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IAEAAEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaaa I E?aaeeo e aaethoiua iia?aoeee aaieia

1.1 Iiiyoea e aeaeu aaethoiuo iia?aoeee

1.2 Yenii?oii-eiii?oiua aaiee

1.3 Iaoaieci aaethoiuo iia?aoeee

– Iia?aoeee «NIIO»

– N?i/iua naeaeee

– Naeaeee n iioeeiiii

– Iia?aoeee «NAII»

– A?aeo?aaeiua naeaeee

Aeaaa II ?an/aou i?e i?iaaaeaiee aaethoiuo iia?aoeee

(i?aeoe/aneia eceiaeaiea iaoa?eaea)

2.1 ?an/aou i?e einaaiiie e i?yiie eioe?iaeao

2.2 ?an/aou i?e iia?aoeeyo e?inn-eo?na

2.3 ?an/aou i?e n?i/iuo iia?aoeeyo

Aeaaa III Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoiua iia?aoeee a ?E

Ninoiyiea aaethoiiai ?uiea a ?E.

I?iaeaiu aaethoiiai ?uiea a ?E.

Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aaethoiuo ioiioaiee a ?E

Caeeth/aiea

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a iaoae ?anioaeeea neiaeeeanue iiaay yeiiiie/aneay
neooaoeey, oa?aeoa?ecothuayny ?yaeii ioee/eoaeueiuo /a?o, e eioi?ui
ioiineony, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ?ino /eneaiiinoe iaainoaea?noaaiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo no?oeoo?.

I?eaaoecaoeey, i?eiyoea iiauo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia i noaoona
i?aaei?eyoey, i nianoaaiiinoe, i aaethoiii ?aaoee?iaaiee e ae?oaea
iicaieytho iinoaiaiii ia?aeoe e ea/anoaaiiiio e iiaiio yoaio ?acaeoey
aaieianeie nenoaiu.

I?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey e a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i aaieao, a oii /enea a
iai?aaeaiee ?anoe?aiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiiia?/aneeo
aaieia. I?e inouanoaeaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo naeaeie anoaao aii?in i
aaethoiuo iia?aoeeyo eae oi?ia aaieianeiai o/anoey a ieo. Iiiaea
eiiia?/aneea aaiee, iieo/ea eeoeaiceth ia i?iaaaeaiea aaethoiuo
iia?aoeee, noieeioeenue n o?oaeiinoyie ii eo i?iaaaeaieth.

A yoie nayce aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue eco/aiey e eniieueciaaiey iiuoa
?aaiou eiino?aiiuo aaieia ia aaethoiuo ?uieao e iaoaiecia i?iaaaeaiey
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee ia iai.

?anoe?ythueany iaaeaeoia?iaeiua nayce, aic?anoathuay
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeecie aucuaaao iauaeoeaioth
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eco/aiey iaiaia iaeieo iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo
aaeeieoe ia ae?oaea.

?aaeecaoeey yoie iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac iniaue aaethoiue
?uiie, aaea iiae aeeyieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey noeoeeii oi?ie?oaony
aaethoiue eo?n, a aaethoiua iia?aoeee noaiiayony iiae/an iaeieie ec
iniiaiuo iia?aoeeyie eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.

Enoi?e/anee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii iai?ioa ?acee/aeenue aeaa iniiaiuo
niiniaa ieaoaaea: o?anne?iaaiea e ?aieoe?iaaiea. I?e o?anne?iaaiee
e?aaeeoi? auienuaaao o?aooo ia aeieaeieea a aai aaethoa (iai?eia?,
e?aaeeoi? a Iueth-Ei?ea i?aaeuyaeyao aeieaeieeo a Eiiaeiia o?aaiaaiea ia
oieaoa aeieaa a ooioao noa?eeiaia) e i?iaeaao aa ia naiai aaethoiii
?uiea ii aaieianeiio eo?no iieoiaoaey. I?e o?anne?iaaiee e?aaeeoi? –
aeoeaiia eeoei : ii i?iaeaao aaenaeue a aaethoa aeieaeieea ia naiai
aaethoiii ?uiea. I?e ?aieoe?iaaiee aeieaeiee – aeoeaiia eeoei: ii
iieoiaao aaethoo e?aaeeoi?a ia naiai aaethoiii ?uiea ii eo?no
i?iaeaaoea. I?eiaiyaoeany a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii iai?ioa aei ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu e a iaiueoae ia?a a iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae ?aciiia?aciua niiniau
ieaoaaea, iniiaaiiua ia ?aieoe?iaaiee e o?anne?iaaiee e ianeoaeeaaaoea
aaethoiua iia?aoeee, iinoaiaiii ecaeeee eae naiinoiyoaeueiue niinia
?an/aoia.

Iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu iieo/eee oe?ieia ?acaeoea ?acee/iua aeaeu
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee. A ia?eiae ?ani?ino?aiaiey aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee aei
eiioea 50-o aiaeia a i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao i?aiaeaaeaee aaethoiua
naeaeee n iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaeie aaetho (“NIIO”) e n?i/iua (oi?aa?aeiua)
naeaeee, i?e/ai iineaaeiea ca/anooth auee iauaeoii aaethoiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. Eeaa?aeecaoeey aaethoiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia ?oaaaea
50-o e 60-o aiaeia i?eaaea e ?acaeoeth iia?aoeee “NAII” aianoi ?aiaa
i?aeoeeiaaaoaainy iaiaia aeaiiceoaie a ?acee/iuo aaethoao. Aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea n?i/iuo aaethoiuo naeaeie auei naycaiii n eeaa?aeecaoeeae
aeaeaeaiey eaieoaeia, aucaaaoeo iio?aaiinoue a oaaeaee?iaaiee
(no?aoiaaiee ?eneia) aeiiieieoaeueii e o?aaeeoeeiiiui iia?aoeeyi ii
iie?uoeth ?eneia ii oi?aiaui iia?aoeeyi. Oneeeaoeeny eiio?ieue ni
noi?iiu iaaethaeaoaeueiuo i?aaiia ca ninoiyieai aaieianeeo aaeainia
oaeaea niinianoaiaae caiaia ?aiaa i?aeoeeiaaaoeony aaethoiuo iia?aoeee
ii no?aoiaaieth ?eneia, io?aaeaaoeo a aaeainao, n?i/iuie aaethoiuie
naeaeeaie e iia?aoeeyie “NAII”, oae eae iie o/eouaathony ia
aiaaaeainiauo n/aoao.

N 70-o aiaeia ?acaeaathony oueth/a?niua naeaeee ia ?yaea ae?ae, oioy iie
ia yaeythony noaiaea?oiie iia?aoeeae iaaeaaieianeiai ?uiea, e iioeeiiiua
aaethoiua naeaeee – iiaay oi?ia niaeoeyoeaiuo naeaeie e oaaeaee?iaaiey
io aaethoiuo ?eneia, iniaaiii eiaaea oiaa?iay naeaeea, nicaeathuay ?ene,
aiciiaeia, ii ia iaania/aia (iai?eia?, i?e o/anoee a oi?aao). Aaiee
noaee niaa?oaoue aaethoiua naeaeee a ni/aoaiee n iia?aoeeyie ii “naiio “
i?ioeaioiuo noaaie. Iaee/iua aaethoiua iia?aoeee inouanoaeyao
aieueoeinoai aaieia; n?i/iua iia?aoeee e “NAII “-naeaeee – a iniiaiii
aieaa e?oiiua aaiee; ?aaoey?iua iioeeiiiua iia?aoeee – e?oiiaeoea aaiee.

Eco/aiea, iiiuoee iao/iiai iiaeoiaea e ?anniio?aieth auoaiacaaiiuo
yaeaiee e ninoaaeyao niaea?aeaiea aeaiiie ?aaiou.

Oeaeueth iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony eco/aiea iaoaiecia aaethoiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey, ?anniio?aiea iaeaieaa aaaeiuo e eeth/aauo iiiyoee
aeaiiiai aii?ina, a oaeaea enneaaeiaaiea ?an/aoia i?e i?iaaaeaiee
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee. Aeooaeueiinoue aeaiiie oaiu oanii ia?aieaoaaony n
i?ioeannaie, i?ienoiaeyueie a no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee ?anioaeeee.

Aicieeathuea aii?inu, eanathueany aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e iaiaia
iiuoa n ca?oaaaeiuie aaieaie, aucuaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue nenoaiiiai
iiaeoiaea e i?iaeaia. ?aaeecaoeey yoie iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaenoaie
/anoe/ii a iaoai enneaaeiaaiee. ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou, a /anoiinoe,
?anniio?aiiua iaie aeaeu aaethoiuo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea iaoaieci eo
i?iaaaeaiey e ?an/aou, naycaiiua n ieie, yaeythony ?aaeecaoeeae oeaeae,
iinoaaeaiiuo iaie i?e enneaaeiaaiee.

Aeaaa I

E?aaeeo e aaethoiua iia?aoeee

1.1 Iiiyoey e aeaeu aaethoiuo iia?aoeee

Anooieaiea Eacaonoaia a ?uiie a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a naycaii n
?aaeecaoeeae iioaioeeaea e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee. Iiyoiio iaeiei ec
iaycaoaeueiuo oneiaee oi?ie?iaaiey ?uiea yaeyaony ei?aiiay ia?ano?ieea
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e e?aaeeoa. E?aaeeo a oneiaeyo ?uiea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io aeaeaeaiey nnoaeiiai eaieoaea, o.a.
aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea, i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai a nnoaeo.

E?aaeeo iaania/eaaao o?ainoi?iaoeeth aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea a nnoaeiue e
au?aaeaao ioiioaiey iaaeaeo e?aaeeoi?aie e caaiueeaie. I?e aai iiiiue
naiaiaeiua aeaiueae e aeioiaeu i?aaei?eyoee, ee/iiai naeoi?a e
ainoaea?noaa aeeoioee?othony, i?aa?auathony a nnoaeiue eaieoae, eioi?ue
ia?aaeaaony ca ieaoo ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea.

Eaieoae oaeoe/anee, a aeaea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, ia iiaeao
ia?aeeaaoueny ec iaeieo io?aneae a ae?oaea. Yoio i?ioeann inouanoaeyaony
a oi?ia aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea. Iiyoiio e?aaeeo a ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea iaiaoiaeei i?aaeaea anaai eae yeanoe/iue iaoaieci ia?aeeaa
eaieoaea ec iaeieo io?aneae a ae?oaea e o?aaieaaiea ii?iu i?eauee.

E?aaeeo ?ac?aoaao i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoueth naiaiaeiiai
ia?aoiaea eaieoaea. Ii iicaieyao oaeaea i?aiaeieaoue ia?aie/aiiinoue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai eaieoaea.

A oi aea a?aiy e?aaeeo- e?aeia iaiaoiaeeiay ia?a aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
iai?a?uaiinoe e?oaiiai?ioa aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Aaethoiua iia?aoeee
iaaiciiaeii aiieioeoue a aaieianeie nenoaia aac eneeth/eoaeueiie ?iee
e?aaeeoa. Ii onei?yao i?ioeann eaieoaeecaoeee i?eauee, a yoi, a naith
i/a?aaeue, niinianoaoao iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee aaethoiuo iia?aoeee aaiee ianoo ?acee/iua ?enee. A
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoe ?enee naycaiu n aiciiaeiui iaee/eai iaiie?uouo
naeaeie a ioaeaeueiuo aaethoao – aeeeiiuo eee ei?ioeeo iiceoeee. I?e
n?i/iuo naeaeeao aicieeaao ?ene iaauiieiaiey eiio?aeoa, iai?eia? a nayce
n aaie?ionoaii eiio?aaaioa. E?iia oiai, a caaeneiinoe io ?acee/iiai
a?aiaie ia/aea e caaa?oaiey ?an/aoia a ioaeaeueiuo aaethoao ii ?yaeo
aaethoiuo naeaeie aaiee, niaa?oea ia?aaiae i?iaeaiiie aaethou, eeoue ia
neaaeothuee aeaiue ociatho, aue ee naeaeai ano?a/iue ieaoaae eoieaiiie
eie aaethou. Yoi eiaao ianoi aneaaenoaea ?acieoeu ai a?aiaie, iai?eia?
i?e i?iaeaaea aaieii yiiineeo eai i?ioea aaetho Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e NOA,
a oaeaea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo aaetho i?ioea aeieea?a NOA.

A oeaeyo ia?aie/aiey ?enea ia ia?aaiaea aaethou aaiee onoaiaaeeaatho
eeieou aaethoiuo naeaeie n ae?oaeie aaieaie, enoiaey ec ?acia?a eo
eaieoaea e ?aca?aia, ?aiooaoeee e ae?oaeo e?eoa?eaa. Ii ia?a iieo/aiey
ieaoaaeae ii ?aiaa caeeth/aiiui naeaeeai eeieou aunaiaiaeaeathony.
Eeieou ii n?i/iui aaethoiui naeaeeai iau/ii auaatho ieaea, /ai ii
iia?aoeeyi n iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaeie, iineieueeo ?ene iaieaoaaea ii
naeaeea iiauoaaony a caaeneiinoe io aeeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaea io aa
caeeth/aiey aei eniieiaiey, o. a. iieo/aiey aaethou.

Aaethoiua iia?aoeee yaeythony iauaeoii ainoaea?noaaiiiai e aaieianeiai
iaaethaeaiey e eiio?iey. A no?aiao n /anoe/ii eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethoie e
ia?aie/aieyie ii oeiainiaui iia?aoeeyi ?acia? aaethoiie iiceoeee aaieia
ioiineoaeueii iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou neoaeeo iaeiei ec iauaeoia
aaethoiiai eiio?iey. A ia?eiaeu cia/eoaeueiie aaethoiie ianoaaeeueiinoe
yoe eeieou iiaoo nie?auaoueny: oaeaea iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoueny eeieou e
aeey n?i/iuo iia?aoeee – ii noiiai e ii n?ieai. Iaeiaei e i?e aaaaeaiee
a caiaaeii – aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao iieiie eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aaethou iaaeci?
ca aaethoiuie iia?aoeeyie aaieia nio?aiyaony. Aieaa oiai, n 80-o aiaeia
ioia/aaony oneeaiea yoiai eiio?iey aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey eiioeaio?aoeee o
aaieia aaethoiuo ?eneia a aaeainao e aiaaaeainiauo noaoueyo.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue yoiai auea i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaia cao?oaeiaieyie e
aaie?ionoaii a 70-a aiaeu ?yaea e?oiiuo aaieia ec-ca iioa?ue a aaethoiuo
iia?aoeeyo. Iauae oaiaeaioeeae ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeyaony ana aieueoay
oaycea aaethoiuo ?eneia n ?acia?ii nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa aaieia.

I?aaeaea, /ai i?enooieoue e ?anniio?aieth aaethoiuo iia?aoeee aaiea,
iaiaoiaeeii inaaoeoue iaeioi?ua oai?aoe/aneea aniaeou enneaaeiaaiey.
Iiae aaethoie iiieiathony aeaiaaeiua ciaee eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa, a
oaeaea e?aaeeoiua e ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou, au?aaeaiiua a eiino?aiiuo
aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao e i?eiaiyaiua a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao.

A iaoae ?aaioa iiae eiino?aiiie aaethoie aoaeoo iiieiaoueny n?aaenoaa a
aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
?an/aoiuo aaeeieoeao, iaoiaeyueany ia n/aoao e ai aeeaaeao.

Iia?aoeee n eiino?aiiie aaethoie niaa?oathony niaeanii Caeiio «I
aaethoiii ?aaoee?iaaiee», oeacai I?aceaeaioa, a oaeaea ii?iaoeaiui
aeieoiaioai Iaoeaaiea e Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia Eacaonoaia.

Aaaeiaeoeie iiiyoeyie nenoaiu aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeythony iiiyoey
«?aceaeaio» e «ia?aceaeaio»; ii?aaeaeythuea noauaeoia, inouanoaeythueo
iia?aoeee n ianoiie (iaoeeiiaeueiie) e eiino?aiiie aaethoie.

Iiiyoea «?aceaeaio» aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai e
i?aaiecaoeee:

eacaonoaineea e eiino?aiiua a?aaeaeaia e eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa,
eiathuea iinoiyiiia ianoiaeeoaeuenoai a Eacaonoaia, a oii /enea a?aiaiii
iaoiaeyueany ca a?aieoeae;

th?eaee/aneea eeoea, iaoiaeyueany ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia e
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua a Eacaonoaia;

eacaonoaineea aeeieiiaoe/aneea, oi?aiaua e eiua ioeoeeaeueiua
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ca a?aieoeae, iieuecothueany eiioieoaoii e
aeeieiiaoe/aneeie i?eaeeaaeyie, a oaeaea eiua i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa
eacaonoaineeo i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee ca a?aieoeae, ia
inouanoaeythuea oicyenoaaiioth eee ae?oaoth eiiia?/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

E «ia?aceaeaioai» ioiinyony:

eiino?aiiua e eacaonoaineea a?aaeaeaia e eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa,
eiathuea iinoiyiiia ianoiaeeoaeuenoai ca a?aieoeae, a oii /enea a?aiaiii
iaoiaeyueany ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia;

iaoiaeyueany ca a?aieoeae th?eaee/aneea eeoea, nicaeaiiua e
aeaenoaothuea a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eiino?aiiiai
ainoaea?noaa, a oii /enea n o/anoeai eacaonoaineeo i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee;

iaoiaeyueany ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia eiino?aiiua aeeieiiaoe/aneea e
eiua ioeoeeaeueiua i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?aaiecaoeee (e
eo oeeeaeu), iieuecothueany e aeeieiiaoe/aneeie i?eaeeaaeyie, a oaeaea
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa eiuo i?aaiecaoeee e oe?i, ia aaaeouea oicyenoaaiioth
eee ae?oaoth eiiia?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aaieianeea iia?aoeee iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny oiieiiii/aiiuie aaieaie, oi
anoue eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie, iieo/eaoeie eeoeaicee Iaoeaaiea Eacaonoaia
ia i?iaaaeaiea iia?aoeee a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, aeeth/ay aaiee n
o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea e aaiee, eaieoae eioi?uo iieiinoueth
i?eiaaeeaaeeo eiino?aiiui o/anoieeai.

Eiino?aiiay aaethoa, iieo/aiiay ?aceaeaioaie a ?acoeueoaoa
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iiaeeaaeeo iaycaoaeueiiio
ca/eneaieth ia n/aoa ?aceaeaioia a oiieiiii/aiiuo aaieao. Ia?aaiae
eiino?aiiie aaethou ia n/aoa a oiieiiii/aiiuo aaieao aeieaeai auoue
inouanoaeai a oa/aiea 30 aeiae n aeaou i?iaaaeaiey ieaoaaea a ethaie
oi?ia a iieueco ?aceaeaioa aaieii ieaoaeueueea (ia?aceaeaioa) eee
aaieii, oiieiiii/aiiui iineaaeiei ia inouanoaeaiea ieaoaaea ii naeaeea.
Oaeiaa caeiiiaeaoaeueii-th?eaee/aneay noi?iia caeeth/aiey aaethoiuo
iia?aoeee.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea eeth/aaua iiiyoey aaethoiuo iia?aoeee e aaethoiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey, aac ?anniio?aiey eioi?uo iaeuecy i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeeoue
aeey naay cia/aiea oao eee eiuo iiiaioia naeaeie. Iaeiei ec oaeeo
iiiyoee yaeyaony «aaethoiue ?uiie». Aaethoiue ?uiie a oceii niunea
neiaa- iniaue eiinoeoooeeiiiue iaoaieci, iiin?aaeothuee ioiioaiey ii
iiaiaeo eoiee e i?iaeaaee eiino?aiiie aaethou, aaea aieueoeinoai naeaeie
caeeth/aaony iaaeaeo aaieaie (a oaeaea i?e o/anoee a?iea?ia e ae?oaeo
oeiainiauo einoeoooia).

Aaethoiue ?uiie a oe?ieii niunea neiaa- yoi ioiioaiey ia oieueei iaaeaeo
aaieaie e eo eeeaioaie, ii e iaaeaeo aai noauaeoaie (o.a., a iniiaiii
iaaeaeo aaieaie). Aeaaiay oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa aaethoiiai ?uiea
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ia iai aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu i?ioeainoiyo ae?oa
ae?oao oieueei a aeaea caienae ii ei??aniiiaeaioneei n/aoai.

Aaethoiue ?uiie i?aaenoaaeyao a iniiaiii iaaeaaieianeee ?uiie,
iineieueeo eiaiii a oiaea iaaeaaieianeeo iia?aoeee oi?ie?oaony eo?n
aaethou, iia?aoeee i?iaiaeyony i?e iiiiue ?acee/iuo n?aaenoa nayce e
eiiioieeaoeee. ?ieue aaethoiiai ?uiea ii?aaeaeyaony a yeiiiieea aai
ooieoeeyie:

ianeoaeeaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iai?ioa oiaa?ia e oneoa, eaieoaeia;

oi?ie?iaaiea aaethoiiai eo?na iiae aeeyieai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey;

iaoaieci caueou io aaethoiuo ?eneia e i?eeiaeaiey niaeoeyoeaiuo
eaieoaeia;

eino?oiaiou ainoaea?noaa aeey oeaeae aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie e
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

I?e ianoaeaeaiee aaethoiuo iia?aoeee enoiaeiuie iiiaioaie yaeythony
iiiyoey «eioe?iaea aaethou», e «aaethoiay iiceoeey».

Eioe?iaea aaethou- ii?aaeaeaiea aa eo?na. Iieiay eioe?iaea aeeth/aao
eo?n iieoiaoaey e i?iaeaaoea, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui aaie eoieo eee
i?iaeano eiino?aiioth aaethoo ia iaoeeiiaeueioth.

?acieoea iaaeaeo eo?naie i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey- ia?aea. Ia?aea
yaeyaony aeey aaiea enoi/ieeii aeioiaea, ca n/ao eioi?iai ii iie?uaaao
?anoiaeu ii inouanoaeaieth naeaeee e neoaeeo aeey no?aoiaaiey aaethoiiai
?enea.

Nouanoaoao aeaa aeaea eioe?iaee: i?yiay e einaaiiay. Aieueoeinoai no?ai
iieuecoaony i?yiie, i?e eioi?ie noieiinoue aaeeieoeu eiino?aiiie aaethou
au?aaeaaony a iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoea. I?e einaaiiie – ca
aaeeieoeo i?eiyoa iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaiaaeiay aaeeieoea, eo?n eioi?ie
au?aaeaaony a ii?aaeaeaiiii eiee/anoaa eiino?aiiie aaethou. A aeaaa III
iaie aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu i?eia?u ?an/aoia i?yiie e einaaiiie eioe?iaie
aaetho.

I?ioeaaeo?a eioe?iaee, ninoiyuay a ii?aaeaeaiee e ?aaeno?aoeee
iaaeaaieianeiai eo?na iooai iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai niiinoaaeaiey ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eaaeaeie aaethoa, iacuaaaony «oeneeia». Ia eo iniiaa
onoaiaaeeaathony eo?nu i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey a ioeoeeaeueiuo
atheeaoaiyo. Eioe?iaea aaetho aeey oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiie eeeaioo?u,
eioi?ay eioa?anoaony eioe?iaeie eiino?aiiie aaethou ii ioiioaieth e
iaoeeiiaeueiie, aace?oaony ia e?inn-eo?na- niioiioaiee iaaeaeo aeaoiy
aaethoaie, eioi?ia auoaeaao ii ioiioaieth e o?aoueae aaethoa.(iau/ii
aeieea?o NOA).*

I?eia?u ?an/aoia e?inn- eo?na niio?eoa a aeaaa III

A i?ioeanna niaa?oaiey naeaeie n aaethoie aaie iieo/aao iaeio aaethoo ia
ae?oaoth. Niioiioaiea o?aaiaaiee e iaycaoaeuenoa aaiea a eiino?aiiie
aaethoa ii?aaeaeyao aai aaethoioth iiceoeeth. Anee o?aaiaaiea e
iaycaoaeuenoaa niaiaaeatho, aaethoiay iiceoeey n/eoaaony cae?uoie. I?e
ianiaiaaeaiee- ioe?uoie. Ioe?uoay iiaeao aeaoo aeaeia: ei?ioeay e
aeeeiiay. Iiceoeey, i?e eioi?ie iaycaoaeuenoaa ii i?iaeaiiie aaethoa
i?aauoatho o?aaiaaiey, iacuaaaony ei?ioeie, a anee o?aaiaaiey i?aauoatho
iaycaoaeuenoaa- aeeeiiie.

Oaeiau iniiaiua iiiyoey aaethoiuo iia?aoeee, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue,
ii?ie /?aaaou ?eneaie. Aaiee no?aiyony eeeaeaee?iaaoue aaethoiue ?ene.
Nouanoaotho aeaa niiniaa- oaoie/aneee e aaeieieno?aoeaiue. Aeey
no?aoiaaiey io aaethoiiai ?enea ia?aui iaoiaeii aaie iieo/aao aaethoo ia
oneiaeyo iaee/iie naeaeee e iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaeaao aa ia n?ie. I?e
aoi?ii, aaeieieno?aoeaiii niiniaa, aaiaeyony eeieou ia ioe?uooth
aaethoioth iiceoeeth. I?e onoaiiaeaiee eeieoia ia ioe?uooth aaethoioth
iiceoeeth a oa/aiea aeiy o/eouaathony n?aaeiaaeiaaiua eieaaaiey eo?na
aaetho ca iineaaeiea ianeieueei ianyoeaa. Enoiaey ec yoiai,
ii?aaeaeythony noiia aeiaaiiai eeieoa ioe?uoie iiceoeee, ia?aie/aiey
aiciiaeiuo oauoeia e i?eauee. Aaethoiue ioaeae aaiea inouanoaeyao
iinoiyiiue eiio?ieue ca iiceoeeyie a ?acee/iuo aaethoao iooai aaaaeaiey
anao niaa?oaaiuo aaethoiuo iia?aoeee a YAI.

Aaethoiua iia?aoeee aaiea iiae?acaeaeytho ia 5 eaoaai?ee. ?anniio?ei
eaaeaeoth ec ieo.

Iia?aoeey «NIIO»

Iia?aoeee naeaeie i?ienoiaeyo a aeaea iaee/iuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.
I?e/ai, n/eoaaony, /oi iia?aoeee «NIIO»- yaeythony iaeaieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey eeeaioia aaiea, iie ninoaaeytho i?eia?ii 90% anao
aaethoiuo naeaeie.

N?i/iua naeaeee

Yoi aaethoiua iia?aoeee eiatho oaeaea e iaaeaaieianeia i?eiaiaiea.
Iaaeaaieianeea n?i/iua naeaeee iieo/eee iacaaiea «oi?aa?aeiuo».

Naeaeee n «iioeeiiii».

N?aaee n?i/iuo naeaeie n eiino?aiiie aaethoie auaeaeytho naeaeee n
«aoo?aeoii»- n oneiaeai iinoaaee aaethou ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo, e
naeaeee n «iioeeiiii»- n oneiaeai iaoeene?iaaiiie aeaou iinoaaee.

Iia?aoeee «NAII»

Naeaeee «NAII» i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaethoiua iia?aoeee, ni/aoathuea
eoieth eee i?iaeaaeo aaethou ia oneiaeyo iaee/iie naeaeee ii eo?no
«oi?aa?ae».

A?aeo?aaeiua naeaeee

Iie niaa?oathony n oiaa?aie, oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, aaethoaie.

Eoae, iaie ae?aooea auee ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua iiiyoey aaethoiuo
iia?aoeee, a oaeaea aeaeu aaethoiuo naeaeie.

Aeaeaa ?a/ue iieaeao ia yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo aaieao, oae eae eeeaiou
aaiea eiatho aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeeoue aaethoiua naeaeee aeaonoi?iiiaai
oa?aeoa?a.

1.2 Yenii?oii- eiii?oiua aaiee

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee naycaia n
inouanoaeaieai eie aaieianeeo iia?aoeee e ae?oaeo ?ac?aoaiiuo
aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii naeaeie i?e yenii?oa-eiii?oa oiaa?ia e
oneoa, eo ?aaeecaoeee ca eiino?aiioth aaethoo ia oa??eoi?ee ?E;
i?iaaaeaiea iaoi?aiauo iia?aoeee.

Aeaenoaothuea eiiia?/aneea aaiee, noaaoea oiieiiii/aiiuie ii
i?iaaaeaieth aaethoiuo iia?aoeee, eiatho neaaeothuea aeaeu aaethoiuo
eeoeaicee:

aioo?aiithth,

?anoe?aiioth,

aaia?aeueioth.

Aioo?aiiyy eeoeaicey aeaao i?aai ia niaa?oaiea ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa
iia?aoeee: ioe?uoea e aaaeaiea aaethoiuo n/aoia eeeaioia, i?iaaaeaiea
yenii?oii- eiii?oiuo ?an/aoia e iaoi?aiauo iia?aoeee, iieoiea- i?iaeaaea
iaee/iie e aaciaee/iie aaethou ia aioo?aiiai aaethoiii ?uiea,
onoaiiaeaiea ei??aniiiaeaioneeo ioiioaiee n eacaonoaineeie aaieaie,
eiathueie aaia?aeueioth eeoeaiceth, e ca?oaaaeiuie aaieaie,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueie Eacaonoaio.

?anoe?aiiay eeoeaicey i?aaeinoaaeyao i?aai ia aaethoiia e?aaeeoiaaiea e
onoaiiaeaiea i?yiuo ei??aniiiaeaioneeo ioiioaiee n oanoueth
eiino?aiiuie aaieaie.

Aaia?aeueiay eeoeaicey aeaao i?aai ia i?iaaaeaiea anao aeaeia aaethoiuo
iia?aoeee ia aioo?aiiai e aiaoieo oeiainiauo ?uieao.

Aaethoiue eiio?ieue ca i?iaaaeaieai th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie -?aceaeaioaie
yenii?oii- eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee inouanoaeyaony niaianoii IA?E e
Ainoaea?noaaiiui oaiiaeaiiui eiieoaoii ?E eae i?aaiaie aaethoiiai
eiio?iey ia iniiaaiee Caeiia ?E «I aaethoiii ?aaoee?iaaiee e aaethoiii
eiio?iea».

Iniiaiua oeaee aaethoiiai eiio?iey- iaania/aiea iieiiai e naiaa?aiaiiiai
iinooieaiey yenii?oiie aaethoiie au?o/ee a ?E ia n/aoa yenii?oa?ia-
?aceaeaioia a oiieiiii/aiiuo aaieao e niioaaonoaey noiiu ia?aaiaeeiuo a
iieaoo ca eiii?oe?oaiua oiaa?u n?aaenoa a eiino?aiiie aaethoa noieiinoe
oaeoe/anee aaacaiiua ia oa??eoi?eth ?E- oiaa?ia.

Yenii?oa?u-?aceaeaiou iaycaiu iaania/eoue ca/eneaiea aaethoiie au?o/ee
io yenii?oa oiaa?ia ia naie aaethoiua n/aoa a oiieiiii/aiiuo aaieao
Eacaonoaia, oeacaiiua a eiio?aeoa. Ca/eneaiea au?o/ee io yenii?oa
oiaa?ia ia eiie n/ao aeiioneaaony oieueei i?e iaee/ee o yenii?oa?a
?ac?aoaiey IA?E.

Ii eaaeaeiio caeeth/aiiiio yenii?oa?ii eiio?aeoo ioi?ieyaony iaeei
ianii?o naeaeee (IN), iiaeienuaaaony iaeiei oiieiiii/aiiui aaieii, ia
o?aiceoiue aaethoiue n/ao, a eioi?ii a iineaaeothuai aeieaeia iinooieoue
any aaethoiay au?o/ea io yenii?oa oiaa?ia ii aeaiiiio eiio?aeoo. IN
ioi?ieyaony a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao.

Aaie ?anniao?eaaao i?aaenoaaeaiiua aio aeieoiaiou e iiaeienuaaao
i?aaenoaaeaiiua yenii?oa?ii yecaiiey?u IN.

N iiaeienaieai IN aaie i?eieiaao aeaiiue eiio?aeo ia ?an/aoiia
ianeoaeeaaiea e au?aaeaao niaeanea ia auiieiaiea ooieoeee ii eiio?ieth
ca iinooieaieai aaethoiie au?o/ee io yenii?oa oiaa?ia ii yoiio
eiio?aeoo.

Aaaeiie noa?ie aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee yaeythony
e?aaeeoii-?an/aoiua ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n aeaeaeaieai ec iaeiie no?aiu
a ae?oaoth, aeaiaaeiuie ?an/aoaie ca oiaa?u e oneoae, a oaeaea n
iaoiaa?iuie iia?aoeeyie.

Iia?aoeee n eiino?aiiie aaethoie iiaoo inouanoaeyoue ia ana eiiia?/aneea
aaiee, a oieueei oa, eoi iieo/ee ia yoi ?ac?aoaiea io Iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aaiea Eacaonoaia. ?ac?aoaiea eiiia?/aneei aaieai auaeaaony IA a aeaea
eeoeaicee.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ?an/aoia a oiieiiii/aiiuo aaieao
?aceaeaioai e ia?aceaeaioai ioe?uaathony n/aoa a eiino?aiiie aaethoa.
TH?eaee/aneei eeoeai- ia?aceaeaioai ioe?uaaaony n/ao a oaiaa. A
?anii?yaeaiee aaiea ia ioe?uoee aaethoiiai n/aoa eae ii ca/eneaieth, oae
e iienaieth n?aaenoa iaiaa?eaaaony ?aaeei ?aaiou n/aoa, o.a. i?aaa
aeaaeaeueoea. Ca aaaeaiea aaethoiiai n/aoa aaie iiaeao aceiaoue
eiienneiiiua aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Oa?eou ia ieo onoaiaaeeaathony aaieii.

Oaeaea i?e inouanoaeaiee iaycaoaeueiie i?iaeaaee i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo
i?iaeaoue eiino?aiioth aaethoo /a?ac oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee ia aioo?aiiai
aaethoiii ?uiea.

Iia?aoeee n eiino?aiiie aaethoie ia aioo?aiiai aaethoiii ?uiea
Eacaonoaia inouanoaeythony /a?ac oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee. Oiieiiii/aiiua
aaiee eiatho i?aai iieoiaoue e i?iaeaaaoue eiino?aiioth aaethoo:

– io naiaai eiaie ii ii?o/aieth i?aaei?eyoey e eiiia?/aneeo aaieia;

– io naiaai eiaie e ca naie n/ao.

A iineaaeiai neo/aa aaie aeieaeai niaethaeaoue eeieou ioe?uoie aaethoiie
iiceoeee.

Oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee eiatho i?aai iieoiaoue, i?iaeaaaoue iaee/ioth
eiino?aiioth aaethoo ia aioo?aiiai aaethoiii ?uiea aeey inouanoaeaiey
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee n oece/aneeie eeoeaie.

?aceaeaiou ?E eiatho i?aai iieoiaoue eiino?aiioth aaethoo ca ?oaee /a?ac
oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee ia aioo?aiiai aaethoiii ?uiea aeey inouanoaeaiey
oaeoueo aaethoiuo iia?aoeee e aeey iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa, iieo/aiiiai a
eiino?aiiie aaethoa.

Ii ii?o/aieth i?aaei?eyoee oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee iiaoo inouanoaeyoue
aaethoiua iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n aeaeaeaieai eaieoaea. Aeey yoiai ei
iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aoaiea IA.

Aeaaa II. Iaoaieci aaethoiuo iia?aoeee.

2.1 Iia?aoeee «NIIO»

I?aaeaea, /ai ?anniio?aoue aanue iaoaieci aaethoiuo iia?aoeee,
iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue aai ii?yaeie, o.a. ii?yaeie ioe?uoey aaethoiuo
n/aoia e ninoaa ia?aceaeaioia a aaethoa ?E.

Aeey ioe?uoey aaethoiiai n/aoa eeeaio aeieaeai i?aaenoaaeoue a
eiiia?/aneee aaie:

cayaeaiea ia ioe?uoea oaeouaai aaeainiaiai aaethoiiai n/aoa ii
onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia;

cayaeaiea ia ioe?uoea o?aiceoiiai aaethoiiai n/aoa;

iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiioth eiieth onoaaa eee iieiaeaiey i aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey;

o/?aaeeoaeueiue aeiaiai?;

iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiioth ea?oi/eo n ia?acoeaie iiaeienae e iooeneii
ia/aoe i?aaei?eyoey;

?aoaiea i nicaeaiee eee ?ai?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey;

ni?aaee ec iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee, iaineiiiiai oiiaea, i?aaiia noaoenoeee,
i ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey;

aeieoiaiou ia eca?aiee (iacia/aiee) ?oeiaiaeeoaey, aeaaiiai aooaaeoa?a
i?aaei?eyoey.

Oi?aiaey aaethoie i?e aeaiiuo iia?aoeeyo «NIIO» i?ienoiaeeo a aeaea
iaee/iuo eee n?i/iuo iia?aoeee. Iaee/iua aaethoiua iia?aoeee
inouanoaeytho a iniiaiii ia oneiaeyo «NIIO», /oi iiae?acoiaaaao ?an/ao
ia aoi?ie ?aai/ee aeaiue iinea caeeth/aiey naeaeee ii eo?no,
caoeene?iaaiiiio a iiiaio aa caeeth/aiey. Yoi iicaieyao ia?aaanoe
n?aaenoaa a ethaoth no?aio e caaa?oeoue ioi?ieaiea naeaeee. Aacie aeey
i?iaaaeaiey «NIIO» neoaeao ei??aniiiaeaioneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo aaieaie.

Yoe iia?aoeee iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu e ninoaaeytho aei 90% iauaia
aaethoiuo naeaeie. Eo nouiinoue caeeth/aaony a eoiea-i?iaeaaea aaethou
ia oneiaeyo aa iinoaaee aaieaie-eiio?aaaioaie ia aoi?ie ?aai/ee aeaiue
ni aeiy caeeth/aiey naeaeee ii eo?no, caoeene?iaaiiiio a iiiaio aa
caeeth/aiey. I?e yoii n/eoathony ?aai/ea aeie ii eaaeaeie ec aaetho,
o/anoaothueo a naeaeea, o. a. anee neaaeothuee aeaiue ca aeaoie naeaeee
yaeyaony ia?aai/ei aeey iaeiie aaethou, n?ie iinoaaee aaetho
oaaee/eaaaony ia 1 aeaiue, ii anee iineaaeothuee aeaiue ia?aai/ee aeey
ae?oaie aaethou, oi n?ie iinoaaee oaaee/eaaaony aua ia 1 aeaiue. Aeey
naeaeie, caeeth/aiiuo a /aoaa?a, ii?iaeueiue n?ie iinoaaee –
iiiaaeaeueiee, a iyoieoeo-aoi?iee (noaaioa e aine?anaiuea – ia?aai/ea
aeie).

Ii naeaeeai “NIIO” iinoaaea aaethou inouanoaeyaony ia n/aoa, oeacaiiua
aaieaie – iieo/aoaeyie. Aeaooaeiaaiue n?ie ia?aaiaea aaetho ii
caeeth/aiiie naeaeea ?aiaa aeeeoiaaeny iauaeoeaiuie o?oaeiinoyie
inouanoaeoue aai a aieaa ei?ioeee n?ie.

Aaethoiua iia?aoeee n iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaeie yaeythony naiui iiaeeueiui
yeaiaioii aaethoiie iiceoeee e caeeth/atho a naaa ii?aaeaeaiiue ?ene. N
iiiiuueth iia?aoeee “NIIO” aaiee iaania/eaatho iio?aaiinoe naieo
eeeaioia a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, ia?aeea eaieoaeia, a oii /enea “ai?y/eo”
aeaiaa, ec iaeiie aaethou a ae?oaoth, inouanoaeytho a?aeo?aaeiua e
niaeoeyoeaiua iia?aoeee.

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue auoa aaethoiua iia?aoeee «NIIO» ninoaaeytho
i?eia?ii 90( anao aaethoiuo naeaeie. Aeaaiuie oeaeyie eo i?iaaaeaiey
yaeythony:

– iaania/aiea iio?aaiinoae eeeaioia aaiea a eiino?aiiie aaethoa;

– ia?aeea n?aaenoa ec iaeiie aaethou a ae?oaoth;

– i?iaaaeaiea niaeoeyoeaiuo iia?aoeee.

Aaiee eniieuecotho iia?aoeee «NIIO» aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ieieiaeueii
iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aai/eo inoaoeia a eiino?aiiuo aaieao ia n/aoao «iino?i» a
oeaeyo oiaiueoaiey eceeoeia a iaeiie aaethoa e iie?uoey iio?aaiinoe a
ae?oaie aaethoa. N iiiiuueth yoiai aaiea ?aaoee?otho naith aaethoioth
iiceoeeth a oeaeyo ecaaaeaiey ia?aciaaiey iaiie?uouo inoaoeao ia n/aoao.
Ianiio?y ia ei?ioeee n?ie iinoaaee eiino?aiiie aaethou, eiio?aaaiou
ianoo aaethoiue ?ene e ii yoie naeaeea, oae eae a oneiaeyo «ieaaathueo»
aaethoiuo eo?nia eo?n iiaeao eciaieoueny e ca aeaa ?aai/eo aeiy.

I?iaaaeaiea aaethoiuo naeaeie o?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiie iiaeaioiaee. Oaoieea
eo niaa?oaiey ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo yoaiia. Ia iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie
noaaeee i?iaiaeeony aiaeec ninoiyiey aaethoiuo ?uieia, auyaeythony
oaiaeaioeee aeaeaeaiey eo?nia ?acee/iuo aaetho, eco/athony i?e/eiu eo
eciaiaiey. Ia iniiaa yoie eioi?iaoeee aeeea?u, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea
eiathuothny o ieo aaethoioth iiceoeeth, n iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?iie
oaoieee ii?aaeaeytho n?aaeiee eo?n iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou ii ioiioaieth
e eiino?aiiie aaethoa.

I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec aeaao aiciiaeiinoue au?aaioaoue iai?aaeaiea
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee, oi anoue iaania/eoue aeeeiioth eee ei?ioeoth
iiceoeeth a eiie?aoiie aaethoa, n eioi?ie iie i?iaiaeyo naeaeee.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a e?oiiuo aaieao aiaeecii iieiaeaiey aaetho ia
?uieao caieiathony niaoeeaeueiua a?oiiu yeiiiienoia- aiaeeoeeia, a
aeeea?u iie?aynue ia eo eioi?iaoeeth, naiinoiyoaeueii auae?atho
iai?aaeaiey i?iaaaeaiey aaethoiuo iia?aoeee. A iaiaa e?oiiuo aaieao
ooieoeee aiaeeoeeia auiieiytho naie aeeea?u; iie aea iaiin?aaenoaaiii
inouanoaeytho aaethoiua iia?aoeee: n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa nayce (oaeaoii,
oaeaen) aaaeoo ia?aaiai?u i eoiea- i?iaeaaea aaetho e caeeth/atho
naeaeee. I?ioeaaeo?a caeeth/aiey naeaeee aeeth/aao: auai? iaiaieaaaiuo
aaetho; oeenaoeeth eo?nia; onoaiiaeaiea noiiu naeaeee; aaethoe?iaaiea
ia?a/eneaiiuo n?aaenoa; oeacaiea aae?ana aeinoaaee aaethou.

Ia caeeth/eoaeueiii yoaia inouanoaeyaony i?iaaaeaiea naeaeee ii n/aoai e
aeieoiaioaeueiia aa iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea.

2.2 N?i/iua naeaeee

N?i/iuie iia?aoeeyie iacuaathony aaethoiua naeaeee ii eioi?ui
i?iecaiaeeony aieaa /ai /a?ac aeaa ?aai/eo aeiy iinea eo caeeth/aiey:

no?aoiaaiea io eciaiaiey aaetho;

ecaea/aiea niaeoeyoeaiie i?eauee.

Iaaeaaieianeea n?i/iua naeaeee iieo/eee iacaaiea «oi?aa?ae». A iiiaio
caeeth/aiey naeaeee oeene?oaony n?ie, eo?n e noiia, ii aei ianooieaiey
n?iea (iau/ii 1-6 ianyoeaa) ieeaeea noiiu ii n/aoai ia i?iaiaeyony. E
iniaaiiinoyi n?i/iuo n/aoia ioiinyony:

nouanoaiaaiea eioa?aaea ai a?aiaie iaaeaeo iiiaioii caeeth/aiey e
eniieiaiey naeaeee;

eo?n aaethou ii?aaeaeyaony a iiiaio caeeth/aiey naeaeee.

A ae?aeaauo eioe?iai/iuo atheeaoaiyo ioaeeeoaony eo?n aeey naeaeie
«NIIO» e i?aiee eee neeaeee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eo?na ii naeaeeai
«oi?aa?ae» ia ?aciua n?iee, eae i?aaeei, 1,3 eee 6 ianyoeaa.

Anee aaethoa ii naeaeea «oi?aa?ae» eioe?oaony aei?iaea, /ai i?e
iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaea ia oneiaeyo «NIIO», oi iia eioe?oaony n i?aieae.

Neeaeee eee aeeneiio icia/aao ia?aoiia. N?i/iue eo?n, a eioi?ii o/oaia
i?aiey eee neeaeea, eiaioaony eo?nii «aoo?aeo». I?e I?aiee aaethoa ia
n?ie aei?iaea, /ai iaee/iue eo?n, i?e neeaeea- aeaoaaea. Eiay cia/aiea
i?aiee e aeeneiioa, au/eneyaony eo?n «aoo?aeo».

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ia i?aeoeea aicieeatho neooaoeee, eiaaea
«oi?aa?aeiua» naeaeee caeeth/athony n aeaoie iinoaaee, ioee/iie io
noaiaea?oiuo n?ieia (1,2,3,6,12 ianyoeaa). Oiaaea eo?n «aoo?aeo»
?ann/eouaaaony ii neaaeothuae noaia. ?acieoea eo?nia iaaeaeo aeeaeaeoeie
noaiaea?oiuie ia?eiaeaie aeaeeony ia /enei aeiae iaaeaeo ieie, e
iieo/aiiue ?acoeueoao oiiiaeaaony ia eiee/anoai aeiae, eaaeaueo iaaeaeo
aeaoie iinoaaee e neaaeothuei ca iae aeeaeaeoei noaiaea?oiui ia?eiaeii.
Iieo/aiiia /enei au/eoaaony ec cia/aiey eo?na iineaaeothuaai ia?eiaea.

N?i/iua aaethoiua naeaeee (oi?aa?aeiua, oueth/a?niua) – yoi aaethoiua
naeaeee, i?e eioi?uo noi?iiu aeiaiaa?eaathony i iinoaaea iaoneiaeaiiie
noiiu eiino?aiiie aaethou /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie iinea caeeth/aiey
naeaeee ii eo?no, caoeene?iaaiiiio a iiiaio aa caeeth/aiey. Ec yoiai
ii?aaeaeaiey auoaeatho aeaa iniaaiiinoe n?i/iuo aaethoiuo iia?aoeee.

Nouanoaoao eioa?aae ai a?aiaie iaaeaeo iiiaioii caeeth/aiey e eniieiaiey
naeaeee. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo n?ie eniieiaiey naeaeee, o. a. iinoaaee
aaethou, ii?aaeaeyaony eae eiiaoe ia?eiaea io aeaou caeeth/aiey naeaeee
(n?ie 1-2 iaaeaee, 1,2,3,6,12 ianyoeaa e aei 5 eao) eee ethaie ae?oaie
ia?eiae a i?aaeaeao n?iea.

Eo?n aaetho ii n?i/iie aaethoiie iia?aoeee oeene?oaony a iiiaio
caeeth/aiey naeaeee, oioy iia eniieiyaony /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie.

N?i/iua naeaeee n eiino?aiiie aaethoie niaa?oathony a neaaeothueo
oeaeyo:

eiiaa?ney (iaiai) aaethou a eiiia?/aneeo oeaeyo, caaeaaia?aiaiiay
i?iaeaaea aaethoiuo iinooieaiee eee iieoiea eiino?aiiie aaethou aeey
i?aaenoiyueo ieaoaaeae, /oiau cano?aoiaaoue aaethoiue ?ene;

no?aoiaaiea ii?ooaeueiuo eee i?yiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee ca a?aieoeae io
oauoeia a nayce n aiciiaeiui iiieaeaieai eo?na aaethou, a eioi?ie iie
inouanoaeaiu;

iieo/aiea niaeoeyoeaiie i?eauee ca n/ao eo?niaie ?acieoeu.

Eniieueciaaiea n?i/iuo naeaeie aeey iie?uoey aaethoiiai ?enea i?e
niaa?oaiee eiiia?/aneeo iia?aoeee i?eia?aei oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
eiioea 60-o ia/aea 70-o aiaeia a oneiaeyo e?ecena A?aooiiaoaeneie
aaethoiie nenoaiu e ia?aoiaea e ieaaathuei aaethoiui eo?nai.

2.3 Naeaeee n «iioeeiiii»

N?aaee n?i/iuo naeaeie n eiino?aiiie aaethoie auaeaeytho naeaeee n
«aoo?aeoii»- n oneiaeai iinoaaee aaethou ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo, e
naeaeee n «iioeeiiii»- n oneiaeai iaoeene?iaaiiie aeaou iinoaaee. Iaeia
ec noi?ii ii iioeeiiiie naeaeea eiaao i?aai auae?aoue aeey naay aieaa
auaiaeiua oneiaey eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa. Ca yoi i?aai aoi?ay noi?iia
iieo/aao i?aieth, caaenyuoth io aeeeoaeueiinoe iioeeiia, io ?acieoeu
eo?nia i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeee e iaiai?aiiuo a aeaiiie iia?aoeee. Eo
oeaeue- ia?aie/eoue iioa?e io eieaaaiey eo?nia, oi anoue no?aoiaaiea
iinooieaiee e ieaoaaeae a aaethoa io aaethoiiai ?enea a caaeneiinoe io
oiai, eoi ec o/anoieeia e eaeei ia?acii eiaao i?aai ia eciaiaiea oneiaee
naeaeee, ?acee/atho iioeeii iieoiaoaey eee naeaeeo n i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
i?aieae, iioeeii i?iaeaaoea eee naeaeeo n ia?aoiie i?aieae, a?aiaiiue
iioeeii.

A neo/aa iioeeiia iieoiaoaey eee naeaeee n i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie i?aieae
aea?aeaoaeue iioeeiia eiaao i?aai iieo/eoue aaethoo a ii?aaeaeaiiue
aeaiue ii iaoneiaeaiiiio eo?no. Iieoiaoaeue nio?aiyao ca niaie i?aai
ioeacaoueny io i?eaia aaethou, oieaoea ca yoi i?iaeaaoeo i?aieth a
ea/anoaa ionooiiiai. Ii iioeeiio i?iaeaaoea eee naeaeea n ia?aoiie
i?aieae aea?aeaoaeue iioeeiia iiaeao iinoaaeoue aaethoo a iaoneiaeaiiue
aeaiue ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio eo?no. I?aai ia ioeac io naeaeee i?eiaaeeaaeeo
i?iaeaaoeo, e ii ieaoeo i?aieth iieoiaoaeth a ea/anoaa ionooiiiai.

?aciiaeaeiinoue naeaeee n iioeeiiii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?aiaiiie
iioeeii, eioi?iio enoi?e/anee i?aaeoanoaiaaea noaeeaaeiay iia?aoeey n
oeaeueth iaeiia?aiaiiiai i?iaaaeaiey niaeoeyoeaiuo naeaeie a ?an/aoa ia
iiauoaiea e iiieaeaiea eo?na aaethou. Oaeie iioeeii, i?aaeinoaaeyaiue
aaieii eeeaioo, yaeyaony iioeeiiii (a ia?aaiaea n aiae. Option- i?aai
eee i?aaeiao auai?a) a ioiioaiee ia?eiaea a?aiaie, eiaaea aoaeao
inouanoaeaia iinoaaea aaethou, e oaeay naeaeea aeieaeia auoue eniieiaia
aei iaiai?aiiiai n?iea. Ii yoie iia?aoeee ieaoaeueuee i?aiee eiaao i?aai
iio?aaiaaoue eniieiaiey naeaeee a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie a ia?eiae
iioeeiia ii ?aiaa caoeene?iaaiiiio eo?no.

Oaeei ia?acii, o/anoiee naeaeee ieaoeo i?aieth ca i?aai aua?aoue
iaeaieaa auaiaeiue oaeouee eo?n aeey eiiaa?nee aaethou, iieo/aiiie a
?acoeueoaoa iioeeiiiie naeaeee. A aeaiiii neo/aa i?aiey ia ea?aao
ionooiiiai, iineieueeo a ia?eiae n?iea iioeeiia ioeacaoueny io
eniieiaiey naeaeee iaeuecy. I?e eniieiaiee naeaeee eiio?aaaiou
ooi/iytho, eoi ec ieo aunooieo a ?iee i?iaeaaoea e eoi a ?iee
iieoiaoaey. Caoai iaeei ec ieo, oieaoea i?aieth ae?oaiio, eeai iieoiaao
aaethoo, eeai i?iaeaao aa. Yoa naeaeea oai auaiaeiaa aeey o/anoieeia,
/ai aieueoa eieaaaiey eo?na aaethou.

2.4 Iia?aoeee «NAII»

Naeaeee «NAII» i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aaethoiua iia?aoeee, ni/aoathuea
eoieth e i?iaeaaeo aaethou ia oneiaeyo iaee/iie naeaeee «NIIO» n
iaeiia?aiaiiie i?iaeaaeae eee eoieae oie aea aaethou ia n?ie ii eo?no
«oi?aa?ae». I/a?aaeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey yoeo iia?aoeee eiaao naia
iacaaiea. Oae, naeaeea, i?e eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeo i?iaeaaea eiino?aiiie
aaethou ia oneiaeyo «NIIO» n iaeiia?aiaiiie aa iieoieie ia oneiaeyo
«oi?aa?ae»- ?aii?o. Naeaeee «NAII» inouanoaeythony ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe
aeaoo aaieia iau/ii ia n?ie io iaeiiai aeiy aei 6 ianyoeaa. Yoe
iia?aoeee iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoueny iaaeaeo eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie e iaaeaeo
naieie oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie. A iineaaeiai neo/aa iie i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie niaeaoaiey i acaeiiii e?aaeeoiaaiee a iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaethoao.

?aciiaeaeiinoueth aaethoiie naeaeee, ni/aoathuae iaee/ioth iia?aoeee,
yaeythony naeaeee “NAII”. Iiaeiaiua naeaeee ecaanoiu ni a?aiai
n?aaeiaaaeiauey, eiaaea eoaeueyineea aaiee?u i?iaiaeeee iia?aoeee n
aaenaeyie; iicaeiaa iie iieo/eee ?acaeoea a oi?ia ?aii?oiuo e aeaii?oiuo
iia?aoeee. ?aii?o-ni/aoaiea aeaoo acaeiii naycaiiuo naeaeie: iaee/iie
i?iaeaaee eiino?aiiie aaethou e iieoiee aa ia n?ie. Aeaii?o- yoi
ni/aoaiea oao aea naeaeie, ii a ia?aoiii ii?yaeea: iieoiea eiino?aiiie
aaethou ia oneiaeyo “niio” e i?iaeaaea ia n?ie yoie aea aaethou.

Iicaeiaa iia?aoeee “NAII” i?eia?aee oi?io iaiaia aaieaie aeaiiceoaie a
?acee/iuo aaethoao ia yeaeaaeaioiua noiiu. Iaaeinoaoeii iiaeiaiie
iia?aoeee yaeyeinue oaaee/aiea aaeaina aaiea ia noiio yoie iia?aoeee,
/oi oooaeoaei aai eiyooeoeeaiou e nicaeaaaei aeiiieieoaeueiua ?enee.
Aaethoiay iia?aoeey “NAII” ?ac?aoaao yoe i?iaeaiu: o/ao iaycaoaeuenoa
inouanoaeyaony ia aiaaaeainiauo noaoueyo, iaiai aaetho niaa?oaaony a
oi?ia eoiee- i?iaeaaee, o. a. aaeeiie naeaeee.

“NAII” – yoi aaethoiay iia?aoeey, ni/aoathuay eoieth-i?iaeaaeo aeaoo
aaetho ia oneiaeyo iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaee n iaeiia?aiaiiie eiio?naeaeeie
ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie n oaie aea aaethoaie. I?e yoii aeiaiaa?eaathony i
ano?a/iuo ieaoaaeao aeaa ia?oia?a (aaiee, ei?ii?aoeee e ae?.). Ii
iia?aoeeyi “NAII” iaee/iay naeaeea inouanoaeyaony ii eo?no “NIIO”,
eioi?ue a eiio?naeaeea (n?i/iue) ei??aeoe?oaony n o/aoii i?aiee eee
aeeneiioa a caaeneiinoe io aeaeaeaiey aaethoiiai eo?na. I?e yoii eeeaio
yeiiiieo ia ia?aea – ?acieoea iaaeaeo eo?naie i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey ii
iaee/iie naeaeea. Iia?aoeee “NAII” oaeiaiu aeey aaieia: iie ia nicaeatho
ioe?uoie iiceoeee (iieoiea iie?uaaaony i?iaeaaeae), a?aiaiii
iaania/eaatho iaiaoiaeeiie aaethoie aac ?enea, naycaiiiai n eciaiaieai
aa eo?na. Iia?aoeee “NAII” eniieuecothony aeey:

niaa?oaiey eiiia?/aneeo naeaeie: aaie i?iaeaao eiino?aiioth aaethoo ia
oneiaeyo iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaee e iaeiia?aiaiii iieoiaao aa ia n?ie.

i?eia?aoaiey aaieii iaiaoiaeeiie aaethou aac aaethoiiai ?enea (ia iniiaa
iie?uoey eii?naeaeeie) aeey iaania/aiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia,
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee aaethoiuo aaoa?ia.

acaeiiiai iaaeaaieianeiai e?aaeeoiaaiey a aeaoo aaethoao.

Nouiinoue naeaeee “NAII” iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie caeeth/aaony a
neaaeothuai. Oaaea?aeueiue ?aca?aiue aaie Iueth-Ei?ea ii
aeiaiai?aiiinoe, iai?eia?, n Iaiaoeeei oaaea?aeueiui aaieii i?iaeaao aio
aeieea?aie NOA ia oneiaeyo iaiaaeeaiiie iinoaaee (caienuaaao aeieea?u ia
n/ao yoiai aaiea o naay), a Iaiaoeeee oaaea?aeueiue aaie ca/eneyao
yeaeaaeaio yoie noiiu a ia?eao O?A ia n/ao aaiea Iueth-Ei?ea. Oaeei
ia?acii, NOA iieo/atho e?aaeeo, nicaeatho ?aca?a a eiino?aiiie aaethoa,
eniieuecoy aai aeey aaethoiie eioa?aaioeee eee aaethoiie
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee. Iaeiia?aiaiii Oaaea?aeueiue ?aca?aiue aaie Iueth-Ei?ea
caeeth/aao oi?aa?aeioth naeaeeo n iaiaoeeei Oaaea?aeueiui aaieii e i?e
ianooieaiee aa n?iea iieoiaao o oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea O?A aeieea?u ia
ia?ee. NOA aeoeaii eniieueciaaee naeaeee “NAII” a oeaeyo iiaeaea?aeee
aeieea?ia i?e iaaeaiee aai eo?na a 70-o aiaeao.

Iia?aoeee “NAII” niaa?oathony ia oieueei n aaethoaie, ii e n
i?ioeaioaie. Nouiinoue yoie naeaeee n i?ioeaioaie caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi iaeia noi?iia iaycoaony auieaoeoue ae?oaie i?ioeaiou ii noaaea EEAI?
a iaiai ia iieo/aiea i?ioeaioia ii oeene?iaaiiie noaaea n oeaeueth
ecaea/aiey i?eauee a aeaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo ieie. I?e yoii noi?iia,
eiathuay n?aaeian?i/iua aeiaeaiey ii oeene?iaaiiiio i?ioeaioo, ii
e?aoein?i/iua ianneau eee ianneau ii ia?aniao?eaaaiiio i?ioeaioo,
no?aooao naie i?ioeaioiue ?ene (i?ioeaioioth iiceoeeth), “iieoiay”
aeieain?i/ioth oeene?iaaiioth noaaeo, eee iaiai?io.

Aeieoiaioaoeey ii iia?aoeeyi “NAII” n?aaieoaeueii noaiaea?oece?iaaia,
aeeth/aao oneiaey eo i?ae?auaiey i?e iaieaoaaeao, oaoieeo iaiaia
iaycaoaeuenoaaie, a oaeaea iau/iua ioieou e?aaeeoiiai niaeaoaiey. Iie
aeatho aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue iaiaoiaeeioth aaethoo, eiiiaine?iaaoue
a?aiaiiue ioeea eaieoaeia ec no?aiu, ?aaoee?iaaoue no?oeoo?o aaethoiuo
?aca?aia, a oii /enea ioeoeeaeueiuo.

I?e n?aaiaiee iia?aoeee «NAII» e naeaeie n a?aiaiiui iioeeiiii
iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi naeaeee n a?aiaiiui iioeeiiii inouanoaeytho
iieioth caueoo io aaethoiuo ?eneia, a oi a?aiy eae iia?aoeey «NAII»
oieueei /anoe/ii no?aooao io ieo. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi i?e
i?iaaaeaiee iia?aoeee «NAII» aicieeaao aaethoiue ?ene aneaaenoaea
eciaiaiey a i?ioeaiiieiaeioth noi?iio aeeneiioa eee i?aiee a ia?eiae
iaaeaeo aeiai caeeth/aiey naeaeee e aeiai iinoaaee aaethou.

Iia?aoeee «NAII» aeaeyony ia ianeieueei aeaeia, oioy iie ia eiatho
ie/aai iauaai n eeanne/aneie aaethoiie naeaeeie «NAII» (o.a. «NIIO» +
«oi?aa?ae»). A neo/aa ia?aieaoaiey aaethoiuo iia?aoeee n aaieianeeie
o/anoieeaie oaeeo naeaeie iieo/atho iaiaeoth auaiaeo. E i?eia?o,
eeanne/aneay iia?aoeey «NAII» ninoieo a oii, /oi aeaa noi?iiu
niaeaoathony i?iaanoe na?eth ieaoaaeae ae?oa n ae?oaii.

Iia?aoeey «NAII» n i?ioeaioiuie noaaeaie i?aaeiieaaaao niaeaoaiea aeaoo
noi?ii i acaeiiii i?iaaaeaiee ieaoaaeae ii i?ioeaioai ia ii?aaeaeaiioth
noiio a iaeiie aaethoa. Iia?aoeey «NAII» n aaethoie icia/aao niaeaoaiea
ia iaiaia oeene?iaaiiuo noii aaetho.

Eiiaaea iia?aoeee «NAII» i?iaiaeyony n cieioii. Iie eiatho oeaeue
nio?aieoue i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia iaai e iaeiia?aiaiii i?eia?anoe ia
n?ie iaiaoiaeeioth eiino?aiioth aaethoo.

2. 5 A?aeo?aaeiua naeaeee.

A?aeo?aae- yoi oe?ieia iiiyoea. ?acee/athony a?aeo?aae n oiaa?aie,
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, aaethoaie. A naiai enoi?e/aneii cia/aiee aaethoiue
a?aeo?aae – aaethoiay iia?aoeey, ni/aoathuay iieoieo (i?iaeaaeo) aaethou
n iineaaeothuei niaa?oaieai eiio?naeaeee a oeaeyo iieo/aiey i?eauee ca
n/ao ?acieoeu a eo?nao aaetho ia ?aciuo aaethoiuo ?uieao
(i?ino?ainoaaiiue a?aeo?aae) eee ca n/ao eo?niauo eieaaaiee a oa/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea (a?aiaiiie a?aeo?aae).

Iniiaiie i?eioeei aaethoiiai a?aeo?aaea – eoieoue aaethoo aeaoaaea e
i?iaeaoue aa aei?iaea. ?acee/atho i?inoie aaethoiue a?aeo?aae, e
neiaeiue (n o?aiy e aieaa aaethoaie); ia oneiaeyo iaee/iuo e n?i/iuo
naeaeie. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey aeaiaaeii- e?aaeeoiie e ie?iaie aaethoiie
nenoaiu oi?iu aaethoiiai a?aeo?aaea iaiyeenue. I?e cieioii noaiaea?oa
i?aeoeeiaaeny aaethoiue a?aeo?aae, iniiaaiiue ia ?acieoea eo?nia:
aaenaeae, cieioa, ?acee/iuo e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa ieaoaaea, aaetho ia
?aciuo aaethoiuo ?uieao (i?ino?ainoaaiiue). A iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae
cieioie a?aeo?aae oo?aoee naia cia/aiea a nayce n ioiaiie cieioiai
noaiaea?oa, a i?ino?ainoaaiiue a?aeo?aae aeoeaii eniieueciaaeny, o.e.
i?e iaaeinoaoi/ii auno?ie e iaaeaaeiie nayce iaaeaeo aaethoiuie ?uieaie
nio?aieeanue ?acieoea a aeeiaieea eo?nia aaetho. I?e i?ino?ainoaaiiii
aaethoiii a?aeo?aaea (a ioee/ea io a?aiaiiiai) nicaeaaony cae?uoay
aaethoiay iiceoeey: iineieueeo iieoiea e i?iaeaaea aaethou ia ?aciuo
?uieao inouanoaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii, oi aaethoiue ?ene ia aicieeaao. A
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo n ?acaeoeai yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa nayce e
eioi?iaoeee, ?anoe?aieai iauaia aaethoiuo naeaeie eo?niaua ?acee/ey ia
ioaeaeueiuo aaethoiuo ?uieao noaee aicieeaoue ?aaea, e a ?acoeueoaoa
i?ino?ainoaaiiue aaethoiue a?aeo?aae onooiee ianoi a iniiaiii a?aiaiiiio
aaethoiiio a?aeo?aaeo.

A caaeneiinoe io oeaee ?acee/aaony niaeoeyoeaiue e
eiiaa?neiiiue aaethoiue a?aeo?aae. Niaeoeyoeaiue a?aeo?aae i?aneaaeoao
oeaeue ecaea/ue auaiaeo ec ?acieoeu aaethoiuo eo?nia a nayce n eo
eieaaaieyie. I?e yoii enoiaeiay e eiia/iay aaethou niaiaaeatho, o.a.
naeaeea inouanoaeyaony ii noaia: ia?ea O?A – aeieea? NOA; aeieea? –
ia?ea. Eiiaa?neiiiue a?aeo?aae, i?aaeaea anaai, i?aneaaeoao oeaeue
eoieoue iaeaieaa auaiaeii iaiaoiaeeioth aaethoo. Oaeoe/anee yoi
eniieueciaaiea eiieo?aioiuo eioe?iaie ?acee/iuo aaieia ia iaeiii eee
?acee/iuo aaethoiuo ?uieao. Aai aiciiaeiinoe oe?a, iineieueeo ?acieoea a
eo?nao iiaeao auoue ia oaeie aieueoie, eae i?e niaeoeyoeaiii a?aeo?aaea,
i?e eioi?ii iia aeieaeia ia oieueei iie?uoue ia?aeo iaaeaeo eo?naie
iieoiaoaey e i?iaeaaoea, ii e aeaoue i?eaueue. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
aaethoiua eo?nu ia ?aciuo aaethoiuo ?uieao ?aaeei ioeeiiythony ia
aaee/eio, ?aaioth eee i?aauoathuoth ?acieoeo iaaeaeo eo?naie i?iaeaaoea
e iieoiaoaey, /oi iicaieyao i?aeoeeiaaoue eeoue eiiaa?neiiiue a?aeo?aae
a i?ino?ainoaa: aaie i?eia?aoaao iaiaoiaeeioth aaethoo ia oii aaethoiii
?uiea, aaea iia aeaoaaea. Nia?aiaiiua yeaeo?iiiua n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeee
(?aeoa?-iiieoi?, Oaea?aeae) iicaieytho neaaeeoue ca anaie eciaiaieyie
eioe?iaie ia aaaeoueo aaethoiuo ?uieao. Iaeeaaeiua ?anoiaeu ii
n?aaenoaai nayce ioiineoaeueii nie?aoeeenue e ia ea?atho nouanoaaiiie
?iee a oneiaeyo aic?inoaai ieieiaeueiiai iauaia naeaeee (io 5 iei.
aeiee. e aieueoa).

N 70-o aiaeia a oneiaeyo ieaaathueo aaethoiuo eo?nia
iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai aaethoiue a?aeo?aae ai a?aiaie, iniiaaiiue ia
ianiaiaaeaiee n?ieia iieoiee i?iaeaaee aaethou. Iio?aaiinoue a iai
iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi e?oiiui aaieai, niaa?oathuei iia?aoeee a ?acee/iuo
aaethoao e ia aieueoea noiiu, ia anaaaea oeaeaniia?acii eee aeaaea
aiciiaeii a aaeeie/iii ii?yaeea iie?uoue eo eiio?naeaeeaie. Aaieai
auaiaeiaa, eae aiai?yo aaiee?u, “aeaeaoue ?uiie”, o.a. inouanoaeyoue
aaethoiua iia?aoeee ia aaca nia?aiaiiuo eioe?iaie, i?eaeaeay naeaeee
i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai iai?aaeaiey e auea?uaay i?e yoii ia ia?aea iaaeaeo
eo?naie i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey. Aeeea?u e aaiee no?aiyony inouanoaeyoue
aaethoiua iia?aoeee, eioi?ua nicaeatho iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiia, n eo
oi/ee c?aiey, niioiioaiea iieoiie e i?iaeaae ioaeaeueiuo aaetho. I?e
yoii iie niioaaonoaaiii iaiytho naie eioe?iaee, aeaeay eo aieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey aiciiaeiuo eeeaioia, a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe naie
ia?auathony e ae?oaei aaieai aeey i?iaaaeaiey eioa?anothueo eo
iia?aoeee, a oii /enea aeey ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey nianoaaiiie
aaethoiie iiceoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, a?aiaiiie a?aeo?aae iaieioaii ianao a naaa
yeaiaio niaeoeyoeee, iineieueeo aeeea? a caaeneiinoe io naiaai i?iaiica
i aiciiaeiii eciaiaiee eo?na ecae?aao oo eee eioth iieeoeeo iie?uoey
niaa?oaaiuo naeaeie a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy, ?ann/eouaay iieo/eoue i?eaueue
io eo i?iaaaeaiey. Anee aeeea? i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi eo?n aeieea?a a nei?a
iiauneony, a eeeaio i?aaeeaaaao aio i?iaeaoue aeieea?u, aaie iiaeao
ia?aie/eoue noiio i?iaeaaee eeai iaiaaeeaiii iie?uoue aa eii?naeaeeie,
eoiea aeieea?u, a i?e cia/eoaeueiie ianoaaeeueiinoe ?uiea eee
iaoaa?aiiinoe a aeeiaieea eo?nia – ioeacaoueny i?iaiaeeoue iia?aoeeth.
Anee eeeaio i?aaeeaaaao aaieo eoieoue aeieea?u, ii iiaeao caeeth/eoue
naeaeeo ia aieueooth noiio, ?ann/eouaay aiineaaenoaee iie?uoue aa ca
n/ao eiio?naeaeee e iieo/eoue i?eaueue eae ia ia?aea iaaeaeo eo?naie
i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey, oae e ia auaiaeiii aeey iaai iiauoaiee eo?na
aeieea?a.

Ioee/ea aaethoiiai a?aeo?aaea io iau/iie aaethoiie
niaeoeyoeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeeea? i?eaioe?oaony ia
e?aoein?i/iue oa?aeoa? iia?aoeee e iuoaaony i?aaeoaaaeaoue eieaaaiey
eo?nia a ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie iaaeaeo naeaeeaie. Eiiaaea ia i?ioyaeaiee
aeiy ii iaiaeiie?aoii iaiyao naith oaeoeeo. Aeey yoiai aeeea? aeieaeai
oi?ioi ciaoue ?uiie e oiaoue i?iaiice?iaaoue, iinoiyiii aiaeece?iaaoue
eiioaeou n ae?oaeie aeeea?aie, iaaethaeaoue ca aeaeaeaieai aaethoiuo
eo?nia, i?ioeaioiuo noaaie, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue i?e/eiu e iai?aaeaiea
eieaaaiee eo?nia.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey iieeoeee aeeea?a eiaao
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea aaethoiiai eo?na ia aeaiiue iiiaio ii ioiioaiey e oae
iacuaaaiui e?eoe/aneei aaethoiui oi/eai /a?oia (a?aoeeia) eciaiaiey
aaethoiuo eo?nia. Yoe noaoenoe/aneea ii?aaeaeaiiua e?eoe/aneea aaethoiua
oi/ee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie cia/aiey, eciaiaiea eo?nia ca i?aaeaeu
eioi?uo o?aaoao aieueoiai aeaaeaiey ia ?uiie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, i?e
i?aiaeieaiee yoeo e?eoe/aneeo cia/aiee aeeiaieea eo?na aiiaue anooiaao a
ioiineoaeueii niieieioth ciio eieaaaiee iaaeaeo e?eoe/aneeie oi/eaie.
Eae i?aaeei, aeeea?u – a?aeo?aaeenou i?iyaeytho aieueooth
inoi?iaeiinoue, eiaaea aeaeaeaiea eo?nia i?eaeeaeaaony e e?eoe/aneie
oi/ea, oae eae aiciiaeii nea/eiia?aciia cia/eoaeueiia eciaiaiea eo?na
(ia 100 ioieoi e aieaa). Iaeiaei i?e aaethoiie niaeoeyoeee iniiaiie
eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao eiaiii i?aiaeieaiea e?eoe/aneeo oi/ae.

Oeaeue aaethoiie niaeoeyoeee – aeeeoaeueiia iiaeaea?aeaiea aeeeiiie
iiceoeee a aaethoa, eo?n eioi?ie eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e iiauoaieth, eee
ei?ioeie a aaethoa – eaiaeeaeaoa ia iaanoeaiaiea. I?e yoii ca/anooth
inouanoaeythony oeaeaiai?aaeaiiua i?iaeaaee aaethou, /oiau nicaeaoue
aoiinoa?o iaoaa?aiiinoe e aucaaoue ianniaue na?in e iiieaeaiea aa eo?na
eee iaiai?io.

A niaeoeyoeaiuo naeaeeao o/anoaotho aaiee, oe?iu, OIE. E?oiiay aaethoiay
niaeoeyoeey, iai?aaeaiiay ia iiieaeaiea eee iiauoaiea eo?na aaetho,
ia?aaeei aeeth/aao iia?aoeee ia aeanyoee ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia ia
i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo aeiae. *anoi ei aanneeueiu i?ioeainoiyoue
aaethoiua eioa?aaioeee oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia, oioy iie iiaoo niaa?oaoueny
ia ianeieueei ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia a aeaiue. Aaethoiuo niaeoeyioia
ca/anooth ia eioa?anoao, niioaaonoaotho ee eo?nu ?aaeueiui niioiioaieyi
iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeaiaa, iiaoo ee aaethou oaea?aeaoueny ia
o?iaia, eioi?ue neiaeeony a ?acoeueoaoa yoeo naeaeie. Aaethoa yaeyaony
aeey ieo oaeei aea ae?aeaaui oiaa?ii, eae aeoeee, iaoaeeu, nu?uea. Aai
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie yaeythony aeioiaeiinoue (i?ioeaioiay noaaea) e
ia?niaeoeaa eciaiaiey oeaiu (eo?na) a e?aoein?i/iii ieaia aac o/aoa
aeieain?i/iuo ia?niaeoea. Iiyoiio ia?aaeei aicieeaao ia?aaeienaeueiia
yaeaiea, eiaaea ia?niaeoeau oneeaiey eioeyoeee a no?aia i?eaiaeyo ia e
iiieaeaieth, a e iiauoaieth eo?na aa aaethou, iineieueeo n/eoaaony, /oi
a ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae no?aia i?eaaaiao e iiauoaieth i?ioeaioiuo noaaie.
Oaeia iieiaeaiea eiaei ianoi ii aeieea?o NOA a ia?aie iieiaeia 80-o
aiaeia, ii ia?ea O?A – a eiioea 80-o – ia/aea 90-o aiaeia.

Aaethoiue a?aeo?aae /anoi naycai n iia?aoeeyie ia ?uiea nnoaeiuo
eaieoaeia. Aeaaeaeaoe eaeie-eeai aaethou iiaeao ?acianoeoue aa ia ?uiea
nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia a ae?oaie aaethoa ii aieaa auaiaeiie i?ioeaioiie
noaaea, o.a. niaa?oeoue i?ioeaioiue a?aeo?aae, eioi?ue iniiaai ia
eniieueciaaiee aaieaie ?acieoe iaaeaeo i?ioeaioiuie noaaeaie ia ?aciuo
?uieao nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia. Eiia/iay oeaeue aeaaeaeueoea aaethou –
iieo/aiea aieaa aunieie i?eauee, /ai aaie iia au iieo/eoue, aeeaaeuaay
aa iaiin?aaenoaaiii aac iaiaia ia ae?oaoth aaethoo. A caaeneiinoe io
naieo ioeaiie aeeiaieee eo?nia yoeo aeaoo aaetho ii iiaeao ia
no?aoiaaoue aaethoiue ?ene eee a?aiaiii inouanoaeoue iia?aoeeth ii
oaaeaee?iaaieth ia iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo. I?ioeaioiue
a?aeo?aae aeeth/aao aeaa naeaeee: iieo/aiea e?aaeeoa ia eiino?aiiii
?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia, aaea noaaee ieaea; eniieueciaaiea yeaeaaeaioa
caeinoaiaaiiie eiino?aiiie aaethou ia iaoeeiiaeueiii ?uiea, aaea
i?ioeaioiua noaaee auoa.

A?aeo?aaeiua naeaeee niaa?oathony n oiaa?aie, oeaiiuie aoiaaaie,
aaethoaie. Aaethoiue a?aeo?aae inouanoaeyaony n oeaeueth ecaea/aiey
i?eauee ia ?acieoea eo?nia aaetho ia ?uieao ?aciuo no?ai (
i?ino?ainoaaiiue a?aeo?aae). Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aeey aai i?iaaaeaiey
yaeyaony naiaiaeiay ia?aoeiinoue aaetho. I?aaeiinueeie neoaeeo
ianiaiaaeaiea eo?nia.

A neeo oiai, /oi i?iaeaaea e iieoiea aaethou ia ?aciuo ?uieao
i?ienoiaeeo ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii, a?aeo?aae i?aeoe/anee ia naycai n
aaethoiuie ?eneaie. A?aeo?aaeiay iia?aoeey iiaeao i?iaiaeeony ia oieueei
n aeaoiy, ii e n ianeieueeeie aaethoaie. N?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoie ?acia?
i?eauee, eae i?aaeei, eiiiaine?oaony aieueoeie ?acia?aie noii naeaeie e
auno?ioie iai?a/eaaaiinoe eaieoaea.

?acee/atho oaeaea eiiaa?neiiiue a?aeo?aae, i?aaeiieaaathuee iieoieo
aaethou naiui aeaoaaui ia?acii, eniieuecoy iaeaieaa auaiaeiue ?uiie.

A ioee/ea io i?ino?ainoaaiiiai e a?aiaiiiai a?aeo?aaea a eiiaa?neiiiii
a?aeo?aaea ia/aeueiay e eiia/iay aaethou ia niaiaaeatho. Caeanue
o/eouaaaony eae eniieueciaaiea iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo ?uieia aeey aai
i?iaaaeaiey, oae e eciaiaiey eo?nia aaetho ai a?aiaie. Aeaaiie oeaeueth
a?aiaiiiai a?aeo?aaea yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea ?acieoeu eo?nia aaetho ai
a?aiaie. Ioee/ea a?aiaiiiai a?aeo?aaea io iau/iie aaethoiie naeaeee a
oii, /oi i?e i?iaaaeaiee a?aeo?aaea aeeea? iaiyao naith oaeoeeo ia
i?ioyaeaiee iaeiiai aeiy e aeaeaao noaaeo a iniiaiii ia e?aoein?i/iue
oa?aeoa? iia?aoeee.

Ae?oaie aeae a?aeo?aaea- i?ioeaioiue- i?aaeiieaaaao iieo/aiea i?eauee ia
?acieoea a i?ioeaioiuo noaaeao ia ?acee/iuo ?uieao nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia.
I?ioeaioiue a?aeo?aae eae iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuee iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
iaoaieci noi?ie?iaaeny a 50-o aiaeao, n iiyaeaieai e ?acaeoeai ?uiea
aa?iaaetho, /oi iauynieeinue naiaiaeiie eiiaa?neae aaetho ia ?uiea e
ia?aaiaeii eo n iaeiiai ?uiea ia ae?oaie. I?e i?iaaaeaiee i?ioeaioiiai
a?aeo?aaea iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ia oieueei ?acieoeo a i?ioeaioiuo
noaaeao, ii e ?acia? i?aiee, oie eae i?eaueue io ?acieoeu a i?ioeaioiuo
noaaeao aeieaeia iie?uoue iioa?th io oieaou i?aiee i?e niaa?oaiee
iia?aoeee «oi?aa?ae».

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aaethoiue a?aeo?aae onooiaao ianoi i?ioeaioiiio.
Aeey i?iaaaeaiey aaethoiiai a?aeo?aaea iaiaoiaeeiu ia?iiiua noiiu,
aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi nia?aiaiiua n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeee e ?acaeoea naoe
aaieia au?aaieaatho aaethoiue eo?n ia ?aciuo ?uieao. Iaeiia?aiaiii n
yoei ana aua nouanoaoao ?acieoea a i?ioeaioiuo noaaeao ec-ca
ianiaeaniaaiiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo iieeoee a iaeanoe i?ioeaioiuo noaaie e
ianoaaeeueiinoe aaetho, oioy i?ioeannu eioaa?aoeee ia ?uiea nnoaeiuo
eaieoaeia oneeeaathony.

III Aeaaa

?an/aou i?e i?iaaaeaiee aaethoiuo iia?aoeee.

3.1 ?an/aou i?e i?yiie e einaaiiie eioe?iaeao.

?anniao?eaay i?eia?u ?an/aoia i?e i?iaaaeaiee aaethoiuo iia?aoeee,
iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai eco/eoue i?eia?u ii?aaeaeaiey eo?na aaethou,
oi anoue eo?na i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey i?e i?yiie e einaaiiie eioe?iaea
aaetho.

Iueth-Ei?e ia Eiiaeii

(i?yiay eioe?iaea):

1o.no.-1,6427 aeie. NOA – eo?n iieoiaoaey,

1o.no- 1,6437 aeie. NOA – eo?n i?iaeaaoea.

Aaie a Iueth- Ei?ea no?aieony i?iaeaoue ooiou noa?eeiaia, iieo/ea i?e
yoii aieueoa iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou (1,6437), a iieoiay eo, ieaoeoue
iaiueoaa eiee/anoai aa (1,6427).

?anniio?aiea ?ann/aoia i?e i?iaaaeaiee aaethoiuo naeaeie i?aaeaea anaai
naycaiu n ii?aaeaeaieai eioe?iaie. Nouanoaotho 2 aeaea eioe?iaie, eae
auei eceiaeaii auoa: i?yiay e einaaiiay. Iaie aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu iaa
aeaea. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?yiie eioe?iaee, neaaeoao ciaoue
n?aaeiaacaaoaiiua iaaeo aaetho.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee einaaiiie eioe?iaee iaiaoiaeeia aaeeieoea eiino?aiiie
aaethou au?aaeathuayny a ii?aaeaeaiiii eiee/anoaa aeey niioiioaiey n
i?aaenoaaeaiiuie aeaeaie aaetho. Aeaiiua aaethou oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue
n?aaeiaacaaoaiiuie.

Iueth-Ei?e ia O?aieoo?o- ia- Iaeia (einaaiiay eioe?iaea):

1 aeie. NOA- 1,7973 ia?ee- eo?n i?iaeaaoea,

1 aeie NOA – 1,7983 ia?ee- eo?n iieoiaoaey.

Aaie a Iueth-Ei?ea, i?iaeaaay ia?ee O?A, aeaeaao caieaoeoue ca eaaeaeue
aeieea? iaiueoa ia?ie (1,7973) e iieo/eoue eo aieueoa i?e iieoiea
(1,7983).

I?ioeaaeo?a eioe?iaee, ninoiyuay a ii?aaeaeaiee e ?aaeno?aoeey
iaaeaaieianeiai eo?na iooai iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai niiinoaaeaiey ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eaaeaeie aaethoa, iacuaaaony «oeeneia», eae yoi auei
ioia/aii a aeaaa I (1. Iau/ii o?aoueae aaethoie i?e einaaiiie eioe?iaea
yaeyaony aeieea? NOA.

3.2 ?an/aou i?e iia?aoeeyo e?inn-eo?na.

Aeaiu eioe?iaee:

aeieea? NOA / ia?ee O?A- 1,7973 – 1,7983,

aeieea? NOA / oaaeoe. O?aie-1,5617 – 1,5627.

Eeeaio aeaeaao i?eia?anoe o oaaeoea?neiai aaiea ia?ee O?A. A yoie nayce
oaaeoea?neee aaie aeieaeai i?aaeaa?eoaeueii eoieoue eo o iaiaoeeiai
aaiea ia aeieea?u NOA ii eo?no:

1 aeie. NOA – 1,7973 ia?ee

Aeey oiai, /oiau iieo/eoue aeieea?u NOA, eioi?ua oaaeoea?neee aaie
oieaoeo iaiaoeeiio, aio iaiaoiaeeii i?iaeaoue oaaeoea?neea o?aiee,
iieo/aiiua io eeeaioa, ia aeieea?u NOA ii eo?no:

1 aeieea? NOA – 1,5627 oaaeoe.o?aie

Neaaeiaaoaeueii,

O oaaeoe.o?aie – ia?ea.

1 aeie. NOA – 1,5627 oaaeoe.o?.,

1,7973 ia?ee O?A = 1 aeie. NOA

1 * 1,5627

O= = 0,8695

1,7973

1 ia?ea O?A = 0,8695 oaaeoe.o?aie – eo?n i?iaeaaoea

A neo/aa, anee eeeaio oi/ao i?iaeaoue ia?ee oaaeoea?neiio aaieo, eiaai:

O oaaeoe.o?. = 1 ia?ea O?A,

1,7983 ia?ee = 1 aeie. NOA,

1 aeie. NOA = 1,5617 oaaeoe.o?.

1 * 1,5617

O= = 0,8684

1,7983

1 ia?ea O?A = 0,8684 oaaeoe.o?.- eo?n iieoiaoaey.

Eeeaio a Oeth?eoa oi/ao eoieoue ooiou noa?eeiaia ia oaaeoea?neea o?aiee.
Aaethoiua eo?nu:

ooio noa?eeiaia / aeie. NOA – 1,6427 – 1,6457

aeie NOA / oaaeoe.o?. – 1,5617 – 1,5627.

Oaaeoea?neee aaie i?iaeaao a Oeth?eoa oaaeoea?neea o?aiee ia aeieea?u
NOA ii eo?no:

1 aeie NOA = 1,5627 oaaeoe.o?. e iieoiaao a Eiiaeiia ooiou noa?eeiaia ia
aeieea?u NOA ii eo?no:

1 o.no. = 1,6437 aeie NOA.

O oaaeoe.o?. = 1 o.no.

1 o.no. = 1,6437 aeie. NOA.

1 aeie NOA = 1,5627 oaaeoe.o?.

O = 1,6437 * 1,5627 = 2,5687

1 o.no. = 2,5687 oa.o?. – eo?n i?iaeaaoea.

Anee eeeaio oi/ao i?iaeaoue ooiou noa?eeiaia oaaeoea?neiio aaieo, eiaai:

O oaaeoe.o?. = 1 o.no.

1 o.no. = 1,6427 aeie. NOA

1 aeie NOA = 1,5617 oaaeoe.o?.

O = 1,6427 * 1,5617 = 2,5664.

1 o.no. = 2,5664 oaaeoe.o?.- eo?n iieoiaoaey.

Aeaeaa iaaei ?anniio?aoue i?eia?u aaethoiuo iiceoeee e aeieea?o NOA:

Iaeiaiiaaiea aaethou Aeeeiiay iiceoeey Ei?ioeay

iiceoeey Eo?n e aeieea?o NOA

Ooio noa?eeiaia 3.286.400 aeie. 2.000.000 1,643 2

ia?ee O?A 2.781.177 aeie. 5.000.00. 1,797 8

oaaeoea?neee o?aie 3.392.952 2.171.906 aeie. 1,562 2

o?aioeocneee o?aie 1.312.228 aeie. 8.000.000 6,096 5

eoaeueyineay ee?a 672.948 aeie. 900.000.000 1337,40

ssiiineay eaia 244.800.710 1.784.652 aeie. 137,17

Eoiai a aeieea?ao NOA – 4.096.195

?an/aou i?e n?i/iuo aaethoiuo iia?aoeeyo.

N?ie ooio noa?eeiaia/ aeieea? Aeieea? / aoeueaeai Aeieea? / ee?a

NIIO 1,5060-1,5070 2,5130-2,5145 1530,70-1531,70

1 ianyoe 35-30 20-12 5,00-6,50

2 ianyoea 67-62 48-40 10,50-12,50

3 ianyoea 94-89 77-67 15,50-18,50

6 ianyoeaa 168-153 188-173 30,00-33,00

12 ianyoeaa 270-240 410-370 54,00-64,00

Aeaiiua iieacuaatho, /oi aeieea? aeinooiai n aeeneiioii i?ioea
aoeueaeaia, ii n i?aieae i?ioea ee?u. Ooio noa?eeiaia aeinooiai n
aeeneiioii i?ioea aeieea?a.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eo?n i?iaeaaoea anaaaea auoa eo?na iieoiaoaey.
I?e iia?aoeeyo «oi?aa?ae» yoa ?acieoea aieueoa, /ai i?e iia?aoeeyo
«NIIO». Yoi aeinoeaaaony iooai onoaiiaeaiey aieueoeo /enae iiae eo?nii
iieoiaoaey e iaiueoeo /enae iiae eo?nii i?iaeaaoea a neo/aa aeeneiioa e
iaiai?io a neo/aa i?aiee.

Eo?n «NIIO» – 2,5130-2,5145

Aeeneiio (3 ianyoea) 79 – 67

Eo?n «oi?aa?ae» 2,5053 2,4078

Ii eo?no «NIIO» ia?ea ?aaia 0,0015, eee 15 ioieoai, ii «oi?aa?aeo» –
0,0025 eee 25 ioieoai.

Aeieea? / ee?a

Eo?n «NIIO» – 1530,70 – 1531,70

I?aiey (3 ianyoea) 15,50 – 18,50

eo?n «oi?aa?ae» 1546,20 – 1550,20

Ii eo?no «NIIO» ia?ea ?aaia 1,00, «oi?aa?ae»- 4,00

Ii?aaeaeythuei iiiaioii aeeneiioa eee i?aiee ii oi?aa?aeiiio eo?no
yaeyaony ?acieoea a i?ioeaioiuo noaaeao. I?aiey eee aeeneiio
?ann/eouaaaony ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:

(NIAeA o EN – NIAeA o IEO) o N?

I/Ae =

100 o 360

aaea: I – i?aiey (i?eciaea « + »);

Ae – aeeneiio (i?eciaea « – »);

NIAeA – noaaea i?ioeaioa a aaethoa – A;

A – eioe?othuay aaethoa;

NIAeA – noaaea i?ioeaioa ii aeaiiceoai a aaethoa – A;

A – eioe?othuay aaethoa;

EN – eo?n «NIIO»;

IEO – i?eaeeaeaiiue eo?n «oi?aa?ae», ?ann/eouaaaiue

ii oi?ioea:

IEO =

100 o 360

aaea: N? – n?ie naeaeee «oi?aa?ae»

Iaiaoiaeeii ?ann/eoaoue 3 ia?oa aeeneiio (i?aieth ia 25 ai?aey:

Aeeneiio / i?aiey ca 1 ianyoe 0,0101

Aeeneiio / i?aiey ca 2 ianyoea 0,00203

Aeaoa iinoaaee ii «NIIO» 3 / III = 7 ia?oa

Aeaoa iinoaaee ni n?ieii 1 ianyoe 32 aeiy = 7 ai?aey

Aeaoa iinoaaee ni n?ieii 2 ianyoea = 9 iay

25 ai?aey – 9 iay 14 aeiae

0,0203

0,0045

0,015 = ?ann/eoaiiue aeeneiio / i?aiey ia n?ie n 3 ia?oa ii 25 ai?aey,
o.a. ca 14 aeiae.

Iaiaoiaeeii ?ann/eoaoue aeeneiio / i?aieth n 24 ia?oa / aeaoa iinoaaee
28 ia?oa/ ia 28 ai?aey.

Aeeneiio ca 1 ianyoe (31 aeaiue) – 0,0097

I?aiey ca iineaaeiee aeaiue ianyoea (1 aeaiue) – (+ 0,0015)

Aeeneiio ca 30 iau/iuo aeiae – 0,0112

Ca iaeei iau/iue aeaiue aeeneiio ninoaaeo – 0,0112

30 = 0,00037

Aeeneiio ca ia?eiae n 28 ia?oa ii 29 ai?aey ?aaai:

– 0,0097 ( 28 ia?oa – 28 ai?aey)

+ ( – 0,00037) ( 28 ai?aey – 29 ai?aey)

– 0,01007

Oaeei ia?acii, iu ?anniio?aee iaeaieaa eioa?aniua i?eia?u ?an/aoia i?e
i?iaaaeaiee aaethoiuo iia?aoeeyo.

Aeaaa III.

3.4. Ninoiyiea aaethoiiai ?uiea a ?E

Ianiio?y ia ?yae iaiaoeaoeony a iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiceoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee,
nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea eacaonoaineie yeiiiieee oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aeaeueiaeoei nie?auaieai i?iecaiaenoaa e yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe.

?aaoee?iaaiea iaiaoiaeeiie aeaiaaeiie iannu a Eacaonoaia i?ienoiaeeo a
io?uaa io oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo oeai, a iiaue anieane ?inoa ia aeieea?u a
oeaeii aucaai iaeeaeaieyie iiaiai iaanoeaieaaiey oaiaa, neaaui
ainoaea?noaaiiui ?aaoee?iaaieai, iaaeeaiiui ?anoe?aieai ?uii/iiai
iai?ioa oiaa?ia aeeeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey, iaaa?eai ia?iaea a
yooaeoeaiinoue iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa.

Neeueiui oaea?ii aeey yeiiiieee yaeyaony aaanoai eacaonoaioeaa io naiae
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou. Eacaonoaioeu ia iniaaiii aa?yo a oaiaa,
i?aaeii/eoay eiaoue iaee/iua aeieea?u NOA. Aeaiaaeiua ?ano?nu
?ann?aaeioi/aiu ii iaoe?iiio yeiiiie/aneiio i?ino?ainoao no?aiu, ii
iiiai/eneaiiui aea?aeaoaeyi iaeuo n?aaenoa. Ii ioeaieai niaoeeaeenoia ia
?oeao o ianaeaiey nae/an iaoiaeeony ianeieueei ieeeea?aeia iaee/iuo
aeieea?ia NOA, /oi i?aauoaao cieioiaaethoiue ?aca?a Iaoe.Aaiea.

Oaea ia ia?aue aiae noieo i?iaeaia, eae yoe ?ano?nu neiioeaio?e?iaaoue e
iai?aaeoue ia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u. Aeieea?ecaoeey no?aiu a
naith i/a?aaeue icia/aao e?aaeeoiaaiea Eacaonoaiii aieaa aiaaouo no?ai e
ineiaeiyao i?iaaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie athaeaeaoiie e aeaiaaeiie
iieeoeee, o.e. oaaee/eaaaony iaiiaeeiio?ieueiue i?aaeoaeuenoao yeaiaio
aeaiaaeiie iannu.

A ?acoeueoaoa a Eacaonoaia iaaethaeaaony onoie/eaay oaiaeaioeey
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina no?aiu.

Iuiaoiea iaiaa?u i?aaeoaeuenoaa e Iaoe.aaiea, caeeth/athueany a
aeaeueiaeoai naeaoee aeaiaaeiie iannu (oiaiueoaiea ca 11 ianyoeaa 1999
aiaea ninoaaeei 17,4 %, a eiee/anoai iaee/iuo aeaiaa a ia?auaiee-30%)
iinoaiaiiie aeaaaeueaaoeee oaiaa (1998 aiae-10,9%), iiauoaiee noaaee,
?aoeiaine?iaaiey (n aaaonoa 1998 a. ia 6,5%), yaeyaony eeoue
iaeeeaoeaiuie, o.e. ia ?aoatho ei?aiiuo i?iaeai eacaonoaineie yeiiiieee.
Aeanoe ia o/eouaatho, oiai, /oi aaethoiue naaiaio, eae e oeiainiaue
?uiie a oeaeii, iaoiaeyony a e?aeia ianoaaeeueiii iieiaeaiee.

I?aaeoaeuenoao iaiaoiaeeii /aoei noi?ie?iaaoue aeieaia?aiaiiua caaea/e
naiae iieeoeee aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, i?aaeoniao?eaathuae
aeaeueiaeoaa oiaiueoaiea aeeyiey ainoaea?noaa ia yeiiiieeo, aeanoeoth
aaethoioth aeenoeeieeio, iiauoaiea ?iee aaethoiuo iia?aoeee aaieia.

A yoie nayce oeaeaniia?acii, /oiau Iaoeaaie aaeaaiaeii ioaeeeiaae
onoaiiaeaiiue oeaeaaie ei?eaei? ii eiee/anoao aeaiaa. Ca n/ao oaeiai
niiauaiey i i?aaeiieaaaaiii eiee/anoaa aeaiaa Iaoeaaie aoaeao
i?aaenoaaeyoue noauaeoai yeiiiieee iiiiuue aeey eo i?eaioaoeee ia iooyo
?acaeoey.

Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aaethoiuo ioiioaiee a ?E

Oeiainiaay nenoaia Eacaonoaia yaeyaony iaeaieaa ?aoi?ie?iaaiiui naeoi?ii
yeiiiieee, yoi iicaieeei nio?aieoue ioiineoaeueioth noaaeeueiinoue
oeiainiaiai e?ecena.

Yoiio niinianoaiaaei i?iaaaeaiea a i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu Iaoeaaieii
aeanoeie aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee, iicaieeaoae oe?aieoue
aaieianeoth nenoaio e noaaeeece?iaaoue aaethoiua iieacaoaee. Iaeiaei
i?ioaaeoai aiaeo a Eacaonoaia i?iaeieaeaee ieacuaaoue iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea
oeiainiaue e?ecen a no?aiao ie?a, iniaaiii a ?innee, a oaeaea,
cia/eoaeueiay aeaaaeueaaoeey aaetho a no?aiao ia?oia?ao, /oi i?eaaei e
oooaeoaieth ninoiyiey aaethoiiai ?uiea. Iiyoiio a oeaeyo nicaeaiey
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aiaoiae oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe 5 ai?aey 1999 a.
aue aaaaeai ?aaeei naiaiaeii ieaaathuaai eo?na oaiaa, eae i?eaieaiue a
oneiaeyo ioe?uoinoe eacaonoaineie yeiiiieee.

Oi?aiaue aaeain ii eoiaai aiaea neiaeeeny n i?ioeoeeoii ($344 iei), a
aeaoeoeeo oaeouaai n/aoa, a 1999 a. ia i?aaunee 1,1% io AAI ( a 1998 a.-
aeaoeoeeo 5,6%). Aianoa n oai, cia/eoaeueiay aeaaaeueaaoeey iaoe.aaethou
niinianoaiaaei iiauoaieth o?iaiy eioeyoeee (1999 a.-17,8%). I?iecioei
nieaeaiea eaieoaeecaoeee aaieianeie nenoaiu (a aeieea?iaii yeaeaaeaioa).

Ii naaaeaieyi Aaiea Oeaio?e?aaeeo ca 1999 aiae ae?aeaaie eo?n oaiaa
nieceeny ia 6,4%. Aunieay aeioiaeiinoue aaethoiuo iia?aoeee a 199 a.
i?eaaea e iiauoaieth aeoeaiinoe aaieia ia ae?aeaaii naaiaioa aaethoiiai
?uiea, a oaeaea ia Iaaeaaieianeii aaethoiii ?uiea.

A ia?aua ianyoeu 2000 a. cia/eoaeueiuo eieaaaiee eo?na ia
iaaethaeaeinue. N ia/aea aiaea eo?n oaiaa nieceeny anaai ia 2,7% e 30
ia?oa ninoaaee 141,97 oaiaa ca aeieea? NOA.

Eacaonoai iaeiei ec ia?auo a NIA i?eiye i?ia?aiio ia?aoiaea aaieianeie
nenoaiu ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiua noaiaea?ou. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?anioaeeea
ooieoeeiie?otho 53 aaiea 2-ai o?iaiy, ec ieo 22 aaiea n eiino?aiiui
o/anoeai, aeeth/ay 12 aei/a?ieo aaieia-ia?aoeaicaioia.

I?iaeieaeaaony i?ioeann eeeaeaeaoeee neaauo aaieia e eo neeyiea.

A 1999 a. a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa auea oaaee/aia ii?ia o/anoey eiino?aiiuo
aaieia i?e aaethoiuo iia?aoeeyo.

I?aaeiieaaaaony inouanoaeaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii nicaeaieth ii?iaoeaiie
i?aaiaie aacu aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aaethoiiai ?uiea, niaa?oainoaiaaiea
yoie nenoaiu.

Iinoaaeaiiua caaea/e ?acaeoey aaethoiiai ?uiea aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiu, ii
iie ana ?aaeueiu. A n o/aoii oiai, /oi aaethoiue naeoi? inoaaony
iiaaoi?ii e aeaeaaoaeai ?aoi?i, aai onoie/eainoue e noaaeeueiinoue
niinianoaoao ?aoaieth iiiaeo i?iaeai a Eacaonoaia.

Caeeth/aiea

A caeeth/aiee oi/aony ioiaoeoue, auiieiaiea anao aaieianeeo iia?aoeee,
naycaiiuo n eiino?aiiie aaethoie, o?aaoao iniaiai oiaiey, e ia neo/aeii
caiaaeiua aecianiaiu iacuaatho aaethoiua iia?aoeee ia iaoeie, a
eneonnoaii, eioi?ui aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue eaaeaeue aaie, aeaeathuee
aeiaeoueny oniaoa a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii aeciana.

Yoi aua aeooaeueiaa i?aaenoaao ia nia?aiaiiii ?uiea Eacaonoaia,
iineieueeo aeoaeiiay no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe iaoae no?aiu o?aaoao niioaaonoaothueo eciaiaiee a ?aaioa
aaieia ai anai iiiaiia?acee eo aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo naycae.

Oae eae aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue aaieia nae/an ia iooe naiaai
?acaeoey, oi eco/aiea, iiiuoea eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca iiyoa ca?oaaaeiuo
aaieia ioiineoaeueii i?iaaaeaiey aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iaeaieaa
aeooaeueiay oaia ianoaeaeaiey a aaieianeie ?aaioa. ?aaeecaoeey aeaiiie
i?iaeaiu iineo iiiaiio?aneaaie oa?aeoa? e, iaaeaainy, aoaeao
aiaae?youeny a aaieianeoth i?aeoeeo Eacaonoaia, iaoiaey ia naiai iooe
ana iaaaoeaiua noi?iiu, naienoaaiiua i?e i?iaaaeaiee aaethoiuo
iia?aoeee.

?anniio?aiiua iaie oaeea iiiyoey aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, eae
yenii?ii-enii?oiua aaiee, aaethoiia e?aaeeoiaaiea, aeaeu eioe?iaie,
aaethoiue ?uiie e oeiu aaethoiuo iia?aoeee iiiiaoo niaoeeaeenoai
aaieianeie no?oeoo?u i?aaeeueii iiaeieoe e i?iaeaia iaoaiecia
i?iaaaeaiey aaethoiuo iia?aoeee.

I?eia?u i?eaaaeaiiua a aeaaa III, iieacuaatho iaeaieaa oiio?aaeyaiua a
aaieianeie i?aeoeea ?an/aou i?e i?iaaaeaiee aaethoiuo iia?aoeee, oaeeo
eae n?i/iua naeaeee, oueth/a?niua, oi?aa?aeiua, naeaeee n iioeeiiii,
iia?aoeee «NIIO» e iia?aoeee «NAII», a oaeaea a?aeo?aaeiua naeaeee.

Oa?aoe/aneay /anoue ?aaiou iiaeao auoue oiio?aaeia i?e ?ac?aaioea
iaoiaeee i?iaaaeaiey aaethoiuo naeaeie.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. A.TH.Aieoaaae/. Aaethoiua iia?aoeee a eiiia?/aneeo aaieao

Iineaa: Yeiiiieea, 1994a.

2. I.E. Aoieei. Aaethoiue ?uiie. Iineaa: Yeiiiieea, 1995a.

A.E. *a?eania, A.A. Ieioeoeuia. Aaieianeia aeaei (ni?aai/iue iaoa?eae).
Iineaa: Yeiiiieea, 1995 a.

4.Iiae ?aae. I.TH.Aaae/aaie. Aaieianeia aeaei (ni?aai/iia iiniaea)

Iineaa: I?inaauaiea, 1994

Eaa?ooeia I.E. Aaieianeia aeaei. Iineaa: «?inOI», 1992 aiae

Iiae ?aae.i?io. AI?E A.N. Naeoeanuiiaa.

Aeaiueae, e?aaeeo, aaiee. Aeiaou: Yeiiiieea, 1999a.

A.Ae. AEoeia. Aaiee e aaieianeea iia?aoeee. Iineaa: Yeiiiieea, 1997aiae

ae.»O?aiceoiay yeiiiieea». ?1-14, 1999a.

ae. «Yeiiiieea Eacaonoaia». ?7-8, 1997 a.

TH.A. Eueaia. Iniiau yeiiiieee e i?aaiecaoeey aeciana,

N-Iaoa?ao?a:1992 a.

ae. «O?aiceoiay yeiiiieea». ?4, 1994a.

E.N. Eiiiaaeia. Aaiee- iii?a a aaoai aeciana. Aeiaou: Yeiiiieea, 1994a.

A.E.Eoeeeia e ae?oaea. E?aaeeou. Eiaanoeoeee. Iineaa: Yeiiiieea, 1994a.

A.A.Oe?eineay. Iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia e ca?oaaaeiue iiuo. Iineaa:
Yeiiiieea, 1993 a.

Iiae ?aae. I?io. A.I. ?iaeeiiiaie. Oeiainu. Iineaa: Oeiainu e
noaoenoeea, 1993a.

A.N. Iieyeia. Oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee. Iineaa:Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1999a.

Onineei A.I. Nia?aiaiiue eiiia?/aneee aaie: oi?aaeaiea e iia?aoeee.
Iineaa: Aeca?-Oa??i, 1994a.

Iae Iioii Ae. Aaiee ia ?acaeaathueany ?uieao. O.1-2. Iineaa: Oeiainu e
noaoenoeea, 1994 a.

*aou?eei A.I. Iaoiaeu oeiainiauo e eiiia?/aneeo ?an/aoia. Iineaa: Aeaei,
1992 aiae.

Aioiiia I.A., Iannaeue I.A. Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea, e?aaeeo e aaiee.
Iineaa: Oeinoaoeioi?i, 1995.

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