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Самострахование и перестрахование. Страховщик и страхователь

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee Oe?aeiu

eaoaae?a «Oeiainu»

EIIO?IEUeIAss ?AAIOA

ii aeenoeeieeia «No?aoiaaiea»

Oa?ueeia, 2008 a.

Naiino?aoiaaiea, aai enoi/ieee

Iaycaoaeueiui yeaiaioii iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa aunooiaao
no?aoiaie oiiae, aai yeiiiie/aneay i?e?iaea ii?aaeaeyaony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie, neeaaeuaathueieny ii iiaiaeo
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa. Aeey iie?uoey
/?acau/aeiiai oua?aa, i?e/eiyaiiai iauanoao noeoeeiuie aaaenoaeyie,
oaoiiaaiiuie oaeoi?aie e ?acee/iiai ?iaea neo/aeiinoyie, nicaeaaony
no?aoiaie oiiae a oi?ia ?aca?aa iaoa?eaeueiuo eee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. N
iiiiuueth no?aoiaiai oiiaea ai iiiaii ?ac?aoaaony iauaeoeaii
nouanoaothuaa i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e i?e?iaeie, a oaeaea
i?e?iaeie e iauanoaii. Iaeiia?aiaiii iaania/eaaaony iai?a?uaiinoue
i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Nioeeaeueiay i?e?iaea no?aoiaiai oiiaea io?aaeaao aai ?aaeueiia
iaoa?eaeueiia iaiieiaiea. A no?aoiaii oiiaea ?aaeecothony eieeaeoeaiua e
ee/iua eioa?anu /eaiia iauanoaa, ii?aaeaeythony ?aciinoi?iiiea
yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua aniaeou eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. Aunieay
oicyenoaaiiay e nioeeaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue iaeiieaiey ianiaianoeia n
ionoonoaeai noauaeoa nianoaaiiinoe ia no?aoiaie oiiae. A no?aoiaii
oiiaea ?aaeecothony ii?aaeaeaiiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey,
neeaaeuaathueany iaaeaeo ethaeueie.

Iauanoaaiiay i?aeoeea au?aaioaea o?e iniiaiua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu
i?aaiecaoeee no?aoiaiai oiiaea, a eioi?uo noauaeoai nianoaaiiinoe ia aai
?ano?nu aunooiatho ainoaea?noai, ioaeaeueiue oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeue e
no?aoiauee. A yoie nayce auaeaeytho ainoaea?noaaiiue oeaio?aeeciaaiiue
no?aoiaie (?aca?aiue) oiiae, naiino?aoiaaiea, oiiae ?enea
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey e no?aoiaie oiiae no?aoiaueea.

Iiae naiino?aoiaaieai iiieiaaony nicaeaiea a aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiii
ii?yaeea iainiaeaiiiai oiiaea, eae i?aaeei, a aeaea iaoo?aeueiuo caiania
eaaeaeui oicyenoaothuei noauaeoii. N iiiiuueth naiino?aoiaaiey
aeinoeaaaony iia?aoeaiia i?aiaeieaiea a?aiaiiuo cao?oaeiaiee a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa. A aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena, eniieuecoy iaoaieci
naiino?aoiaaiey, ia?acothony naiaiiie, oo?aaeiue e ae?oaea iaoo?aeueiua
oiiaeu, i?ecaaiiua niya/eoue eee ono?aieoue io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea
i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneiai oaeoi?a ia ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe naeueneeo
oicyenoa.

Naiino?aoiaaiea – iaeaieaa ae?aaiee niinia no?aoiaie caueou. I?e yoii
enoi/ieeii oi?ie?iaaiey no?aoiaiai oiiaea yaeythony nianoaaiiua
n?aaenoaa noauaeoa, eioi?ue aeaeaao iieo/eoue no?aoiaoth caueoo naieo
eiouanoaaiiuo eioa?ania (no?aoiaaoaey). Nenoaia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
iaeiieaiey no?aoiaiai oiiaea i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi no?aoiaaoaeue (ii aea
iaeiia?aiaiii yaeyaony no?aoiaueeii ii ioiioaieth e naiiio naaa)
inouanoaeyao aciin a iniaue oiiae naiino?aoiaaiey ec naiaai aeioiaea eee
ec i?eauee. Oae, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?e i?aaiecaoeee e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee oicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?euanoa e aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, a
eioi?uo iaycaoaeueii nicaeathony oiiaeu naiino?aoiaaiey, i?aaeoniio?aii
iaycaoaeueiia ia?a/eneaiea a yoe oiiaeu aei 5% /enoie i?eauee aaeaaiaeii
aei aeinoeaeaiey noiiu ia iaiaa 20% iauaai iauaia onoaaiiai oiiaea.
Oi?aaeyao (?anii?yaeaaony) noi?ie?iaaiiui no?aoiaui oiiaeii
no?aoiaaoaeue, i?e/ai a neo/aa iieo/aiey aeioiaea io ?acoeueoaoia oaeiai
?anii?yaeaiey oiiaeii yoio aeioiae iieiinoueth i?eiaaeeaaeeo
no?aoiaaoaeth. Anee oi?aaeai/anei-?anii?yaeeoaeueneay ooieoeey iiaeaeea
oauoie, oi ii oaeaea iieiinoueth ioiineony ia n/ao no?aoiaaoaey.
Iai?aaeaiey ?anoiaeiaaiey oiiaea no?aoiaaoaeue ii?aaeaeyao
naiinoiyoaeueii (ia naia oniio?aiea). Oaeei ia?acii, iieioth
iaoa?eaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca naith aeayoaeueiinoue ianao nai
noauaeo. Oiiae naiino?aoiaaiey iiaeao nicaeaaaoueny a aeaiaaeiii aeaea
(eaieoaeece?iaaiiue oiiae) eee a iaoa?eaeueiii aeaea (caianu nu?uey,
eiiieaeoothueo, no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia aeey aaa?eeiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey
iauaeoia, aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey, iaeaaeaeu e o. ae.).
Eae i?aaeei, ia?aue oiiae oieaa?naeueiaa, a aoi?ie yaeyaony
oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiui e aeieaeai nicaeaaaoueny oieueei aeey ?aoaiey
eiie?aoiuo niaoeeoe/aneeo i?iaeai, aicieeathueo ia?aae no?aoiaaoaeai.
Nenoaia naiino?aoiaaiey aiieia iaaeaaeia, aunieieeeaeaeia, iaeaaeaao
iaeaunoae ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoueth, ii yeiiiie/anee iaauaiaeia, iineieueeo
o?aaoao io no?aoiaaoaey “caii?aaeeaaiey” a aeaea iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania
eee ia aaieianeeo aeaiiceoiuo n/aoao e?oiiuo aeaiaaeiuo noii, eioi?ua
eneeth/athony ec i?ioeanna naiieiaanoe?iaaiey, o. a. aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa
a aeaei. I/aaeaeii, /oi ?aciauaiea yoeo n?aaenoa a oeaiiua aoiaae,
iaania/eaathuea iieo/aiea aeioiaea, eeai a n?i/iua aeaiiceoiua aeeaaeu
/anoe/ii ?aoaao i?iaeaio iiauoaiey aeioiaeiinoe yoiai oiiaea iooai
eiaanoe?iaaiey aeaiaa a ?uiie eaieoaea /a?ac nenoaio niioaaonoaothueo
oeiainiauo iin?aaeieeia (aaieia ia ?uiea aaieianeeo aeaiiceoia,
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo e o?anoiauo eiiiaiee ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa), ii aianoa
n oai nieaeaao aai eeeaeaeiinoue e ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue. ?aciauaiea
oiiaea ia aann?i/iuo aeaiiceoao oiaiueoaao aai aeioiaeiinoue.

I?e ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ythony a?aieoeu
naiino?aoiaaiey. Aai iiaay iiaeaeue o?ainoi?ie?oaony a oiiae ?enea,
eioi?ue nicaeaaony i?aaei?eyoeyie, oe?iaie, aeoeeiia?iuie iauanoaaie
aeey iaania/aiey eo aeayoaeueiinoe i?e iaaeaaii?eyoiie yeiiiie/aneie
eiiuthieoo?a, caaea?aeea caeac/eeaie ieaoaaeae ca iinoaaeaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, iaaeinoaoea n?aaenoa aeey iiaaoaiey iieo/aiiie nnoaeu. A
oneiaeyo ?uiea i?aaei?eyoey ooieoeeiie?otho a iaonoie/eaie, iinoiyiii
eciaiythuaeny yeiiiie/aneie n?aaea: iaiythony oeaiu ia i?iecaiaeeioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, i?eia?aoaaiua iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, oneiaey iieo/aiey
aaieianeeo nnoae, niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, ae?oaea oaeoi?u
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy i?aaei?eyoey no?aiyony
iaania/eoue naaa onoie/eaia iieiaeaiea, aiciiaeiinoue ?aaioaoue aac
oeiainiauo e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo n?uaia. Aeinoeaeaieth yoeo oeaeae
niinianoaoao no?aoiaie oiiae. Iau/ii i?aaei?eyoey nicaeatho oaeie oiiae
a ?acia?a 15% onoaaiiai eaieoaea. A aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao e iauanoaao n
ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth no?aoiaie oiiae nicaeaaony a ?acia?a,
onoaiiaeaiiii o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie, ii ia iaiaa 15% onoaaiiai
eaieoaea. Oi?ie?iaaiea no?aoiaiai oiiaea inouanoaeyaony iooai
aaeaaiaeiuo io/eneaiee aei aeinoeaeaiey oiiaeii ?acia?a, oeacaiiiai a
o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao.

Ii?yaeie eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa no?aoiaiai oiiaea i?aaeoniao?eaaaony a
onoaaa i?aaei?eyoey. A /anoiinoe, a aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao i?e
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe iieo/aiiie a enoaeoai aiaeo /enoie i?eauee aeey auieaou
onoaiiaeaiiuo ?acia?ia aeeaeaeaiaeia ii i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui aeoeeyi
eniieuecothony n?aaenoaa no?aoiaiai oiiaea.

Oicyenoaaiiay i?aeoeea o?aaoao, /oiau n?aaenoaa no?aoiaiai oiiaea
iinoiyiii iaoiaeeeenue a eeeaeaeiie oi?ia: a aeaea aeaiiceoia a aaieao,
aeoeee, eioe?othueony ia oiiaeiaie ae?aea, ainoaea?noaaiiuo eacia/aeneeo
iaycaoaeuenoa.

Eeanneoeeaoeey ii noaoono no?aoiaueea

No?aoiaueeii a Oe?aeia i?eciaaony th?eaee/aneia eeoei (noauaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa), nicaeaiiia a oi?ia aeoeeiia?iiai, iieiiai,
eiiiaiaeeoiiai oiaa?euanoaa eee oiaa?euanoaa n aeiiieieoaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth e eiathuaa eeoeaiceth ia inouanoaeaiea no?aoiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Eiee/anoai o/anoieeia no?aoiaueea aeieaeii auoue ia
iaiaa o?ao. Caeiiii aeiioneaaony nicaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo no?aoiauo
i?aaiecaoeee. No?aoiaay aeayoaeueiinoue a no?aia eiino?aiiuo
no?aoiaueeia-ia?aceaeaioia Oe?aeiu cai?auaia.

No?aoiauee-?aceaeaio iaycai eiaoue iieiinoueth noi?ie?iaaiiue onoaaiue
oiiae (OO) a ?acia?a ia iaiaa 100 oun. YETH ii aaethoiiio iaiaiiiio
eo?no IAO. Anee a ninoaaa o/?aaeeoaeae no?aoiaueea i?enoonoaoao oioy au
iaeei eiino?aiiue eiaanoi?-ia?aceaeaio Oe?aeiu, noiia ieieiaeueiiai OO
ninoaaeyao 500 oun. YETH. Iauay aeiey eiino?aiiuo eeoe a OO ia iiaeao
i?aauoaoue 49% iauaai ?acia?a OO, e?iia neo/ay i?eaea/aiey a ninoaa
o/anoieeia eiino?aiiuo no?aoiaueeia, yaeythueony
no?aoiaueeaie-?aceaeaioaie Oe?aeiu. I?e yoii iauay aeiey eiino?aiiuo
eeoe a OO ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue 50% iauaai ?acia?a yoiai OO, e?iia oao
no?aoiaueeia-?aceaeaioia Oe?aeiu, eioi?ua iieo/eee eeoeaiceth ia
no?aoiaaiea aeecie. Aeey ieo iauay aeiey eiino?aiiuo eeoe a OO ia iiaeao
i?aauoaoue 49%.

Ia iaiaa 60% iauaia OO iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii auoue iiea/aii aeaiueaaie.
Aeiioneaaony iieaoa ia aieaa /ai 25% iauaai ?acia?a OO ainoaea?noaaiiuie
oeaiiuie aoiaaaie ii eo iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiiie niaeanii
o?aaiaaieyi Ieioeia Oe?aeiu.

Ia aeiioneaaony eniieueciaaiea aeey oi?ie?iaaiey OO:

· aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, iaoiaeyueony a no?aoiauo ?aca?aao (a neo/aa
ia?a?aaeno?aoeee no?aoiaueea, eioi?ue ?aiaa oaea inouanoaeye no?aoiaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue e i?iecaiaeee oi?ie?iaaiea no?aoiauo ?aca?aia);

· n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo no?aoiaueeii a e?aaeeo e iiae caeia;

· iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia.

Noieiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey OO, aeieaeia auoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaia aoaeeoi?ii (aoaeeoi?neie
oe?iie).

No?aoiauee Oe?aeiu ia?aie/ai oaeaea a aiciiaeiinoyo iiiiiieecaoeee ?uiea
e iino?iaiey “no?aoiauo ie?aieae” /a?ac nicaeaiea naoe aei/a?ieo oe?i
aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi iauee ?acia? aciinia no?aoiaueea a OO ae?oaeo
no?aoiaueeia Oe?aeiu ia?aie/eaaaony caeiiii ia o?iaia ia aieaa 20% aai
nianoaaiiiai onoaaiiai oiiaea, a a OO ioaeaeueiiai no?aoiaueea ii iiaeao
aeiaeeoue ia aieaa 5% io onoaaiiai oiiaea.

No?aoiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ioiineony e eneeth/eoaeueiiio aeaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. i?aaeiaoii iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe no?aoiaueea iiaeao auoue oieueei no?aoiaaiea,
ia?ano?aoiaaiea e oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue, naycaiiay n oi?ie?iaaieai
no?aoiauo ?aca?aia, eo eniieueciaaieai n oeaeueth aiciauaiey
iaoa?eaeueiiai oua?aa eeai ieacaiey iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue a?aaeaeaiai i?e
ianooieaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo niauoee a eo aeecie, a oaeaea aeayoaeueiinoue,
naycaiiay n ?aciauaieai no?aoiauo ?aca?aia e oi?aaeaieai yoeie ?aca?aaie
n oeaeueth iieo/aiey no?aoiaueeii eiaanoeoeeiiiiai aeioiaea. Eeoeaicey
aeaao i?aai inouanoaeyoue no?aoiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue oieueei a Oe?aeia e
auaeaaony no?aoiaueeo-?aceaeaioo Eiieoaoii ii aeaeai iaaeci?a ca
no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth Oe?aeiu a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie
o?aaiaaieyie.

Niaoeeaeecaoeey no?aoiaaoaeae, no?aoiaua iauaaeeiaiey

No?aoiaaoaeue — yoi eeoei, eioi?ia a neeo caeiia eee aeiaiai?a
no?aoiaaiey iaycaii oieaoeoue no?aoiaueeo no?aoiaoth i?aieth (ieaoo ca
no?aoiaaiea), a i?e ianooieaiee i?aaeoniio?aiiiai niauoey (no?aoiaiai
neo/ay) ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue io no?aoiaueea no?aoiaoth auieaoo naaa, eeai
cano?aoiaaiiiio, eeai iieo/aoaeth, anee i no?aoiaaiee yoiai eeoea
no?aoiaaoaeai caeeth/ai aeiaiai? eee no?aoiaaoaeue aeiaa?yao yoiio eeoeo
iieo/eoue no?aoiaoth auieaoo.

I?aaiaia iieiaeaiea no?aoiaaoaey ii?aaeaeyaony ii?iaie no. 3 Caeiia
Oe?aeiu “I no?aoiaaiee”. I?e yoii no?aoiaaoaeyie iiaoo yaeyoueny
th?eaee/aneea eeoea e aeaaniiniaiua oece/aneea eeoea, caeeth/eaoea ni
no?aoiaueeaie aeiaiai?u no?aoiaaiey eeai yaeythueany no?aoiaaoaeyie a
neeo caeiia. E anee n oi/ee c?aiey i?aainiiniaiinoe th?eaee/aneea eeoea
“iiaoo aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa no?aoiaaoaeae e yoi ia aucuaaao ieeaeeo
iniauo i?iaeai, oi aiciiaeiinoue oieueei aeaaniiniaiuo oece/aneeo eeoe
aunooiaoue a ?iee no?aoiaaoaeae iaiaoiaeeii iiynieoue.

Aeaei a oii, /oi iau/ii niiniaiinoue e niaa?oaieth naeaeie oece/aneiai
eeoea ii?aaeaeyaony a caaeneiinoe io oiai, ai-ia?auo, e eaeie eaoaai?ee
ii aeaaniiniaiinoe ioiineony aeaiiia oece/aneia eeoei, e, ai-aoi?uo, e
eaeie eaoaai?ee ioiineony naeaeea. Iiceoeey caeiiiaeaoaey a ioiioaiee
o?aaiaaiey iaee/ey aeaaniiniaiinoe o no?aoiaaoaey iiaeao auoue
iainiiaaia oieueei iniaaiiinoueth no?aoiaaiey eae th?eaee/aneiai
einoeoooa, i?e/eiu eioi?ie iaoneiaeaiu yeiiiieei-i?aaiauie iniaaiiinoyie
no?aoiaaiey.

Iaycaiiinoe no?aoiaaoaey ia ia?aie/eaathony oieueei oieaoie no?aoiaie
i?aiee (aciina), ii nouanoaotho a oa/aiea anaai n?iea aeaenoaey
aeiaiai?a no?aoiaaiey. Eo iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu. E
ia?aie a?oiia ioiinyony iaycaiiinoe, naycaiiua n ioiioaieai no?aoiaaoaey
e iauaeoo no?aoiaaiey: niaethaeaiea i?aaee yenieoaoaoeee eiouanoaa eeai
aa?aaeiia ioiioaiea e caei?iaueth e aeecie. Aeey eniieiaiey iiaeiaiuo
iaycaiiinoae o?aaothony iniciaiea eo cia/eiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiiay
c?aeinoue no?aoiaaoaey.

Aoi?ay a?oiia niaea?aeeo iaycaiiinoe no?aoiaaoaey, eioi?ua aicieeatho n
ianooieaieai no?aoiaiai neo/ay: iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiyoey ia? ii
oiaiueoaieth ?acia?a oua?aa; niiauaiea no?aoiaueeo i aai ianooieaiee;
ia?auaiea no?aoiaaoaey e eiiiaoaioiui ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiai (a
iiaea?iue iaaeci?, neaaenoaaiiua i?aaiu, i?aaiu AAE e o. ae.).
No?aoiaaoaeue aeieaeai auoue aeaaniiniaai i?e caeeth/aiee iaeiieoaeueiuo
no?aoiauo aeiaiai?ia ni naa?aaaoaeueiui yeaiaioii – aeiaiai?ia ia
aeiaeeoea, a oii /enea n ia?eiaee/aneeie iaineiiiuie auieaoaie.

No?aoiauee e no?aoiaaoaeue yaeythony iniiaiuie noauaeoaie aeiaiai?iuo
ioiioaiee, iineieueeo o/anoaotho a ninoaaeaiee aeiaiai?a, iiaeienuaatho
aai, iaycaiu auiieiyoue ana aai oneiaey e eiatho i?aai ia eieoeeaoeao
ia?aniio?a oneiaee aai eniieiaiey eeai aai aein?i/iiai i?ae?auaiey.
E?iia no?aoiaueea e no?aoiaaoaey e n eo niaeaney aeiaiai?ii no?aoiaaiey
iiaoo ii?aaeaeyoueny aua oaeea aai noauaeou, eae cano?aoiaaiiue e
iieo/aoaeue no?aoiaiai aiciauaiey (aoi?inoaiaiiua noauaeou aeiaiai?iuo
ioiioaiee), eioi?ua ia yaeythony ieaoaeueueeaie no?aoiaie i?aiee e
eiatho ia?aie/aiiua i?aaa o/anoey a eniieiaiee yoiai aeiaiai?a.

Ia ?uiea aeaenoaotho niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua no?aoiaua i?aaiecaoeee,
iiae?acaeaeythueany ii oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe ia ainoaea?noaaiiua e
iaainoaea?noaaiiua e ?aaeecothuea no?aoiaie i?iaeoeo ii iauaio ioaaoa
no?aoiauo ?eneia a oi?ia iaycaoaeueiiai e aeia?iaieueiiai no?aoiaaiey.

Iaycaoaeueiia no?aoiaaiea au?aaeaao a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua ioiioaiey,
naycaiiua n ia?aciaaieai e eniieueciaaieai ?ano?nia no?aoiaiai oiiaea a
neeo caeiia. Eiaiii /a?ac ecaeaiea caeiiia ainoaea?noai onoaiaaeeaaao
iaycaoaeueioth oi?io no?aoiaaiey.

Aeia?iaieueiia no?aoiaaiea ioee/aaony io iaycaoaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey oai,
/oi oeacaiiua a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua ioiioaiey aicieeatho a neeo
aieaecuyaeaiey noi?ii — no?aoiaueea (no?aoiaie eiiiaiee) e no?aoiaaoaey
(oece/aneiai eee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea), eioi?ua cae?aieythony a
caeeth/aaiii iaaeaeo ieie ienueiaiiii aeiaiai?a no?aoiaaiey. A
oaeinoiaa?aiea caeeth/aiiiai aeiaiai?a no?aoiaaiey oece/aneiio eee
th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo a?o/aaony no?aoiaie iieen.

Noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe no?aoiauo i?aaiecaoeee ioaaouaaao aioo?aiiee,
aiaoiee e niaoaiiue no?aoiaua ?uiee. Yoi i?aaiecaoeeiiiay eeanneoeeaoeey
noa?u no?aoiaaiey eae aeaea yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii oi?ia
i?aaiecaoeee no?aoiaaiea aunooiaao eae ainoaea?noaaiiia, aeoeeiia?iia,
acaeiiia, eiiia?aoeaiia. Iniaie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iie yaeyaony
iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea. E?iia oiai, ioa/anoaaiiay i?aeoeea iineaaeieo
eao iicaieyao naiinoiyoaeueii iainiaeoue i?ioeaiiiaea?iia no?aoiaaiea.
(Aeeceee ii niuneo ca?oaaaeiue aiaeia – iaiaaia no?aoiaaiea.)

Ainoaea?noaaiiia no?aoiaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaiecaoeeiiioth
oi?io, aaea a ea/anoaa no?aoiaueea aunooiaao ainoaea?noai a eeoea
niaoeeaeueii oiieiiii/aiiuo ia yoi no?aoiauo i?aaiecaoeee. A e?oa
eioa?ania ainoaea?noaa aoiaeeo aai iiiiiieey ia i?iaaaeaiea ethauo eee
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia no?aoiaaiey (ii?aaeaeaiiuo caeiiii i noaoona
no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe).

Aeoeeiia?iia no?aoiaaiea — iaainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay oi?ia,
aaea a ea/anoaa no?aoiaueea aunooiaao /anoiue eaieoae a aeaea
aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, onoaaiue oiiae eioi?iai oi?ie?oaony ec aeoeee
(iaeeaaoeee) e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo th?eaee/aneei e
oece/aneei eeoeai, /oi iicaieyao i?e n?aaieoaeueii ia?aie/aiiuo
n?aaenoaao auno?i ?acaa?iooue yooaeoeaioth ?aaioo no?aoiauo eiiiaiee.

Acaeiiia no?aoiaaiea — iaainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay oi?ia,
eioi?ay au?aaeaao aeiaiai?aiiinoue iaaeaeo a?oiiie oece/aneeo,
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe i aiciauaiee ae?oa ae?oao aoaeoueo aiciiaeiuo oauoeia
a ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeieyo niaeanii i?eiyoui oneiaeyi. ?aaeecoaony /a?ac
iauanoai acaeiiiai no?aoiaaiey, eioi?ia yaeyaony no?aoiaie i?aaiecaoeeae
iaeiiia?/aneiai oeia, o.a. ia i?aneaaeoao oeaeae ecaea/aiey i?eauee ec
nicaeaiiiai no?aoiaiai i?aaei?eyoey. Yoi e?oiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay oi?ia
i?iaaaeaiey no?aoiaaiey. Iauanoai acaeiiiai no?aoiaaiey aunooiaao eae
iauaaeeiaiea oece/aneeo eee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, nicaeaiiia ia iniiaa
aeia?iaieueiiai niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo ieie aeey no?aoiaie caueou naieo
eiouanoaaiiuo eioa?ania. Iauanoai acaeiiiai no?aoiaaiey yaeyaony
th?eaee/aneei eeoeii e ioaa/aao ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai anai naiei
eiouanoaii. Eaaeaeue no?aoiaaoaeue yaeyaony /eaiii-iaeueeii iauanoaa
acaeiiiai no?aoiaaiey. Ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai /eaiia-iaeueeia
ii?aaeaeyaony onoaaii iauanoaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ionoonoaoao i?aaiaay aaca aeey aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoa
acaeiiiai no?aoiaaiey. Ca ?oaaaeii iauanoaa acaeiiiai no?aoiaaiey
yaeythony e?oiiuie oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie ?aaeiiaeueiiai,
iaoeeiiaeueiiai e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai no?aoiaiai ?uiea.

Eiiia?aoeaiia no?aoiaaiea — iaainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay oi?ia.
Caeeth/aaony a i?iaaaeaiee no?aoiauo iia?aoeee eiiia?aoeaaie. A
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eiiia?aoeaiia no?aoiaaiea ia/aei
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a 1918 a., eiaaea aue i?aaieciaai Ana?inneeneee
eiiia?aoeaiue no?aoiaie nithc. N 1921 a. eiiia?aoeaiui i?aaiecaoeeyi
auei ?ac?aoaii i?iaiaeeoue no?aoiaaiea nianoaaiiiai eiouanoaa io
noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee n i?aaii naiinoiyoaeueii onoaiaaeeaaoue oi?iu, aeaeu
no?aoiaaiey e ?acia?u oa?eoiuo noaaie. Ana?inneeneee eiiia?aoeaiue
no?aoiaie nithc eii?aeeie?iaae ?aaioo a /anoe no?aoiaaiey iauaeoia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie, i?iiuneiaie, aeeeeuii-no?ieoaeueiie e ae?oaeo
aeaeia eiiia?aoea iie aeayoaeueiinoe. No?aoiaay naeoeey Oeaio?inithca
inouanoaeyea eiiia?aoeaiia no?aoiaaiea aeey nenoaiu iio?aaeoaeueneie
eiiia?aoeee. A 1931 a. eiiia?aoeaiia no?aoiaaiea eae i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
oi?ia auea eeeaeaee?iaaia, a ana iia?aoeee aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey
nin?aaeioi/aiu a Ainno?aoa NNN?. Aic?iaeaeaiea eiiia?aoeaiiai
no?aoiaaiey naycaii n i?eiyoeai a 1988 a. Caeiia NNN? i eiiia?aoeee, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui eiiia?aoeaai e eo nithcai auei ?ac?aoaii
nicaeaaaoue eiiia?aoeaiua no?aoiaua o/?aaeaeaiey, ii?aaeaeyoue oneiaey,
ii?yaeie e aeaeu no?aoiaaiey.

Iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea — iniaay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay oi?ia no?aoiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aunooiaao eae oi?ia
nioeeaeueiie caueou eioa?ania ianaeaiey a io?aia caei?iauey. Oeaeue aai
— aa?aioe?iaaoue a?aaeaeaiai i?e aicieeiiaaiee no?aoiaiai neo/ay
iieo/aiea iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue ca n/ao iaeiieaiiuo n?aaenoa (a oii /enea
a ainoaea?noaaiiie e ioieoeeiaeueiie nenoaiao cae?aaiio?aiaiey) e
oeiaine?iaaoue i?ioeeaeoe/aneea ia?ii?eyoey (aeeniaina?ecaoeeth,
aaeoeeiaoeeth e ae?.). A ea/anoaa noauaeoia iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey
aunooiatho a?aaeaeaiei, no?aoiaaoaeue, no?aoiaay iaaeeoeeineay
i?aaiecaoeey (no?aoiauee), iaaeeoeeineia o/?aaeaeaiea (iieeeeeieea,
aiaoeaoi?ey, aieueieoea e ae?.).

I?ioeaiiiaea?iia no?aoiaaiea — a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia?a ?aaeecaoeee
Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I iiaea?iie aaciianiinoe».
I?aaeoniio?aii iaycaoaeueiia e aeia?iaieueiia i?ioeaiiiaea?iia
no?aoiaaiea. A ea/anoaa iauaeoia yoiai no?aoiaaiey aunooiatho
eiouanoaaiiua eioa?anu no?aoiaaoaey (cano?aoiaaiiiai,
auaiaeii?eia?aoaoaey), naycaiiua n aeaaeaieai, iieueciaaieai e
?anii?yaeaieai eiouanoaii, ia neo/ae aai iia?aaeaeaiey eee oie/oiaeaiey
a ?acoeueoaoa iiaea?a, a oii /enea aeaenoaee ii aai oooaieth.

No?aoiaaiea eiouanoaa th?eaee/aneeo eeoe

Nianoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee ?acee/iuo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey ninoaaeyao
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Ia?aaeei ia aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee aeeytho iaiaeeaeaiiua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua nouanoaaiii nieaeatho eo iaoa?eaeueiua ?aca?au.

Nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey oaaoaao, eae i?aaeei, ia iie?uoea
iacia/eoaeueiuo oua?aia, oaeei ia?acii, aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
eiouanoaaiiiai no?aoiaaiey.

A iniiaiii aeiaiai?a yaeythony aeia?iaieueiuie e caeeth/athony n
i?aaei?eyoeyie ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe.

Eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao auoue cano?aoiaaii ii: iniiaiiio e
aeiiieieoaeueiiio aeiaiai?o.

Ii iniiaiiio aeiaiai?o no?aoiaaiey iiaeao auoue cano?aoiaaii neaaeothuaa
eiouanoai:

– caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey;

– iaoeiu, iai?oaeiaaiey;

– o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa;

– nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey;

– eiaaioa?ue e o.ae.

Ii aeiiieieoaeueiiio aeiaiai?o iiaeao auoue cano?aoiaaii:

– eiouanoai, iieo/aiiia i?aaei?eyoeai a a?aiaeo eee ia?aaeaiiia ae?oaeie
i?aaei?eyoeyie eee ianaeaieai aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee, ?aiiioa, o?aiaiey e
o.ae.;

– eiouanoai, acyoia ia a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey aunoaaie, yenia?eiaioia e o.ae.

Eiouanoai, eioi?ia ia i?eieiaaony ia aeia?iaieueiia no?aoiaaiea:

– iaee/iua aeaiueae;

– oeaiiua aoiaae;

– ?oeiiene, aooaaeoa?neea eieae, aeieoiaioaoeey;

– ae?aaioeaiiua e?enoaeeu;

– oaoie/aneea iineoaee eioi?iaoeee (aeeneaou, ieaiee e o.ae.)

– eiouanoai, eioi?ia iaoiaeeony a cano?aoiaaiiii iiiauaiee ii ia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo no?aoiaaoaeth;

– eiouanoai a aaa?eeiii ninoiyiee, aaa?eeiie ciia.

Naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui aeaeii eiouanoaaiiiai no?aoiaaiey yaeyaony
iaiaaia, eioi?ia aeeth/aao a naay aeaa oeia aeiaiai?ia:

1. No?aoiaaiea io iaiy, ac?uaa, oaea?a iieiee.

2. Eiiieaeniua aeiaiai?a – no?aoiaaiea io iaiy e ae?oaeo neo/aaa.

No?aoiaay ioeaiea caaeneo io aeaea no?aooaiiai eiouanoaa;

1. Ioeaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia – i?iecaiaeeony ii aaeainiaie noieiinoe ca
au/aoii eciina.

2. Oiaa?iiaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe ioeaieaathony a ?acia?ao oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe eee a oeaiao ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a.

3. I?iaeoeoeey a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa ioeaieaaaony ii noieiinoe
enno?a/eaaaiie ia aa ecaioiaeaiea ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a,
nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, yia?aey iethn noieiinoue aeiaeaiiiai o?oaea.

4. Yeniiiaou eee iocaeiua oeaiiinoe (ii?aaeaeytho eeai ii i?aaeuyaeaiiie
aeieoiaioaoeee eeai ii yenia?oiie ioeaiea).

Aeiaiai?a eiouanoaaiiiai no?aoiaaiey iiaoo caeeth/aoueny ia neaaeothueo
oneiaeyo:

1. Ia aaeainiaoth noieiinoue.

2. Ia aeiaiai?ioth noieiinoue.

3. Ia ii?aaeaeaiioth /anoue i?ioeaioa nianoaaiiinoe.

Oi?ie?iaaiea no?aoiaiai ii?ooaey

I?aeoe/anee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ethaay no?aoiaay eiiiaiey iiaeao i?eiyoue
ia no?aoiaaiea ?ene n o/aoii iinoiyiii aic?anoathueo no?aoiauo noii,
eiay oaa?aeia ia?ano?aoiai/iia iaania/aiea.

Ia?ano?aoiaaiea — yoi aoi?e/iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?enea, nenoaia
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie no?aoiauee, i?eieiay
ia no?aoiaaiea ?enee, /anoue ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii iei enoiaey ec naieo
oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoae ia?aaeaao ia niaeaniaaiiuo oneiaeyo ae?oaei
no?aoiaueeai n oeaeueth nicaeaiey ii aiciiaeiinoe naaeaine?iaaiiiai
ii?ooaey aeiaiai?ia no?aoiaaiee, iaania/aiey oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe e
?aioaaaeueiinoe no?aoiauo iia?aoeee.

Ia?ano?aoiaaieai aeinoeaaaony ia oieueei caueoa no?aoiaiai ii?ooaey io
aeeyiey ia iaai na?ee e?oiiuo no?aoiauo neo/aaa eee aeaaea iaeiiai
eaoano?ioe/aneiai neo/ay, ii e oi, /oi iieaoa noii no?aoiaiai aiciauaiey
ii oaeei neo/ayi ia eiaeeony oyaeaeui a?aiaiai ia iaeii no?aoiaia
iauanoai, a inouanoaeyaony eieeaeoeaii anaie o/anoieeaie.

I?e ?anniio?aiee aii?ina i ia?ano?aoiaaiee eaaeaeay no?aoiaay eiiiaiey
enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi iii aeieaeii auoue yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaiui n
oi/ee, c?aiey aeinoeaeaiey oeaee, a oaeaea o/eouaaoue noieiinoue
ia?ano?aoiaaiey.

Iiae noieiinoueth ia?ano?aoiaaiey neaaeoao iiieiaoue ia oieueei
i?e/eoathuothny ia?ano?aoiaueeo ii aai aeiea i?aieth, ii e oa ?anoiaeu,
eioi?ua eiiiaiey aoaeao ianoe ii aaaeaieth aeaea a nayce n ia?aaea/ae
?eneia a ia?ano?aoiaaiea (ioi?ieaiea ia?ano?aoiai/iuo aeiaiai?ia,
aaaeaiea ea?oi/ae, o/ao e o. ae.).

A i?ioeanna aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey ia?ano?aoiai/iuo ioiioaiee
noi?ie?iaaeenue ii?aaeaeaiiua oeiu ia?ano?aoiai/iuo aeiaiai?ia, eioi?ua
i?eiaiythony ia iaoeeiiaeueiii (aioo?e no?aiu) e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
o?iaiyo.

Ii oi?ia acaeiii acyouo iaycaoaeuenoa oeaaeaioa e ia?ano?aoiaueea
aeiaiai?u ia?ano?aoiaaiey iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeiaiai?u:
oaeoeueoaoeaiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey; iaeeaaoi?iiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey;
oaeoeueoaoeaii-iaeeaaoi?iiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey. Nai i?ioeann
ia?ano?aoiaaiey ii ia?a/eneaiiui aeiaiai?ai iacuaaaony oaeoeueoaoeaiui,
iaeeaaoi?iui e oaeoeueoaoeaii-iaeeaaoi?iui.

Enoi?e/anee iaeaieaa ?aiiae oi?iie aeiaiai?ia, iieo/eaoeo aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea, auee aeiaiai?u oaeoeueoaoeaiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey. Aeaiiue
aeiaiai? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth naeaeeo, eanathuothny a
i?eioeeia iaeiiai ?enea. Aeiaiai? oaeoeueoaoeaiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey
i?aaeinoaaeyao iieioth naiaiaeo o/anoaothuei a iai noi?iiai: oeaaeaioo —
a ?aoaiee aii?ina, neieueei neaaeoao inoaaeoue ia nianoaaiiii ?enea
(nianoaaiiia oaea?aeaiea), ia?ano?aoiaueeo — a ?aoaiee aii?inia i?eiyoey
?enea a oii eee eiii iauaia. N o/aoii i?aaeinoaaeaiiie naiaiaeu i?eiyoey
?aoaiee i?e caeeth/aiee eaaeaeiai aeiaiai?a ia?ano?aoiaaiey
ia?ano?aoiai/iua ieaoaaee aceiathony eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, iacaaeneii io
noiiu no?aoiauo ieaoaaeae, iieo/aiiuo oeaaeaioii.

Aeiaiai? iaeeaaoi?iiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey, eae i?aaeei, caeeth/aaony ia
iaii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie n i?aaii acaeiiiai ?anoi?aeaiey iooai
niioaaonoaothuaai oaaaeiieaiey noi?ii ca?aiaa i i?eiyoii ?aoaiee.
Aeiaiai? iaeeaaoi?iiai no?aoiaaiey iaeaieaa auaiaeai aeey oeaaeaioa,
iineieueeo ana ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiua ?enee aaoiiaoe/anee iieo/atho
iie?uoea o ia?ano?aoiaueea. A ioee/ea io oaeoeueoaoeaiiai
ia?ano?aoiaaiey, aaea i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a yaeyaony eaaeaeue
iainiaeaiiue ?ene n o/aoii oneiaee, ii?aaeaeyaiuo a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii
ii?yaeea, iaeeaaoi?iia ia?ano?aoiaaiea ioaaouaaao aanue eee
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue no?aoiaiai ii?ooaey no?aoiaueea. Ianeoaeeaaiea
aeiaiai?a iaeeaaoi?iiai no?aoiaaiey aeaoaaea aeey iaaeo noi?ii ii
n?aaiaieth n aeiaiai?ii oaeoeueoaoeaiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey. A yoie nayce a
i?aeoeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?ano?aoiai/iiai ?uiea iaeaieaa /anoi
ano?a/aaony oi?ia aeiaiai?a iaeeaaoi?iiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey.

Ia i?aeoeea oaeaea ano?a/aaony niaoaiiay (ia?aoiaeiay) oi?ia aeiaiai?a
ia?ano?aoiaaiey — oaeoeueoaoeaii-iaeeaaoi?iay, iacuaaaiay aeiaiai?ii
“ioe?uoiai iie?uoey”. Iia aeaao oeaaeaioo naiaiaeo i?eiyoey ?aoaiee: a
ioiioaiee eaeeo ?eneia e a eaeii ?acia?a neaaeoao eo ia?aaeaoue
ia?ano?aoiaueeo. A naith i/a?aaeue ia?ano?aoiauee iaycai i?eiyoue
oeaaee?iaaiiua aeiee ?eneia ia ca?aiaa iaiai?aiiuo oneiaeyo.

Ia?ano?aoiai/iua ieaoaaee ii aeiaiai?ai ioe?uoiai iie?uoey
ii?aaeaeythony ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iniiaa ii niaeaoaieth noi?ii eee
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii no?aoiaui ieaoaaeai, iieo/aiiui i?e caeeth/aiee
ia?ae/iiai aeiaiai?a no?aoiaaiey.

Aeiaiai? ioe?uoiai iie?uoey iiaeao auoue iaauaiaeiui e iaaaciianiui aeey
ia?ano?aoiaueea, iineieueeo oeaaeaio, i?iecaaaey aiaeec ?eneia a
no?aoiaii ii?ooaea, ia?aaeano a ia?ano?aoiaaiea oieueei naiua
iaaaciianiua ?enee. Iiyoiio aeiaiai?u ioe?uoiai iie?uoey caeeth/athony
ia?ano?aoiaueeaie oieueei n oaeeie oeaaeaioaie, eioi?ua iieuecothony
iieiui aeiaa?eai, ia iniiaaiee iiiaieaoiae i?aeoeee eo acaeiiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa.

I?iii?oeeiiaeueiia ia?ano?aoiaaiea — enoi?e/anee iaeaieaa ae?aaiyy e ii
nouanoao aei eiioea XIX a. aaeeinoaaiiay anaiauay oi?ia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey ?enea. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia
ia?ano?aoiaaiea iineo aua iacaaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey.
Aeiaiai? i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi aeiey
ia?ano?aoiaueea a eaaeaeii ia?aaeaiiii aio aeey iie?uoey ?enea
ii?aaeaeyaony ii ca?aiaa iaiai?aiiiio niioiioaieth nianoaaiiiai o/anoey
oeaaeaioa. O/anoea ia?ano?aoiaueea a ieaoaaeao e aiciauaiee oua?aa
i?ienoiaeeo ii oaeiio aea niioiioaieth, /oi e aai o/anoea a iie?uoee
?enea. A iaiauaiiie oi?ia i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia ia?ano?aoiaaiea aeaenoaoao
ii i?eioeeio “ia?ano?aoiauee ?acaeaeyao ?ene oeaaeaioa”. Yoio i?eioeei,
eae aoaeao aeaeii aeaeaa, ia eniieuecoaony a aeiaiai?ao
iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey.

A i?aeoeea no?aoiaie ?aaiou noi?ie?iaaeenue neaaeothuea oi?iu aeiaiai?ia
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey: eaioiue, yenoeaaeaioiue;
eaioii-yenoeaaeaioiue eee niaoaiiue.

A aeiaiai?a eaioiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey oeaaeaio iaycoaony ia?aaeaoue
ia?ano?aoiaueeo aeieth ai anao ?eneao aeaiiiai aeaea, a ia?ano?aoiauee
iaycoaony i?eiyoue yoe aeiee. Iau/ii aeiey o/anoey a ia?ano?aoiaaiee
au?aaeaaony a i?ioeaioa io no?aoiaie noiiu. Eiiaaea o/anoea
ia?ano?aoiaueea iiaeao auoue iaiai?aii eiie?aoiie noiiie (eaioie). E?iia
oiai, a aeiaiai?ao yoiai oeia ii aeaeaieth ia?ano?aoiaueea
onoaiaaeeaathony aeey ?aciuo eeannia ?enea aa?oiea a?aieoeu (eeieou)
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?ano?aoiaueea.

Aeiaiai? yenoeaaeaioiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey eiaao ?yae ioee/ee io aeiaiai?a
eaioiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey. Yenoeaaeaioiia ia?ano?aoiaaiea iiaeao i?eaanoe
e iieiiio au?aaieaaieth oie /anoe no?aoiaiai ii?ooaey, eioi?ay inoaeanue
a ea/anoaa nianoaaiiiai o/anoey oeaaeaioa a iie?uoee ?enea. I?enooiay e
caeeth/aieth aeiaiai?a yenoeaaeaioiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey, noi?iiu
ii?aaeaeytho ?acia? iaeneiaeueiiai nianoaaiiiai o/anoey no?aoiaueea a
iie?uoee ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?oii ?enea. Aeey yoiai i?eaaaatho e aiaeeco
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo e i?iaaaeaieth aeooa?iuo ?an/aoia. Iaeneioi
nianoaaiiiai o/anoey no?aoiaueea iacuaaaony yenoeaaeaioii.

I?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a yenoeaaeaioiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey eneeth/athony
ethaua ?enee, no?aoiaay noiia eioi?uo iaiueoa eee ?aaia onoaiiaeaiiiio
aeey aeaiiiai ii?ooaey eiee/anoao aeieae nianoaaiiiai o/anoey
no?aoiaueea. E iaiai?io, ?enee, no?aoiaay noiia eioi?uo i?aauoaao
nianoaaiiia o/anoea no?aoiaueea, n/eoathony ia?ano?aoiaaiiuie. I?ioeaio
ia?ano?aoiaee aoaeao oai aieueoa, /ai auoa no?aoiaay noiia aeey aeaiiiai
?enea.

Aeiaiai? niaoaiiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey — eaioii-yenoeaaeaioiue —
i?eiaiyaony ia i?aeoeea ioiineoaeueii ?aaeei. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ni/aoaiea aeaoo ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa aeaeia ia?ano?aoiai/iuo aeiaiai?ia.
Ii?ooaeue aeaiiiai aeaea no?aoiaaiey ia?ano?aoiauaaaony eaioii, a
i?aauoaiea noii no?aoiaaiey ?eneia naa?o onoaiiaeaiiie eaiou (ii?iu) a
naith i/a?aaeue iiaeeaaeeo ia?ano?aoiaaieth ia i?eioeeiao
yenoeaaeaioiiai aeiaiai?a.

Iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiia ia?ano?aoiaaiea ecaanoii n O1Oa. Iaeiaei a oe?ieeo
ianooaaao noaei i?eiaiyoueny iinea ieii/aiey Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu.
Eniieuecoaony a ?acee/iuo aeaeao no?aoiaaiey, ii /aua anaai i?eiaiyaony
ii aeiaiai?ai no?aoiaaiey a?aaeaeaineie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeaaeaeueoeaa
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ca oua?a, i?e/eiaiiue o?aoueei eeoeai a
?acoeueoaoa AeOI. Iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiia ia?ano?aoiaaiea i?eiaiyaony
oaeaea ai anao aeaeao no?aoiaaiey, aaea iao aa?oiae a?aieoeu (i?aaeaea)
ioaaonoaaiiinoe no?aoiaueea.

A i?aeoeea iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey ia i?eiaiyaony i?eioeei
o/anoey ia?ano?aoiaueea a ieaoaaeao e auieaoao no?aoiaiai aiciauaiey,
enoiaey ec i?ioeaioa ia?ano?aoiaaiey. I?e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiii
ia?ano?aoiaaiee eioa?anu oeaaeaioa e ia?ano?aoiaueea a oeaeii
niaiaaeatho. Iai?ioea, i?e iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiii ia?ano?aoiaaiee eioa?anu
noi?ii iiaoo i?eia?anoe i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?. Niune i?ioeai?a/ey
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeinoeaeaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia oeaaeaioii ia nii?iaiaeaeaaony aiaeiae/iuie ?acoeueoaoaie,
aeinoeaioouie ia?ano?aoiaueeii. Iai?ioea, ia?ano?aoiauee iiaeao iiianoe
oauoee.

Iiaoaeeoaeueiui iioeaii e ?acaeoeth iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai
ia?ano?aoiaaiey ni noi?iiu oeaaeaioa auei no?aieaiea aeaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiua aa?aioee anai eiathueiny oeiainiaui eioa?anai, eioi?ua
iiaeaa?aeaiu iaeiio eiee/anoao eneeth/eoaeueii e?oiiuo oauoeia eee
aieueoiio eiee/anoao eneeth/eoaeueii iaeeeo oauoeia. N o/aoii yoeo
iio?aaiinoae iieo/eee ?acaeoea aeaa oeia iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai
ia?ano?aoiaaiey — ia?ano?aoiaaiea i?aauoaiey oauoeia e ia?ano?aoiaaiea
i?aauoaiey oauoi/iiai ii ?eneai ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea. Ii?aaeaeaiiua
o?oaeiinoe a i?aeoeea iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey auee naycaiu
n en/eneaieai ia?ano?aoiai/iuo ieaoaaeae, eioi?ua auee au aaeaeaaoiu
i?eiyoui iaycaoaeuenoaai ia?ano?aoiaueea ia oneiaeyo caeeth/aiiiai
ia?ano?aoiai/iiai aeiaiai?a. Oieueei ?acaeoea nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeee
aeooa?iuo ?an/aoia iicaieeei ?aoeoue yoe i?iaeaiu. Noaoenoe/aneee aiaeec
e?oiiuo oauoeia iicaieee ninoaaeoue oaaeeoeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey eo
aa?iyoiinoae, ioeaieoue eo aa?iyoiue ?acia? e aa?iyoiinoue ioeeiiaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai oua?aa io iaeeaeaaiiai. N o/aoii iaeiieaiiuo
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo oauoi/iinoe ii anaio no?aoiaiio ii?ooaeth
oeaaeaioa i?aeoeea aeooa?iuo ?an/aoia iicaieeea en/eneeoue iaeeaeaaioth
aaee/eio oauoi/iinoe (i?iaiic) e aa?iyoiinoue aoaeoueo ioeeiiaiee yoie
oauoi/iinoe.

Ia?ano?aoiaaiea i?aauoaiey oauoeia eniieuecoaony oiaaea. eiaaea
no?aoiauee no?aieony ia e au?aaieaaieth ioaeaeueiuo ?eneia aeaiiiai
aeaea, a iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iaania/aieth oeiainiaiai ?aaiiaaney
no?aoiauo iia?aoeee a oeaeii, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue ia?ooaii i?e/eiaieai
oua?aa a iniai e?oiiuo ?acia?ao ii iaeioi?ui ?eneai no?aoiaiai ii?ooaey.

Ae?oaei aeaeii iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai ia?ano?aoiaaiey yaeyaony
ia?ano?aoiaaiea i?aauoaiey oauoi/iinoe. Yoi ia?ano?aoiaaiea eanaaony
anaai no?aoiaiai ii?ooaey e noaaeo oeaeueth caueoeoue oeiainiaua
eioa?anu no?aoiaueea ia?aae iineaaenoaeyie /?acau/aeii e?oiiie
oauoi/iinoe (eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony eae i?ioeaioiia ioiioaiea
auiea/aiiiai no?aoiaiai aiciauaiey e noiia nia?aiiuo no?aoiauo
ieaoaaeae). I?e/eiie /?acau/aeii e?oiiie oauoi/iinoe iiaeao auoue
aicieeiiaaiea iaeiai /enea aanueia e?oiiuo oauoeia eee aicieeiiaaiea
cia/eoaeueiiai /enea iaeeeo oauoeia.

Aeiaiai?u ia?ano?aoiaaiey i?aauoaiey oauoi/iinoe iiaoo auoue
naiinoiyoaeueii iainiaeaiiuie eiio?aeoaie eee aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa
aeiiieiaiey e yenoeaaeaioiiio ia?ano?aoiaaieth. E a oii, e a ae?oaii
neo/aa aeaenoaea aeiaiai?a ia?ano?aoiaaiey ia?aie/eaaaony
eneeth/eoaeueii /anoueth ii?ooaey oeaaeaioa, eiathuaai i?aauoaiea
oauoi/iinoe.

A oeaeyo aaeaeaaoiiai ii?aaeaeaiey ia?ano?aoiai/iuo ieaoaaeae
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai yaeyaony aiaeec aeeiaieee oauoi/iinoe a no?aoiaii
ii?ooaea oeaaeaioa ca ianeieueei eao. Aiaeece?othony oaeaea oaeouea e
ia?niaeoeaiua eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a no?aoiaiai ii?ooaey.

Caaea/a ?7

Iaeia i?aaei?eyoea ii?aaeaeeei a cayaeaiee i no?aoiaaiee noieiinoue
eiouanoaa 20 oun. a?i., a no?aoiaoth noiio 12 oun. a?i. Iinea iiaea?a
no?aoiaay i?aaiecaoeey i?iaaea ianeaaeiaaiea eiouanoaa iaeiai
i?aaei?eyoey e auyaeea, /oi ia oi a?aiy noieiinoue eiouanoaa ninoaaeea
24 oun. a?i. Ii?aaeaeeoa no?aoiaia aiciauaiea, anee eiouanoai ai a?aiy
iiaea?a oie/oiaeaii iieiinoueth.

?aoaiea

1. No?aoiaia aiciauaiea ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

Sa = Ueiou * ki;

aaea Ueiou – noieiinoue eiouanoaa;

ki – eiyooeoeeaio;

2. ?ann/eoaai eiyooeoeeaio ki

ki = no?aoiaay noiia / noieiinoue eiouanoaa = S / W;

ki = 12000 / 20000 = 0.6;

3. ?ann/eoaai no?aoiaia aiciauaiea

Sa = 24000 * 0.6 = 14400 a?i.

Ioaao: no?aoiaia aiciauaiea ninoaaeo 14400 a?i.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. No?aoiaia aeaei: O/aaiee / Iiae ?aae. E.E. ?aeoiaia. – I.: Aaieianeee
e ae?aeaaie IEOe, 1998. – 524 n.

2. Oaoia A.A. No?aoiaaiea: O/aaiee aeey aocia. – I.: No?aoiaie iieen,
THIEOE, 2004. – 311n.

3. Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa caaaeaiiy aeey eiio?ieueii? ?iaioe c
eo?no “No?aooaaiiy”: A.I. Ieeyanea. – Oa?ueeia: 1999. – n.

4. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee ii eo?no “No?aoiaaiea”.

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