii/a ano?a/athony ieia?aeu Eiathony oaeea /a?iicaiu, a eeenoie
o?aeoeee eioi?uo i?aaaee?otho ieia?aeu eaeeaaie a?oiiu.

A eeenoie o?aeoeee /a?iicaiia niaea?aeaony oaeea ie?enoaeeeciaaiiua
iieooi?iua ieeneu ( ), aii?oiua aauanoaa e iaaieueoia eiee/anoai
aunieiaeenia?niiai eaa?oea.

Aunieiaeenia?niua ieia?aeu ?ani?aaeaeaiu ii i?ioeeth ?aaiiia?ii.
?acee/ea a ieia?aeiae/aneii ninoaaa /a?iicaiia naycaii n iniaaiiinoyie
auaao?eaaiey ia?ae/iuo ieia?aeia.

Iaoaie/aneee ninoaa /a?iicaiia:

Niaea?aeaiea o?aeoeee (%) i?e ?acia?ao /anoeoe, ii

A0-10 1-0,25 0,25-0,005 0,05-0,01 0,01-0,005 0,005-0,001 10 10-3 3-1 1-0,25 anaai>0,25 10-3 3-1 1-0,25 anaai
>0,25

*a?iicai 0-20 37,1 20,8 0,8 14,1 90,8 0,5 1,8 20,5 22,8

thaeiue 25-45 13,2 41,0 25,5 13,3 92,6 0,5 11,8 50,0 62,3

4. Oeie/aneea naienoaa ii/a.

4.1 Aoion.

Ii niaea?aeaieth aoiona i?aaeeaaeacneea /a?iicaiu iiuiua (iniiaiua ii/au
oicyenoaa) iiae?acaeaeythony ia iaeiaoioniaua, eioi?ua caieiatho a
oicyenoaa iaeaieueooth ieiuaaeue – 3964 aa, e neaaiaoione?iaaiiua – 2506
aa.

Aoioniaue ai?eciio eiaao n?aaieoaeueii ?uoeia neiaeaiea, iiuiinoue aai
aeinoeaaao 90-140 ni. Niaea?aeaiea aoiona a iaoioiii neia yoiai
/a?iicaia 4,5-5,2%. Ana inoaeueiua aeaeu ii/a ioee/athony /a?iicaiiui
oa?aeoa?ii ?ani?aaeaeaiey aoiona ii i?ioeeth, oa anoue iinoaiaiiui
iaaeaieai aai n aeoaeiie. A aeaoee?iaaiiuo e neaainiuouo aeaeao a eiioea
ia?aiai iao?a i?ioeey aoiona niaea?aeeony aieaa 2,4% e a ia/aea aoi?iai
iao?a a neeueiiniuouo /a?iicaiao iii ia i?aauoaao 1.9%.

4.2 Iiaeiuaiiua eaoeiiu.

Iiaeioeoaeueiay niiniaiinoue /a?iicaiiuo ii/a iaoneaaeeaaaony aunieei
niaea?aeaieai aoiona e aeinoeaaao a iaoioiii neia 42-44 i-yea/100a. A
ninoaaa iiaeiuaiiuo eaoeiiia i?aiaeaaeaao Ca2+ (83-95%) io noiiu a
iioioiii ai?eciioa, aeey iiaeiuaiiiai eaoeiia M2+ caiaoii oaaee/eaaaony
aeoaeiie aei 21-31% io noiiu a eiioea aoioniaiai i?ioeey.

Aunieay ianuuaiiinoue iiaeiuaiiuie iniiaaieyie ?anniao?eaaaiuo
/a?iicaiia ia?yaeo n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai ea?aiiaoia (aei 1,8-3,8%)
iaoneaaeeaaao uaei/ioth ?aaeoeeth ii/au , eioi?ay eciaiyaony io
neaaiuaei/iie (?I 7,9-8,3) a iaoioiii ai?eciioa aei n?aaeiauaei/iie (?I
8,5-8,6) a ii/aiia?acothuae ii?iaea. Niioaaonoaaiii aic?anoaao e
niaea?aeaiea eaeueoeey io 1,8-3,8% aei 9,3-17,1%.

4.3 Nieaaie ninoaa.

Iaeneiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea ea?aiiaoia (io 14 aei 15%) i?eoiaeeony ia
ieaeithth /anoue ia?aoiaeiiai ai?eciioa AN. ?aaeoeey ii/aaiiie n?aaeu
neaai- e n?aaeiauaei/iay (7,8-8,2). Ii ia?a ia?anoaiey niuoinoae a
aa?oiae /anoe ii/aaiiiai i?ioeey i?ienoiaeeo oiaiueoaiea niaea?aeaiey
aoiona, iauaai acioa, aaeiauo e iiaeaeaeiuo niaea?aeaiee oinoi?a e
eaeey, iiaeiuaiiuo iniiaaiee. N oaaee/aieai noaiaie niuoinoe
oiaiueoathony caianu aoiona e acioa. Aoion niuouo ii/a iaiaauai acioii,
ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao aieaa oceia ioiioaiea Ca:Na. A noiia
iiaeiuaiiuo iniiaaiee a n?aaeia- e nieueiiaeeienouo ii/aao ana aieueooth
?ieue ea?aao iiaeiuaiiue Mg2+, i?e/ai iiaeiuaiea Ca:Mg noaeaaony.

Ea?aiiaoiue iaeneioi o neeueiuo ii/a i?eaeeaeaaony e aeiaaiie
iiaa?oiinoe. Anee o ianiuouo ii/a ii iaoiaeeony ia aeoaeia 120-130 ni,
oi o n?aaeia- e neeueiiniuouo ia aeoaeia 70-80 ni e 50-60 ni.

Ea?aiiaou a aa?oieo ai?eciioao i?aaenoaaeaiu iaeaoaie, iaooeieaie,
aeeeeaie.

4.4 Niaea?aeaiea iiaeaeaeiuo oi?i ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa.

Niaea?aeaiea aaeiaiai oinoi?a a neeueii- e n?aaeianiuouo ii/aao a
1,3-1,7 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai a ianiuouo. Aua aieaa cia/eoaeueiu ?acee/ey a
niaea?aeaiee iiaeaeaeiiai P2O5 . Ii n?aaiaieth n /a?iicaiii
naaa?ii?eacianeei iiuiui aai eiee/anoai a neaainiuouo oiaiueoaeinue a
1,4, a n?aaeianiuo 1,5, neeueiiniuouo a 3,1.

Niaea?aeaiea aaeiaiai e iaiaiiiai Ca oiaiueoaeinue n oaaee/aieai noaiaie
niuoinoe iinoaiaiii.

5. Aa?ii?iecaiaenoaaiiay a?oiie?iaea e ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaiey
ieiaei?iaeey aa?ia?oii.

5.1 *a?iicaiu i?aaeeaaeacneea.

*a?iicaiu i?aaeeaaeacneea iiuiua caieiatho aieueooth ieiuaaeue caiaeue
niaoica «Aaeiaeeineee». Ii iaoaie/aneiio ninoaao – aeeienoua.

?acee/athony ii iiuiinoe aoioniaiai neiy – iiuiua (180-80 ni)
n?aaeiaiiuiua (80-40 ni.).

*a?iicaiu i?aaeeaaeacneea neaai?acaeaaaiua eiatho neaai?acaeoua eiatho
neaai?acaeoue (iaiieiue) i?ioeeue anayce n eo iieiaeinoueth.

O anao oeiia e ?iaeia ai?eciio A iiuiinoueth 25-40 ni eiaao oaiii-na?oth
eee oaiii-ao?oth ie?aneo n iaaieueoei ei?e/iaaui iooaieii eiieiaaoie
no?oeoo?u. Ai?eciio A1 oa?aeoa?ecoaony yniie ei?e/iaai-ao?ie ie?aneie
eiieiaaoi-i?eciaoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie. Iauay iiuiinoue aoioniaiai neiy
(A+A1) 45-60 ni. A eeethaeaeueiii ea?aiiaoiii ai?eciioa iau/ii io/aoeeai
au?aaeaia aaeiaeacea. Eeiey aneeiaiey ?aniieiaeaia a ieaeiai iieii
ai?eciioa A1 eee ia a?aieoea aoioniaiai neiy.

A (eeethaeaeueiii) ieaeiai iiaeeiaeiii ia aeoaeia 1,5-2 i eee aeoaaea
/a?iicaiu /anoi niaea?aeao aein a aeaea iaeeeo e?enoaeeia, caiieiythueo
ii?u ii?iaeu, a eiiaaea ia yoie aeoaeia ioia/aaony iiauoaiiia
niaea?aeaiea eaaei?anoai?eiuo nieae.

5.2 Eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua ii/au.

?acee/atho eoaiai-/a?iicaiiua, eoaiai-canieaiiua e eoaiai-aieioiue
ii/au.

Iie oi?ie?othony a oneiaeyo iiauoaiiiai oaeaaeiaiey ca n/ao a?aiaiiiai
neiieaiey aiae iiaa?oiinoiiai noiea i?e aeoaieeo a?oioiauo aiae.

I?ioeeue eoaiai-/a?iicaiiuo ii/a ii?oieiae/anee a iniiaiuo /a?oao aeecie
e i?ioeeth /a?iicaia, iaeiaei iniaua aeae?ieiae/aneea oneiaey i?eaeatho
aio ?yae niaoeeoe/aneeo i?eciaeia: aieaa eioaineaiay ie?anea aa?oiae
/anoe aoioniaiai i?ioeey, iaeioi?ay ?anoyiooinoue aoioniaiai neiy e
aeeaaoinoe ieceeo ai?eciioia. I?ioeeue eoaiai-/a?iicaiiuo ii/a
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia neaaeothuea ai?eciiou: A1(An), B1,B2C.

Aeaeaiea ia aiaeu a i?aaeaeao ?iaea naycaii ni noaiaiueth au?aaeaiiinoe
?iaeiauo i?eciaeia, a oae aea n iiuiinoueth aoioniaiai neiy (A1A1) e
aoioniinoueth.

5.3 Ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaieth ieiaei?iaeey ii/a.

Aoion yaeyaony iieacaoaeai iiauoaiiiai ieiaei?iaeey iiyoiio
iiaeaea?aeaiea aacaeaoeoeeoiiai aaeaina aoiona – iaeia ec iniiaiuo
caaea/ a nenoaia ia?ii?eyoee ii iiauoaieth ieiaei?iaeey ii/a.

N oeaeueth iiaeaea?aeaiey caiania aoiona ia aeinoaoi/ii aunieii o?iaia
iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue ana niiniau, oaaee/eaathuea iinooieaiea
i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa a ii/ao: iiauoaiea o?iaeaeiinoe, i?eiaiaiea
iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo ii?i iaaica, eiiiinoia, iieiia aica?auaiea a ii/ao
?anoeoaeueiuo inoaoeia, a oii /enea nieiiu, aicaeaeuaaiea i?iiaaeooi/iuo
eoeueoo?, nieaeaiea eioaineaiinoe e /anoiou ia?aaioee ii/au, caueou io
aao?iaie e aiaeiie y?icee e ae?oaea ia?u.

?an/aou aaeaina aoiona e iio?aaiinoe a i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aieyo aeey
iaania/aiey aacaeaoeoeeoiiai aaeaina aoiona e nenoaia i?eiaiaiey
oaeia?aiee a naaiiai?ioao auiieiaiu a i?aaenoaaeaiiuo oicyenoaii
nenoaiao caieaaeaeey e caieaono?ienoaa. Aeey iiaeuaia ieiaei?iaeey ii/a
e iiauoaiey o?iaeaeiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? i?iaiaeeony
aa?ioeie/aneia ieoeueoo?eaaiea iieae, iicaieythuaa aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueii
eniieueciaaoue n?aaenoaa oeiecaoeee.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeey iiauoaiey niaea?aeaiey oinoi?a ia 10 ia/ea ii/au
ia ea?aiiaoiuo /a?iicaiao i?eoiaeeony aianoe naa?o auiina o?iaeay 90-130
ea/aa ae.a. oinoi?a aeey iiauoaiey eaeey ia 10 ia/ea ii/au – 30-50
ea/aa ae.a. eaeeeiuo oaeia?aiee.

Ii/au niaoica «Aaeiaeeineee» Aaeiaeeineiai ?aeiia i?aaenoaaeaiu
i?aaeeaaeacneei /a?iicaiii oyaeaeinoaeeienoui. Iaania/aiiinoue ii/a
iiaeaeaeiuie oinoaoaie ieceay – n?aaeiyy, iaiaiiui eaeeai – iiauoaiiay.
Iie n?aaieoaeueii iaania/aiu onoie/eauie oi?iaie iaaiey, na?u, eaeueoeey
e iieeaaeaia. Niaea?aeeo oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia eiee/anoai aeaeaca,
ia?aaioea, iaaee e ai?a. Eeieoe?othueie oaeoi?aie ieia?aeueiiai ieoaiey
?anoaiee /aua anaai ieacuaaaony oinoi?, oeeie.

Aaeain aoiona ii oaea?iaeo a oeaeii ii oicyenoao ia aiae inaiaiey
naaiiai?ioia io?eoeaoaeueiue e ?aaai – 249 ea N n 1 aa iaoie.

?aaiou ii aa?ioeie/aneiio ieoeueoo?eaaieth iieae i?iaiaeeeinue eae
oicyenoaii, oae e ?II «Naeueoicoeiey» a niioaaonoaee n i?iaeoiiniaoiie
?aeiiaiaeaoeeiae, ?ac?aaioaiiie E?aniiaea?neie noaioeeae oeiecaoeee
naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Auaiaeu.

I?aaeeaaeacneea /a?iicaiu caieiatho ia?aia ianoi ii ieiaei?iaeeth. Yoi
ii/au ?aciinoi?iiiaai eniieueciaaiey. Ia ieo iiaeii aicaeaeuaaoue
oe?ieee anni?oeiaio naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? y?iaay e iceiay
ioaieoea, y/iaiue, eoeo?oca, a?a/eoa, ai?io, iiaenieia/iee, aao/aaua e
iaiuiua eoeueoo?u, naaeeo, aeiia?aae, ieiaeiai-yaiaeiua eoeueoo?u e
iiiaea ae?oaea.

*a?iicaiiua ii/au iaeaaeatho aunieei iioaioeeaeueiui ieiaei?iaeeai.
Ianiio?y ia iaaieueoia niaea?aeaiea acioa, cieueiuo yeaiaioia. Aeaaea
i?e aeaaii?eyoiuo oeie/aneeo, oece/aneeo oneiaeyo o?iaeae
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? auaaao ieceei. Neaaeoao i?iaiaeeoue
ia?ii?eyoey, niinianoaothuea iaeiieaieth e nio?aiaieth aeaae; ?aiiyy
ioaaeueiay e aacioaaeueiay cyaeaaay aniaoea, ai?iiiaaiea, iiaeaeea ia
iiaa?oiinoe ii/au iee?i?aeueaoa, oneeeaathuea iiaeiuaiea ii/aie
aeiaeaeae e aanaiieo oaeuo aiae.

Ana aanaiiea iieaaua ?aaiou aeieaeiu i?iecaiaeeoueny a ei?ioeee n?ie,
/oiau eo/oa iaania/eoue ?anoaiey ii/aaiiie aeaaie.

Eaniua iieinu ea?atho a iaeiieaiee aeaae iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiaeieiaoue o?iaaiue naeueneiai oicyenoaa e yeieiaee.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

I.A. Aeaaeianeay «Iauaa ii/aiaaaeaiea e aaia?aoey ii/a» I:1981 a.

E.N. Eao?e/aa «Ii/aiaaaeaiea» I:1989 a.

Ciiaeueiua nenoaiu caieaaeaeey E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay, E?aniiaea? 1981 a.

«Ii/au E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay e eo aa?iiiie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea.»

«?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe e onoie/eainoe caieaaeaeey a
E?aniiaea?neii e?aa», E?aniiaea? 1981 a.

Nenoaia caieaaeaeey e caieaono?ienoaa niaoica «Aaeiaeeineee»
Aaeiaeeineiai ?aeiia E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay.

Oaaeeoea ?1

Aianaiea ieia?aeueiuo e i?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee

ii ca?iiniaoico «Aaeiaeeineee».1998 a.

? i/i

Anaai o. Oe/aa

1 Acioiua 2429 2,1

2 Oinoi?iua 748 0,6

3 Eaeeeiua 451 0,3

4 Anaai ieia?aeueiuo 3628 3,0

5 Iaaic 25727 2,2

Oaaeeoea ?2

Naiaeiay aaaeiiinoue ii ieo?aoeeaoeeiiiie niiniaiinoe ii/a

eeannu

A?eaaaea ?1 A?eaaaea ?2 A?eaaaea ?3 A?eaaaea ?3 Anaai ii niaoico

ia ia 100 a ii/au niaea?aeaiea acioa aa % aa % aa % aa % aa %

1 0,50 i/aiue ieceia

2 0,51-0,80 ieceia

3 0,81-1,50 n?aaeiaa

143 3,3

143 3,3

4 1,51-3,00 iiauoaiiia 1476 37,7 1382 45,1 458 57,2 2023 56,1 5339 46,9

5 3,01-6,00 aunieia 2433 62,3 1538 51,6 342 42,8 1581 43,9 5894 51,8

6 6,00 i/aiue aunieia

Ianeaaeiaaiiay ieiuaaeue 3909 100 3063 100 809 100 3604 100 11376 100

Oaaeeoea ?3

Naiaeiay aaaeiiinoue ?acoeueoaoia ianeaaeiaaiey ii/a ii niaea?aeaieth
iiaeaeaeiiai oinoi?a

eeannu ?2I5 A?eaaaea ?1 A?eaaaea ?2 A?eaaaea ?3 A?eaaaea ?3 Anaai ii
niaoico

ia ia 100 a ii/au niaea?aeaiea aa % aa % aa % aa % aa %

1 1,00 i/aiue ieceia

294 9,7

993 27,5 1287 11,3

2 1,01-1,50 ieceia 2069 52,9 2206 72,0 618 77,2 2472 68,5 7365 64,7

3 1,51-3,00 n?aaeiaa 1840 47,1 563 18,3 182 22,8 65 1,8 2650 23,2

4 3,01-4,50 iiauoaiiia

74 2,2 7,4 0,8

5 4,51-6,00 aunieia

6 6,00 i/aiue aunieia

Ianeaaeiaaiiay ieiuaaeue 3909 100 3063 100 800 100 3604 100 11376 100

Oaaeeoea ?4

Naiaeiay aaaeiiinoue ?acoeueoaoia ianeaaeiaaiey ii/a ii niaea?aeaieth
iaiaiiiai eaeey

eeannu E2I Ioaeaeaiea ?1 Ioaeaeaiea ?2 Ioaeaeaiea ?3 Ioaeaeaiea ?3 Anaai
ii niaoico

ia ia 100 a ii/au niaea?aeaiea aa % aa % aa % aa % aa %

1 10,0 i/aiue ieceia

2 10,1-20,0 ieceia

3 20,1-30,0 n?aaeiaa

88 11,1

88 0,9

4 30,1-40,0 iiauoaiiia 2576 65,8 2915 95,1 642 80,2 3278 90,9 9411 82,7

5 40,1-60,0 aunieia 1333 34,2 148 4,9 70 8,7 326 9,1 1877 16,4

6 60,0 i/aiue aunieia

Ianeaaeiaaiiay ieiuaaeue 3909 100 3063 100 800 100 3604 100 11376 100

Eeeiaoia?aiia

ii Aaeiaeeineie iaoainoaioeee

PAGE

PAGE 15

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