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Товарная биржа в системе оптового рынка

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IAAEAeOIA?IAeIUE EINOEOOO ?UIEA

E O ? N I A A ss ? A A I O A

ia oaio “ Oiaa?iay ae?aea a nenoaia
iioiaiai ?uiea”.

N I Ae A ? AE A I E A

no?.

1. Aaaaeaiea.________________________________________3

2. Aicieeiiaaiea e ?acaeoea ae?aee.___________________4-9

3. Ae?aeaaua oiaa?u e iniiaiua aeaeu oiaa?iuo ae?ae.___ 10-16

4. Ae?aeaaua iia?aoeee.. Eioe?iaea oeai ia ae?aea._______ 17-21

5. Oiaa?iua ae?aeu a ?innee naaiaeiy.___________________22-24

6. Caeeth/aiea._______________________________________25

AAAAeAIEA

A aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa y oioae-au ?anniio?aoue iaeio ec aeaaiuo
ninoaaiuo /anoae ?uii/iie yeiiiieee- oiaa?ioth ae?aeo. ss n/eoath /oi
ae?aea, iaeaaeaao neeueiui aeeyieai ia yeiiiieeo no?aiu , a oi-aea a?aiy
ana ia?aiaiu i?ienoiaeyuea a iieeoe/aneii eee yeiiiie/aneii eo?na no?aiu
io?aaeathony ia ninoiyiee aeae ia ae?aea. E?iia yoiai a ?aaioa
?anniio?aia enoi?ey nicaeaiey ae?aeu ia/eiay n OIII aaea e aei iaoeo
aeiae. Oae-aea iiae?iaii ?anniio?aia enoi?ey aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey
ae?aee a ?innee.

A aii?ina “ Ae?aeaaua oiaa?u e iniiaiua aeaeu oiaa?iuo ae?ae” ,
iienuaathony iniiaiua a?oiiu ae?aeaauo oiaa?ia eo eeanneoeeaoeey e
aeaeu.Oae-aea yoiai a yoii aii?ina ?anniio?aiu aeaeu oiaa?iuo ae?ae e eo
iniiaiua /a?ou ?acee/ey.

A o?aoueai aii?ina “ Ae?aeaaua iia?aoeee. Eioe?iaea oeai ia ae?aea”, y
i?eaiaeo i?inoie i?eia? ae?aeaaie iia?aoeee, e?iia yoiai caeanue
iienuaathony ?acee/iua aeaeu ae?aeaauo iia?aoeee, i?ioeann eioe?iaee
oeaiu e caeeth/aiey naeaeee.

Aeeiaieea ?acaeoey oiaa?iuo ae?ae a ?innee a iaoe aeie ?ane?uoa a
aii?ina “ Oiaa?iua ae?aee a ?innee naaiaeiy”. ?acaeoea oiaa?iuo ae?ae,
caeanue iienuaaaony ia i?eia?a noaiiaeaiey aeaoo naiuo iiaouaanoaaiiuo
ae?ae ?innee:

Iineianeie Oiaa?iie Ae?aee e ?inneeneie Oiaa?ii-Nu?ueaaie Ae?aee. Ia
yoii i?eia?a ?anniio?ai iooue ?acaeoey ae?aee a ?innee. Caeanue
i?aaaaeaiu ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiiu, ?aaeaiaioe?othuea aeayoaeueiinoue
oiaa?iuo ae?ae, ?anniio?ai oiaa?iiai?io yoeo ae?ae, eo oeaee nicaeaiey e
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?aaiou. Oae-aea caeanue i?eaaaeaiu oeaiu ia
a?iea?neea ianoa ia ia?eiae 90- 91 aiaeia.

1.AICIEEIIAAIEA E ?ACAEOEA AE?AEE
Ae?aea aicieeea a OIII-OV aaeao a Naaa?iie Eoaeee, ii oe?ieia
i?eiaiaiea a aeaeiaii ie?a iieo/eea a OVI aaea a Aioaa?iaia, Eeiia e
Ooeoca, caoai a Eiiaeiia e Aaiao?aa. N OVII aaea ae?aee oaea
aeaenoaiaaee ai iiiaeo oi?aiauo ai?iaeao aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa. Iiae
ae?aeaie iiae?acoiaaaeenue caeaiey, aaea niae?athony aeaeiaua ethaee
e i?e/anoiua e oi?aiaea eeoea aeey aaaeaiey ia?aaiai?ia e caeeth/aiey
iioiauo oi?aiauo naeaeie a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie i?aaeeaie.
Ia?aua ae?aee auee eeoue oiaa?iua, cia/aiea eioi?uo ninoiyei a oii,
/oi iie caiaieee eoieth-i?iaeaaeo iaee/iui oiaa?ii ec ?oe a ?oee ia
iieoieo ii ia?acoeai /a?ac ae?aeaauo iin?aaeieeia.

A ?innee, iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi noaiiaeaiea ae?aeaauo o/?aaeaeaiee
iai?yioth naycaii n Iao?ii I, iciaeiieaoeiny n aeayoaeueiinoueth
aieeaiaeneeo ae?ae ai a?aiy naiaai “noaaea?noaa” a ea/anoaa ei?aaaea
ia aa?oyo Ieaea?eaiaeia. Eiaiii ii eieoeeaoeaa oea?y a ?innee aicieeee
ia?aua oi?aiai-iaeea?neea o/?aaeaeaiey. E aiey ?aoi?iaoi?a i?aaeaa?eea
oio ia?eiae, eiaaea iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?anoe?aiey
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee caaiaey nicaeaao iaoaieci,eioi?ue aoaeao
niinianoaiaaoue yoei i?ioeannai a Ioa/anoaa
Ia?aay oiaa?iay ae?aea auea o/?aaeaeaia aua a 1703 aiaeo, ii
iauaeoeaiua oneiaey ia niinianoaiaaee aa ?acaeoeth. *a?ac
aeaaaeoeaoue eao aieaaui oeacii 1723 aiaea ainoaea?ue i?aaeienuaae
“i?eiaaieeoue” eoioeia e iinauaieth yoeo iiauo eiiia?/aneeo
o/?aaeaeaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, a ioee/ea io Caiaaea eieoeeaoeaa
nicaeaiey ae?aee i?eiaaeeaaeaea ia oi?aiaoeai, a ainoaea?noao.

Ia?aay ?inneeneay ae?aea auea ioe?uoa a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa a 1724
aiaeo. Nicaeaiea aea Iineianeie ae?aee naycaii n aeae?aoii Aeaoa?eiu II
“Ia ooaa?aeaeaiee ieaia iino?iaiey Ainoeiiai aeai?a n ae?aeae i?e iai”,
iiaeienaiiiai eiia?ao?eoeae a 1789 aiaeo. Iaeiaei i?aeoe/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue Iineianeie ae?aee, ?aniieiaeaiiie ia Eeueeiea, ia/aeanue
eeoue iinea aieiu 1812 aiaea. A /enea ia?auo ?inneeneeo ae?ae auea
Iaeanneay, iniiaaiiay a 1796 aiaeo.

Caiaoiia ?acaeoea ae?aeaaiai aeaeaeaiey a ?innee i?iecioei a
30-40-o i?ioeiai noieaoey, eiaaea ?ino oaa?e/ii-caaiaenoeeo e eonoa?iuo
i?aaei?eyoee noeioee?iaae ?anoe?aiea oi?aiai-?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. A yoe
aiaeu aicieeee ae?aee a E?ai/oaa, ?uaeinea, Ieaeiai Iiaai?iaea e
ae?oaeo oi?aiauo oeaio?ao ?innee.

Iniiaiui aea ia?eiaeii ooaa?aeaeaiey ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe a
?innee auee 60-70-a aiaeu, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiii auei naycaii n anieaneii
yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia a no?aia a nayce n ?aoi?iaie 1861 aiaea, eiaaea
ae?aee aicieeee i?aeoe/anee ai anao e?oiiuo ai?iaeao ?innee.

Any aeayoaeueiinoue ae?aeaauo o/?aaeaeaiee ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeanue
iieiaeaieyie Onoaaa. A iai no?iai ii?aaeaeyeanue i?ioeaaeo?a, oneiaey
e i?aaeea caeeth/aiey naeaeie, i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe o/anoieeia.

E 1917 aiaeo a ?innee auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 115 oi?aiauo e
oieaa?naeueiuo ae?ae e niioaaonoaothuaa /enei ae?aeaauo eiieoaoia.

Iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee aeayoaeueiinoue ae?aeaauo
eiieoaoia, eae e naieo ae?ae, auea i?ae?auaia: iie ia aienuaaeenue a
oai?eth e i?aeoeeo “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia”. Iaeiaei IYI ainnoaiiaee
ae?aee a i?aaao. Ia?aua oiaa?iua ae?aee a no?aia Niaaoia aicieeee a
eiioea 1921 aiaea (Ayoneay, Ieaeaai?iaeneay), /aou?a ianyoea 1922 aiaea
auee ia?eiaeii iaeaieaa auno?iai ?inoa eo /enea.

E aaaonoo 1922 aiaea, eiaaea auoei iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa o?oaea e
iai?iiu i ae?aeao, noaaoaa iniiaie eo nouanoaiaaiey, eo /enei aeinoeaei
50. E 1923 aiaeo eo ian/eouaaeinue 79, a e 1924 a. – 96.

Naiia aieueoia cia/aiea a ae?aeaaii iai?ioa eiaea Iineianeay
oiaa?iay ae?aea, iai?io eioi?ie aeinoea 39.3% anaai ae?aeaaiai iai?ioa,
a caoai Eaieia?aaeneay (9.1%), Oa?ueeianeay (8.1%), ia inoaeueiua 109
ae?ae i?eoiaeeeinue – 43.5%.

Aieueoeinoai ae?ae, a niioaaonoaee n ?aciethoeeae IX nuacaea
Niaaoia, aicieeee eae ainoaea?noaaiiua, eiiia?aoeaiua eee
ainoaea?noaaiii-eiiia?aoeaiua. Iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo a
ca?iaeaeaiee o/anoaiaaea /anoiay oi?aiaey (oae, Ai?iiaaeneay ae?aea
aicieeea eae “Iauaaeeiaiiay ae?aea ainoaea?noaaiiuo, eiiia?aoeaiuo e
iauanoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee e /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee”).

Iineieueeo th?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea niaaoneeo oiaa?iuo ae?ae aucuaaea
nii?u, ?acuyniaieyie eiiaiooi?aa io 18.01 e 17.02.23 aiaea, ae?aee
auee i?eciaiu iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie.

Eae i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiua, oiaa?iua ae?aee iieueciaaeenue
ioiineoaeueiie iacaaeneiinoueth , onoaiaaeeaay aioo?aiithth
i?aaiecaoeeth e ?anii?yaeie ?aaiou ae?aeaauo einoeoooia – iaeea?eaoa,
eioe?iaaeueiie, a?aeo?aaeiie eiiennee e ae?.

Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii i?aaiecaoeee oiaa?iie ae?aee auea auai?iinoue
aa i?aaiia. Eiiaiooi?ao niiauaeenue aeaiiua i ee/iii ninoaaa
eca?aiiiai ae?aeaaiai eiieoaoa.

A oeaeii eiie?aoiua ia?ii?eyoey aeayoaeueiinoe ae?ae iiaeii
?acaeoue ia neaaeothuea a?oiiu: aeayoaeueiinoue ae?ae eae i?aaia caueou
eioa?ania oi?aiaee; nicaeaiea oeaio?aeueiiai ?uiea; auyaeaiea ninoiyiey
?uiea e oeai; niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth aieaa aunieeo oi?i oi?aiaee.

A 1930 aiaeo aeayoaeueiinoue niaaoneie ae?aee i?ae?aoeeanue.
Ooaa?aeaeaaoayny a no?aia oioaeeoa?iay eiiaiaeii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay
nenoaia ia ioaeaeaeanue aieaa a iaoaiecia naiaiaeiiai ?uii/iiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. Ca ieaiiauie iniiaaie ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa noiyea
aeaeacii ?aaeaiaioiay i?eioaeeoaeueiay nenoaia eiio?iee?oaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey, aea?aeauay a ?oeao naiaiaeo e i?aaa
/aeiaaea, aai

iaoa?eaeueiua e aeooiaiua iio?aaiinoe.

I/a?aaeiia aic?iaeaeaiea ae?aee a iaoe aeie aeeeooaony
aeeciaaeaiiuie o?aaiaaieyie aica?aoeoueny iaeiiaoe e ?acoiiui iaoiaeai
oicyenoaiaaiey, ai?iae?iaaiiui iiuoii enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. Ia?aie
Iinai?eniieeiiii 19 iay 1990a. auea ca?aaeno?e?iaaia IOA. Naaiaeiy a
?innee oaea ieiei 400 ae?ae ?acee/iie niaoeeaeecaoeee, a oii /enea
ae?aea o?oaea a Iineaa.

A iaoae no?aia naiia aieueoia eiee/anoai ae?ae, ii iai?iou eo
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe naiua iaeua. Iaeiaei n?aaee aeaenoaothueo
ae?ae iiiai e e?oiiuo, n ioiineoaeueii aieueoei oi?aiaui iai?ioii, a
/enea eioi?uo ?inneeneay oiaa?ii-nu?ueaaay ae?aea,Aeaeueiaainoi/iay
oiaa?iay ae?aea, Aaeeaeueneay oiaa?ii-nu?ueaaay ae?aea, aeayoaeueiinoue
eioi?ie ioaaouaaao *eoeineoth, E?eooneoth iaeanoe e Ao?yoneoth ANN?,
Ana?inneeneay ae?aea AIE a ?ycaie e ae?oaea. A /enea /eaiia yoeo ae?ae
e?oiiua i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey e ca?oaaaeiua oe?iu.

Nai oaeo aoi?e/iiai aic?iaeaeaiey ae?aee iinea aa eeeaeaeaoeee a
1930 a. – aeinoaoi/iia iniiaaiea aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi iii eaeao io
naiie aeecie eae aacioeaaaoaeueiia yaeaiea ianouiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa. Iioiaay ae?aeaaay oi?aiaey — i?iaa?aiiay
aaeaie i?ia?anneaiay oi?ia eiiia?/aneiai iin?aaeie/anoaa. Ii yoiio iooe
eaeoo ana oeeaeeeciaaiiua ia?iaeu. Iao niiiaiey, /oi, i?aiaeieaa ana
o?oaeiinoe e i?aiyonoaey, e ?inney ia oieueei i?aeoe/anee ?aaeecoao yoo
oi?io eiiia?/aneeo ioiioaiee, ii e naia aeeth/eony a ie?iaoth nenoaio
ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee.

Aeaaaeoa ?anniio?ei yoaiu nicaeaiey oiaa?iie ae?aeu. Iniiaiui
aii?inii yaeyaony auai? ianoa ?aniieiaeaiey oiaa?iie ae?aee e aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaeecoaiuo ia ieo. Ie?iaie iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi
ae?aee, eae i?aaeei, aeieaeiu ?aciauaoueny i?aeiouanoaaiii a e?oiiuo
oeaio?ao a iaeneiaeueiii i?eaeeaeaiee e iaeaieaa eiioeaio?e?iaaiiui
enoi/ieeai iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

Ia IA?AII yoaia eieoeeaoi?u yoiai aeaea aeieaeiu /aoei
ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi iie iiaoo e aeaeatho iieo/eoue ia ia/aeueiie
noaaeee ?acaeoey ae?aee e a aoaeouai – i?e aeaeueiaeoai i?iaeaeaeaiee e
?uieo.

Iai?eia?, /oi iiaeao iieo/eoue i?aaei?eyoea a ?acoeueoaoa
o/anoey a ae?aeaaie oi?aiaea ia noaaeee aa noaiiaeaiey? Yoi
i?aaeaea anaai aiciiaeiinoue iaeaieaa auaiaeii i?iaeaoue, eoieoue eee
iaiaiyoue oiaa?, iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i ninoiyiee ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey a no?aia, i ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e iaaeaaeiinoe eiio?aaaioa
ia naeaeea.

Ia aieaa iicaeiae noaaeee ?acaeoey ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee i?aaei?eyoey
iieo/ao oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe no?aoiaaiey naay io iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
eieaaaiee oeai ia ?uiea, iieueciaaoueny eueaioiui e?aaeeoiaaieai iiae
caeeth/aiea eie ae?aeaaie naeaeee, iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth i ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiee oiaa?ia i?aeoe/anee ni anaai ie?a.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua aaaeiinoaa e ianoiua i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey,
aeaaiaea?y nicaeaieth oiaa?iie ae?aee, iiaoo aeiaeoueny iiauoaiey
aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe e aiciiaeiinoe oii?yaei/eaaiey oi?aiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia AOI?II yoaia ioaeii ca?aiaa aua?aoue oiaa?u, ia ?aaeecaoeee
eioi?uo aoaeao niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny ae?aea.

Iaiiiith i?eciaee ae?aeaaiai oiaa?a:

1) noaiaea?oece?iaaiiinoue;

2) acaeiicaiaiyaiinoue;

3) ieceee o?iaaiue iiiiiieecaoeee;

4) ianniainoue i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eae i?aaeei, ae?aeaaie oiaa? iaeaaeaao oaeaea oaeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeie, eae onoie/eaue ni?in, eioi?ue iiaeii iaeeaeaoue e
a aoaeouai.

*oi eanaaony auai?a ai?iaea, aaea aoaeao nicaeaaaoueny oiaa?iay
ae?aea, oi iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai o/eouaaoue oaeaea oaeoi?u, eae
iaee/ea ?acaeouo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naoae e neeaaeneeo ieiuaaeae.

Ia O?AOUeAI yoaia eieoeeaoi?u nicaeaiey oiaa?iie ae?aee auae?atho
aa iioaioeeaeueiuo o/?aaeeoaeae. Aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony eioi?iaoeey,
nia?aiiay eieoeeaoi?aie a i?ioeanna oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a
oaeaea eiathueany o ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee, iai?eia? o noaoenoe/aneiai
oi?aaeaiey e o.ae.

Auai? iioaioeeaeueiuo o/?aaeeoaeae inouanoaeyaony enoiaey ec
iaee/ey o ieo aiciiaeiinoae aeiaeaiey a nicaeaiea ae?aee oeiainiauo
n?aaenoa, i?eaea/aiea ia ae?aeaaua oi?ae iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, oe?ieeo
naycae n i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie.

Ia neaaeothuai, *AOAA?OII yoaia aeaaiia aieiaiea neaaeoao
oaeaeeoue ?aeeaia oiaa?iie ae?aee n?aaee aa aoaeoueo o/?aaeeoaeae

Aaea aea ?aniieaaathony iniiaiua oeaio?u ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee.

Aeey ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee oa?aeoa?ia aunieay eiioeaio?aoeey iai?ioia
ii no?aiai e ae?aeai. Iiaeaaeythuay /anoue ae?aeaaiai iai?ioa
nin?aaeioi/aia a aaaeoueo oi?aiauo e oeiainiauo oeaio?ao ie?a – NOA,
Aaeeeia?eoaiee e ssiiiee, ia eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony aei 98 i?ioeaioia
iauaia ae?aeaauo naeaeie n oiaa?aie a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee. E?iia
oiai ia oiaa?iuo ae?aeao aaaeaony oae aea oueth/a?niay e iioeeiiiay
oi?aiaay oeaiiinoyie, aaethoaie, i?ioeaioiuie noaaeaie e o.i.

Oi?ie?iaaiea oeaio?ia ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee iaoneiaeaii aeaenoaeai
oeaeiai ?yaea oaeoi?ia. N?aaee ieo aaaeiaeoeie yaeythony iaee/ea
aeinoaoi/iuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, ?acaeoea n?aaenoa nayce e ae?oaie
eio?ano?oeoo?u, oaeianoai aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey, aeaaii?eyoiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a /anoe iaeiaiaiai e aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

E?oiiaeoae oiaa?iie ae?aeae ie?a yaeyaony “*eeaai Ai?ae io
O?yeae”. Ia iae caeeth/athony naeaeee n eiio?aeoaie ia ioaieoeo,
eoeo?oco, iaan, niaaua aiau, na?aa?i, cieioi, a oaeaea ia
ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua aoiaae, aaieianeea aeaiiceou. A 1989 aiaeo
eiee/anoai i?iaeaiiuo ia ae?aea oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoia i?aauneei 112
iei., a iioeeiiiuo – 26 iei.

Aoi?ay ii aaee/eia ae?aea ie?a oaeaea ?aniieiaeaia a *eeaai. Yoi
“*eeaai Ia?eyioaee Yen/yeiaeae”. Nianoaaiii oiaa?u ninoaaeytho
n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueooth /anoue aa iai?ioa. A 1989 aiaeo eeoue ieiei
8 iei. naeaeie ec 87 iei. auei caeeth/aii ia oi?aiaeth aeeaui e?oiiui
?iaaoui neioii, aeeauie naeiueyie, ieeiiaoa?eaeaie. Inoaeueiia
eiee/anoai i?eoiaeeeinue ia i?iaeaaee eiio?aeoia, a iniiaa eioi?uo
eaaeao aaethou, aa?iaeieea?iaua aeaiiceou, ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiiua
aoiaae. Iauai iioeeiiiuo naeaeie i?aaunee 17 iei.

O?aoueei ii iai?ioo yaeyaony “Iueth-Ei?e Ia?eyioaee
Yen/yeiaeae”, ii ii iauaio naeaeie n oiaa?aie yoa ae?aea niiinoaaeia n
“*eeaai Ai?ae io O?aeae”. A 1989 aiaeo ia iae auei niaa?oaii aieaa 32
iei. oueth/a?niuo e 6 iei. iioeeiiiuo naeaeie n iaooueth, aaiceiii,
aeecaeueiui oiieeaii, ieaoeiie e iaeeaaeeai.

A ea/anoaa i?aaenoaaeoaeae e?oiiaeoeo ae?ae Aa?iiu oi/o
iacaaoue aiaeeeneea ae?aee:

– Eiiaeiineay ae?aea iaoaeeia (aethieiee, iaaeue, naeiaoe,
oeeie, ieeaeue);

– Eiiaeiineay iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iaooyiay ae?aea (iacoo, aeecaeueiia
oiieeai, iaooue).

Ia?eaeneay ae?aea “IAOEO” a 1989 aiaeo auoea ia /aoaa?oia
ianoi ii ae?aeaaiio iai?ioo iinea ?aiaa ia?a/eneaiiuo ae?ae NOA.

E?oiiaeoae yiiineie ae?aeae yaeyaony Oieeeneay oiaa?iay ae?aea, iai?io
eioi?ie i?aaunee 12 iei. eiio?aeoia. Ia iae caeeth/athony naeaeee n
oeiieiaie e oa?noyiie i?yaeae, eao/oeii, ieaoeiie, cieioii, na?aa?ii.

A ioee/ee io iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo, ?aaeiiaeueiua ae?aee ianeoaeeaatho
i?aeiouanoaaiii ?uiee ianeieueeeo no?ai. Oae “Aieoee oueth/a?c
yen/yeiaeae” a Eiiaeiia aaaeao oi?aiaeth naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeeae e i?eaioe?iaaia a iniiaiii ia ?uiie no?ai AYN.

Nouanoaotho iaoeeiiaeueiua ae?aee: yiiineea, a?aceeueneea,
iaeioi?ua aia?eeaineea. Iie ianeoaeeaatho eioa?anu oi?aiaee,
i?iiuoeaiiinoe oieueei no?aiu naiaai ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey.

AE?AEAAUA OIAA?U E INIIAIUA AEAeU OIAA?IUO AE?AE.

Eo eiee/anoai e anni?oeiaio iinoiyiii eciaiyaony. Anee a

eiioea OIO aaea a yoi /enei aoiaeeei aei 200 oiaa?ia, oi ia na-

aiaeiy eo /enei oiaiueoeeinue aei 60-65, ec ieo ieiei 45 iinoiyiii

ia?auathony ia ae?aea.

*ai aucaai auai? oiai eee eiiai oiaa?a? Iineaaeiee aeieaeai
iaeaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui iaai?ii ea/anoa. Ai-ia?auo, ii aeieaeai
niioaaonoaiaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiui noaiaea?oai ii eiee/anoao e ea/anoao.
Ai-aoi?uo, oeaia ia oiaa? aeieaeia auoue eciai/eaie, eieaaaoueny a
caaeneiinoe io iiaiaeiuo eee ae?oaeo oneiaee. A-o?aoueeo, oiaa?
aeieaeai ae?iaeoueny e auoue o?ainii?oaaaeueiui.

Ana ia?auathueany ia ae?aea oiaa?u iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia
aeaa a?oiiu: ia?aoth ninoaaeytho naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou, aaea
aieueoay /anoue i?eoiaeeony ia naiaia ianeaie/iuo eoeueoo?. A yoo aea
a?oiio aoiaeyo ca?iiaua, i?iaeoeoeey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, naoa?, eioa,
eaeai-aiau, ieeiiaoa?eaeu. Aoi?ay a?oiia – i?iiuoeaiiia nu?uea e
i?iaeoeoeey aa ia?a?aaioee. Nthaea aoiaeyo yia?aiiineoaee,
ae?aaioeaiiua e oeaaoiua iaoaeeu. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ia oiaa?iie
ae?aea aianoa n eiio?aeoaie ia iau/iua oiaa?u ia?auathony eiio?aeou
ia oeaiiua aoiaae, a oii /enea ainoaea?noaaiiua iaeeaaoeee, aeoeee
aeoeeiia?iuo aaieia, aeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa,
aeaiiceoiua aaieianeea na?oeoeeaou.

Oaia?ue y, oioae au ?anneacaoue i iniiaiuo aeaeao oiaa?iuo ae?ae .
Oiaa?iay ae?aea – i?aaiecaoeey, aeaenoaothuay ia iniiaa naiiieoiaaiinoe
aeey: ieacaiey iin?aaeie/aneeo oneoa ii caeeth/aieth oi?aiauo naeaeie;
oii?yaei/aiey oiaa?iie oi?aiaee; ?aaoee?iaaiey oi?aiauo iia?aoeee e
?ac?aoaiey oi?aiauo nii?ia; nai?a e iioaeeeiaaiey naaaeaiee i oeaiao,
ninoiyiey i?iecaiaenoaa e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ao, ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia
oeaiu. I?aaeiaoii naeaeie ia oiaa?iie ae?aea yaeyaony oiaa? e aeiaiai?u
ia aai iinoaaeo.

Oiaa?iay ae?aea, eae i?aaeei, ia yaeyaony eiiia?/aneei
i?aaei?eyoeai. Iieo/aiea aieueoie i?eauee – yoi ia aa oeaeue. N
ii?aaeaeaiiie aeieae oneiaiinoe oiaa?iua ae?aee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a
aeaea eiini?oeeoia, eioi?ue nicaeaaony caeioa?aniaaiiuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e iin?aaeie/aneeie oe?iaie aeey inouanoaeaiey
niaianoiiai i?iaeoa i?aaiecaoeee ?aaoee?oaiiai ?uiea oiaa?ia,
iaania/eaathuaai eaaeaeiio

ec aai o/anoieeia i?iaaaeaiea nauoiauo e caeoii/iuo iia?aoeee.

Auaiaea o/anoieeia iaania/eaaaony yeiiiieae ?anoiaeia ia
i?iaaaeaiea eiiia?/aneie ?aaiou.

Aiciiaeii nicaeaiea ae?aee e eae eiiia?/aneiai i?aaei?eyoey
aeoeeiia?iiai oeia. Ii i?e yoii i?aaiecaoi?ia – o/anoieeia aeieaeii
auoue a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iaiueoa, /ai eeeaioia, iieuecothueony aa
oneoaaie. Oiaaea a eioa?anao o/?aaeeoaeae neaaeaony i?eaueueiie ?aaioa
ae?aee ca n/ao i?aaeinoaaeaiey ?aciiai ?iaea iin?aaeie/aneeo oneoa.

Aunoei i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey ae?aee neoaeeo nia?aiea aeoeeiia?ia
Oaeouaa ?oeiaiaenoai aeayoaeueiinoueth ae?aee inouanoaeyao eiieoao,
ninoaa e i?aaenaaeaoaey eioi?iai auae?aao nia?aiea aeoeeiia?ia.

Iniiaiua eeoea, aeaenoaothuea ia ae?aea , – a?iea?u,
i?aaenoaaeythuea o/anoieeia ae?aee e caeeth/athuea naeaeee io eo
eeoea. A yoii neo/aa a?iea?u aunooiatho a ea/anoaa aaaioia. Anee
a?iea?neay eiioi?a i?iecaiaeeo iia?aoeee ca naie nianoaaiiue n/ao, oi
iia aunooiaao a ea/anoaa i?eioeeiaea.

I?AAIECAOeEIIIAss NO?OEOO?A AE?AEE

Iauaa nia?aiea /eaiia ae?aee

?aaeceiiiay ae?aeaaie a?aeo?aaeiay

eiienney eiieoao
eiienney

eioe?iaaeueiay i?aceaeeoi ae?aea-

eiienney aiai eiieoaoa

Ae?aeaaie aiia?ao

Oi?aaeythuee ae?aeaaui

aiia?aoii

1 cai. 2 cai. 3 cai.
noa?oee

oi?aaeythuaai oi?aaeythuaai oi?aaeythuaai iaeea?

oeaio? yeii. eioi?i-e AOI iaeea?eao

aiaeeca oeaio?

aeia.-i?aa. ioaeae i?a-ee
ae?aeaaie

ioaeae n a?- e iaania/-ey
iocae

aeo?aaeai ae?ae.oi?aiaee

o?ain.-oa?eo. ae?aeaaia

ioaeae
ecaeaoaeuenoai

ioaeae niaa?o.

ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee

Inoaiiaethnue ia iniiaiuo caaea/ao no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee
ae?aeaaiai aiia?aoa:

1. Oeaio? yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca inouanoaeyao:

– eiio?ieue ca eiiuthieoo?ie ?uiea i?iaeoeoeee;

– iiaeaioiaeo eiiuthieoo?iuo iaci?ia;

– aiaeec oaoie/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia,

niiniaiuo iiaeeyoue ia eiiuthieoo?o ?uiea;

– eiiuthieoo?iua i?iaiicu;

– ieaoiua eiinoeueoaoeee ii yeiiiie/aneei aii?inai.

2. Aeiaiai?ii-i?aaiaie ioaeae n a?aeo?aaeai inouanoaeyao:

– ioi?ieaiea aeiaiai?ia iaaeaeo ia?oia?aie ii naeaeea;

– th?eaee/aneia ioi?ieaiea naeaeie, eiio?iee?oao i?aaeeue-

iinoue eo inouanoaeaiea iaeea?aie;

– eiio?ieue i?aaiia?iinoe aeaenoaee o/anoieeia oi?aia;

– iiaeaioiaeo aeae e ?anniio?aieth eo a a?aeo?aaeiie ei-

iennee.

3. O?ainii?oii-oa?eoiue ioaeae inouanoaeyao:

– i?aaiecaoeeth e iaania/aiea aeinoaaee eoieaiiie ia ae?-

aea i?iaeoeoeee;

– eiinoeueoe?iaaiea i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae ii aii?i-

nai, naycaiiui n o?ainii?oe?iaeie;

– iiaeaioiaeo i?aaeeiaeaiee ii yooaeoeaiui niiniaai aein-

oaaee ia?oee a?ocia iieoiaoaeth;

– ioi?ieaiea ?an/aoia ca aeinoaaeo a?ocia.

4. Ioaeae niaa?oainoaiaaiey ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee inouanoaeyao:

– aiaeec o?iaiy ?acaeoey e ninoiyiey oi?aiaee ia aeai-

iie ae?aea;

– iiene iooae iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe e ea/anoaa ?aai-

ou ae?aee;

– ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea iiaiaaaaeaiee, iiaoaeaeathuee

ae?aeaaie aiia?ao e aieaa aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– eco/aiea iiuoa i?aaiecaoeee ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee a no?a-

ia e ca ?oaaaeii.

5. Eioi?iaoeeiiiue oeaio? iaania/eaaao:

– iieo/aiea, o?aiaiea e ia?aaioeo anae oee?eoee?othuae

eioi?iaoeee;

– ieacaiea /eaiai e iinaoeoaeyi ae?aee oneoa ii i?iaa-

aeaieth iaiaoiaeeiuo ?an/aoia, a oaeaea ii eioi?iaoeeii-

iiio ianeoaeeaaieth.

6. Ioaeae i?aaiecaoeee e iaania/aiey ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee ino-

uanoaeyao:

– niaea?aeaiea ae?aeaaiai caea a iaaeeaaeauai ii?yaeea;

– iaania/aiea ae?aee eiiia?/aneie eioi?iaoeeae;

– iaania/aiea /eaiia ae?aee iaiaoiaeeiuie iaoa?eaeaie e

oneiaeyie aeey caeeth/aiey naeaeee.

7. Aaeieieno?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiue ioaeae inouanoaeyao:

– o?aaeeoeeiiiua oicyenoaaiiua caaea/e;

– ?aoaiea caaea/, naycaiiuo n aaaeaieai aooaaeoa?neeo

aeae, ?aoaiea aii?inia ii iieaoa o?oaea e eaae?ai.

8. Iaeea?eao iaania/eaaao:

– inouanoaeaiea ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee a ae?aeaaii caea;

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaeea?ia /eaiai ae?aee aeey inouanoaea-

iey eie oi?aiauo naeaeie;

– ioi?ieaiea naeaeie;

– eiio?ieue auiieiaiey iaaeie noi?iiaie aeiaiai?iuo iay-

caoaeuenoa;

– yenia?oeco ia?oee oiaa?ia, iinooiathueo ia ae?aeaaie

oi?a.

A naiai ?acaeoee oiaa?iua ae?aee i?ioee ianeieueei nooiaiae io
iioiaiai ?uiea, aaea naeaeee niaa?oathony n iaee/iuie ia?oeyie oiaa?a
aei nia?aiaiiiai oueth/a?niiai ?uiea.

I?aaeea oi?aiaee ii oueth/a?niui eiio?aeoai ioe?uaatho
aiciiaeiinoe: ca i?iaeaaoeii nio?aiyaony i?aai auai?a – aeinoaaeoue
i?iaeoeoeeth eee ioeoieoue n?i/iue eiio?aeo aei ianooieaiey n?iea
iinoaaee oiaa?a; iieoiaoaeue – i?eiyoue oiaa? eee ia?ai?iaeaaaoue
n?i/iue eiio?aeo aei ianooieaiey n?iea iinoaaee.

N?aaee i?aeiouanoa, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho oueth/a?niua
eiio?aeou, iiaeii auaeaeeoue:

1) oeo/oaiea ieaie?iaaiey;

2) auaiaea;

3) iaaeaaeiinoue;

4) eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue;

5) auno?ioa;

6) aeaeinoue;

7) eeeaeaeiinoue;

8) aiciiaeiinoue a?aeo?aaea.

?anniio?ei yoe i?aeiouanoaa iiae?iaiaa.

1. Oeo/oaiea ieaie?iaaiey.

?anniio?ei ia i?eia?a no?aiu, i?iecaiaeyuae i?iaeoeo ia ye-

nii?o. Neaaeai, eaeai. Eae iia aoaeao ieaie?iaaoue naith no?aoaaeth

nauoa? Iia iiaeao:

a) iaoiaeeoue iieoiaoaey eaaeaeue ianyoe eee eaaeaeue eaa?oae,

eiaaea i?iaeoeo aioia;

a) i?iaeaaaoue ana eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoa ia?aiio iieoiaoaeth,

eioi?ue iauyaeyaony, ii oeaia, eioi?oth ii i?aaeeiaeeo;

a) ia?aoeoueny e “oueth/a?niui” ?uieai, ainiieueciaaaoenue

i?aaeinoaaeyaiui ae?aeae iaoaieciii oeene?iaaiiie oeaiu, a i?iaeaoue
naie i?iaeoeo a iaeaieaa oaeiaiia a?aiy iaeeo/oaio iieoiaoaeth.

I?inoioa e i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoia ninoieo aua
a oii, /oi i?iecaiaeeoaeue eaeai, anooiay a oaeoth

oi?aiaeth e ia?aaeaeay naay io ?enea i?eianoe oauoee ia naiai

i?iaeoeoa, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaeth oieieaaea i?eia?anoe
yoi eaeai, n aeinoaaeie a aoaeouai e, oaeei ia?acii, cano?aoiaaoue
naay io ia?aaiaa a niaaaeaiee nu?ueai.

2. Auaiaea.

Ethaay oi?aiaay iia?aoeey o?aaoao iaee/ey oi?aiauo ia?oia?ia. Ii
aeaeaei ia anaaaea eaaei iaeoe a ioaeiue iiiaio iiaeoiaeyuaai iieoiaoaey
e i?iaeaaoea.

“Oueth/a?niua” ?uiee iicaieytho ecaaaeaoue iiaeiaiie iai?eyoiie
neooaoeee e niaa?oaoue iieoieo e i?iaeaaeo aac eiie?aoii iacaaiiiai
ia?oia?a. Aieaa oiai, “oueth/a?niua” ?uiee iicaieytho iieo/eoue eee
oieaoeoue iaeeo/ooth oeaio ia aeaiiue iiiaio. I?e iaee/ee oueth/a?niiai
eiio?aeoa e i?iaeaaaoe, e iieoiaoaeue eiatho a caiana a?aiy, /oiau
eoieoue eee i?iaeaoue oiaa? a aoaeouai n iaeeo/oae auaiaeie aeey
naay, ia naycuaay naay n ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?oia?ii.

3. Iaaeaaeiinoue.

Aieueoeinoai ae?ae eiatho ?an/aoiua iaeaou, /a?ac eioi?ua

i?iaeaaoeaie e iieoiaoaeyie i?iecaiaeyony ana ?an/aoiua iia?aoeee.

Yoi i/aiue aaaeiue iiiaio, oioy ae?aea e ia yaeyaony i?yiui

o/anoieeii oi?aiaie iia?aoeee, iia oeene?oao e iiaeoaa?aeaeaao

anyeoth eoieth e i?iaeaaeo.

Eiaaea ia ae?aea i?iecaiaeeony eoiey-i?iaeaaea eaeiai-oi oiaa?a,
?an/aoiay iaeaoa eiaao io i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey niioaaonoaothuaa
iaania/aiea yoie naeaeee. Eiio?aeo, ?aaeecoaiue /a?ac iin?aaenoai
?an/aoiie iaeaou, ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo iaaeaaeiaa eiio?aeoa n ethaui
eiie?aoiui ia?oia?ii, aeeth/ay ainoaea?noaaiiua aaaionoaa.

4. Eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue.

Aua iaeia aaaeiay /a?oa “oueth/a?niuo” ?uieia – aiiieiiinoue,
anee iia aeaeaoaeueia aeey i?iaeaaoea eee iieoiaoaey.

Aeey iiiaeo e?oiiaeoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iieoiaoaeae, /uee
i?iaeaaee e caeoiee ieacuaatho iiuiia aeeyiea ia ie?iaie ?uiie,
aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaoue eee eoieoue oiaa? eiioeaeaioeeaeueii eiaao
i/aiue aaaeiia cia/aiea. A oaeeo neo/ayo ae?aeaaua eiio?aeou
iacaiaieiu.

5. Auno?ioa.

Aieueoeinoai ae?ae, iniaaiii eiathueo aeaei n oiaa?aie oe?ieiai
iio?aaeaiey, iiaeao iicaieeoue auno?oth ?aaeecaoeeth eiio?aeoia e
oiaa?ia aac eciaiaiey oeai. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio oi?aiaey niaa?oaaony
i/aiue auno?i.

Eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo? Iai?eia?, eoi-oi oi/ao eoieoue 10000o
naoa?a. Ii iiaeao yoi naeaeaoue, eoiea 200 oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoia ii
50o ia iaeei eiio?aeo. Oaeay naeaeea iiaeao auoue niaa?oaia ca
ianeieueei ieioo. Aeaeaa, ana 200 eiio?aeoia aa?aioe?iaaiu, e oaia?ue
o iieoiaoaey anoue a?aiy aeey ia?aaiai?ia ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea aieaa
auaiaeiuo oneiaee.

6. Aeaeinoue.

Ai oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoao caeiaeai eieinnaeueiue iioaioeeae
inouanoaeyoue n eo iiiiuueth aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai aa?eaioia
iia?aoeee. Aaaeue e i?iaeaaaoe, e iieoiaoaeue eiatho aiciiaeiinoue eae
iinoaaeoue (i?eiyoue) ?aaeueiue oiaa?, oae e ia?ai?iaeaoue ae?aeaaie
eiio?aeo aei ianooieaiey n?iea iinoaaee, /oi ioe?uaaao ia?niaeoeau
oe?ieie e iiiaiia?aciie aa?eaioiinoe.

7. Eeeaeaeiinoue.

Aiai?y a iauai, “oueth/a?niua” ?uiee eiatho ia?iiiue iioaioeeae
aeey iiiaeanoaa iia?aoeee, naycaiiuo n auno?ui “ia?aeeaii” eaieoaea e
oiaa?ia, oi anoue eeeaeaeiinoueth. Iaeiei ec iieacaoaeae eeeaeaeiinoe
yaeyaony iauee iauai oi?aiaee ia ae?aeao. Iauai oi?aiaee ia
oueth/a?niuo ae?aeao oieueei n oiaa?aie i?aauoaao 2.5 o?ei. aeiee.

8. Aiciiaeiinoue a?aeo?aaeiuo iia?aoeee.

Aeaaiaea?y aeaeinoe ?uiea e oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiuo noaiaea?oia yoeo
eiio?aeoia, ioe?uaathony oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe. Iie iicaieytho aanoe
aeaea i?iecaiaeeoaeyi, iieoiaoaeyi, ae?aeaaui aeaeueoeai n iaiaoiaeeiie
aeaeinoueth iia?aoeee e iaiaa?aiiinoueth iieeoeee oe?i a eciaiythueony
?uii/iuo oneiaeyo.

Oaia?ue i ?acieoea iaaeaeo ioe?uoie e cae?uoie ae?aeaie. Iia
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a ia?aii neo/aa naeaeee iiaoo caeeth/aoueny
oieueei iaaeaeo ae?aeaauie iaeea?aie e a?iea?aie, eioi?ua
i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?anu e aunooiatho io eiaie eae o/anoieeia ae?aee, oae
e ?aciauo iieoiaoaeae. Ai aoi?ii neo/aa eiio?aeou iiaoo caeeth/aoue e
eeeaiou ae?aee eae naiinoiyoaeueii, oae e /a?ac iin?aaeieeia. Ia
ia/aeueiii yoaia, eiaaea aua ia io?aaioai iaoaieci ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee e
ionoonoaotho iaoiaeu caueou eioa?ania i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae,
oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue cae?uoua oi?ae.

Ethaay oiaa?iay ae?aea eiaao aeaa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe: iioiaay oi?aiaey n iaeiie noi?iiu e eioe?iaea oeai
oiaa?ia n ae?oaie. Inoaiiaethnue ia iineaaeiai.

Ai anao ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao ae?aeaaay aeayoaeueiinoue ia?yaeo n
aaieianeie e aeaiaaeiie nenoaiie neoaeao iauaeoii ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. Yoi ia neo/aeii. A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea i?e ionoonoaee
i?yiiai aee?aeoeaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue eiaiii ae?aee yaeythony eino?oiaioii einaaiiiai, ii
aanueia nouanoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia aecian. Ia-niio?y ia oi, /oi ia
ae?aea eiio?iee?oaony iaaieueoia eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, aieueoeinoai ec ieo
iineo no?aoaae/aneee oa?aeoa?. Ii-yoiio oa oeaiu, eioi?ua ia ae?aea a
oneiaeyo naiaiaeiiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey io?aaeatho aeaeaeaiea ?uiea oiai
eee eiiai oiaa?a, neoaeao naiaia?aciui eiaeeeaoi?ii ninoiyiey yeiiiieee
no?aiu.

Naaiaeiy iaaeaeo e?oiiaeoeie oiaa?iuie ae?aeaie iaeaaeaiu
eioi?iaoeeiiiua nayce. Yoi niinianoaoao au?aaieaaieth oeai e
oi?ie?iaaieth aaeeiiai ie?iaiai ?uiea.

AE?AEAAUA IIE?AOeEE. EIOE?IAEA OeAI IA AE?AEA

Ia nouanoaothueo a ie?a oiaa?iuo ae?aeao aeoeaii ooieoeeiie?otho
oiiaeiaua ioaeaeu. Nicaeaiu oaeea ioaeaeu e ia ae?aeao ?innee.

A iaa 1991 aiaea ia/aee inouanoaeyoue naeaeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie ia
?ONA e IOA. Iiyoiio a yoie aeaaa aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu oiiaeiaua iia?aoeee
e cao?iioo aii?in i ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Eoae, ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa auiieiyao aeaa ooieoeee:

1) naiaeeo iieoiaoaey n i?iaeaaoeii;

2) niinianoaoao noaaeeecaoeee oeai, o?aaiiaaoeaay ni?in

e i?aaeeiaeaiea.

I?aeoe/anee ana iaeeaaoeee i?iaeathony ia “oee/iii” ?uiea. “N
i?eeaaea” i?iaeathony e aeoeee, a neo/aa, anee eiiiaiey ioeacaeanue io
oneoa ae?aee. Ii a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeoeee ?ani?ino?aiythony /a?ac
ae?aee. Iie auiieiytho ?ieue iaaiae/eea, /oi iicaieyao eiaanoi?ai
iaoiaeeoue eiaiii oi, /oi ei iaiaoiaeeii. Iiae aeeyieai ae?aee
neeaaeuaathony oeaiu e ia “oee/iii” ?uiea.

Oi?aiaey “n i?eeaaea”.

Iia?aoeey n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie auiieiyaony ii neaaeothuae noaia.
Iieo/ea caeac io iieoiaoaey, oiieiiii/aiiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue (OI)
eiaanoeoeeiiii-aeeea?neie oe?iu (AO)a ?aaeiia ia?aaeaao aai aeey
ia?a?aaioee a oeaio?, aaea caeac iiiaaeaao a oi?aiaue ioaeae. Anee
oeaiiua aoiaae aeeth/aiu a ae?aeaaie nienie, oi caeac ia?aaeaaony aeey
eniieiaiey ae?aeaaiio o?aeaea?o oe?iu. Anee eeeaio oi/ao eoieoue
aoiaae aiaae?aeaaiai iai?ioa, oi aeeth/aaony iaoaieci “oee/iiai” ?uiea.
Ia yoii ?uiea e iaeeaaoeee, e aeoeee oi?aothony iaeiei niiniaii (iooai
oaeaoiiiuo ia?aaiai?ia iaaeaeo oece/anee ?aciauaiiuie a?iea?aie, a
ia /a?ac ee/iue aoeoeeii).

Iieo/ea caeac ia iieoieo oeaiiuo aoiaa, a?iea? ii oaeaoiio ?acuneeaaao
naiaai eieeaao, eiathuaai eioi?iaoeeth i i?iaeaaoeao. Oi?aiaey
aeoeeyie “n i?eeaaea” aeeeony aeieueoa, /ai ae?aeaaua nannee, e eiiaaea
caieiaao aanue aeaeiaie aeaiue. Ii ii iauaio iia nouanoaaiii onooiaao
ae?aeaaie oi?aiaea. Ia “oee/iii” ?uiea oi?aothony aeoeee iiiaeo
iieiaeuo eiiiaiee. Iaeiaei caeanue iiaeii iaeoe e aeoeee noa?uo oe?i,
/uea ?oeiaiaenoai ii oie eee eiie i?e/eia ecaaaaao ae?aee.

Oiiaeiaay ae?aea

Anee iaeeaaoeee i?iaeathony a iniiaiii “n i?eeaaea”, oi

oeaio?aeueiui ?uieii aeoeee e?oiiaeoeo oe?i yaeyaony ae?aea. Ia
ae?aea i?iaeaaoeu ano?a/athony n iieoiaoaeyie e oeaiu onoaiaaeeaathony
ii caeiio ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eeanne/aneay ae?aea – yoi aoeoeeii,
aaea oi?aiaey aaaeaony iin?aaenoaii iaiaia onoiuie eino?oeoeeyie
iaaeaeo o?aeaea?aie (i?aaenoaaeoaeyie a?iea?neeo oe?i a oi?aiaie ciia
ae?aee). A iineaaeiea aiaeu aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoeth au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee aicieeee e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua nenoaiu eoiee-i?iaeaaee
oeaiiuo aoiaa (iai?eia?, CATS ia Oi?iioneie oiiaeiaie ae?aea, CORES – a
Ia?eaea e Iaae?eaea). Ii eeanne/aneay ae?aea aua aeiieie?oao, e naiui
e?oiiui aa i?aaenoaaeoaeai yaeyaony Iueth-Ei?eneay oiiaeiaay ae?aea.

A ae?aeaaie oi?aiaea eeth/aaui iiiyoeai yaeyaony eeeaeaeiinoue
(niiniaiinoue ?uiea iiaeioeoue ?acoiiia eiee/anoai oeaiiuo

aoiaa i?e ?acoiiii eciaiaiee oeaiu iineaaeieo). Eeeaeaeiue ?uiie
oa?aeoa?ecoaony: /anoiuie naeaeeaie, oceei ?ac?uaii iaaeaeo oeaiie
i?iaeaaoea e oeaiie iieoiaoaey, iaeaieueoeie eciaiaieyie oeai io
naeaeee e naeaeea. Ioeeiiaiey io yoeo ii?i /?aaaou ?acaeoeai
e?eieiiaaiiie neooaoeee, iaie/aneeo iano?iaiee n?aaee eiaanoi?ia.
Ae?aea aeaeaao ana io iaa caaenyuaa, /oiau iiaeaea?aeaoue eeeaeaeiinoue
e ia aeiionoeoue iiaeiaiuo ioeeiiaiee. Eeeaeaeiinoue ?uiea oai auoa, /ai
aieueoa /enei o/anoieeia eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Ia?aae ?anniio?aieai
oaoieee a?iea?neie iia?aoeee iieoo nouanoaothuea oi?iu caeaca ia
eoieth-i?iaeaaeo. Oiieiiii/aiiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue ae?aeaaie oe?iu
iiaeao iieo/eoue “?uii/iue” caeac.

Yoi caeac eoieoue eee i?iaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei aeoeee ii
iaeeo/oae oeaia ?uiea. Ana caeacu, aaea iao oeaiu, iau/ii n/eoathony
“?uii/iuie”, o.a. i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eeeaio aioia caieaoeoue eee
onooieoue ca i?aaeeiaeaiioth oeaio.

Neaaeothuay oi?ia – eeieoe?iaaiiue caeac. A iai eeeaio oeacuaaao
eiie?aoioth oeaio, ii eioi?ie aeieaeia ninoiyoueny naeaeea, eee
eo/ooth oeaio, anee o?aeaea? niiniaai iieo/eoue oaeiaoth. Eeieoe?iaaiiue
caeac – yoi caeac, eioi?ue iicaieyao o?aeaea?o iaeioi?oth naiaiaeo
auai?a oeaiu i?e inouanoaeaiee naeaeee.

Aeiaaiui caeacii iacuaaaony caeac n aeiaaiui n?ieii aeaenoaey. Ana
caeacu n/eoathony aeiaaiuie, anee a ieo ia oeacai eiie n?ie. A ioee/ee
io aeiaaiiai ioe?uoue caeac n/eoaaony a oi?aiaie eieaa a?iea?a aei oao
ii?, iiea ii ia eniieiai eee ioiaiai.

Caeac “ana eee ie/aai” icia/aao, /oi o?aeaea? aeieaeai eoieoue
eee i?iaeaoue ana aeoeee, oeacaiiua a caeaca, i?aaeaea /ai eeeaio
niaeaneony n eniieiaieai. I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth aio yaeyaony caeac
“i?eio a ethaii aeaea”, i?aaeiieaaathuee, /oi eeeaio i?eiao ethaia
eiee/anoai aeoeee aieioue aei caeacaiiiai iaeneioia.

Caeac “eniieieoue eee ioiaieoue” icia/aao, /oi eae oieueei /anoue
caeaca, eioi?oth iiaeii oaeiaeaoai?eoue, auiieiaia, inoaeueiay
/anoue ioiaiyaony.

Caeac “eee-eee” – yoi oaea ioaeaiiia ?anii?yaeaiea, oiaaea eae
caeacu ia ae?oaea oeaiiua aoiaae aua iaeeaeatho naiaai eniieiaiey. Eae
oieueei o?aeaea? eniieieo caeac “eee-eee”, ae?oaea caeacu aaoiiaoe/anee
ioiaiythony. Caeac “n ia?aeeth/aieai” icia/aao, /oi au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee
iaeieo aeoeee iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia aeey iieoiee ae?oaeo.

Eiioeiaaioiue caeac i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaeiia?aiaiioth iieoieo
iaeieo e i?iaeaaeo ae?oaeo aeoeee.

Noii-caeac auaaao aeaoo aeaeia. Ai-ia?auo, yoi caeac, eioi?ue
iiaeeaaeeo eniieiaieth eae “?uii/iue”, anee oeaia aeoeee iaaeaao ieaea
ii?aaeaeaiiie eeeaioii oeaiu (noii-oeaiu). Oeaeue – eeai iiiuoaoueny
nie?aoeoue oua?a, eioi?ue iiaeao ii e?aeiae ia?a oianoe /anoue
i?eauee, eioi?ay iiaeao aicieeiooue. Ai-aoi?uo, yoi caeac,iinooieaoee io
eeoea, eioi?ia i?iaeaei aeoeee n ei?ioeie iiceoeee n oeaeueth nieaeaiey
oua?aa, anee oeaia aeoeee ia/iao ?anoe.

Aa?iainy e a?iea?neie iia?aoeee. Aeiionoei, iinea eiinoeueoaoeee
n OIii a?iea?neie oe?ia a naiai ?aeiia iaeei eeeaio ?aoee eoieoue 100
aeoeee “A”, a ae?oaie eeeaio – i?iaeaoue 100 aeoeee “A”. Iaaaaey ni?aaee
ia ae?aea, OIu niiaueee naiei eeeaioai, /oi ca “A” i?aaeeiaeaii
iaeneioi 10.5 aeiee. ca aeoeeth, a cai?ioaii ieieioi 10.75 aeiee. Oaeei
ia?acii, iieoiaoaeue ciaao, /oi ieieiaeueiay oeaia, ii eioi?ie nae/an
i?iaeatho “A” ?aaia 10.75, a i?iaeaaaoe ciaao, /oi iaeneiaeueiay oeaia,
eioi?oth i?aaeeaaatho ca “A”, ?aaia 10.5. Naeaeea iaaeaeo ieie
aiciiaeia a oii neo/aa, anee iieoiaoaeue niaeaneoueny ia 10.75 eee
i?iaeaaaoe onooieo ca 10.5.

Aeiionoei, eeeaiou i?ieino?oeoe?iaaee OIia iieo/eoue iaeeo/ooth
oaeouoth oeaio ca “A” e oai naiui naeaeaee “?uii/iue” caeac. OIu
ia?aaeatho yoio caeac a oi?aiaue ioaeae naieo oe?i, a ioooaea iie
iiiaaeatho e o?aeaea?ai aeey eniieiaiey a oi?aiaii caea ae?aee.
O?aeaea?u iaaeo oe?i aeieaeiu i?eeiaeeoue ana oneeey, /oiau au?o/eoue
iaeeo/ooth oeaio ca eeeaioia.

O?aeaea? iieoiaoaey aeaeeo, /oi ca “A” i?aaeeaaatho 10.5, ii
ieeoi ia aeaeaao i?iaeaaaoue ca oaeoth oeaio. Oae eae ii eiaao
ii?o/aiea eoieoue “A” “ia ?uiea”, oi ii iiaeao i?aaeeiaeeoue 10.6.
O?aeaea? i?iaeaaoea aeaeeo, /oi eoi-oi aaconiaoii iuoaaony i?iaeaoue “A”
ca 10.75. Oneuoaa iiaoth oeaio – 10.6, ii ?aoaao i?iaeaoue ca iaa e
aue?eeeaaao “I?iaeaii 100 “A” ca 10.6″. Naeaeea n/eoaaony ninoiyaoaeny
n iiiaioa iiaeienaiey aeaoiy o?aeaea?aie eiio?aeoa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaai
eoieth-i?iaeaaeo .

A aeaiiii neo/aa eiaanoeoeeiiiue aeeea? aunooiee a ea/anoaa a?iea?a,
inouanoaeyy aaaioneia ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioa. I?eia?ii oaeoth aea
i?ioeaaeo?o i?iaeaeuaaao aeeeea? a ?iee i?eioeeiaea. Iniaaiiinoue
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeeeea? neoiaao oeaiiua aoiaae n aeeneiioii
(?acieoea iaaeaeo ia?eoeaoaeueiie noieiinoueth oeaiiie aoiaae e
?uii/iie oeaiie) io oaeouae oeaiu, nicaeaao nianoaaiiue ii?ooaeue, ec
eioi?iai oi?aoao ii ia?a iaaeiaiinoe.

Eae-aea i?ienoiaeeo eioe?iaea oeai ia ae?aea. Eioe?iaea oeai yaeyaony
iaeiie ec aeaaiuo ooieoeee oiaa?iie ae?aee. I?ineaaeei eae i?ienoiaeeo
yoio i?ioeann ia i?inoii i?eia?a. Aeiionoei o ian anoue
aeaaaeoeaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae e noi iieoiaoaeae ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a,
oa??eoi?eaeueii ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia aieueoii ?annoiyiee ae?oa io ae?oaa.
Nouanoaoao naiaiaea oeai e oicyenoaaiiuo naycae. Eaaeaeue iio?aaeoaeue
naiinoiyoaeueii naycuaaaony n ecaioiaeoaeyie. I?e ionoonoaee iaaeaaeiie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe oeaiu ia oiaa? aoaeoo neeueii eieaaaoueny.

Oa aea aeaaaeoeaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae e noi iio?aaeoaeae
i?aaenoaaeytho a eiioeaio?e?iaaiiii aeaea naie ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea
ia ae?aea. Iiyaeyaony iaeia ?uii/iay oeaia, neoaeauay i?eaioe?ii aeey
anao. Eieaaaiey eiie?aoiuo oeai ia noieue cia/eoaeueiu, iiyaeyaony eo
aacen, eioi?ue niioaaonoaoao a i?eioeeia o?iaith iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiuo cao?ao. Eoi aai i?aauoaao, oio ianao oauoee e auauaaao ec
ea?u.

I?ioeann eioe?iaee i/aiue o?oaeiaie e o?aaoao o/aoa naiuo
?acee/iuo oeaiiia?acothueo oaeoi?ia. I?eaaaeai iniiaiua i?aaeea,
eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea.

I?aaeaea anaai oiaa?u iaiaoiaeeii eioe?iaaoue a niioaaonoaee ni
noaiaea?oaie. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey iie iiaoo iineoue eae aaeeie/iue
oa?aeoa?, oae e aunooiaoue a aeaea a?oii n iaueie oaoiieiae/aneeie e
ae?oaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Iaiaoiaeeii eiie?iaaoue oieueei oa oiaa?u, naeaeee ii eioi?ui
niaa?oathony nenoaiaoe/anee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, eioe?othony oieueei
aaaeiaeoea, iinoiyiii aunoaaeyaiua ?ano?nu, caianaiiua a oaa?aeue
nienie, – aaco ae?aeaaiai atheeaoaiy.

I?e eioe?iaea ii aiciiaeiinoe eneeth/athony oeaiu, ia io?aaeathuea
?uiea aeaiiiai ae?aeaaiai aeiy: anee i?e ionoonoaee i?aaeeiaeaiey oeaia
naeaeee ieaea oeie/iie oeaiu i?ioeiai ae?aeaaiai aeiy, aaea eiaeinue
aeinoaoi/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea, iia aeieaeia auoue eneeth/aia. Eiaaea
ca aeaiue naeaeie ii aeaiiiio oiaa?o ia ieacuaaaony, oi i?aaeuaeouea
oeaiu ia iaai ia iiaoo neoaeeoue iieacaoaeai ?uiea. Iie eneeth/athony
ec i?ioeanna eioe?iaee.

I?e eioe?iaea neaaeoao auaeaeeoue ieieiaeueiue iauai i?iaeoeoeee,
i?e ia?ooaiee eioi?iai naeaeea ia i?eieiaaony a ?an/aou.

Oeaiu ia aaeeieoeo oiaa?a iau/ii ?acee/iu a caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu
iioa, i?e e?oiiiiioiaie ?aaeecaoeee iie iaiueoa, i?e iaeei iioiaie –
aieueoa. Aeey ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu iiaeii eniieueciaaoue iaeei ec aeaoo
iaoiaeia.

Ia?aue caeeth/aaony a auaeaeaiee iau/iiai iauaia ia?oee e ii iaio
niaa?oaaony iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai naeaeie. Oiaaea oeaiu ii?aaeaeythony
enoiaey ec ia?oee e iie aiinyony a atheeaoaiue. Ae?oaie iaoiae ninoieo a
auaeaeaiee ?acee/iuo a?oii ia?oee. Eioe?iaaeueiay oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony
aeey eaaeaeie ec ieo.

I?e eioe?iaea o/eouaathony e oneiaey ?an/aoa ii naeaeeai:

ia iaee/iue oiaa? eee ia n?ie.

Ia o?iaaiue oeai, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ia eioe?iaeo, aeeyao
oaeia ianoiyoaeuenoai, eae noaoon eiio?aaaioia. O ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee iau/ii ieaea, /ai o eiiia?aoi?ia e /anoiuo
eeoe.

Nouanoaoao aua oeaeue ?yae i?aaee ae?aeaaie eioe?iaee,
o/eouaathueo aeaenoaea ia oao eee eiuo oaeoi?ia. Iai?eia?, ii?aaeaeaiea
eiiutheoo?u ?uiea. Iii iniiauaaaony ia o?ao oa?aeoa?enoeeao: ia?aay –
niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia eaaeaeue oiaa?; aoi?ay –
oaiaeaioeee aeaeaeaiey oeai, o.a. aeeiaieea oeai ia eaaeaeue oiaa? a
oa/aiee aeaiiiai ia?eiaea ae?aeaauo oi?aia; o?aouey – eiee/anoai
niaa?oaiiuo naeaeie.

Ia nia?aiaiiuo oueth/a?niuo ae?aeao oeaiu auoiaeyo ca ?aiee
yeaiaioa?iiai i?eaioe?a. I?aiaeaaeaiea naeaeie n aoaeouei, aua ia
i?iecaaaeaiiui oiaa?ii i?aaeiieaaaao caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoia n
oeacaieai a ieo aeiy i?iaaaeaiey ae?aeaaiai nia?aiey, oeaia eioi?iai e
noaiao i?iaeaaeiie. Oi anoue a aeieoiaioa oeacuaaaony, /oi ?an/aou
i?iecaiaeyony ii eioe?iaaeueiie oeaia, auaaaeaiiie ia ae?aea /a?ac
caaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie. Ca yoi a?aiy eiio?aeo ia?aoiaeeo ec ?oe
a ?oee aeanyoee ?ac, /oi aeaao oe?ieee i?inoi? aeey ae?aeaaie
niaeoeyoeee.

E a caeeth/aiee iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae , /oi eioe?iaaeueiua
oeaiu aeaaiaea?y cia/eoaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey a
ae?aeaaii i?ioeanna noaiiayony iauaeoeaiui iieacaoaeai ninoiyiey ?uiea
e iaeiia?aiaiii oaeoi?ii iineaaeothuaai eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u
i?iecaiaenoaa.

OIAA?IUA AE?AEE A ?INNEE NAAIAeIss

*oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nia?aiaiiay ?inneeneay ae?aea? Aua
ianeieueei eao iacaae oaeie aii?in aue iaoianoai, oae eae ae?ae aua ia
nouanoaiaaei. A naaiaeiy ae?aee ooieoeeiie?otho a Iineaa,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, Ieaeiai Iiaai?iaea, Naia?a, Aieaia?aaea,
Aeaoa?eiao?aa, ?ycaie e a ae?oaeo ai?iaeao.

Oiaa?iua ae?aee naaiaeiy ?aaeno?e?othony a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii
caeiiii ?NON? “I i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe”
aeey i?aaei?eyoee. Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?NON? ii aioeiiiiiieueiie
iieeoeea, eiieoao ii yeiiiieea e eiieoao ii iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiio
iaania/aieth ?anioaeeeaineeo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii auaeatho ae?aeai
eeoeaicee ia i?aai ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe e inouanoaeyao eiio?ieue ca
eo aeayoaeueiinoueth.

A i?eioeeia ana nicaeaiiua a ?innee oiaa?iua ae?aee
ecia/aeueii iineee oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oai ia iaiaa e ianoiyuaio
a?aiaie niaoeeaeecaoeey ii iaeioi?ui iai?aaeaieyi i?iaiaeeony eee
iauyaeaia ia neaaeothueo ae?aeao:

IOA – iaooue, iaooai?iaeoeou, ca?ii;

?ONA – iaoaeeu;

Othiaineay e no?aooneay OOA – iaooue e iaooai?iaeoeou;

?inaa?iae?aea, Ananithciay ae?aea AIE – naeueoici?iaeoeoeey.

?anniio?ei ia i?eia?a IOA oeaee e iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?aaiou
oiaa?iie ae?aee. Eoae, IOA auea nicaeaia a iaa 1990 a.

O/?aaeeoaeyie ae?aee yaeyaony Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea niaaaeaiey iaoa?eaeaie
e iai?oaeiaaieai Iinai?eniieeiia, Annioeeaoeey iieiaeuo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee NNN?, Nithc no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo
eiiia?aoeaia NNN?, NI “Aieoae”, Nithc oeaio?ia IOOI, iaeua aai/o?iua e
eiiiaaoeeiiiua oe?iu NNN?. *eaiaie ae?aee noaee aieaa 250 e?oiiuo
iauaaeeiaiee, i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee no?aiu. Onoaaiie eaieoae
ae?aee – 100 iei.?oaeae. Noieiinoue ianoa ia ae?aea – 250 oun. ?oaeae
(25 oun.aeiee.). Ecia/aeueii IOA aeaenoaiaaea eae ae?aea cae?uoiai oeia,
ii ec-ca i?aauoaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey iaae ni?inii a iaeei ec aeiae
iaaeaee oi?aiaey i?iaiaeeony n o/anoeai naiaiaeiuo iieoiaoaeae.

Oeaee nicaeaiey IOA:

– inouanoaeaiea iaoo?aeueiuo oiaa?iiaiaiiuo iia?aoeee

aeey i?eaea/aiey a ?aaeii iaiaoiaeeiuo oiaa?iuo iann;

– onoaiiaeaiea iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie IOA oicyenoaaiiuo

naycae e caeeth/aiea iaaeaeo ieie aeiaiai?ia ia iinoaaeo

i?iaeoeoeee;

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee, iieo/aiiie a ?acoeueoaoa

ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe i ?aaeueiuo iio?aaiinoyo ?uiea; –
i?eiyoea niaeaniaaiiuo ?aoaiee ii i?iecaiaenoao e

iinoaaeai oiaa?ia iaaeaeo ecaioiaeoaeyie e iio?aaeoa-

eyie;

– aiaea/aiea a ?uii/iue oiaa?iiai?io eceeoieo caiania

i?iaeoeoeee.

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?aaiou IOA:

– eiiia?/aneay oi?aiaey oiaa?aie, i?aaeiacia/aiiuie e

naiaiaeiie i?iaeaaea ia iniiaa ?aaeueiiai ni?ina e i?aae-

eiaeaiey;

– inouanoaeaiea iaiaia oiaa?iuie iannaie ia iniiaa

eo?na oeaiiinoe, onoaiiaeaiiiai iaaeaeo ieie;

– oi?aiaey oiaa?iuie iannaie ia NEA;

– o/anoea a onoaiiaeaiee oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth, ?aaeecoaioth

n iiiiuueth oiaa?iie ae?aee.

Ia IOA eciaiai nai oei i?aaiecaoeee oi?aia. ?ac?aoai aeiione a
cae naiaiaeiuo iieoiaoaeae, eioi?ua iiaoo caeeth/aoue

naeaeee aac iiiiue a?iea?ia.

E?iia eciaiaiey i?aaee i?iaaaeaiey oi?aia, IOA e ?ONA ia iooue
aieaa oe?ieeo i?aia?aciaaiee, nicaeaiea iiauo no?oeoo? e
niaa?oainoaiaaiea onoaaa.

IOA oaaee/eei naie onoaaiie eaieoae, /oi aeieaeii i?eaanoe e
oaaee/aieth ioaaonoaaiiinoe o/anoieeia ae?aeaaie naeaeee e iicaieeo
?aoeoue i?iaeaio niaethaeaiey iaycaoaeuenoa.

?ONA no?aieony ia?aeoe e caiaaeiiio oeio ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ae?aee
eae aani?eaueueiie i?aaiecaoeee. Ana aeioiaeu aoaeoo iai?aaeyoueny ia
iieaoo oaeoueo ?anoiaeia e ?acaeoea ae?aeaauo no?oeoo?. Yoi aeinoaoi/ii
eiae/iue oaa, anee o/anoue, /oi oa aeaiueae, eioi?ua a?iea?u ieaoyo
ae?aea eae o/anoieee naeaeie, iie iicaea iieo/atho eae aa aeoeeiia?u.
?aoaiea ia ioiaia aeeaeaeaiaeia e oiio aea iicaieeo oiaiueoeoue
io/eneaiey io niaa?oaaiuo naeaeie (0.2 i?ioeaioia).

?anoao eioa?an i?aaei?eyoee e aeaenoaothuei ae?aeai. Yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao e ?aceia oaaee/aiea oeaiu a?iea?neiai ianoa ia
ae?aeao. Oae, a?iea?neia ianoi ia ?ONA a aeaeaa?a 1990a. noieei 150
oun.?oa., a a ethia 1991 a. oeaia ninoaaeea 4.5 iei.?oa. Oioy, ii
iiaieth iaeiiai ec ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?ONA , noieue aunieay oeaia
iauyniyaony “aiaoieie” aeey ae?aee i?e/eiaie e ?aaeueiay noieiinoue
ninoaaeyao 1-1.5 iei.?oa. Oieueei ia ethiueneii aoeoeeiia ?ONA
iieo/eea 150 iei. ?oaeae io i?iaeaaee aeoeee e a?iea?neeo iano. Oaeay
aea oaiaeaioeey ?inoa oeaiu a?iea?neiai ianoa iaaethaeaaony ia ae?oaeo
ae?aeao:

– AEENA – 300 oun.?oa. – 1.5 iei.?oa.

– No?aooneay – 300 oun.?oa. – 450 oun.?oa.

– IOeOA – 1.6 iei.?oa.

CAEETH*AIEA

A caeeth/aiee y oioae au neacaoue /oi ae?aea, aua ni a?aiai XIII aaea
yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo aeaeaaoaeae ?uiea. Ae?aea iicaieeea
i?iecaiaeeoue i?ioeann eoiee-i?iaeaaee n ieieiaeueiuie cao?aoaie,
iiyoiio e iieo/eea noieue oe?ieoth iiaeaea?aeeo o i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

N iiiaioa eiaaea a iaa 1990 aiaea auea nicaeaia Iineianeay Oiaa?iay
Ae?aea i?ioei 6 eao , ca yoi a?aiy ae?aee iiyaeeenue ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao
?innee. Yoi yaeeinue ?aoathuei oaaii i?e ia?aoiaea ?innee e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea. ?acaeoea ae?ae a iaoae no?aia ?aoeei iiiaea i?iaeaiu
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. N iiiiuueth ae?ae auei cia/eoaeueii onei?aii a?aiy
niaa?oaiey naeaeee. Yoi i?eaaei e cia/eoaeueiiio oaaee/aieth /enea
eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee . I?aaiecaoeee e i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua
?aaioaee ia ?uiea aei ia?aciaaiey ae?ae, n iiiiuueth eo auoee ia aieaa
aunieee o?iaaiue ?aaiou e a eiioea eiioeia noaee e?oiiaeoeie a ?innee.
E?iia yoiai iiyaeeenue a?iea?neea eiioi?u eioi?ua i?eieiaee caeacu io
i?iecaiaeeoaeae eee iio?aaeoaeae ia eoieth-i?iaeaaeo oiaa?a.

ss n/eoath /oi ae?aeaaia aeaei iieo/ee a ?innee oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea. Oioy a iineaaeiaa a?aiy aaeeioaae aie?oa oiaa?iuo ae?ae
niae ae?aee ana-oaee eiatho aeeyiea ia yeiiiieeo ?innee e oiaa?iiai?io
?inneeneeo oiaa?iuo ae?ae ia ionoaao ii naiae aaee/eia io ca?oaaaeiuo
oiaa?iuo ae?ae.

ss aeoiath /oi aeey iaeaieaa oniaoiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?inneeneeo
oiaa?iuo ae?ae ioaeii nicaeaoue eieaeueioth ae?aeaaoth eiiiuethoa?ioth
naoue. Yoi ai?acaei oi?inoeo i?ioeaaeo?o iienea e

?aciauaiey oiaa?a ia ae?aea, iicaieeo a?iea?o ?aaioaoue n ianeieueeeie
ae?aeaie iaeiia?aiaiii. Iaeioi?ua ?inneeneea ae?aee ( IOA , ?ONA, e.
ae?. ) oaea ?aaioatho ii nenoaia eiiiuethoa?iuo oi?aia. Ii yoa nenoaia
ia iieo/eea oe?ieiai ?acaeoey ii i?e/eia iaaeinoaoi/iiai ?acaeoey e
aei?iaiaecia eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae a ?innee.

Ianiio?y ia ana i?aiyonoaey e ecuyiu ?inneeneea oiaa?iua ae?aee
ana-oaee i?iaeieaeatho ooieoeeiie?iaaoue, iieacuaay yoei, /oi ?uii/iay
yeiiiieea a ?innee ?acaeaaaony, e anee ?inney a nei?ii a?aiaie anoaiao a
iaeei ?yae n ae?oaeie auniei?acaeouie ainoaea?noaaie , oi a yoii aoaeao
iaiaeay caneoaa iaaeaaii ca?iaeeaoeony ?inneeneeo oiaa?iuo ae?ae.

CIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. A.E.Aeaoei “?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa. Aaaaeaiea a oiiaeiaua

iia?aoeee”, I. “Oeiainu e noaoenoeea”

2. Nai?iee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ii oiaa?iui ae?aeai

I.,1990

3. Iiieaaneee A.Ae. “Ae?aea – ao?eaoo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee”

“Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo”, N 2, 1991a.

4. I.Aio?aeoeaa “Oiaa?iua ae?aee: io caaaaiey e aic?iaeaeaieth”,

“Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea”, N 11, 1990 a.

5. I.?iaeeia “Eioe?iaea oeai. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea”,

“Iaoa?eaeueii oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea”, N 11, 1990a.

6. A.Ei?iaaa, I.Eocueiaiei, A.Eenaeaa

“Oiaa?iua ae?aee: iiaua “niaau” eee eino?oiaiou ?uiea?”,

“Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea”, N 6, 1991a.

7. “IOA: eoiae iieooi?a ianyoeaa”, “?uiie”, N 6-7, 1991a.

8. “A?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea i aeayoaeueiinoe oiaa?iuo ae?ae a

?NON?”, “?uiie”, N 8, 1991a.

9. Ae.Iiiia “Oi?ae ia ae?aeao: Iineaa – *aeyaeine, aeaeaa –

aacaea”, “?uiie”, N 8, 1991a.

10. A.Noiey?ia “Oiaa?iay ae?aea – aaaeiaeoee yeaiaio naii-

?aaoee?iaaiey ?uiea”, “?uiie”, N 12, 1991a.

11. Ae.Iiiia “Eiee/anoai eaaeaony, iaeiiaoe ia?aoiaeeo a ea-

/anoai”, “?uiie”, N 13, 1991a.

12. Ae.Iiiia “Oeaiu ia a?iea?neea ianoa iaaiiytho oeaiu ia

iaooue”, “?uiie”, N 15, 1991a.

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