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AAETHOIUA IOIIOAIEss E AAETHOIAss NENOAIA. YAIETHOeEss AAETHOIUO NENOAI

Ii ia?a eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee e aeiaaeecaoeee oicyenoaaiiuo naycae no?ai
aic?anoatho iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iioiee oiaa?ia, oneoa, eaieoaeia e
e?aaeeoia. A ie?iaii oicyenoaa inouanoaeyaony e?oaeinooi/iue “ia?aeea”
aeaiaaeiiai eaieoaea, oi?ie?othuaainy a i?ioeanna iaoeeiiaeueiiai
iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, i?e/ai a eaaeaeii noaa?aiiii
ainoaea?noaa caeiiiui ieaoaaeiui n?aaenoaii yaeythony aai iaoeeiiaeueiua
aeaiueae. Iaeiaei a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii iai?ioa iau/ii eniieuecothony
eiino?aiiua aaethou. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi a ie?iaii oicyenoaa iiea
aua ionoonoaotho iauai?eciaiiua ie?iaua e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae,
iaycaoaeueiua aeey, anao no?ai. A nayce n yoei enoi?e/anee
noi?ie?iaaeenue iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aaethoiua ioiioaiey — niaieoiiinoue
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, neeaaeuaathueony i?e ooieoeeiie?iaaiee aaethou a
ie?iaii oicyenoaa. Iie ianeoaeeaatho acaeiiue iaiai ?acoeueoaoaie
aeayoaeueiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa.

Ninoiyiea aaethoiuo ioiioaiee caaeneo io i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa e a
naith i/a?aaeue ieacuaaao ia iaai ia?aoiia aeeyiea (iieiaeeoaeueiia eee
io?eoeaoaeueiia) a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie eo onoie/eainoe.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae nicaeaaaeanue aaethoiay
nenoaia — ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee aaethoiuo
ioiioaiee, ?aaoee?oaiay iaoeeiiaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eee
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiui niaeaoaieai. Aia/aea neiaeeeanue iaoeeiiaeueiay
aaethoiay nenoaia. Aa oa?aeoa?ecotho neaaeothuea yeaiaiou:

? iaoeeiiaeueiay aaethoa;

? oneiaey eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou, o.a. aa iaiaia ia
eiino?aiiua aaethou; a nayce n yoei ?acee/athony:

— naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiua aaethou, eioi?ua aac ia?aie/aiee
iaiaieaathony ia eiino?aiiua aaethou. A Onoaaa Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
aaethoiiai oiiaea (IAO) n 1978 a. aaaaeaii oaeaea iiiyoea “naiaiaeii
eniieuecoaiay aaethoa”. E iae auee ioianaiu aia?eeaineee aeieea?,
iaiaoeeay ia?ea, yiiineay eaia, o?aioeocneee o?aie, aiaeeeneee ooio
noa?eeiaia (n 1999 a. iaiaoeeay ia?ea e o?aioeocneee o?aie caiaiaiu
aa?i),

— /anoe/ii eiiaa?oe?oaiua aaethou;

— iaeiiaa?oe?oaiua (caieiooua) aaethou;

? ?aaeei aaethoiiai ia?eoaoa — niioiioaiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy aaethoaie.
Cieioie ia?eoao, iniiaaiiue ia cieioii niaea?aeaiee aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe,
aue ioiaiai (ia Caiaaea — n na?aaeeiu 1970-o a., a ?innee — n 1992 a.).
N na?aaeeiu 70-o aiaeia eniieuecothony ia?eoaou ia aaca aaethoiie
ei?ceiu. Yoi iaoiae niecia?aiey n?aaeiaacaaoaiiiai eo?na iaeiie
aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu n ii?aaeaeaiiui iaai?ii ae?oaeo aaetho;

? ?aaeei aaethoiiai eo?na (oeene?iaaiiiai eee ieaaathuaai). Oae, a
Aa?iiaeneie aaethoiie nenoaia aue onoaiiaeai i?aaeae acaeiiuo eieaaaiee
eo?na 12 aaetho ±15% oeaio?aeueiiai eo?na. A ?innee a?aiaiii (n ethey
1995 ii aaaono 1998 a.) aeaenoaiaae ?aaeei aaethoiiai ei?eaei?a —
ia?aie/aiea eieaaaiee eo?na ?oaey ii ioiioaieth e aeieea?o
ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?aaeaeaie (iai?eia?, 5750—6350 ?oa. ca 1 aeieea? a 1997
a.), eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue Aaieii ?innee n iiiiuueth aaethoiie
eioa?aaioeee. N naioya?y 1998 aiaea, ni a?aiaie aeiaaeueiiai e?ecena a
?innee, yoe i?aaeaeu auee ioiaiaiu e ainnoaiiaeai ?aaeei ?aaoee?oaiiai
ieaaathuaai aaethoiiai eo?na, eae e a aieueoeinoaa no?ai;

? iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee. Iai?eia?, a ?innee
aaaaeaiu ia?aie/aiey, eeieoe?iaaiea, cai?ao ii?aaeaeaiiuo iia?aoeee n
aaethoiuie oeaiiinoyie a nayce n ianoaaeeueiinoueth yeiiiieee no?aiu;
?acaeoua no?aiu iinoaiaiii (n eiioea 50-o aei ia/aea 90-o a. XX a.)
ioiaieee aaethoiua ia?aie/aiey. A 1996 aiaeo ?inney ioiaieea aaethoiua
ia?aie/aiey ii oi?aiaui e iaoi?aiaui iia?aoeeyi, i?eniaaeeieaoenue e
noaouea VIII Onoaaa IAO, ii nio?aieea eo ii iia?aoeeyi n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeaeaeaieai eaieoaeia e e?aaeeoia a oeaeyo caueou
iaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania;

? ?aaoee?iaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe no?aiu,
aeeth/athuae /aou?a eiiiiiaioa (ioeoeeaeueiua cieioua e aaethoiua
?aca?au no?ai, n/aoa NAe?, ?aca?aioth iiceoeeth a IAO) e io?aaeathuae
niiniaiinoue no?aiu iiaaoaoue aa aiaoiee aeiea;

? ?aaeaiaioaoeey eniieueciaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa
ia?auaiey e oi?i iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia;

? ?aaeeiu aaethoiiai ?uiea e ?uiea cieioa;

? noaoon iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaiia, ?aaoee?othueo aaethoiua ioiioaiey
(oeaio?aeueiue aaie, ieienoa?noai oeiainia, niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiu).

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey ie?iauo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae nicaeaaaeanue ie?iaay
aaethoiay nenoaia, eioi?ay i?aneaaeoao aeiaaeueiua oeaee ie?iaiai
niiauanoaa, i?ecaaia iaania/eoue eioa?anu no?ai-o/anoieoe, eiaao iniaue
iaoaieci ?aaoee?iaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa aeeeoaeueiiai
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey neiaeeeenue neaaeothuea iniiaiua yeaiaiou ie?iaie
aaethoiie nenoaiu:

? ooieoeeiiaeueiua oi?iu ie?iauo aeaiaa (aaaeouea naiaiaeii
eiiaa?oe?oaiua aaethou, i?e /?acau/aeiie neooaoeee — cieioi);

? ?aaeaiaioaoeey oneiaee eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aaetho;

? oieoeeaoeey ?aaeeia aaethoiuo ia?eoaoia e aaethoiuo eo?nia;

? ?aaeaiaioaoeey iauaia aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee (o?aaiaaiea IAO e
no?aiai-/eaiai ioiaieoue ia?aie/aiey ii iia?aoeeyi n aaethoiuie
oeaiiinoyie a ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae);

? ?aaeaiaioaoeey ninoaaa eiiiiiaioia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaethoiie
eeeaeaeiinoe (iai?eia?, n 1970 a. IAO aaae a iai?io iiaoth
iaaeaeoia?iaeioth aaethoioth aaeeieoeo — NAe?);

? oieoeeaoeey i?aaee eniieueciaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa
ia?auaiey (aaenaeae, /aeia e ae?.) e oi?i iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia;

? ?aaeeiu ie?iauo aaethoiuo ?uieia e ?uieia cieioa;

? noaoon einoeoooa iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey (n 1944 a.— IAO).

Ia?aay ie?iaay aaethoiay nenoaia auea iniiaaia ia cieioiiiiaoiii
noaiaea?oa e th?eaee/anee ioi?ieaia iaaeainoaea?noaaiiui niaeaoaieai ia
Ia?eaeneie eiioa?aioeee aaaeoueo no?ai a 1867 aiaeo. Aoi?ay ie?iaay
aaethoiay nenoaia, ioi?ieaiiay niaeaoaieai no?ai ia Aaioycneie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie yeiiiie/aneie eiioa?aioeee (1922 a.), auea iniiaaia ia
cieioiaeaaeciii noaiaea?a. Aeaaeca — eiino?aiiay aaethoa a ethaie oi?ia.
N 20-o aiaeia XX a. ia?yaeo n cieioii iaoeeiiaeueiua e?aaeeoiua aeaiueae
noaee eniieueciaaoueny a ea/anoaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ieaoaaeii-?aca?aiuo
n?aaenoa.

O?aouey ie?iaay aaethoiay nenoaia — A?aooii-Aoaeneay, ioi?ieaiiay
niaeaoaieai (a A?aooii-Aoaena, NOA, 22 ethiy 1944 a.), oaeaea
aace?iaaeanue ia cieioiaeaaeciii noaiaea?oa.

No?oeoo?iua i?eioeeiu A?aooii-Aoaeneie nenoaiu:

? cieioiaeaaeciue noaiaea?o;

? noaoon aeieea?a e ooioa noa?eeiaia eae ?aca?aiuo aaetho;

? oeene?iaaiiua cieioua ia?eoaou e eo?nu aaetho (iiaee eieaaaoueny a
i?aaeaeao ± 1% ia?eoaoa, a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia — a i?aaeaeao ± 0,75%);

? eiiaa?oe?oaiinoue aeieea?iauo ?aca?aia eiino?aiiuo oeaio?aeueiuo
aaieia a cieioi /a?ac aia?eeaineia eacia/aenoai ii ioeoeeaeueiie oeaia;

? caieaeaiiay ioeoeeaeueiay oeaia cieioa (35 aeie. ca o?ieneoth oioeeth,
niaea?aeauoth 31,1 a /enoiai cieioa);

? nicaeaiea IAO eae i?aaia iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai aaethoiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. NOA eniieueciaaee yoe i?eioeeiu, cae?aieaoea aeieea?iaue
noaiaea?o, aeey oneeaiey naieo iiceoeee a ie?a ca n/ao ae?oaeo no?ai.
I?ioeai?a/ey A?aooii-Aoaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu, i?aaeaea anaai iaaeaeo
iaoeeiiaeueiui oa?aeoa?ii aeieea?a e ooioa noa?eeiaia e eo
eniieueciaaieai eae iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ieaoaaeiiai n?aaenoaa, iinoaiaiii
?anoaoaee yoo nenoaio ii ia?a oe?aieaiey iiceoeee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e
ssiiiee. A eiioea 60-o aiaeia XX aaea ?ac?aceeny e?ecen aaethoiie
nenoaiu, eioi?ue i?eaae e aa iinoaiaiiiio ?acaaeo a 1971—1976 aiaeao.

A?aooii-Aoaeneoth nenoaio niaieea /aoaa?oay (iuia ooieoeeiie?othuay)
ie?iaay aaethoiay nenoaia, ioi?ieaiiay niaeaoaieai no?ai — /eaiia IAO a
Eeianoiia (ssiaeea, yiaa?ue 1976 a.), ?aoeoeoee?iaaiiui a ai?aea 1978
aiaea.

No?oeoo?iua i?eioeeiu ssiaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu oaeiau.

Ai-ia?auo, cieioiaeaaeciue noaiaea?o aue caiaiai noaiaea?oii NAe?,
eioi?ua oi?iaeueii iauyaeaiu iniiaie aaethoiuo ia?eoaoia e eo?nia
aaetho. Iaeiaei ca 30 n eeoiei eao n iiiaioa yiennee NAe? (1970 a.) iie
ia noaee yoaeiiii noieiinoe, aeaaiui iaaeaeoia?iaeiui ieaoaaeiui e
?aca?aiui n?aaenoaii. Eiee/anoai aaetho, eo?n eioi?uo i?ee?aieai e NAe?,
nie?auaaony (n 15 a 1980 a. aei aeaoo a 2001 a.). Noaiaea?o NAe?
iaia?niaeoeaai. Noa?a i?eiaiaiey NAe? ia?aie/aia a iniiaiii iia?aoeeyie
IAO. I?aeoe/anee nio?aieeny aeieea?iaue noaiaea?o, oioy ioeoeeaeueii
aeieea? a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia eiaao noaoona ?aca?aiie aaethou a ioee/ea
io aai noaoona a A?aooii-Aoaeneie nenoaia. Aeiey aeieea?a a aaethoiie
ei?ceia NAe? iiauoaia n 39 aei 45% ia 2001—2005 aiaeu. E aeieea?o
i?ee?aieaia 21 aaethoa. Aeieea? ii-i?aaeiaio eeaee?oao eae
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ieaoaaeiia e ?aca?aiia n?aaenoai. Eeaee?othuea iiceoeee
aeieea?a aace?othony ia cia/eoaeueiii yeiiiie/aneii, iao/ii-oaoie/aneii
e aiaiiii iioaioeeaea NOA, oioy iie oo?aoeee iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea a
ie?iaie yeiiiieea iiae iaoeneii eiieo?aioia — ssiiiee e Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu. Noaiaea?o NAe? oaeoe/anee o?ainoi?ie?iaaeny a iiiaiaaethoiue
noaiaea?o, iniiaaiiue ia aia?eeaineii aeieea?a, aa?i (n 1999 a.), a
ia?niaeoeaa e yiiineie eaia — aaethoao o?ao ie?iauo oeaio?ia.

Ai-aoi?uo, a ?aieao ssiaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu ocaeiiaia
aeaiiiaoecaoeey cieioa — oo?aoa ei aeaiaaeiuo ooieoeee. Iaeiaei,
ianiio?y ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiia auoaniaiea ec ssiaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu
cieioa eae aaethoiiai iaoaeea oaeoe/anee aai aeaiaaeiua ooieoeee ia
en/a?iaiu, oioy e nouanoaaiii eciaieeenue. Cieioi ii-i?aaeiaio yaeyaony
/?acau/aeiuie ie?iauie aeaiueaaie e iaeaieaa iaaeaaeiuie ?aca?aiuie
aeoeaaie, iineieueeo iaeaaeaao ?aaeueiie oeaiiinoueth. Oeaio?aeueiua
aaiee e /anoiua oacaa?aoi?u o?aiyo ieiei 60 oun. o cieioa (i?eia?ii 33,5
oun. e 25 oun. o niioaaonoaaiii).

A-o?aoueeo, ssiaeneay aaethoiay nenoaia aeaao no?aiai i?aai aua?aoue
ethaie ?aaeei aaethoiiai eo?na.

A-/aoaa?ouo, IAO, nio?aieaoeeny io A?aooii-Aoaeneie nenoaiu, i?ecaai
oneeeoue iaaeainoaea?noaaiiia aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea, iaania/eoue aieaa
oaniia nio?oaeie/anoai no?ai-/eaiia, eeaa?aeecaoeeth aaethoiuo ioiioaiee
iooai ioiaiu aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee a oeaeyo aeinoeaeaiey aaethoiie
noaaeeecaoeee a ie?a.

ssiaeneay aaethoiay nenoaia aieaa aeaei, /ai A?aooii-Aoaeneay nenoaia,
i?eniiniaeeanue e ianoaaeeueiinoe ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia e aaethoiuo eo?nia
e iiaie ?annoaiiaea nee a ie?a. Aianoa n oai aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
ii?iaeaeaao ?yae neiaeiuo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo, a /anoiinoe, n
iayooaeoeaiinoueth noaiaea?oa NAe?, i?ioeai?a/eai iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneie
aeaiiiaoecaoeeae cieioa e oaeoe/aneei nio?aiaieai aai ?iee eae
/?acau/aeiuo ie?iauo aeaiaa, ianiaa?oainoaii ?aaeeia ieaaathueo
aaethoiuo eo?nia, aeayoaeueiinoueth IAO, eioi?ue noae iauaeoii e?eoeee.
E?iia oiai, ?acaeaathueany no?aiu iaaeiaieueiu naiei caaeneiui
iieiaeaieai a ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaia e ianoaeaatho ia aa
?aoi?ie?iaaiee n o/aoii eo eioa?ania.

Iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ssiaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu aeey
?aoaiey yoeo i?iaeai, oneeaiey eii?aeeiaoeee aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeee o?ao ie?iauo oeaio?ia e noaaeeecaoeee ie?iaiai aaethoiiai
ono?ienoaa.

N ia?oa 1979 ii 1998 aiae a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia ooieoeeiie?iaaea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiay (?aaeiiaeueiay) aaethoiay nenoaia — Aa?iiaeneay
aaethoiay nenoaia (AAN). I?e/eiie aa oi?ie?iaaiey yaeeinue ?acaeoea
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie yeiiiie/aneie e aaethoiie eioaa?aoeee, ia/aaoaeny n
i?aaiecaoeee Iauaai ?uiea a 1957 aiaeo (?eineee aeiaiai?). Oeaeue AAN —
noeioee?iaaiea eioaa?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, nicaeaiea aa?iiaeneiai
iieeoe/aneiai, yeiiiie/aneiai e aaethoiiai nithca — Aa?iiaeneiai Nithca
(AN), oe?aieaiea iiceoeee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.

Iniaaiiinoe caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie yeiiiie/aneie eioaa?aoeee ii?aaeaeeee
no?oeoo?iua i?eioeeiu AAN, ioee/athueany io ssiaeneie nenoaiu:

? aianoi NAe? aue aaaaeai noaiaea?o yeth — aa?iiaeneie aaethoiie
aaeeieoeu. Aaethoiay ei?ceia yeth ninoiyea ec 12 caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo
aaetho. A iae aeiieie?iaaea iaiaoeeay ia?ea (aieaa 30%). N 1999 aiaea
yeth caiaiaia aa?i — aaeeiie aa?iiaeneie aaethoie;

? a i?ioeaiaan ioeoeeaeueiie aeaiiiaoecaoeee cieioa a ssiaeneie nenoaia
a AAN cieioi e aeieea?u auee aeeth/aiu a iaoaieci yiennee yeth iooai
iauaaeeiaiey 20% ioeoeeaeueiuo cieioiaeieea?iauo ?aca?aia no?ai — /eaiia
AN;

? ?aaeei niaianoiiai ieaaaiey eo?nia aaetho no?ai — /eaiia AAN
i?aaeoniao?eaae i?aaeaeu acaeiiuo eieaaaiee (± 2,25%, n aaaonoa 1993 a.—
± 15% oeaio?aeueiiai eo?na). Iiaeiaiue ?aaeei eieeaeoeaiiai ieaaaiey
aaetho iacuaaeny “aa?iiaeneay aaethoiay ciay”, oae eae a?aoe/anee yoe
eieaaaiey iioiaee ia aeaeaeaiea ciae;

? no?aiu — /eaiu AAN a i?ioeaiaan IAO nicaeaee nianoaaiiue i?aai
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey — Aa?iiaeneee oiiae
aaethoiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa, caiaiaiiue a 1994 aiaeo Aa?iiaeneei
aaethoiui einoeoooii a niioaaonoaee n Iaano?eooneei aeiaiai?ii (iiya?ue
1993 a.) i nicaeaiee Aa?iiaeneiai Nithca (AN), a n ethey 1998 aiaea —
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiui Aa?iiaeneei oeaio?aeueiui aaieii.

AAN auea aieaa noaaeeueia, /ai ssiaeneay nenoaia, oae eae eieaaaiey
eo?nia aaetho iaiueoa. Aa aeinoeaeaiey iaoneiaeaiu neaaeothueie
oaeoi?aie: iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneie e aaethoiie
eioaa?aoeee, ia?aaea/a /anoe noaa?aiiuo i?aa iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiui i?aaiai;
i?eaioaoeey ia eiie?aoiua i?ia?aiiu; aeaeinoue i?e auai?a iai?aaeaiee e
iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey aaethoiuo ioiioaiee; ?ac?aaioea iaoaiecia
i?eiyoey e ?aaeecaoeee ?aoaiee.

Iaeiaei e AAN eniuouaaea o?oaeiinoe a nayce n i?ioeai?a/eyie a
no?aiao-/eaiao. ?yae aa i?iaeai aue iaoneiaeai ?aciuie o?iaiyie e
oaiiaie ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, eioeyoeee, aac?aaioeoeu, ninoiyieai
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, cieioiaaethoiuo ?aca?aia no?ai-/eaiia. Aiaoiea
oaeoi?u (iniaaiii eieaaaiey eo?na aeieea?a) oaeaea ineiaeiyee
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea AAN.

Iaano?eooneee aeiaiai? iieiaeee ia/aei iiyoaiiiio oi?ie?iaaieth
Yeiiiie/aneiai e aaethoiiai nithca (YAN), eioi?ue caiaiee Aa?iiaeneoth
aaethoioth nenoaio a 1999 aiaeo.

Ia?aue yoai oi?ie?iaaiey YAN ia/aeny a ethea 1990 aiaea e
i?aaeoniao?eaae ieii/aoaeueioth ioiaio aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee
no?ai-/eaiia a eiioea 1992 aiaea. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue
naeeaeaieth o?iaiae yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?ai, nieaeaieth oaiiia
eioeyoeee, nie?auaieth athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia aue nicaeai Aa?iiaeneee aaethoiue einoeooo a ninoaaa
oi?aaeythueo 12 oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia aeey iiaeaioiaee e i?aaiecaoeee
Aa?iiaeneie nenoaiu oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia e yiennee aa?i. Ia yoii yoaia
iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue eii?aeeiaoeee yeiiiie/aneie, a oii /enea
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie, iieeoeee.

O?aoee yoai ianooiee a eiioea XX a., eiaaea ianeieueei no?ai AN
aeinoeaee iaiaoiaeeiie eiiaa?aaioeee. N yiaa?y 1999 aiaea 11, n 2001
aiaea 12 ec 15 no?ai AN aaaee aa?i a oi?ia caiene ia aaieianeeo n/aoao
aeey aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia, n 2002 aiaea — a iaee/iie oi?ia aianoi
iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe. Iinoaiaiii oaaee/eony /enei no?ai
AN, i?eniaaeeieaoeony e ciia aa?i. Aeey inouanoaeaiey aaeeiie iiiaoa?iie
iieeoeee a oeaeyo noaaeeecaoeee aa?i 1 ethey 1998 aiaea nicaeai
Aa?iiaeneee oeaio?aeueiue aaie.

Aaethoiay nenoaia ?innee oi?ie?oaony n o/aoii no?oeoo?iuo i?eioeeiia
ssiaeneie aaethoiie nenoaiu, iineieueeo no?aia anooieea a IAO. A aaaonoa
1993 aiaea acaiai ?oaey auaoaai NNN? aaaaeai a ia?auaiea ?inneeneee
?oaeue eae iniiaa aeaiaaeiie e iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoiie nenoaiu.
Onoaiiaeaiu i?aaeea aa /anoe/iie (aioo?aiiae) eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe e
iinoaaeaia caaea/a ia?aoiaea e naiaiaeiie eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe ii ia?a
noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee. Aianoi ?aaeeia iiiaeanoaaiiinoe aaethoiuo
eo?nia onoaiiaeai aaeeiue ieaaathuee aaethoiue eo?n. N na?aaeeiu 1995
aiaea aaaaeaiu i?aaeaeu aai ?uii/iuo eieaaaiee ii ioiioaieth e aeieea?o
NOA, eioi?ua auee ioiaiaiu a oneiaeyo e?ecena 1998 aiaea.

Ioeoeeaeueiue eo?n ?oaey aaeaaeiaaii ii?aaeaeyao Aaie ?innee ii
?acoeueoaoai oi?aia ia Iineianeie iaaeaaieianeie aaethoiie ae?aea,
iaioeoeeaeueiue (aeiaiai?iue eo?n) — oiieiiii/aiiua eiiia?/aneea aaiee,
eiathuea aaethoioth eeoeaiceth.

Aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey eo?na ?oaey e iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo ?an/aoia
eniieuecothony ioeoeeaeueiua cieioiaaethoiua ?aca?au, eioi?uie aeaaeatho
e ?anii?yaeathony Aaie ?innee e Ieioei ?innee. Ninoiyiea ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina ?innee e eiiuthieoo?u ie?iaiai ?uiea aeeyao ia eo ?acia?.

Aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iai?aaeaii ia niaa?oainoaiaaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e ii?iaoeaiie aacu, iianaaeiaaiue aaethoiue eiio?ieue
e aicaeaenoaea ia aeeiaieeo eo?na ?oaey a niioaaonoaee n oeaeyie
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiiaeaiu i?aaeea aeayoaeueiinoe aaethoiiai ?uiea,
ninoaa aai o/anoieeia (aaethoiua ae?aee, eiiia?/aneea aaiee,
iin?aaeieee-a?iea?u) e ii?yaeie inouanoaeaiey aaethoiuo iia?aoeee.
Ii?aaeaeai noaoon i?aaiia aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Aaethoiua ioiioaiey ianeoaeeaatho iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea,
iieeoe/aneea e eoeueoo?iua ioiioaiey, eioi?ua io?aaeathony a ieaoaaeiii
aaeaina no?ai.

IEAOAAEIUE AAEAIN: IIIssOEA E INIIAIUA NOAOUeE

Ieaoaaeiue aaeain — aaeainiaue n/ao iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iia?aoeee no?aiu a
oi?ia niioiioaiey aaethoiuo iinooieaiee ec-ca a?aieoeu e ieaoaaeae,
i?iecaaaeaiiuo aeaiiie no?aiie ae?oaei no?aiai.

Ninoaaeyaiua ii iaoiaeeea IAO ieaoaaeiua aaeainu aeeth/atho ia oieueei
iinooieaiey e ieaoaaee, eioi?ua oaeoe/anee inouanoaeaiu eee iaiaaeeaiii
aeieaeiu auoue i?iecaaaeaiu, ii e aoaeouea ieaoaaee ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
o?aaiaaieyi e iaycaoaeuenoaai, o.a. yeaiaiou ?an/aoiiai aaeaina.

?acee/athony ieaoaaeiue aaeain ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaoo e aaeain ca
ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae (iai?eia?, ca ianyoe, eaa?oae, aiae).

Ieaoaaeiue aaeain aeeth/aao aeaa iniiaiuo ?acaeaea:

1) oaeouea iia?aoeee (oi?aiaue aaeain — niioiioaiea iaaeaeo yenii?oii e
eiii?oii oiaa?ia; aaeain “iaaeaeeiuo” iia?aoeee, aeeth/athuee oneoae e
iaeiiia?/aneea ieaoaaee);

2) iia?aoeee n eaieoaeii e oeiainiauie eino?oiaioaie (iieacuaaao aaic e
auaic ainoaea?noaaiiuo e /anoiuo eaieoaeia, iieo/aiea e i?aaeinoaaeaiea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e?aaeeoia).

?ino iieacaoaeae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iea?aoeee eaieoaea iia?aaeaao
aeeiaieeo ie?iaiai AAI e aiaoiae oi?aiaee, iaeiaei iaaeieai ?innee
i?eoiaeeony eeoue 1% eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, a eo aeiaeaiea a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue naeoi? ninoaaeyao 0,5%.

Aeaeaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai eaieoaea inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia i?yiuo
eiino?aiiuo (a i?aaei?eyoey) e ii?ooaeueiuo (a oeaiiua aoiaae)
eiaanoeoeee. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea i?ienoiaeeo
a oi?ia aeieain?i/iuo, n?aaeian?i/iuo e e?aoein?i/iuo e?aaeeoia. I?e
ianoaaeeueiinoe aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey no?ai i?ienoiaeeo
noeoeeiia aeaeaeaiea “ai?y/eo” aeaiaa e “aaanoai” eaieoaeia a iieneao
aieaa aunieiai aeioiaea e iaaeaaeiiai oaaaeeua.

A ieaoaaeiii aaeaina auaeaeaia noaouey “Ioeaee e i?iionee”, a eioi?oth
ioiinyo noaoenoe/aneea iaoi/iinoe e iao/oaiiua iia?aoeee, iniaaiii ii
?acaeaeo aeaeaeaiey eaieoaeia e e?aaeeoia. “Aaanoai” eaieoaeia iau/ii
oa?aeoa?ii aeey no?ai, eniuouaathueo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea e
iieeoe/aneea o?oaeiinoe.

Aeaeaeaiea eaieoaeia e e?aaeeoia ioianaii e aaeaine?othuei noaoueyi
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina. O?aaeeoeeiiii aeey iiaaoaiey aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina, anee ieaoaaee i?aauoatho aaethoiua iinooieaiey, eniieuecothony
eiino?aiiua e?aaeeou e aaic eaieoaeia. Yoi a?aiaiiue iaoiae iie?uoey
aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, oae eae no?aiu-aeieaeieee iaycaiu
auieaoeoue i?ioeaiou, aeeaeaeaiaeu e iniiaioth noiio caeia. I?eaea/aiea
eiino?aiiuo e?aaeeoia aeey iie?uoey ianneaiiai naeueaei ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina ii?iaeaeaao i?iaeaio o?aaoee?iaaiey aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe.
Ieii/aoaeueiui iaoiaeii iie?uoey ianneaiiai naeueaei ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina
neoaeeo eniieueciaaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo cieioiaaethoiuo ?aca?aia no?aiu.

Aniiiiaaoaeueiui n?aaenoaii iie?uoey ianneaiiai naeueaei ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina iiaeao auoue i?iaeaaea eiino?aiiuo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeaiiuo
aoiaa ca a?aieoeae. Oaeei n?aaenoaii neoaeeo e ioeoeeaeueiay iiiiuue
?acaeoeth a oi?ia noaneaeee, aea?ia, e?aaeeoia.

Ninoiyiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina no?aiu caaeneo io oaiia yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa, eioeyoeee, aeeiaieee aaethoiiai eo?na, ianoa no?aiu ai anaie?iii
oicyenoaa, eiiuthieoo?u ie?iaiai ?uiea, iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee,
/?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa. A naith i/a?aaeue ninoiyiea ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina aeeyao ia aeeiaieeo aaethoiiai eo?na, cieioiaaethoiuo ?aca?aia,
aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe, ia aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea no?aiu a
oeaeii. A nayce n yoei ieaoaaeiue aaeain yaeyaony iauaeoii ia oieueei
?uii/iiai, ii e ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

AAETHOIUE EO?N EAE YEIIIIE*ANEAss EAOAAI?Ess

Aaaeiui yeaiaioii iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoiuo ioiioaiee yaeyaony
aaethoiue eo?n eae ecia?eoaeue noieiinoiiai niaea?aeaiey aaetho. Ii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niioiioaiea iaaeaeo aeaiaaeiuie aaeeieoeaie ?aciuo
no?ai, ii?aaeaeyaiia eo iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth e ?yaeii ae?oaeo
oaeoi?ia. Aaethoiue eo?n iaiaoiaeei aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoiuo,
?an/aoiuo, e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo iia?aoeee.

Aaethoiue eo?n — yoi ia oaoie/aneee eiyooeoeeaio ia?an/aoa, a “oeaia”
aeaiaaeiie aaeeieoeu aeaiiie no?aiu, au?aaeaiiay a eiino?aiiie aaethoa
eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoiuo aaeeieoeao (NAe?).

Noieiinoiie iniiaie eo?niauo niioiioaiee aaetho yaeyaony eo
iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue, au?aaeathuay n?aaeiea iaoeeiiaeueiua o?iaie
oeai ia oiaa?u, oneoae, eiaanoeoeee. E oaeoi?ai, aeeythuei ia aaethoiue
eo?n, ioiinyony neaaeothuea:

? ninoiyiea yeiiiieee (iae?iyeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee, oaii eioeyoeee,
o?iaaiue i?ioeaioiuo noaaie, aeayoaeueiinoue aaethoiuo ?uieia, aaethoiay
niaeoeyoeey, aaethoiay iieeoeea, ninoiyiea ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iea?aoeey eaieoaea, noaiaiue eniieueciaaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao, onei?aiea eee
caaea?aeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia);

? iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea a no?aia;

? noaiaiue aeiaa?ey e aaethoa ia iaoeeiiaeueiii e ie?iaii ?uieao.
Iacaaiiua oaeoi?u ii?aaeaeytho ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea aaethou. Nieaeaiea
eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou (aeaaaeueaaoeey) iau/ii auaiaeii
yenii?oa?ai, oae eae iie iieo/atho yenii?oioth i?aieth (iaaeaaaeo) i?e
iaiaia au?o/aiiie iiaei?iaeaaoae eiino?aiiie aaethou (iai?eia?,
aeieea?a) ia iiaeaoaaaaooth iaoeeiiaeueioth (anee eo?n ?oaey nieceeny n
30 aei 25 ?oa. ca 1 aeie., oi oaeay iaaeaaaea ?aaia 5 ?oa. ia 1 aeie.).
Yenii?oa?u no?aiyony i?e yoii oaaee/eoue naie i?eauee iooai ?anoe?aiey
iauaia auaica oiaa?ia ii oeaiai ieaea n?aaeiaie?iauo

Eiii?oa?u i?e aeaaaeueaaoeee i?iea?uaatho, oae eae ei aei?iaea
iaoiaeeony iieoiea aaethou oeaiu eiio?aeoa (a oii aea i?eia?a aeieea?
aoaeao noieoue 30 ?oa. a ia 25 ?oa.). I?e iaaeaiee eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaethou oiaiueoaaony ?aaeueiue aeiea, au?aaeaiiue a iae, ii
oaaee/eaaaony aiaoiyy caaeieaeaiiinoue a eiino?aiiie aaethoa,
i?eia?aoaiea eioi?ie iaoiaeeony aei?iaea.

Iiauoaiea eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou ii ioiioaieth e eiino?aiiui
aeaiaaeiui aaeeieoeai (?aaaeueaaoeey) ieacuaaao, a i?eioeeia,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia aicaeaenoaea ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea
ioiioaiey.

Ia iniiaa eo?niaiai niioiioaiey aaetho n o/aoii oaeaeueiiai aana no?aiu
a ie?iaie oi?aiaea ii?aaeaeytho yooaeoeaiue aaethoiue eo?n. ?aaeueiue
eo?n ?ann/eouaatho eae iiieiaeueiue eo?n, iai?eia?, ?oaey e aeieea?o,
oiiiaeaiiue ia niioiioaiea o?iaiae oeai a ?innee e NOA.

Aaethoiue eo?n — iauaeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai e iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. I?iaeaia eo?niia?aciaaiey caieiaao aaaeiia ianoi a
aaethoii-yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea no?aiu, iineieueeo eciaiaiea eo?niauo
niioiioaiee aaetho aeeyao ia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea /anoe AAI no?aiu /a?ac
ie?iaua ?uiee oiaa?ia, oneoa, eaieoaeia.

IAAEAeOIA?IAeIUA ?AN*AOU

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?an/aou — ?aaeaiaioaoeey ieaoaaeae ii aeaiaaeiui
o?aaiaaieyi e iaycaoaeuenoaai, aicieeathuei iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneeie
eeoeaie (ainoaea?noaaie, i?aaiecaoeeyie) e a?aaeaeaiaie ?aciuo no?ai ia
iniiaa eo yeiiiie/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo ioiioaiee. ?an/aou
inouanoaeytho aaciaee/iui iooai a oi?ia caienae ia n/aoao aaieia. Aeey
yoiai ia aaca ei??aniiiaeaioneeo niaeaoaiee n eiino?aiiuie aaieaie
ioe?uaathony aaieianeea ei??aniiiaeaioneea n/aoa: “ei?i” (n/ao
ca?oaaaeiuo aaieia a iaoeeiiaeueiii e?aaeeoiii o/?aaeaeaiee) e “iino?i”
(n/ao aeaiiiai aaiea a eiino?aiiii aaiea). Iineieueeo iao ie?iauo
e?aaeeoiuo aeaiaa, i?eiyouo ai anao no?aiao, a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao
eniieuecothony aeaaecu — ieaoaaeiua n?aaenoaa a eiino?aiiie aaethoa. A
eo /enea:

eiiia?/aneea ia?aaiaeiua aaenaey (o?aoou) — ienueiaiiua i?eeacu
oieaoeoue ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu ii?aaeaeaiiiio eeoeo a ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie,
aunoaaeyaiua yenii?oa?aie ia eiino?aiiuo eiii?oa?ia;

iau/iua (i?inoua) aaenaey — aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa eiii?oa?ia,
caaiueeia; aaieianeea aaenaey — aaenaey, aunoaaeyaiua aaieaie aeaiiie
no?aiu ia naieo eiino?aiiuo ei??aniiiaeaioia;

aaieianeea /aee — ienueiaiiua i?eeacu aaiea naiaio aaieo-ei??aniiiaeaioo
i ia?a/eneaiee ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu n aai n/aoa ca a?aieoeae
/aeiaea?aeaoaeth;

aaieianeea ia?aaiaeu — ii/oiaua e oaeaa?aoiua ia?aaiaeu ca ?oaaae;

aaieianeea ea?oi/ee (e?aaeeoiua, ieanoeeiaua e ae?.) — eiaiiua
aeaiaaeiua aeieoiaiou, aeathuea i?aai aeaaeaeueoeai eniieueciaaoue eo
aeey i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?ia e oneoa ca ?oaaaeii ia aaciaee/iie iniiaa.

A iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao eniieuecothony i?aeiouanoaaiii aaaeouea
naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiua aaethou (aeieea?, aa?i, eaia, ooio noa?eeiaia,
oaaeoea?neee o?aie e ae?.).

Cieioi i?eiaiyaony eeoue a ea/anoaa /?acau/aeiuo ie?iauo aeaiaa i?e
iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao (aieiu, yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea
iio?ynaiey e o.ae.).

Iniiaiua oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia aiaeiae/iu oi?iai aioo?aiieo
?an/aoia, ii eiatho neaaeothuea iniaaiiinoe:

? nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua ioiioaiey o/anoieeia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo
naeaeie e eo aaieia ii iiaiaeo ioi?ieaiey, ia?anueee, ia?aaioee e iieaou
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo eiio?aeoii aeieoiaioia;

? iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?an/aou eiatho aeieoiaioa?iue oa?aeoa?, o.a.
inouanoaeythony i?ioea aeieoiaioia, oeiainiauo (aaenaeae, /aeia,
ieaoaaeiuo ?anienie) e eiiia?/aneeo (n/aoia-oaeoo?, ioa?oci/iuo
aeieoiaioia — eiiinaiaioia, iaeeaaeiuo, eaeoaioeee, no?aoiauo iieenia,
?acee/iuo na?oeoeeaoia);

? ?aaeaiaioe?othony oieoeoee?iaaiiuie i?aaeeaie e iau/ayie iniiaiuo oi?i
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia.

Iniiaiuie oi?iaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia yaeythony:

eieanniaay oi?ia ?an/aoia — ii?o/aiea eeeaioa aaieo i iieo/aiee ieaoaaea
io eiii?oa?a ca oiaa?u e oneoae e ca/eneaiea yoeo n?aaenoa ia n/ao
yenii?oa?a a aaiea. Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo io yenii?oa?a eino?oeoeee aaie
auiieiyao eieanniaua iia?aoeee a niioaaonoaee n Oieoeoee?iaaiiuie
i?aaeeaie ii eieanni;

aee?aaeeoeaiay oi?ia ?an/aoia — niaeaoaiea ia iaycaoaeuenoaa aaiea ii
i?inueaa eeeaioa iieaoeoue aeieoiaiou eeai aeoeaioiaaoue eee o/anoue
(iaaioeee?iaaoue) o?aooo a iieueco o?aoueaai eeoea (aaiaoeoeea?a), ia
eioi?iai ioe?uo aee?aaeeoea. Ii?yaeie inouanoaeaiey yoie oi?iu ?an/aoia
?aaeaiaioe?oaony Oieoeoee?iaaiiuie i?aaeeaie e iau/ayie aeey
aeieoiaioa?iuo aee?aaeeoeaia. Aee?aaeeoea (iniaaiii aaciocuaiue e
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiue) a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai eieanni, aa?aioe?oao
naiaa?aiaiiinoue ieaoaaea. Aianoa n oai yoi naiay neiaeiay e
aei?iainoiyuay oi?ia ?an/aoia: eiii?oa? auioaeaeai ?aca?ae?iaaoue noiio
aee?aaeeoeaa eee eniieueciaaoue e?aaeeo aaiea;

aaieianeee ia?aaiae — ii?o/aiea iaeiiai aaiea ae?oaiio auieaoeoue
ia?aaiaeiiieo/aoaeth ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio. A iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao
ia?aaiaeiaeaoaeai /anoi aunooiatho eeeaiou aaieia. A oi?ia ia?aaiaea
i?iecaiaeyony iieaoa eieanni, aaainiaua ieaoaaee, ia?a?an/aou.
Aaieianeea ia?aaiaeu ca/anooth ni/aoathony n ae?oaeie oi?iaie ?an/aoia,
a oaeaea n aa?aioeyie aaieia;

aaainiaue ieaoaae — iieaoa oiaa?ia eiii?oa?ii aaainii aei ioa?ocee, a
eiiaaea aei eo i?iecaiaenoaa (iai?eia?, i?e eiii?oa aei?iainoiyuaai
iai?oaeiaaiey, noaeia, naiieaoia). A ioee/ea io ie?iaie i?aeoeee, a
eioi?ie aaainiaua ieaoaaee ninoaaeytho 10—33% noiiu eiio?aeoa, a ?innee
iie ca/anooth aeinoeaaee 100%. Oai naiui eiii?oa?u ?innee e?aaeeootho
eiino?aiiuo iinoaaueeia. Niaeanea ?inneeneiai eiii?oa?a ia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth iieaoo naycaii eeai n aai caeioa?aniaaiiinoueth (yoi
iaeei ec aeaeia “aaanoaa” eaieoaea a oi?ia aaainiaiai ieaoaaea ii
oeeoeaiui eiio?aeoai), eeai n aeaaeaieai yenii?oa?a;

?an/aou ii ioe?uoiio n/aoo — ?an/aou, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea ia?eiaee/aneea
ieaoaaee a onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee eiii?oa?a yenii?oa?o i?e ?aaoey?iuo
iinoaaeao oiaa?ia a e?aaeeo ii yoiio n/aoo. Yoe ?an/aou iaeaieaa
auaiaeiu aeey eiii?oa?a e i?aeoeeothony i?e aeiaa?eoaeueiuo e
aeeeoaeueiuo ioiioaieyo n ca?oaaaeiui iinoaaueeii;

?an/aou n eniieueciaaieai aaenaeae, /aeia, aaieianeeo ea?oi/ae. A
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao i?eiaiythony ia?aaiaeiua e iau/iua aaenaey. Ca
iieaoo aaenaey ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianao aeoeaioaio (eiii?oa? eee aaie),
aeaaoee niaeanea aai iieaoeoue. Aaeeiiia?aciue aaenaeueiue caeii (1930
a.) ?aaeaiaioe?oao oi?io, ?aeaeceou, oneiaey aunoaaeaiey e iieaou
aaenaeae. Ii iaoi?aiaui iia?aoeeyi eniieuecothony aei?iaeiua
(oo?enoneea) /aee, auienuaaaiua e?oiiuie aaieaie a ?aciuo aaethoao. *ae
— aeaiaaeiue aeieoiaio onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu, niaea?aeauee i?eeac aaieo
auieaoeoue iaicia/aiioth ia iai aaethoo aai aeaaeaeueoeo. Oi?ia e
?aeaeceou /aea ?aaoee?othony iaoeeiiaeueiui e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaaie (*aeiaie eiiaaioeeae 1931 a. e ae?.), N 60-o aiaeia
eniieuecothony aa?i/aee, nii?iaiaeaeaaiua aa?aioeeiie aa?iea?oie,
aeathuae i?aai aeaaeaeueoeo i?e ca?oaaaeiuo iiacaeeao iieo/aoue aeaiueae
a aaieao eee ?ann/eouaaoueny a iaaaceiao a ?yaea no?ai.

A iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoao aeoeaii eniieuecothony aaieianeea ea?oi/ee.
A ?acoeueoaoa neeyiey o?ao eiiiaiee (Aa?iea?o, Aa?i/ae,
Aa?i/ae-oieaeeia) a naioya?a 1992 aiaea a A?thnnaea nicaeaia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiay ieaoaaeiay nenoaia Europay International. A iae
o/anoaotho ieaoaaeiua i?aaiecaoeee e aaiee ?yaea no?ai, a oii /enea
?innee. Auione e i?eai nia?o-ea?o (n iee?ii?ioeanni?ii) n 1994 aiaea
inouanoaeyao EMV (Europay Master Card Visa).

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?an/aou inouanoaeythony n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiuo
neaiaeia a aeaea caienae a iaiyoe aaieianeeo eiiiuethoa?ia,
ia?aaeaaaaiuo ii eaiaeai aeenoaioeeiiiie nayce. Eioi?iaoeey ii
iaaeaaieianeei ?an/aoai ia?aaeaaony /a?ac NAEOO. Aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai
“Anaie?iay iaaeaaieianeay oeiainiaay oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiay naoue” (n
1977 a.) ianeoaeeaaao aieaa 7 oun. aaieia e oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee 189
no?ai, a oii /enea ?innee;

aaethoiua eee?eiae — ?an/aou a oi?ia iaycaoaeueiiai acaeiiiai ca/aoa
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo o?aaiaaiee e iaycaoaeuenoa ia iniiaaiee
iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo niaeaoaiee. A ioee/ea io aioo?aiiaai
iaaeaaieianeiai eee?eiaa acaeiiua ca/aou ii aaethoiiio eee?eiao
i?iecaiaeyony ia aeia?iaieueii, a a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea i?e iaee/ee
iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai niaeaoaiey.

Eee?eiaiaua iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?an/aou yenii?oa?ia e eiii?oa?ia
inouanoaeythony a iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoa n eee?eiaiauie aaieaie, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeyo ca/ao acaeiiuo o?aaiaaiee e iaycaoaeuenoa. Yenii?oa?u
iieo/atho ia eiino?aiioth, a iaoeeiiaeueioth aaethoo. Eiii?oa?u aiinyo a
eee?eiaiaue aaie iaoeeiiaeueioth aaethoo.

N aaaaeaieai eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aaetho iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aaethoiua
eee?eiae ii/oe ia eniieuecothony. Ii a /anoiii naeoi?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
eee?eiae ooieoeeiie?otho, iai?eia?, ii iaaeaaieianeei ?an/aoai,
oiiaeiaui naeaeeai (Naaeae, Aa?ieee?), iaaeaaieianeei iia?aoeeyi (a yeth
— a 1985—1998 aa., a aa?i — nenoaia OA?AAO e o.ae.).

IAAEAeOIA?IAeIUE E?AAeEO: NOUIINOUe E INIIAIUA OI?IU

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo — ?aciiaeaeiinoue yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee
“e?aaeeo”. Yoi aeaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea a noa?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, naycaiiia n i?aaeinoaaeaieai aaethoiuo e
oiaa?iuo ?ano?nia ia oneiaeyo aica?aoiinoe, n?i/iinoe, iaania/aiiinoe e
oieaou i?ioeaioia. A ea/anoaa e?aaeeoi?ia e caaiueeia aunooiatho aaiee,
i?aaei?eyoey, ainoaea?noaa, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oeiainiaua einoeooou.

Ooieoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e?aaeeoa au?aaeatho iniaaiiinoe aeaeaeaiey
nnoaeiiai eaieoaea a noa?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. A
eo /enea:

ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea iaaeaeo no?aiaie aeey iaania/aiey
iio?aaiinoae ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa. Oai naiui e?aaeeo
niaeaenoaoao au?aaieaaieth iaoee oaeueiie i?eauee a n?aaeithth i?eaueue,
oaaee/eaay aa ianno;

yeiiiiey ia ecaea?aeeao a noa?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia iooai
eniieueciaaiey e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa ia?auaiey (o?aoo, iau/iuo aaenaeae,
/aeia, ia?aaiaeia e ae?.), ?acaeoey e onei?aiey aaciaee/iuo ieaoaaeae;

onei?aiea eiioeaio?aoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee eaieoaea aeaaiaea?y
eniieueciaaieth eiino?aiiuo e?aaeeoia;

?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee.

Auiieiyy acaeiinaycaiiua ooieoeee, iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo ea?aao
aeaiyeoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaenoaa — iieiaeeoaeueioth e
io?eoeaoaeueioth. N iaeiie noi?iiu, e?aaeeo iaania/eaaao iai?a?uaiinoue
aini?iecaiaenoaa e aai ?anoe?aiea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
e?aaeeo oneeeaaao aeeni?iii?oeee iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa,
noeioee?oy nea/eiia?aciia ?anoe?aiea i?eaueueiuo io?aneae, naea?aeeaaao
?acaeoea io?aneae, a eioi?ua ia i?eaeaeathony eiino?aiiua caaiiua
n?aaenoaa. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo eniieuecoaony aeey oe?aieaiey
iiceoeee eiino?aiiuo e?aaeeoi?ia a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa.

A?aieoeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e?aaeeoa caaenyo io enoi/ieeia e iio?aaiinoe
no?ai a eiino?aiiuo caaiiuo n?aaenoaao, aica?aoiinoe e?aaeeoa a n?ie.
Ia?ooaiea yoie iauaeoeaiie a?aieoeu ii?iaeeei i?iaeaio o?aaoee?iaaiey
aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe no?ai-caaiueoe. A eo /enea: ?acaeaathueany
no?aiu, ?inney, ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa NIA, no?aiu Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu.

Eeanneoeeaoeey oi?i e?aaeeoa inouanoaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:

ii iacia/aieth:

? eiiia?/aneea e?aaeeou, ianeoaeeaathuea iaaeaeoia?iaeioth oi?aiaeth
oiaa?aie e oneoaaie;

? oeiainiaua e?aaeeou, eniieuecoaiua aeey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo iauaeoia,
i?eia?aoaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa, iiaaoaiey aiaoiaai aeieaa, i?iaaaeaiey
aaethoiie eioa?aaioeee oeaio?aeueiui aaieii;

? i?iiaaeooi/iua e?aaeeou aeey ianeoaeeaaiey niaoaiiuo oi?i yenii?oa
eaieoaeia, oiaa?ia, oneoa (iai?eia?, eiaeeie?eia);

ii aeaeai:

? oiaa?iua (i?e yenii?oa oiaa?ia n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea);

? aaethoiua (a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia);

ii oaoieea i?aaeinoaaeaiey:

? iaee/iua e?aaeeou, ca/eneyaiua ia n/ao caaiueea;

? aeoeaioiua e?aaeeou a oi?ia aeoeaioa (niaeaney ieaoeoue) o?aoou
eiii?oa?ii eee aaieii;

? aeaiiceoiua na?oeoeeaou;

? iaeeaaoeeiiiua caeiu, eiini?oeeiiaeueiua e?aaeeou e ae?.;

ii aaethoa caeia:

? e?aaeeou a aaethoa eeai no?aiu-aeieaeieea, eeai no?aiu-e?aaeeoi?a,
eeai o?aoueae no?aiu, eiiaaea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoiuo aaeeieoeao
(NAe?);

ii n?ieai:

? e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou (io iaeiiai aeiy aei iaeiiai aiaea);

? n?aaeian?i/iua (io iaeiiai aiaea aei iyoe eao);

? aeieain?i/iua (nauoa iyoe eao).

Anee e?aoein?i/iue e?aaeeo i?ieiiae?oaony (i?iaeeaaaaony), ii noaiiaeony
n?aaeian?i/iui e eiiaaea aeieain?i/iui. A i?ioeanna o?ainoi?iaoeee
e?aoein?i/iuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e?aaeeoia a nnoaeu ia aieaa aeeeoaeueiue
n?ie /anoi o/anoaoao ainoaea?noai a ea/anoaa aa?aioa. Aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae yenii?oa?ia a ?yaea no?ai (a
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, O?aioeee, ssiiiee e ae?.) i?e iiaeaea?aeea ainoaea?noaa
nicaeaia niaoeeaeueiay nenoaia n?aaeia- e aeieain?i/iiai e?aaeeoiaaiey
yenii?oa iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey. Aeieain?i/iue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo
(i?aeoe/anee aei 10—15 eao) i?aaeinoaaeytho i?aaeaea anaai
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua e?aaeeoii-oeiainiaua einoeooou — ainoaea?noaaiiua e
iieoainoaea?noaaiiua;

ii iaania/aieth:

? iaania/aiiua e?aaeeou;

? aeaieiaua e?aaeeou.

A ea/anoaa iaania/aiey eniieuecothony oiaa?u, eiiia?/aneea e oeiainiaua
aeieoiaiou, oeaiiua aoiaae, iaaeaeaeeiinoue, ae?oaea oeaiiinoe, eiiaaea
cieioi. Iai?eia?, Eoaeey, O?oaaae, Ii?ooaaeey (a na?aaeeia 70-o aiaeia),
iaeioi?ua ?acaeaathueany no?aiu (a 80-o aiaeao) eniieueciaaee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e?aaeeou iiae caeia /anoe ioeoeeaeueiuo cieiouo
caiania, ioeaieaaaoeony ii n?aaeia?uii/iie oeaia. Aeaieiaue e?aaeeo
auaeaaony iiae iaycaoaeuenoai (aaenaeue) aeieaeieea iiaaneoue aai a
n?ie.

A caaeneiinoe io eaoaai?ee e?aaeeoi?a ?acee/athony iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
e?aaeeou:

? oe?iaiiua (/anoiua);

? aaieianeea;

? a?iea?neea;

? i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua;

? niaoaiiua, n o/anoeai /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a oii /enea aaieia, e
ainoaea?noaa;

? iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua e?aaeeou iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oeiainiauo einoeoooia.
?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua ec yoeo aeaeia e?aaeeoia.

Oe?iaiiua e?aaeeou i?aaeinoaaeythony yenii?oa?aie eiino?aiiui eiii?oa?ai
a aeaea ion?i/ee ieaoaaea (aei naie eao) ca oiaa?u. Iie ioi?ieythony
aaenaeai eee ioe?uoui n/aoii. I?e aaenaeueiii e?aaeeoa yenii?oa?
aunoaaeyao ia?aaiaeiue aaenaeue (o?aooo) ia eiii?oa?a, eioi?ue
aeoeaiooao aai i?e iieo/aiee eiiia?/aneeo aeieoiaioia. E?aaeeo ii
ioe?uoiio n/aoo iniiaai ia niaeaoaiee yenii?oa?a n eiii?oa?ii i caiene
ia n/ao iieoiaoaey aai caaeieaeaiiinoe ii aaacaiiui oiaa?ai e ia aai
iaycaoaeuenoaa iiaaneoue e?aaeeo a ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie (a na?aaeeia eee a
eiioea ianyoea). Oaeie e?aaeeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?e ?aaoey?iuo iinoaaeao
e ?an/aoao ii ioe?uoiio n/aoo iaaeaeo eiio?aaaioaie.

E oe?iaiiui e?aaeeoai ioiineony oaeaea aaainiaue ieaoaae eiii?oa?a.

Aaieianeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e?aaeeou i?aaeinoaaeythony aaieaie, eae
i?aaeei, iiae caeia oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ?aaea
i?aaeinoaaeyaony iaiaania/aiiue e?aaeeo e?oiiui oe?iai, n eioi?uie aaiee
oanii naycaiu. Iauai?eiyoi nicaeaaaoue aaieianeea eiini?oeeoiu,
neiaeeeaou, ioeu aeey iiaeeecaoeee e?oiiuo e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia e
?ani?aaeaeaiey ?enea. Aaiee yenii?oa?ia e?aaeeootho ia oieueei
iaoeeiiaeueiuo yenii?oa?ia, ii e iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiino?aiiiai
eiii?oa?a: e?aaeeo iieoiaoaeth aeoeaii i?eiaiyaony n 60-o aiaeia XX
aaea.

E?oiiua aaiee i?aaeinoaaeytho aeoeaioiue e?aaeeo a oi?ia aeoeaioa
o?aoou. I?e yoii aeoeaioaio noaiiaeony iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ieaoaeueueeii
ii aaenaeth, ii ca n/ao n?aaenoa aeieaeieea (o?annaoa). Ia aeoeaioiii
?uiea aeoeaioiaaiiua ia?aaiaeiua aaenaey a ?aciuo aaethoao naiaiaeii
i?iaeathony.

A?iea?neea e?aaeeou — i?iiaaeooi/iay oi?ia iaaeaeo oe?iaiiuie e
aaieianeeie e?aaeeoaie. A?iea?u caeinoaotho n?aaenoaa o aaieia, ?ieue
iineaaeieo oiaiueoaaony

Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua e?aaeeou iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oeiainiauo einoeoooia
i?aaeinoaaeythony ia iniiaa iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo niaeaoaiee.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oeiainiaua einoeooou ia?aie/eaathony iaaieueoeie
e?aaeeoaie, eioi?ua ioe?uaatho aeinooi caaiueeai e e?aaeeoai /anoiuo
eiino?aiiuo aaieia ia ie?iaii ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia.

N 80-o aiaeia XX aaea aeoeaii ?acaeaaaony i?iaeoiia oeiaine?iaaiea
(e?aaeeoiaaiea) niaianoii ianeieueeeie e?aaeeoiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie aac
i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa.

Niaoeeoe/aneie oi?iie e?aaeeoiiai ianeoaeeaaiey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo
naycae yaeythony iia?aoeee eeceiaa, oaeoi?eiaa, oi?oaoe?iaaiey.

Eeceia — niaeaoaiea ia a?aiaea aeaeaeeiiai e iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa ia
?aciua n?iee aei 15 eao. A ioee/ea io o?aaeeoeeiiiie a?aiaeu iauaeo
eeceiaiaie naeaeee auae?aaony eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai, a eeceiaiaeaoaeue
i?eia?aoaao iai?oaeiaaiea ca naie n/ao. N?ie eeceiaa ei?i/a n?iea
oece/aneiai eciina iai?oaeiaaiey. Ii enoa/aiee n?iea eeceiaa eeeaio
iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoue a?aiaeo ia eueaioiuo oneiaeyo eee eoieoue eiouanoai
ii inoaoi/iie noieiinoe. A ie?iaie i?aeoeea eeceiaiaeaoaeai iau/ii
yaeyaony eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey, a ia eiiia?/aneee aaie.

Oaeoi?eia — iieoiea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie oeiainiaie eiiiaieae anao
aeaiaaeiuo o?aaiaaiee yenii?oa?a e eiino?aiiiio eiii?oa?o a ?acia?a aei
70—90% noiiu eiio?aeoa aei ianooieaiey n?iea eo iieaou; oaeoi?eiaiaay
eiiiaiey e?aaeeooao yenii?oa?a ia n?ie aei 120 aeiae. Aeaaiaea?y
oaeoi?eiaiaiio ianeoaeeaaieth yenii?oa? eiaao aeaei ia n ?ac?iciaiiuie
eiino?aiiuie eiii?oa?aie, a n oaeoi?eiaiaie eiiiaieae.

Oi?oaoe?iaaiea — iieoiea aaieii eee oi?oaoi?ii ia iieiue n?ie ia ca?aiaa
iaiai?aiiuo oneiaeyo aaenaeae (o?aoo), ae?oaeo oeiainiauo aeieoiaioia.
Oai naiui yenii?oa? ia?aaeaao oi?oaoi?o eiiia?/aneea ?enee, naycaiiua n
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoueth eiii?oa?a. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaaee ii?ooaey
aeieaiauo o?aaiaaiee oi?iuaaony no?oeoo?a aaeaina oe?iu-yenii?oa?a,
nie?auathony n?iee eieannaoeee o?aaiaaiee, aooaaeoa?neea e
aaeieieno?aoeaiua ?anoiaeu.

IAAEAeOIA?IAeIUA OEIAINIAUA I?AAIECAOeEE, EO OOIEOeEE E ?IEUe

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae, Anaie?iue aaie, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie
?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey

IAO e a?oiia AA eiatho iauea /a?ou. Iie i?aaieciaaiu ii aiaeiaee n
aeoeeiia?iie eiiiaieae, iiyoiio ?acia? aciina a eaieoae ii?aaeaeyao
aiciiaeiinoue aeeyiey no?aiu ia eo aeayoaeueiinoue. Aeiey 25 ?acaeouo
no?ai (14,5% /enea /eaiia IAO) a aai eaieoaea (290,4 ie?ae aeie.)
ninoaaeyao 63%, a oii /enea NOA— 17,5%, 15 no?ai AN – 30,3%, ssiiiee –
6,3%, ?innee -2,8% (iia caieiaao 10-a ianoi ii aaee/eia eaiou — 8,1
ie?ae aeie.). I?eiyoea ?aoaiee ii aaaeiui aii?inai o?aaoao
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai aieueoeinoaa aieinia (85%). Yoi iaania/eaaao
eiio?ieue ca i?eiyoeai ?aoaiee (aieioue aei aaoi) NOA e no?aiai AN. NOA
?aniieaaatho a AA 17% anao aieinia, o.a. eiatho noieueei aieinia,
neieueei 140 ?acaeaathueony no?ai a niaieoiiinoe. Ooaa-eaa?oe?a IAO e
a?oiiu AA iaoiaeyony a Aaoeiaoiia.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ?ano?nia IAO e IA?? ?acee/ii. Eaiou no?ai — /eaiia IAO
iiea/eaathony iieiinoueth (ieiei 25% – NAe? eee naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiie
aaethoie e 75% — iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoie). Aciinu a eaieoae IA??
iiea/eaathony eeoue a ?acia?a 6,4% iiaeieniiai eaieoaea, a 93,6% neoaeao
aa?aioeeiui oiiaeii, eioi?ue eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa iaania/aiey
yiennee iaeeaaoeee Aaiea ia ie?iauo ?uieao.

A aeiiieiaiea e nianoaaiiiio eaieoaeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oeiainiaua
einoeooou i?eaaaatho e caaiiui n?aaenoaai.

Iniiaiua caaea/e IAO caeeth/athony a neaaeothuai:

? niaeaenoaea naaeaine?iaaiiiio ?inoo iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee;

? i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia no?aiai-/eaiai (n?ieii aei iyoe eao) aeey
i?aiaeieaiey aaethoiuo o?oaeiinoae, naycaiiuo n aeaoeoeeoii eo
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina;

? ioiaia aaethoiuo ia?aie/aiee;

? iaaeainoaea?noaaiiia aaethoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iooai eiio?iey ca
niaethaeaieai no?oeoo?iuo i?eioeeiia ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiu,
caoeene?iaaiu a Onoaaa Oiiaea.

Aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue e?aaeeo IAO ia?aie/aia neaaeothueie oneiaeyie:

? eeieoe?oaony ?acia? caeinoaiaaiey no?aiu a caaeneiinoe io aa eaiou;

? Oiiae i?aaeuyaeyao ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey, eiiaaea aeanoeea, e
no?aia caaiueoea, eioi?ay aeieaeia auiieieoue iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth
noaaeeecaoeeiiioth i?ia?aiio. Yoi iicaieyao Oiiaeo aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia
yeiiiieeo no?ai-aeieaeieeia.

Eo?n IAO ia onei?aiea i?eaaoecaoeee, yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i,
eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai e aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?innee oneeee
iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey oieiaiai ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea
(yeiiiie/aneee niaae eioeyoeey, aaie?ionoaa, iaieaoaaee, ei??oioeey e
o.ae.)-

N 1992 aiaea IAO i?aaeinoaaee ?innee e?aaeeou ia noiio 21,3 ie?ae aeie.
Aeinoeaiooua a 1998 e 1999 aiaeao aeiaiai?aiiinoe i i?aaeinoaaeaiee
aioee?eceniiai e?aaeeoiiai iaeaoa (11,2 ie?ae aeie.) e ?aca?aiiai
e?aaeeoa (4,5 ie?ae aeie.) auee ?aaeeciaaiu eeoue /anoe/ii, iineieueeo,
ii iiaieth Oiiaea, auaeaeaaaiua ei o?aaiaaiey ioiineoaeueii
?aoi?ie?iaaiey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee ia auee auiieiaiu.

Auaeaeaaaiua Oiiaeii aeanoeea o?aaiaaiey, ioeoeeaeueii i?ecaaiiua
ono?aieoue ?acaaeaine?iaaiiinoue yeiiiieee, aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey,
iaania/eoue iiaaoaiea aiaoiaai aeieaa, ia anaaaea aeinoeaatho
iinoaaeaiiie oeaee e onoaoaeytho iaaaoeaiua i?ioeannu a
no?aia-caaiueoea. Oae, a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie ia?aiai e?aaeeoa
Oiiaea (1992 a.) a ?innee auea aiacaiii aaaaeaia eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai,
/oi i?eaaei e eo ?inoo a 26 ?ac ca aiae e oneeaieth eioeyoeee.
?aeiiaiaeiaaiiua Oiiaeii aeaoeyoeeiiiua ia?u onoaoaeee yeiiiie/aneee
niaae, naa?ouaaiea eiaanoeoeee a no?aia. Ia?aie/aiea aeaiaaeiie yiennee
aucaaei aeaiaaeiue “aieiae” e iaieaoaaee. Iiae aeaaeaieai IAO ?inney a
1992 aiaeo aaaea /anoe/ioth eiiaa?oe?oaiinoue ?oaey aac nicaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee, /oi iiaeaeei ca niaie nieaeaiea aai aaethoiiai
eo?na e onoaoaeei i?ioeann “aaanoaa” eaieoaea. Iinoiyiiue iaaeci? ca
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie e aaethoiie iieeoeeie a ?innee inouanoaeye
i?aaenoaaeoaeue Oiiaea i?e Oeaio?aeueiii aaiea ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

A oneiaeyo oeo/oaiey iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ?inney ioeacaeanue
io caeinoaiaaiee a IAO e n 2002 aiaea iiaaoaao naith caaeieaeaiiinoue
Oiiaeo, nie?aoea aa aei 5 ie?ae aeie. (etheue 2003 a.).

Iaeiaei nio?oaeie/anoai ?innee n IAO nio?aiyao ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea n
o/aoii aai ?iee a ?aaoee?iaaiee aaethoii-e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee.

?inney aeoeaii nio?oaeie/aao n a?oiiie Anaie?iiai aaiea (AA), eioi?ay
aeeth/aao Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey e /aou?a aai
iiae?acaeaeaiey.

*enei no?ai — /eaiia IA?? ninoaaeei 183 (ia 1 ethey 2002 a.). Onoaaiue
eaieoae — 190 ie?ae aeie. Eae e a IAO, iaeaieueoay iiaeienea ia eaieoae
e /enei aieinia i?eiaaeeaaeao NOA (16,8 e 16,4% niioaaonoaaiii).

A ioee/ea io IAO aieueoeinoai e?aaeeoia IA?? aeieain?i/iua (15—20 eao).
Iie iaoneiaeaiu auiieiaieai ?aeiiaiaeaoeee yeiiiie/aneeo iennee, eioi?ua
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ianeaaeotho yeiiiieeo e oeiainu no?ai-caaiueoe,
ia?aaeei cao?aaeaay eo noaa?aieoao.

IA??, eae e IAO, i?aaeinoaaeyao ia oieueei noaaeeecaoeeiiiua, ii e
no?oeoo?iua e?aaeeou (ia inouanoaeaiea i?ia?aii, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
no?oeoo?iua ?aoi?iu a yeiiiieea). Eo aeayoaeueiinoue acaeiii oaycaia,
iie aeiiieiytho ae?oa Ae?oaa. I?e/ai /eaiii IA?? iiaeao noaoue eeoue
/eai IAO. Anooieaiea ?innee a IA?? iicaieeei ae caeinoaiaaoue aaethoiua
e?aaeeou a yoii ie?iaii eiaanoeoeeiiiii aaiea e iieo/eoue auoiae ia
ie?iaie ?uiie nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia.

Eoiae ia?aiai aeanyoeeaoey nio?oaeie/anoaa n AA naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia
ii?aaeaeaiiie iiceoeaiie ?iee aai e?aaeeoia a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee e
e?aaeeoii-aaieianeie nenoaiu ?innee.

Ca 1992—2001 aiaeu A A i?aaeinoaaee ?innee e?aaeeou (11,3 ie?ae aeie.) a
o?ao oi?iao:

1) athaeaeaoicaiauathuea (63%), noiaeiua n e?aaeeoaie Oiiaea, a oi?ia
e?aaeeoiaaiey oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, aeaaea
anee iie ioeoeeaeueii iacuaaeenue “oaieueiua” (ia ?ai?aaiecaoeeth
oaieueiie io?anee) eee “nioeeaeueiua” (ia iiaeaea?aeeo nenoaiu
nioeeaeueiie caueou ?aaioieeia e?aaeeooaiie io?anee). Yoe e?aaeeou,
iniaaiii ia?aua, eniieueciaaeenue iayooaeoeaii, a iniiaiii ia iiaaoaiea
athaeaeaoiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa, ae?oaeo oaeoueo
?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa, a ia ia no?oeoo?iua io?aneaaua ?aoi?iu;

2) naycaiiua e?aaeeou (aaeaaiaeii 500—700 iei aeie. a 1994—1998 aa.) ia
ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee — io?aio ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, iai?oaeiaaiea
iaeiaiauo neoaea, ?aoi?iu noaoenoeee e ae?.;

3) eiaanoeoeeiiiua e?aaeeou eee aa?aioee, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
nioeiaine?iaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia a ?innee n i?eaea/aieai
e?aaeeoi?ia ec ae?oaeo no?ai. Iai?eia?, ?inney, Oe?aeia, Ii?aaaey, NOA
niaianoii e?aaeeootho eiaanoeoeeiiiue i?iaeo “Ii?neie noa?o” iiae
aa?aioeth AA.

I?e e?aaeeoiaaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia AA ieacuaaao iiiiuue
?inneeneei aaiee?ai a iiaeaioiaea neiaeiie aeieoiaioaoeee, niaianoii n
?inneeneeie niaoeeaeenoaie i?iaiaeeo aiaeec e iiieoi?eia e?aaeeooaiuo
iauaeoia. ?inneeneea aaiee eniieuecotho iiuo AA ii i?aaiecaoeee
i?iaeoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey.

Oneiaey e?aaeeoia A A ?innee ei??aeoe?othony n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae
e?aaeeooaiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

AA niaeaenoaoao iiaeaioiaea e aaaaeaieth iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oia
oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe a aaieao ?innee e iao/aieth ?inneeneeo aaiee?ia.

E /eneo iaaaoeaiuo ?acoeueoaoia e?aaeeoiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa AA n ?inneae
ioiinyony neaaeothuea. Oneiaey e?aaeeoia AA (iniaaiii a ia?aue ia?eiae)
aeeth/aee iieeoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey (?acaeoea aeaiie?aoee,
iiiaiia?oeeiinoe, iacaaeneiinoue n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee e ae?.).

AA /anoi i?aaeuyaeye ?innee eae caaiueeo aeanoeea yeiiiie/aneea
o?aaiaaiey (iai?eia?, n?i/iay ?ai?aaiecaoeey oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe)
aac o/aoa ?inneeneie niaoeeoeee.

Noieiinoue e?aaeeoia AA caauoaaony (ii ioeaieai niaoeeaeenoia, ia
10—20%) a nayce n aunieie iieaoie caiaaeiuo niaoeeaeenoia e
eiinoeueoaioia AA i?e ?ac?aaioea iiaeaee i?iaeoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey.
I?eiaiyaoayny iayooaeoeaiay noaia i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoa AA
?inneeneiio I?aaeoaeuenoao /a?ac oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao, ioeoaea
auaeaeyeenue nnoaeu noacaaiueeai-i?aaei?eyoeyi, i?eaaea e ia?aciaaieth
eo i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ia?aae athaeaeaoii, ca n/ao eioi?iai
ianeoaeeaaaony ainoaea?noaaiiue aiaoiee aeiea. E oiio aea Ieioei ?innee
iaaeinoaoi/ii eiio?iee?iaae oeaeaaia eniieueciaaiea e?aaeeoia AA e
aooaaeoa?neee o/ao iai?oaeiaaiey, i?eia?aoaaiiai ca n/ao yoeo e?aaeeoia.

A eoiaa eeoue 70% iaeia?aiiuo e auaeaeaiiuo ?innee e?aaeeoia AA auee
eniieueciaaiu (8,1 ie?ae aeie. ec 11,5 ie?ae aeie.) a nayce n
iayooaeoeaiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, aunieeie ?eneaie, ath?ie?aoeae e
ei??oioeeae. E?aaeeou n ieceei ?aeoeiaii auee aiioee?iaaiu (2,5 ie?ae
aeie.) a oeaeyo oeo/oaiey ?inneeneiai e?aaeeoiiai ii?ooaey a AA.

Iinea e?ecena 1998 aiaea IA??, eae e IAO, nie?aoee e?aaeeoiaaiea
yeiiiieee ?innee e eeoue n 2003 aiaea aiciaiiaee nio?oaeie/anoai.

N o/aoii i?ioeai?a/eauo ?acoeueoaoia ia?aiai aeanyoeeaoey e?aaeeoiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa AA e ?inney ?ac?aaioaee iiaoth no?aoaaeth ia 2003—2005
aiaeu a oeaeyo iiaeaea?aeaiey ?aaeecaoeee eiiieaeniie i?ia?aiiu ?aoi?i
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O, a /anoiinoe a oi?ia oeaeaaiai e?aaeeoiaaiey
eiie?aoiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia.

Niaoeeoeea AA caeeth/aaony a iaee/ee o iaai /aou?ao iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay annioeeaoeey ?acaeoey (MAP, nicaeaia a 1960 aiaeo; iuia
/enei /eaiia — 162) i?aaeinoaaeyao eueaioiua aani?ioeaioiua e?aaeeou ia
n?ie 35— 40 eao i?aaeoaeuenoaai iaeiaiaa ?acaeouo no?ai — /eaiia IA??,
aceiay eeoue eiienneth a ?acia?a 3,4% ia iie?uoea aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
?anoiaeia. Oeaeue yoeo e?aaeeoia — iiiu?aiea yenii?oa oiaa?ia ec
?acaeouo no?ai a aaaeiaeoea no?aiu. Niaoeeoeea MAP caeeth/aaony a
eii?aeeiaoeee aa aeayoaeueiinoe n IA?? e niaianoiii e?aaeeoiaaiee
i?iaeoia. Oai naiui niaiauathony iioiee eueaioiuo iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo
e?aaeeoia eae oi?iu yeiiiie/aneie iiiiue e aieaa aei?iaeo /anoiuo
nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia. Oioy noiia e?aaeeoia MAP iaaaeeea (107 ie?ae aeie. a
1960—2001 aa.), iie auee eniieueciaaiu aeey inouanoaeaiey 134
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia a 53 no?aiao, iniaaiii ao?eeaineeo (iieiaeia
e?aaeeoia a 2001 a.), aaea iaoiaeyony iaeaieaa aaaeiua ?aaeiiu ie?a.
I?aaeiieaaaaony caiaieoue aani?ioeaioiua e?aaeeou aea?aie.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oeiainiaay ei?ii?aoeey (IOE, nicaeaia a 1956 a., iuia
/enei /eaiia — 175). Eaieoae IOE iaaaeee — 2,36 ie?ae aeie. Niaieoiiue
iauai i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo IOE e?aaeeoia — 48 ie?ae aeie. — a 20 n eeoiei
?ac i?aauoaao aa eaieoae. Yoi iauyniyaony aeieaaui o/anoeai IOE (60%) a
yoeo caeinoaiaaieyo no?ai-/eaiia e i?eaea/aieai neiaeeoee?iaaiiuo
e?aaeeoia /anoiuo aaieia (40%). O/anoea IOE a eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey
eieaaeaony io 5 aei 15%, eiiaaea — aei 35%. Aeayoaeueiinoue IOE
iai?aaeaia ia noeioee?iaaiea /anoiuo eiaanoeoeee a yeiiiieeo
?acaeaathueony no?ai. E?aaeeou i?aaeinoaaeythony iaeaieaa ?aioaaaeueiui
i?aaei?eyoeyi ia n?ie aei 15 eao (a n?aaeiai io o?ao aei naie eao).
Niaoeeoeea e?aaeeoia IOE caeeth/aaony a ionoonoaee o?aaiaaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aa?aioee a ioee/ea io IA?? e MAP, oae eae /anoiue
eaieoae no?aieony ecaaaeaoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey.

E?iia oiai, a ioaao ia e?eoeeo IA?? e IOE, a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia nicaeaii
iyoue niaianoii oi?aaeyaiuo aeaia?oaiaioia: iaooe, aaca e i?iaeoeoia
iaooaoeiee; aeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe; aeiaaeueiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee; eiinoeueoaoeeiiiuo oneoa aeey /anoiiai
naeoi?a; iaeeiai e n?aaeiaai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

IOE e?aaeeooao eiaanoeoeeiiiua I?iaeou a ?innee, o/anoaoao a eaieoaea
/anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ii a ?yaea neo/aaa iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii.
Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaia aeayoaeueiinoue a?oiiu IOE ii ?acaeoeth eeceiaa a
?innee. A?oiia nicaeaia a 1997 aiaeo i?e oeiainiaii niaeaenoaee
i?aaeoaeuenoa Aaeeeia?eoaiee e Eaiaaeu e n 2000 aiaea oeiaine?oaony
Eaiaaeneei aaaionoaii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeoey a oeaeyo oi?ie?iaaiey
iaiaoiaeeiuo i?aaiauo e yeiiiie/aneeo Oneiaee aeey aeoeaecaoeee eeceiaa
a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee n o/aoii ie?iaiai iiuoa.

Iiiainoi?iiiaa aaaionoai aa?aioe?iaaiey eiaanoeoeee (IAAE, nicaeaii a
1988 a. a oeaeyo niaeaenoaey iioieo i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee a ?acaeaathueany
no?aiu). IAAE i?aaeinoaaeyao aa?aioee (iie?uaay aei 90% eiaanoeoeee ia
n?ie aei 20 eao) ii eiiia?/aneei e iieeoe/aneei ?eneai. E ?eneai
ioiinyony: ioiaia eiiaa?oe?oaiinoe aaethou, iaoeeiiaeecaoeey eee
yeni?ii?eaoeey eiouanoaa eiaanoi?a, aiaiiua aeaenoaey, niaia
iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia, iaauiieiaiea eiio?aeoa aneaaenoaea
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai ?aoaiey. E?iia oiai, IAAE ieacuaaao
eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae ii i?yiui eiaanoeoeeyi.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oeaio? ii o?aaoee?iaaieth eiaanoeoeeiiiuo nii?ia —
iiaia iiae?acaeaeaiea a?oiiu Anaie?iiai aaiea.

AA?IIAENEEE AAIE ?AEIINO?OEOeEE E ?ACAEOEss

Aa?iiaeneee aaie ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey (AA??, nicaeai a 1990 a.,
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea — Eiiaeii). Aeaaiay oeaeue AA?? — niinianoaiaaoue
ia?aoiaeo e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea a ainoaea?noaao auaoaai NNN?, no?aiao
Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. AA?? e?aaeeooao eiaanoeoeeiiiua
i?iaeou a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao.

?ano?nu AA?? oi?ie?othony ii aiaeiaee n ?ano?naie IA??. Iaeiaei aeiey
iiea/aiiiai aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea AA?? auoa (24,5% ii n?aaiaieth n
6,4%). Iaiiea/aiiue eaieoae iiaeao auoue i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aino?aaiaai,
ii iau/ii eniieuecoaony eae aa?aioey i?e i?eaea/aiee caaiiuo n?aaenoa ia
ie?iaii e?aaeeoiii ?uiea. Caeinoaiaaiea n?aaenoa ia ?uiea eaieoaea
inouanoaeyaony iooai auionea na?oeoeeaoia, a ia iaeeaaoeee, a ioee/ea io
AA.

Iniaaiiinoue AA?? ninoieo a iaiueoae aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aeiee
no?ai-/eaiia a eaieoaea e eiee/anoaa aieinia. Iai?eia?, NOA eiatho 10%
aeoeee, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Eoaeey, O?aioeey, O?A, ssiiiey — ii 8,6%
eaaeaeay.

Ae?oaay iniaaiiinoue AA?? caeeth/aaony a aai i?eaioaoeee ia
e?aaeeoiaaiea ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i e iiaeaea?aeeo /anoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a no?aiao Oeaio?aeueiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu; 70%
aai e?aaeeoia i?aaeinoaaeaiu /anoiiio naeoi?o. ?inney aeoeaii
nio?oaeie/aao n AA??, eioi?ue e?aaeeooao eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou (15
ie?ae aeie. a 1991—2000 aa.) a i?aaeaeao 30% noieiinoe i?iaeoa e
i?eaeaeaao neiaeeoee?iaaiiua aaieianeea e?aaeeou.

AA?? niaoeeaeece?oaony ia e?aaeeoiaaiee i?iecaiaenoaa (aeeth/ay
i?iaeoiia oeiaine?iaaiea), ieacaiee oaoie/aneiai niaeaenoaey
?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoeth eio?ano?oeoo?u (aeeth/ay yeieiae/aneea
i?ia?aiiu), eiaanoeoeeyo a aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae, iniaaiii
i?eaaoece?oaiuo i?aaei?eyoee. I?aeiouanoaaiiua noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe
AA??, a oii /enea a ?innee,— oeiainiaue, aaieianeee naeoi?u, yia?aaoeea,
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiay eio?ano?oeoo?a, o?ainii?o, naeueneia oicyenoai.
Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony iiaeaea?aeea iaeiai aeciana. Eae e ae?oaea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oeiainiaua einoeooou, AA?? i?aaeinoaaeyao
eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae i?e ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii ?acaeoey n oeaeaauie
eiaanoeoeeyie. Iaeia ec no?aoaae/aneeo caaea/ AA?? — niaeaenoaea
i?eaaoecaoeee, ?acainoaea?noaeaieth i?aaei?eyoee, eo no?oeoo?iie
ia?ano?ieea e iiaea?iecaoeee. E?iia oiai, AA?? i?iaiaeeo eiinoeueoaoeee
ii yoei aii?inai.

Ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa e?aaeeoia AA?? — aeenia?ney ii ?aaeiiai e ?aciui
io?aneyi yeiiiieee, a oaeaea aaieai. AA?? ecae?aoaeueii ii?aaeaeyao
iauaeou e?aaeeoiaaiey n o/aoii ?inneeneie niaoeeoeee, ioeacuaaynue
e?aaeeoiaaoue i?aaei?eyoey eai?iiai aeciana, i?iecaiaenoai oaaa/iuo
ecaeaeee e e?aieeo aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia. Niaoeeoeea aeayoaeueiinoe AA??
— noeioee?iaaiea nicaeaiey aai/o?iuo oiiaeia (11 a ?innee). Nicaeaiiue a
1994 aiaeo AA?? Oiiae iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai aeciana a ?innee i?aaeinoaaee
e?aaeeou ieiei 40 oun. iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee enoiaey ec e?eoa?ey eo
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. No?aoaaey nio?oaeie/anoaa ?innee n AA?? iai?aaeaia
ia aeaeueiaeoaa i?eaea/aiea aai eiaanoeoeeiiiuo e?aaeeoia, oneiaey
eioi?uo aieaa eueaioiua ii n?aaiaieth n oneiaeyie ie?iauo /anoiuo
eiaanoi?ia, a oeaeyo ?acaeoey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee.

?AAEIIAEUeIUA AAIEE ?ACAEOEss

Iniaia ianoi a no?oeoo?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oeiainiauo i?aaiecaoeee
caieiatho iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?aaeiiaeueiua aaiee ?acaeoey, nicaeaiiua a
60-o aiaeao XX aaea a Acee, Ao?eea, Eaoeineie Aia?eea aeey ?aoaiey
niaoeeoe/aneeo i?iaeai e ?anoe?aiey nio?oaeie/anoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai
yoeo ?aaeiiia. Iaaeaia?eeaineee aaie ?acaeoey (IaA?, nicaeai a 1959 a.,
iaoiaeeony a Aaoeiaoiia), Ao?eeaineee aaie ?acaeoey (AoA?, ia?aciaai a
1963 a., iaoiaeeony a Aaeaeaeaia) e Aceaoneee aaie ?acaeoey (AcA?,
nicaeai a 1965 a., iaoiaeeony a Iaieea) i?aneaaeotho aaeeiua oeaee:
aeieain?i/iia e?aaeeoiaaiea i?iaeoia ?acaeoey niioaaonoaothueo ?aaeiiia,
e?aaeeoiaaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo iauaaeeiaiee. Iauae /a?oie yoeo aaieia
yaeyaony nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia eo aeayoaeueiinoue ?acaeouo no?ai,
eioi?ui i?eiaaeeaaeeo cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eaieoaea aaieia e, iie
ninoaaeytho i?eia?ii 1/3 eo /eaiia. A ?aaeiiaeueiuo aaieao ?acaeoey
onoaiiaeai iaeeiaeiaue i?eioeei oi?ie?iaaiey ?ano?nia, i?eaea/aiey
caaiiuo n?aaenoa a nioeeaeueiua oiiaeu, i?iaiaeeony e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea
ai iiiaii ii ia?acoeo a?oiiu AA.

Aianoa n oai nouanoaotho ?acee/ey a aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaeiiaeueiuo aaieia
?acaeoey. Iie ii?aaeaeythony iaiaeeiaeiaui o?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai,
eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey no?ai o?ao eiioeiaioia: Eaoeineie Aia?eee, Acee e
Ao?eee, iniaaiiinoyie eo enoi?e/aneeo o?aaeeoeee.

Nio?oaeie/anoai ?innee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie ?aaeiiaeueiuie aaieaie
?acaeoey iiea iaaeinoaoi/ii iaeaaeaii.

Iniaia ianoi n?aaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoii-e?aaeeoiuo i?aaiecaoeee
caieiaao Aaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia (AI?, nicaeai a 1930 a.,
iaoiaeeony a Aacaea). Ii nouanoao, yoi aaie oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia (aai
/eaiu — aieaa 50 no?ai, a oii /enea ?inney — n 1996 a.).

AI? inouanoaeyao iau/iua aaieianeea iia?aoeee n oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie:
aeaiiceoiua, e?aaeeoiua, ?an/aoiua.

AI? niaeaenoaoao nio?oaeie/anoao iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie a
iaeanoe aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie e aaethoiie iieeoeee. Aaaeiie noa?ie yoiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa yaeyaony eii?aeeiaoeey ia? ii iaaeci?o ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth aaieia, eo eeeaeaeiinoueth, ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoueth.
Aacaeueneee eiieoao ii aaieianeiio iaaeci?o e ?aaoee?iaaieth (nicaeai a
1974 a.) iioaeeeiaae ia?eiaee/anee iaiiaeyaiue Aacaeueneee eiiei?aeao a
aeaea io/aoa ii iacaaiiie i?iaeaia e iiaeaioiaee Aacaeueneia niaeaoaiea
1988 aiaea i ieieiaeueiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo noaiaea?oao e ioeaiea
aeinoaoi/iinoe eaieoaea aaieia. N 1992 aiaea aaaeouea aaiee, a oii /enea
?inneeneea, iaycaiu niaethaeaoue yoe noaiaea?ou. A iiaii Aacaeueneii
niaeaoaiee ii eaieoaeo aaieia (Aacaeue II) aeoeaio naeaeai ia oneeaiee
aioo?aiiaai aaieianeiai eiio?iey i?e ioeaiea ?eneia, ?uii/iie
aeenoeeieeiu e i?ic?a/iinoe eioi?iaoeee. Niaoeeaeueiay neoaeaa AI?
(nicaeaia eaoii 1990 a.) ieacuaaao oaoie/aneoth iiiiuue oeaio?aeueiui
aaieai, aeeth/ay Aaie ?innee, e i?aaiecoao iao/aiea aaiee?ia.

Anooieaiea ?innee a AI? ?anoe?eei aiciiaeiinoe o/anoey Aaiea ?innee a
?aaioa eiieoaoia e eiienneae AI?.

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