Обеспечение возврата кредита

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O?aeueneee nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneee einoeooo.

Aeaaeaiey o?oaea e nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee

EIIO?IEUeIAss ?AAIOA

Ii aeenoeeieeia: Iaeiae e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea

Oaia: Nouiinoue iaeiaia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee

Auiieieea: Iaiueoeeiaa I.A.

Niaoeeaeueiinoue: Oeiainu e e?aaeeo.

A?oiia: OC 303

?aoeaicaio: Aanaiaaa I.Ae.

*aeyaeine 2008

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Aaaaeaiea

2. Iaeiae a yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia ainoaea?noaa

3. Nouiinoue e ooieoeee iaeiaia

4. Iaeiaiaay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa

5. Caeeth/aiea

6.Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

Iaeiae ecaanoiu aeaaiui-aeaaii, aua ia ca?a /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee.
Eo iiyaeaiea naycaii n naiuie ia?auie iauanoaaiiuie iio?aaiinoyie.

Iaeiae yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiui caaiii yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a iauanoaa
n iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey ainoaea?noaa. ?acaeoea e eciaiaiea oi?i
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeathony i?aia?aciaaieai
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. A nia?aiaiiii oeeaeeeciaaiiii iauanoaa iaeiae —
iniiaiay oi?ia aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa. Iiieii yoie noaoai oeiainiaie
ooieoeee iaeiaiaue iaoaieci eniieuecoaony aeey yeiiiie/aneiai
aicaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaa ia iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, aai aeeiaieeo e
no?oeoo?o, ia ninoiyiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

A no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie iaeiae, e?iia auiieiaiey
oeneaeueiie ooieoeee, iaeiae noaiiayony ana aieaa aeoeaiui eino?oiaioii
ainoaea?noaaiiie nioeeaeueiie e yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. Iie ieacuaatho
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea, oeaiiia?aciaaiea,
oi?ie?iaaiea oiiaeia iio?aaeaiey e iaeiieaiey, inouanoaeaiea
eiaanoeoeeiiiie iieeoeee, ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee, nioeeaeueiia
iieiaeaiea ianaeaiey.

A aeaiiie eiio?ieueiie ?aaioa y ia i?eia?a iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ?.O. aoaeo
?anniao?eaaoue nouiinoue iaeiaia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

Iaeiae a yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia ainoaea?noaa

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oai?ey iaeiaia eae aaaeiaeoay ninoaaeythuay
yeiiiie/aneie iaoee a ?innee ia/aea aic?iaeaeaoueny.

Enoiaey ec oai?ee iaeiaia e ooieoeee iaeiaia, ii?aaeaeyaony iaeiaiaay
iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa. Ia i?aeoeea iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iniiaiua oi?iu
iaeiaiaie iieeoeee. Iie ano?a/atho ia a /enoii aeaea, a a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
niioiioaieyo ae?oa n ae?oaii.

Ai-ia?auo, yoi au?aaeaiiay oeneaeueiay iieeoeea, eee iieeoeea
iaeneiaeueiuo iaeiaia. Caeanue iu eiaai oio neo/ae, eiaaea ainoaea?noai
no?aieony iaoiaeii aunieeo iaeiaia ia iiaeioiaeioth /anoue athaeaeaoa e
iaania/eoue i?aauoaiea aeioiaeia iaae ?anoiaeaie. Iiaeiaiay iieeoeea,
eae oaaaeeoaeueii iieacae A. Eyooa?, /aua anaai ia aeinoeaaao
iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. Aianoa n oai iia eiaao e aua aieaa na?ueaciua
iineaaenoaey. I?ienoiaeeo caiaaeeaiea ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa eee
aiiaua aica?ao e i?inoiio aini?iecaiaenoao. Ianaeaiea ieacuaaao
ianneaiia nii?ioeaeaiea aeaiiiio eo?no, e ia/eiaaony ianniaia oeeiiaiea
io oieaou iaeiaia. Oeeiiaiea io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eaiaeeo a naith
i/a?aaeue e ?inoo oaiaaie yeiiiieee.

A iiaeiaiie neooaoeee iu eiaai aeaei n i?aoaaee/aieai ?iee oeneaeueiie
ooieoeee iaeiaia ii n?aaiaieth n inoaeuiuie ooieoeeyie.

Ai-aoi?uo, yoi iaeiaiaay iieeoeea yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. I?e yoii
ainoaea?noai no?aieony anaia?ii nieaeaoue iaeiae, inoaaeyy aieueooth
/anoue oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a ?anii?yaeaiee oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia. Ia
ia?aue acaeyae iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi eiaiii e oaeie iieeoeea neaaeoao
no?aieoueny. Iaeiaei iia iiaeao eiaoue ia iaiaa oyaeeea iineaaenoaey, a
eiaiii: nie?auaiea nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii ec-ca iaoaaoee n?aaenoa o
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, nieaeaiea, o?iaiy aeecie ?aaioieeia athaeaeaoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee, aeeth/ay a?a/ae, o/eoaeae e o. ae.

O?aoueae oi?iie neaaeoao i?eciaoue iioeiaeueioth iaeiaiaoth iieeoeeo.
Aio aa-oi i?iaaaeaiea o?aaoao aeaoaeueiiai iao/iiai aiaeeca e iniuneaiey
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee, i?iaiice?iaaiey iineaaenoaee ethauo iaeiaiauo
eciaiaiee, eiiieaeniinoe i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. Aeey oniaoa iaeiaiaie
iieeoeee iaiaoiaeeii enneaaeiaaoue i?ioeia, ciaoue iiuo ca?oaaaeiuo
?acaeouo no?ai, i?eiaiyoue aai, ia neaii eiie?oy, a niioiiny ni
niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee iaeiaiaie iieeoeee iiaoo ?acieoenue oeneaeueiua eioa?anu
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. Eae aeinoe/ue
aa?iiiecaoeee eioa?ania? Iaeiaiaay iieeoeea aeieaeia o/eouaaoue eae
eioa?anu athaeaeaoa, oae e eioa?anu, oe?ieeo iann ianaeaiey. I?eie?eoue
eo aiieia aiciiaeii. Ana caeioa?aniaaiu a onoie/eaii ?acaeoee yeiiiieee
aunieeie oaiiaie, a ?acaeoee ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa
ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee. Oaeaea ana caeioa?aniaaiu a ?aoaiee nioeeaeueiuo
i?iaeai. Aii?in – a iioeiaeueiuo niioiioaieyo oeiaine?iaaiey
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo io?aneae, a “i?ic?a/iinoe” aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia
athaeaeaoa.

Noi?ioee?oai, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?uii/iay nenoaia oicyenoaa.
?uii/iay yeiiiieea – yoi nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaa no?aiu, iniiaaia
ia oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaieyo, iiiaiia?acee oi?i nianoaaiiinoe; ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaea a?aaeaeai eae
nianoaaiieeia naiae ?aai/ae neeu eo eiieo?aioeee a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa e
ia?auaiey oiaa?ia e oneoa.

A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ooieoeeiie?otho e aeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n
ae?oaii o?e iniiaiuo niaoeeoe/aneeo ?uiea. Yoi ?uiie oiaa?ia e oneoa,
eee oiaa?iue ?uiie; ?uiie o?oaea e ?uiie oeiainiauo ?ano?nia,
aeeth/athuee a naay ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa. Oeaio ia ?uiea oi?ie?oao
niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ia ?uiea o?oaea oeaiie yaeyaony
ca?aaioiay ieaoa iaaiiiai ?aaioieea.

TH?eaee/aneea eeoea (oicyenoaothuea noauaeou) aunooiatho a iaeii e oi
aea a?aiy a ea/anoaa iio?aaeoaeae e i?iecaiaeeoaeae – ia oiaa?iii ?uiea,
yieoaioia e eiaanoi?ia – ia oeiainiaii ?uiea, ?aaioiaeaoaeae – ia ?uiea
o?oaea. A?aaeaeaia aunooiatho a ea/anoaa i?iaeaaoeia naiae ?aai/ae neeu
ia ?uiea o?oaea (o?oaeiniiniaiay /anoue ianaeaiey), iio?aaeoaeae – ia
oiaa?iii ?uiea, eiaanoi?ia -:ia oeiainiaii ?uiea.

?uii/iua iiaeaee ?aciuo no?ai cia/eoaeueii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa.
Iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa iniiaiua iiaeaee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee: eeaa?aeueiay
iiaeaeue e iiaeaeue nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ?uiea.

Eeaa?aeueiay iiaeaeue iniiaaia ia iacia/eoaeueiii aiaoaoaeuenoaa
ainoaea?noaa a oicyenoaaiioth aeeciue e nioeeaeueiua i?ioeannu.
Aeaenoaoao ieieioi i?aaei?eyoee ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a,
iaania/eaaaony iaeneiaeueiay naiaiaea oicyenoaothuei noauaeoai,
ainoaea?noai i?eieiaao ieieiaeueiia o/anoea a ?aoaiee nioeeaeueiuo
i?iaeai, caaioynue i aaaeiaeoeo neiyo ianaeaiey, ?aaoee?iaaiea iineo
iiiaoa?iue oa?aeoa? e ia?aie/eaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii iae?iyeiiiieeie.
Eeaa?aeueiay iiaeaeue aeaenoaoao a NOA, Eaiaaea, aeecee e iae nenoaiu
Aiaeee e. O?aioeee.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi Iiiaia ec neacaiiiai i eeaa?aeueiie iiaeaee
ioiineony nei?aa e I?ioeiio ia?a/eneaiiuo no?ai. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iie
aeaeaathony a noi?iio aoi?ie iiaeaee.

Nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiay iiaeaeue ioee/aaony aieaa aunieie noaiaiueth
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. 3aeanue cia/eoaeai
ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi?, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue
iiaeaa?aeaia ?aaeaiaioaoeee, ainoaea?noai aa?aioe?oao ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey (a ia oieueei aai iecoeo
neiaa) a aeeeuea, oneoaao cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?aciaaiey e eoeueoo?u,
caaioeony i caiyoinoe o?oaeiniiniaiie aai /anoe. Iiaeiaiay iiaeaeue
ooieoeeiie?oao a Aa?iaiee, Aano?ee, Ieaea?eaiaeao, Oaaoeee, Ii?aaaee.
Aeecea e iae e nenoaia ssiiiee.

Aiieia iiiyoii, /oi eeaa?aeueiay e nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiay iiaeaee
?uiea o?aaotho iaee/ey o ainoaea?noaa ?acee/iuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. E
iaeiae a no?aiao ni aoi?ie iiaeaeueth, eiia/ii, aeieaeiu auoue auoa. Oae
/oi iiiyoea «Aunieea» eee «ieceea» iaeiae – yoi ia aaniethoiia, a
ioiineoaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea. Aaee/eia iaeiaia aeieaeia
niioaaonoaiaaoue iinoaaeaiiui ainoaea?noaii ia?aae niaie caaea/aie.

Nouiinoue e ooieoeee iaeiaia

Iaeiae yaeythony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee, oeiainiaie iniiaie athaeaeaoia ?aciuo o?iaiae. Iie ieacuaatho
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea, oeaiiia?aciaaiea,
oi?ie?iaaiea oiiaeia iio?aaeaiey e iaeiieaiey, inouanoaeaiea
eiaanoeoeeiiiie iieeoeee, ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee, nioeeaeueiia
iieiaeaiea ianaeaiey.

Enoi/ieeii iaeiaia yaeyaony nicaeaiiay a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa
noieiinoue – iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae. Ia?ae/iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea aeiiieiyaony aoi?e/iui ?ani?aaeaeaieai, eee
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai, aaea iaeiaai i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaaeiia ianoi.

O/anoaoy a i?ioeanna ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iiaie noieiinoe, iaeiae
aunooiatho /anoueth aaeeiiai i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa, niaoeeoe/aneie
oi?iie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?ay oi?ie?oao eo iauanoaaiiia
niaea?aeaiea.

E?iia iauanoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey, iaeiae eiatho iaoa?eaeueioth iniiao,
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie /anoue aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia, iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea, io/oaeaeaiioth ainoaea?noaii.

Iaeiae ninoaaeytho cia/eoaeueioth aeieth a aeioiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoia
?acee/iuo o?iaiae. Ca/eneaiea iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee a athaeaeaou ?aciiai
o?iaiy e ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu inouanoaeyaony a ii?yaeea e ia
oneiaeyo, ii?aaeaeyaiuo nenoaiie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O i iaeiaao e
nai?ao, a oaeaea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i iaeiaao e nai?ao noauaeoia
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee iaeiae auiieiytho /aou?a iniiaiua
ooieoeee, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo i?iyaeyao aioo?aiiaa naienoai, i?eciaee e
/a?ou aeaiiie oeiainiaie eaoaai?ee.

Ooieoeee iaeiaia

1.Oeneaeueiay ooieoeey (oene – eacia), o.a. iaania/aiea ainoaea?noaa
iaiaoiaeeiuie ?ano?naie.

N iiiiuueth aeaiiie ooieoeee ia?acothony ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaiaaeiua
oiiaeu e nicaeathony iaoa?eaeueiua oneiaey aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
ainoaea?noaa a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. A ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo iaeiae
noaee iniiaiui enoi/ieeii aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Oeneaeueiay ooieoeey oneeeaaaony ai anao no?aiao
a nayce n ?anoe?aieai ?aaoee?othuae ?iee ainoaea?noaa a iauanoaa.

2. ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay ooieoeey

N iiiiuueth iaeiaia i?ienoiaeeo ?ani?aaeaeaiea e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea e nicaeathony oneiaey aeey yooaeoeaiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.

Iaeiae eae aeoeaiue o/anoiee ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia
ieacuaatho na?ueaciia aeeyiea ia aini?iecaiaenoai, noeioee?oy eee
naea?aeeaay aai oaiiu, ?anoe?yy eee oiaiueoay ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in
ianaeaiey.

Yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iiaeao aeinoe/ue
iinoaaeaiiie oeaee a neo/aa nicaeaiey ?aaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee aeey
anao i?aaei?eyoee iacaaeneii io eo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i e oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe. Ii aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue caeioa?aniaaiiinoue
i?aaei?eyoee a iieo/aiee aieueoaai aeioiaea /a?ac eniieueciaaiea oaeeo
yeaiaioia iaeiaa, eae noaaee, eueaiou, n?iee oieaou, /oi a naith
i/a?aaeue iicaieeo ?aoeoue caaea/e ianuuaiey oiaa?aie e oneoaaie
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ?uiea, onei?aiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna,
iaania/aiey ianouiuo nioeeaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey.

3. ?aaoee?othuay ooieoeey

?aaoee?othuay ooieoeey iaeiaia ?aaeecoaony iooai:

– ?aaoee?iaaiey aeioiaea e i?eauee th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe;

– noeioee?iaaiey ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia eee naea?aeeaaiey eo,
noeioee?iaaiey eiaanoeoeee, i?iaaaeaiey ia?ii?eyoee a iaeanoe yeieiaee,
auionea i?iaeoeoeee aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae, aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai aeciana e o.ae. Noeioee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea iaeiaia
iaania/eaaaony /a?ac nenoaio iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo naieoeee.

4.Eiio?ieueiay ooieoeey

I?e iiiiue iaeiaia eiio?iee?oaony naiaa?aiaiiia iinooieaiea /anoe
au?o/ee, i?eauee e aeioiaea i?aaiecaoeee e oece/aneeo eeoe a athaeaeao e
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

Iaeiaiaay nenoaia aace?oaony ia ?yaea i?eioeeiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey,
iniiaiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony:

1. Anaiauiinoue e ?aaainoai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – eaaeaeia th?eaee/aneia e
oece/aneia eeoei aeieaeii ieaoeoue iaeiae, onoaiiaeaiiua
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Ia aeiioneaaony i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
eueaio e i?eaeeaaee a oieaoa iaeiaa, ia iainiiaaiiua n iiceoeee
eiinoeoooeeiiii cia/eiuo oeaeae. ?aaainoai a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee o?aaoao
o/aoa oaeoe/aneie niiniaiinoe e oieaoa iaeiaa ia iniiaa n?aaiaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo iioaioeeaeia.

2. Ni?aaaaeeeainoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – eaaeaeia oece/aneia e
th?eaee/aneia eeoei aeieaeii ieaoeoue iaeiae a caaeneiinoe io iieo/aaiie
i?eauee, aeioiaea.

Iaeiae e nai?u ia iiaoo eiaoue aeene?eieiaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? e ?acee/ii
i?eiaiyoueny enoiaey ec nioeeaeueiuo, ?aniauo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo,
?aeeaeiciuo e eiuo iiaeiaiuo e?eoa?eaa. Ia aeiioneaaony onoaiiaeaiea
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo noaaie iaeiaia, iaeiaiauo eueaio a caaeneiinoe io
oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe, a?aaeaeainoaa oece/aneeo eeoe eee ianoa
i?ienoiaeaeaiey eaieoaea.

3.Yeiiiie/aneay iainiiaaiiinoue iaeiaia.

Iaeiae e nai?u aeieaeiu eiaoue yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea e ia iiaoo
auoue i?iecaieueiuie.

4.Iaeiie?aoiinoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – iaeei e oio aea iauaeo
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey o eaaeaeiai noauaeoa iiaeao auoue iaeiaeai iaeiaii
iaeiiai aeaea oieueei iaeei ?ac ca ii?aaeaeaiiue caeiiii ia?eiae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

5.Ii?aaeaeaiiinoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

I?e onoaiiaeaiee iaeiaia aeieaeiu auoue ii?aaeaeaiu ana yeaiaiou
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Aeou caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i iaeiaao e nai?ao aeieaeiu
auoue noi?ioee?iaaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oiau eaaeaeue oi/ii ciae, eaeea
iaeiae (nai?u), eiaaea e a eaeii ii?yaeea ii aeieaeai ieaoeoue.

6. Iaeo?aeueiinoue iaeiaia – iaeiae ia aeieaeiu a?aaeeoue aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee e aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe a?aaeaeai.

Aeaiiue i?eioeei ?aaeecoaony a ?yaea no?ai a ioiioaiee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
oece/aneeo eeoe, a /anoiinoe, iooai aaaaeaiey ia iaeaaaaiiai iaeiaii
aeioiaea, naycaiiiai n ?acia?ii i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia.

Ana iaono?aieiua niiiaiey, i?ioeai?a/ey e iayniinoe aeoia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i iaeiaao o?aeoothony a iieueco iaeiaiieaoaeueueea.

7.I?inoioa, aeinooiiinoue e yniinoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Iaeaieaa i?inouie n oi/ee c?aiey en/eneaiey n/eoathony i?yiua iaeiae. A
niioaaonoaee n ie?iaie i?aeoeeie i?yiua iaeiae ninoaaeytho ieiei 60%
iauae noiiu aeioiaeia, iinooiathueo io iaeiaiaie nenoaiu.

8.I?eiaiaiea iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiuo oi?i, iaoiaeia e n?ieia oieaou
iaeiaia.

Eiio?ieue ca i?aaeeueiinoueth e naiaa?aiaiiinoueth aceiaiey a athaeaeao
iaeiaia e nai?ia inouanoaeyaony aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie iaeiaiauo i?aaiia
a i?aaeaeao naiae eiiiaoaioeee iin?aaenoaii iaeiaiauo i?iaa?ie,
iieo/aiey iauyniaiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia e eiuo iaycaiiuo eeoe, i?iaa?ee
aeaiiuo o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, iniio?a iiiauaiee e oa??eoi?ee,
eniieuecoaiuo aeey ecaea/aiey aeioiaea (i?eauee).

I?aaeoaeuenoai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee o/anoaoao a eii?aeeiaoeee
iaeiaiaie iieeoeee n ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaie, aoiaeyueie a Niae?oaeanoai
Iacaaeneiuo Ainoaea?noa, a oaeaea caeeth/aao iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iaeiaiaua
niaeaoaiey ia ecaaaeaiee (ono?aiaiee) aeaieiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey n
iineaaeothuae ?aoeoeeaoeeae yoeo niaeaoaiee.

Iaeiaiaay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa

Yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea iaeiaia e ?aoaiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo
i?iaeai iaaiciiaeii aac /aoei iainiiaaiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iaeiaiaie
iieeoeee, niioaaonoaothuae iauaeoeaiui yeiiiie/aneei, nioeeaeueiui e
iieeoe/aneeie oneiaeyi.

A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ia?aaeei iiiyoea iaeiaiaie iieeoeee
?anniao?eaaaony iaeiiaiei, noaoai n oeneaeueiuo iiceoeee.

A ?innee a eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX a. auea iainiiaaia iaeiaiaay iieeoeea
e a niioaaonoaee n iae noi?ie?iaaia iaeiaiaay nenoaia, niinianoaiaaaoay
iiiieiaieth athaeaeaoa e yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo. Iaiaeiaaaeiay ?ieue a
yoii i?eiaaeeaaeaea na?ueaciie oai?aoe/aneie i?i?aaioea
iniiaiiieaaathueo aii?inia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

I?e iainiiaaiee iaeiaiaie iieeoeee iaiaoiaeeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny ia
oieueei oeneaeueiuie o?aaiaaieyie. Oae, aua N.TH. Aeooa iiae/a?eeaae,
/oi “ainoaea?noai, iaeaaeay i?aaii io/oaeaeaoue a naith iieueco
iin?aaenoaii iaeiaia iaeioi?oth aeieth eiouanoaa /anoiuo eeoe, aeieaeii
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny a naiae iaeiaiaie iieeoeea ii?aaeaeaiiuie
ynoaoe/aneeie e yeiiiie/aneeie ia/aeaie; a i?ioeaiii neo/aa, ioyaiuay
ianaeaiea iani?aaaaeeeauie iaiineeueiuie nai?aie, iii iiae?uaaei au
naiue niune e ?acoiiia iniiaaiea naiaai nouanoaiaaiey”.

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee iaeiaiaie iieeoeee neaaeoao /aoei ii?aaeaeeoue a?aieoeu
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Iiiaiaaeiaay enoi?ey ?acaeoey iaeiaia oaaaeeoaeueii
iieacuaaao, /oi iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea eiaao i?aaeaeu. Aii?in iienea
e?eoe/aneie oi/ee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey caieiaao oiu iieeoeeia e o/aiuo ia
i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo noieaoee.

?anniao?eaay i?aaeaeu iaeiaeaiey, E.E. ssiaeoe iiae/a?eeaae, /oi, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, “i?aaeae iaeiaeaiey eaaeeo a ?acia?ao iio?aaiinoae
ainoaea?noaa, aeey iie?uoey eioi?uo iaeiae onoaiaaeeaathony; n ae?oaie –
ii caeeth/aaony a eiouanoaaiiie niiniaiinoe iiaeaeaiiuo oaeiaeaoai?youe
yoei iio?aaiinoyi naieie iiaea?oaiaaieyie…Iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy
a?aieoeaie iaeiaeaiey -iio?aaiinoyie ainoaea?noaa e eiouanoaaiiie
niiniaiinoueth a?aaeaeai – e a?auathony ana iaeiaiaua aii?inu; ai?ueaa
yoeo aeaoo ia/ae a oeiainiaie enoi?ee iaeaaaao aeaaea iniaue ioia/aoie
ia anth aeeciue ia?iaea”.

Iniiaiiieaaathuei i?eioeeiii i?e ii?aaeaeaiee a?aieoe iaeiaooaeiaeaiey
aeieaeai auoue i?eioeei niiniaiinoe oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe
icyuanoaeyoue iaeiaiaue ieaoaae. Caaea/a ii?aaeaeaiey a?aieoe
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ineiaeiyaony iaee/eai iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia, io eioi?uo
caaeneo oyaeanoue iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie. A ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao aeaeathony
iiiuoee ia?aie/eoue iaeiaiaia a?aiy caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie.

Iaiaei aaaeiia cia/aiea a iaeiaiaie iieeoeea eiaao iiiyoea
ni?aaaaeeeainoe. I?eioeei nipaaaaeeeainoe a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee – iiiyoea
ioiineoaeueiia, eciaiythuaany ii ia?a ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nee,
eoeueoypu, enoi?e/aneeo o?aaeeoeee e o.ae. O/aiea i ni?aaaaeeeainoe a
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee euao ioaaou ia aeaa aii?ina: eoi aeieaeai ieaoeoue
iaeiae e eae aeinoeaiooue o?aaieoaeueiinoe?

Ioiineoaeueii ia?aiai aii?ina aieueoeinoai o/aiuo i?eaea?aeeaaaony
iiaiey, /oi aeieaeai aeaenoaiaaoue i?eioeei anaiauiinoe
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Aianoa n oai auneacuaaaony iiaiea i oii, /oi iaeua
aeioiaeu aeieaeiu auoue inaiaiaeaeaiu io iaeiaia. Iiiaea yeiiiienou
n/eoatho, /oi iaaei inaiaiaeaeaoue io iaeiaa aeioiae, eioi?ue
iaania/eaaao oneiaey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iieiioeaiiie aeecie. A ?aciua
aiaeu a ?aciuo no?aiao aaee/eia aeioiaea, inaiaiaeaeaaiiai io iaeiaa,
?acee/ia.

I?e iainiiaaiee iaeiaiaie iieeoeee i/aiue aaaeii niiinoaaeaiea
iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie. iiiuoee n?aaieaaoue iaeiaiaia a?aiy ioaeaeueiuo
no?ai aeaeathony ia/eiay n XIX a. yoi n?aaiaiea i?iecaanoe aeiaieueii
o?oaeii, iineieueeo ?acee/ia iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue aeaiaa, iaeaaei
noiie?iaaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua e ianoiua iaeiae, neiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu, o/eouaaoue ?acee/ea a ninoaaa
ianaeaiey.

?aciua o/aiua auaeaeaaee ?acee/iua iiaeoiaeu e iainiiaaieth iaeiaiaiai
a?aiaie. I?aaeeaaaeinue ii?aaeaeyoue aai eae ioiioaiea noiiu iaeiaia ia
aeooo ianaeaiey e ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. Iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou n/eoaee, /oi
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa n?aaieaaoue noiiu aeioiaea, inoathueany iinea oieaou
iaeiaia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aeoe/anee ana i?eoee e aaeeiiio iiaieth,
/oi iaeaieaa aeinoiaa?ioth ea?oeio, iicaieythuoth niiinoaaeyoue
ioaeaeueiua no?aiu, aeaao aeiey iaeiaia a AAI.

A iieneao iioeiaeueiie noaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey o/aiua n iiiiuueth
yiie?e/aneeo iaoiaeia iuoaeenue iaeoe i?aaeaeueiua noaaee iaeiaia, auoa
eioi?uo i?aaei?eieiaoaee oa?ytho noeioe e i?iecaiaenoao. Oe?ieoth
ecaanoiinoue i?eia?aea e?eaay Eyooa?a, iacaaiiay ii eiaie aia?eeaineiai
yeiiiienoa A. Eyooa?.

Aaiacen iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ?innee eiioea XIX–ia/aea XX a. iaeaieaa iieii
?ane?ue N.TH. Aeooa. I?e oi?ie?iaaiee iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ii
eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeioth ?ieue ioaiaeee iainiiaaieth iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie.
I?aaii onoaiaaeeaaoue iaeiae ainoaea?noai aeieaeii iieueciaaoueny i/aiue
?acoiii e inoi?iaeii, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa aunieia iaeiaiaia a?aiy iiaeao
noaoue oi?iicii ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eaanoe e iaieuaieth ianaeaiey.

Nia?aiaiiay ?inneeneay iaeiaiaay nenoaia ii o?iaith oyaeanoe iaeiaiaiai
a?aiaie aeaeaea io niaa?oainoaa. N?aaiaiey a? n ca?oaaaeiuie
iieacaoaeyie iaei??aeoiu, o.e. neeoeii aaeeei ?acee/ea a o?iaiyo e
no?oeoo?a aeioiaeia ianaeaiey.

Aeooa aue iineaaeiaaoaeai i?aaenoaaeoaeae eeanne/aneie yeiiiie/aneie
oai?ee, i?aaeaea anaai A. Cieoa. Iiaeaea?aeeaay iniiaiiieaaathuea
iieiaeaiey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – anaiauiinoue, ?aaiiia?iinoue, oaeaoaaeaiea
ecaea?aeae aceiaiey iaeiaia, aceiaiea eo a iaeaieaa oaeiaiia a?aiy aeey
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, noi?ioee?iaaiiua A. Nieoii, ii ?acaee eo e
iainiiaae iiaua aaaeiua i?eioeeiu o/aoii yeiiiie/aneeo ?aaeee a?aiaie,
ioia/ay, /oi iaeiaiaay nenoaia aeieaeia ioee/aoueny i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth e
yeanoe/iinoueth, o, a. auoue niiniaiie aeinoaaeoue ainoaea?noao
cia/eoaeueiua e iaeciaiii i?ia?anne?othuea ?ano?nu. Eiaiii iaeiaiaay
nenoaia, oaeiaeaoai?ythuay yoei o?aaiaaieyi, niiniaia iaania/eoue
?ano?naie iinoiyiii ?anoouea ainoaea?noaaiiua iio?aaiinoe. Aaaeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi eaeaaeueiie iaeiaiaie nenoaiu iao, e iiaeii aanoe ?a/ue
eeoue i oii, eae iaeiaiaay nenoaia i?eaeeaeaaony e oaeiaeaoai?aieth yoeo
o?aaiaaiee.

Ia iioa?yee aeooaeueiinoe ?annoaeaeaiey Aeooa ii iauei i?iaeaiai oai?ee
iaeiaeaiey. A /anoiinoe, ?anniao?eaay iauaeo eee enoi/iee iaeiaa, ii
iiae/a?eeaae, /oi”eaieoaeueiay /anoue eiouanoaa aeieaeia auoue ii
aiciiaeiinoe inaiaiaeaeaaia io iaeiaeaiey, o. e: anyeee oua?a a ?acia?ao
eaieoaea ineaaeyao i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue no?aiu.
Iie?uaaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu ec ia?iaeiiai eaieoaea auei au
?aaiineeueii oiio, eae anee au /anoiia eeoei, ia oaeiaeaoai?yynue
iieo/aiiui aeoooaeoi, noaei au ?ano?a/eaaoue naia eiouanoai. Oaeei
ia?acii, iauaeoii eee enoi/ieeii iaeiaa aeieaeai neoaeeoue
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia?iaeiue aeioiae”.

Aeooa aue noi?iiieeii i?ia?anneaiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ino?i e?eoeeiaae
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia iaeiaeaiea aeoxoaeia ca iani?aaaaeeeaia ia?aaiiia?iia
iaeiaeaiea, iiae/a?eeaae, /oi ia?aiaiaiea iaeiaii iaeiouae /anoe
ianaeaiey aaaeao /anoi e iaeiieaieth iaaeieiee, eioi?ay e neoaeeo
iieacaoaeai iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiinoe iniiaaiee iaeiaiaie nenoaiu eee
niiniaia a? i?eiaiaiey.

A ea/anoaa i?aeiouanoa i?ia?anneaiiai iaeiaeaiey Aeooa auaeaeye
aieueooth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, aeinoeaaaioth aac
ia?aiaiaiey ianinoiyoaeueiie /anoe ianaeaiey, a oae aea ioia/ae, /oi
e?oiiua aeioiaeu e eiouanoaa «iaeaaeatho, i?ia?anneaiith yeiiiie/aneith
neeith iaeiieaiey aiaaonoaa”.

I?iaeaia i?ei?eoaoa i?iii?oeeiiaeueiuo eee ipia?anneaiuo iaeiaia ana aua
inoaaony aeooaeueiie. E a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iaeieaeaaony ino?ay
aeeneonney ia yoo oaio.

No?aiu n yeiiiieeie ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea, a ioee/ea io no?ai n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie, caiiai oi?ie?iaaee iaeiaiaoth iieeoeeo, iaoaieci a?
?aaeecaoeee e niioaaonoaothuoth iaeiaiaoth nenoaio. I/aaeaeii, /oi yoi
aanueia aeeeoaeueiue i?ioeann, eae iiae/a?eeaae.

A no?aiao n ia?uii/iie yeiiiieeie ia?aoiae e iiaui oneiaeyi
oicyenoaiaaiey nii?iaiaeaeaeny nouanoaaiiuie eciaiaieyie neiaeeaoeony
iaeiaiauo nenoai. Yoi, i?aaeaea anaai, ioiineony e ioiaia iaeiaia n
iai?ioa, ae?oaeo iaiaeiaiauo, ecuyoee. Eeth/aaui o?aaiaaieai yaeyaony
nicaeaiea i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo iaeiaiauo aaaeiinoa. Aaaeiaeoay caaea/a
– nicaeaiea i?aaiaie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie iniiau iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

A ?innee a ia/aea 90-o aa. i?ioeiai aaea noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi
iaiaoiaeeiu ?aaeeeaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey ai anao noa?ao oicyenoaaiiie
aeecie. Anoanoaaiii, /oi yoe i?aia?aciaaiey auee iaaiciiaeiu aac
oi?ie?iaaiey e ioeaaeee niioaaonoaothuae iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. E
niaeaeaieth, iiaaeoay enoi?ey noaiiaeaiey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ia iaioeinue
aac ioeaie ec ca iiniaoiinoe i?eiyoey ioaeaeueiuo ?aoaiee. Iaeiaiaua
i?aia?aciaaiey ca/anooth inouanoaeyeenue iaoiaeii i?ia e ioeaie aac
o/aoa enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa i?ioeuo eao, aac aeieaeiiai e?eoe/aneiai
aiaeeca ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa, aac o/aoa eiie?aoiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aaeee
ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea. Ia?aaeei i?e i?eiyoee /enoi yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee
i?aaaee?iaaee iieeoe/aneeo yiioeee.

Iaeiaiaay iieeoeea e iaeiaiaay nenoaia oi?ie?iaaeanue a aea?eeo
aeeneonneyo ii iniiaiiieaaathuei iaoiaeieiae/aneei i?eioeeiai.
Aaaeiaeoei ec ieo yaeyeenue aeeneonnee ii iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth aeioiaeia
i?aaei?eyoee, aaaaeaieth IAeN, i ieaoaaeao ca eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia, aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa n a?aaeaeai. Na?ueacii
oneiaeiyee yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee aaneiia/iua
iii?aaee a iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e ii?iaoeaiua aeou ii ii?yaeeo
ecuyoey iaeiaia, i?eiaiaieth noaaie iaeiaia e ioaeaeueiuo eueaio.

Niaea?aeaiea iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony i?eiyoie
eiioeaioeeae ?acaeoey iaeiaia. Iia i?ecaaia iaania/eoue i?eoie
eiaanoeoeee, niinianoaiaaoue yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo, aa?iiiecaoeee
acaeiiioiioaiee ainoaea?noaa e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, au?aaieaaieth
iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie ii ioaeaeueiui yeiiiie/aneei ?aaeiiai e nioeeaeueiui
a?oiiai. Iiiaea iaaeinoaoee a nenoaia ?inneeneeo iaeiaia iaoneiaeaiu
ionoonoaeai. aeieaia?aiaiiie eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu.

Ia?ii?eyoey, inouanoaeyaiua a iaeiaiaie noa?a, aeieaeiu auoue /aoei
oaycaiu n iieeoeeie ainoaea?noaa a iaeanoe aeioiaeia e oeai. Iniaaiii
oanii acaeiinaycaiu iaaeaeo niaie iaeiae e oeaiu. ?anniao?eaay
acaeiinaycue iaeiaia e oeai, neaaeoao ?acee/aoue eo nouanoaaiiua
ioee/ey: a oneiaeyo ieaiiaie nenoaiu oicyenoaiaaiey e yeiiiieee
ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea. A oneiaeyo ieaiiaie aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey acaeiinaycue oeai e iaeiaia iaaethaeaeanue, i?aaeaea anaai, a
i?ioeannao ?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey /enoiai aeioiaea.
Ainoaea?noai aeanoei ieaie?iaaei a no?oeoo?a oeaiu iaeia n iai?ioa e
?acee/iiai ?iaea io/eneaiey ec i?eauee. A no?aiao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie
e n yeiiiieeie ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea acaeiinayce iaaeaeo oeaiaie e
iaeiaaie i?aaeii?aaeaeythony ia oieueei a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e
oneiaeyie ?aaeecaoeee, a caaeneiinoe io yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey, Eiaiii niioiioaiey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ai iiiaii
onoaiaaeeaatho ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie iaaeaeo ecaioiaeoaeyie
e iio?aaeoaeyie. I?aeoeea eciaiaiey oeai e iaeiaia iiiaei no?aiai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ?ino oeai ia oaeea oiaa?iua a?oiiu, eae,
aeeiaieueiua iaieoee, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey, aaicei, aanueia iacia/eoaeueii
nieaeaao eo iio?aaeaiea. Eae neaaenoaea, iauae oaiaeaioeeae ?acaeoey
iaeiaiauo nenoai yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea aunieeo aeoeecia ii oeacaiiui
oiaa?iui a?oiiai.

Iaaeaeo oai auei ioeai/iui aiceaaaoue aeaaioth ?ieue a ?anoe?aiee
iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie oieueei ia ?uiie. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noai
i?e i?eiyoee eiie?aoiuo ?aoaiee ii aaaaeaieth oao eee eiuo iaeiaia
iaycaii o/eouaaoue iineaaenoaey eo onoaiiaeaiey ia no?oeoo?o e o?iaaiue
oeai.

Aeaaiie oeaeueth iaeiaiaie iieeoeee yaeyaony iaania/aiea athaeaeaoia
?aciuo o?iaiae oeiainiauie ?ano?naie a aeinoaoi/iuo iauaiao.
Aania?aaieiia iiiieiaiea athaeaeaoiuo aeioiaeia iniiaa yeiiiie/aneiai
iiauoaiey aeaainoiyiey ianaeaiey, oe?aieaiey iai?iiiniiniaiocoe, ?aoaiey
yeieiae/aneeo e ae?oaeo ianouiuo i?iaeai iauanoaa. Iaiaeiaaaeiia
cia/aiea eiaao inouanoaeaiea i?e iiiiue iaeiaia ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia, iniaaiii iaaeaeo oeaio?ii e
?aaeiiaie.

?aaeecaoeey iaeiaiaie iieeoeee inouanoaeyaony /a?ac iaeiaiaue iaoaieci,
eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue oi?i e iaoiaeia iaeiaiauo
ioiioaiee ainoaea?noaa e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. Iaeiaiaue iaoaieci
iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue ia iae?i- e iee?io?iaiyo.

Ia iae?io?iaia iaeiaiaue iaoaieci aeeth/aao a naay i?iaiice?iaaiea;
?aaoee?iaaiea, eiio?ieue. Iaeiaiaia i?iaiice?iaaiea neoaeeo iniiaie aeey
?ac?aaioee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu, ?aaeiia,
ioieoeeiaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae. Eiaiii iaeiaiaue
i?iaiic iicaieyao iainiiaaoue n o/aoii iauaeoeaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee
iauaiu iaeiaiauo aeioiaeia ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo. Aac iaaeaaeiiai
eino?oiaioa?ey i?iaiice?iaaiey iaeuecy au?aaioaoue yooaeoeaioth
iaeiaiaoth e athaeaeaoioth iieeoeeo no?aiu. A oiaea iaeiaiaiai
i?iaiice?iaaiey aiciiaeii iainiiaaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee ii eniieueciaaieth
eiie?aoiuo iaeiaia, eo noaaie, eueaio ii eo i?eiaiaieth.

A i?ioeanna iaeiaiaiai i?iaiice?iaaiey ?aoathony aii?inu ?aaoee?iaaiey
iaeiaiauo acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo oeaio?ii e noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee,
noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee e ?aeiiaie, ai?iaeaie e ioieoeeiaeueiuie
ia?aciaaieyie. Iniaaiii iiiai i?iaeai aicieeaao a ?ani?aaeaeaiee
iaeiaiauo aeioiaeia iaaeaeo oeaio?ii e noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee.

Iniaia ianoi a iaeiaiaii iaoaiecia i?eiaaeeaaeeo, eiio?ieth. Iaeiaiaue
eiio?ieue i?ecaai iaania/eoue iieiioo iinooieaiee iaeiaiauo aeioiaeia a
athaeaeao. Aaaeiie caaea/ae iaeiaiaiai eiio?iey yaeyaony nicaeaiea
oneiaee, i?aiyonoaothueo oeeiiaieth iaeiaiieaoaeueueea io oieaou iaeiaa.
*oiau iaeiaiaue ,eiio?ieue aue yooaeoeaiui, ,o?aaoaony niioaaonoaothuay
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaay n?aaea, o. a. iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaiea caiaeueiiai
eaaeano?a, eaaeano?a iaaeaeaeeiinoe, iieiiai ?aano?a
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia.

Iniiaiua oi?iu e iaoiaeu iaeiaiaiai eiio?iey ii?aaeaeaiu IE ?O. Iaeia ec
aeaaiuo oi?i eiio?iey – iaeiaiaay i?iaa?ea.

Neaaeoao iniai iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ana caaiuey iaeiaiaiai iaoaiecia oanii
acaeiinaycaiu. I?e iaaeinoaoi/iie ioeaaeea iaeiiai caaia noaiiayony iaei
i?iaeoeoeaiuie e ae?oaea caaiuey. Oae, ioeaee a iaeiaiaii
i?iaiice?iaaiee i?eaiaeyo e iiyaeaieth aeeni?iii?oeee a niioiioaieyo
aeioiaeia athaeaeaoia ?aciuo o?iaiae.

Ia iee?io?iaia aaaeiui eiiiiiaioii iaeiaiaiai iaoaiecia yaeyaony
iaeiaiaia ieaie?iaaiea, i?ecaaiiia iaania/eoue iioeiecaoeeth iaeiaiauo
ieaoaaeae i?aaei?eyoey. A oneiaeyo aunieiai iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie
iioeiecaoeey iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae iiaoaeaeaao i?aaei?eyoea auyaeyoue
oeiainiaua ?aca?au n oeaeueth aieaa yooaeoeaiiai eo eniieueciaaiey.
Iaeiaiaia ieaie?iaaiea oanii acaeiinaycaii n yeaiaioaie iaeiaiaiai
iaoaiecia ia iae?io?iaia, o.e. oi?aaeaiea iaeiaaie i?aaiecaoeee –
iaeiaiieaoaeueueee inouanoaeytho a iae?iyeiiiie/aneie n?aaea.
Niaoeeoe/aneei iauaeoii iaeiaiaiai ieaie?iaaiey aunooiatho yeiiiie/aneea
ioiioaiey iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia n ainoaea?noaii, aicieeathuaa a i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa e iaoa?eaeecothueany a iaeiaiauo
ieaoaaeao.

N o/aoii eiie?aoiie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee ainoaea?noai
iiaeao eeai aiineoue /anoe/iua eciaiaiey a iaeiaiaoth nenoaio, eeai
ea?aeeiaeueii iaiyoue aa, o. a. inouanoaeyoue iaeiaiaoth ?aoi?io. A
nayce n ?aniaaeii NNN?, ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi aeey
nia?aiaiiie ?innee aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae auei oi?ie?iaaiea iaeiaiaie
nenoaiu. Iniiau iuiaoiae iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ai iiiaii auee caeiaeaiu a
ia/aea 90~x aa. i?ioeiai noieaoey. Iaeiaei ?aoaiea oaeeo e?oiiuo caaea/,
eae nieaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, oi?iuaiey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, iiauoaiea
o?iaiy aaeieieno?e?iaaiey, nicaeaiea ?aaiuo oneiaee aeey
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia n oeaeueth iaania/aiey oneiaee aeey aeinoeaeaiey
aunieeo oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa, auei aiciiaeii eeoue i?e
i?iaaaeaiee iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu. A oiaea aa inouanoaeaiey a 2000-2004 aa.
auee ?aoaiu iiiaea iaeiaiaua i?iaeaiu ioiaiaia iniiaiay /anoue oae
iacuaaaiuo iaeiaia n iai?ioa, aaaaeaia aaeeiay noaaea iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu
oece/aneeo eeoe (iaeia ec naiuo ieceeo a ie?a), aaaaeai aaeeiue
nioeeaeueiue iaeia n ?aa?anneaiie oeaeie i?e aai ia/eneaiee, nouanoaaiii
nieaeaia noaaea iaeiaa ia i?eaueue.

Eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiyth ?ieue a ioeaaeea iaeiaiaiai iaoaiecia ea?aao
i?aaiaia iaania/aiea. Iaeiaiaue iaoaieci ?innee ?aaeaiaioe?oaony iiiaeie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie ii?iaie, eceiaeaiiuie a Eiinoeoooeee ?O,
A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena ?O, Oaiiaeaiiii, Aiaeiii, Caiaeueiii e ae?oaeo
eiaeaenao e ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao. Iniiaiui ii?iiiieaaathuei aeoii
noaiiaeony Iaeiaiaue eiaeaen ?O, eioi?ue i?ecaai aa?iiiece?iaaoue
acaeiiioiioaiey ainoaea?noaa e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, iaania/eaaoue
noaaeeueiinoue iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, aaeeiiia?aciia oieeiaaiea eiie?aoiuo
iaeiaiauo neooaoeee.

Caeeth/aiea

Iaeiaiaay nenoaia yaeyaony iaeiei ec aeaaiuo yeaiaioia ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee. Iia aunooiaao aeaaiui eino?oiaioii aicaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaa
ia ?acaeoea oicyenoaa, ii?aaeaeaiey i?ei?eoaoia yeiiiie/aneiai e
nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey. A nayce n yoei iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau iaeiaiaay
nenoaia ?innee auea aaeaioe?iaaia e iiaui iauanoaaiiui ioiioaieyi,
niioaaonoaiaaea ie?iaiio iiuoo.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Nieo?aiei «Iaeiae e iaeiaiaua io/eneaiey a ?O», I., 2002a.

2. ?onaeiaa E.A. «Iaeiae e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea», I.,2004 a.

3. Iaeiaiaue eiaeaen ?O.

4. Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee“.

5. Oaa?ia N.A. «Ana iaeiae ?innee» eiiiaioa?ee, I., 2003a.

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