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Солнечные системы – средние века и современность

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Niaea?aeaiea.

I. Aaaaeaiea.

II. Ea?oeia ie?a.

III. Aeaeaeaiea ieaiao.

IV. Ia?aua iiaeaee ie?a.

V. Ia?aay aaeeioeaio?e/aneay nenoaia.

VI. Cenoaia Ioieaiay.

VII. Ie? Eiia?ieea.

VIII. Nieioea e Caacaeu.

IX. Aaeaeoeea.

X. Caacaeiua ie?u.

XI. Anaeaiiay.

XII. Caeeth/aiea.

I. Aaaaeaiea.

Caacaeiia iaai ai ana a?aiaia caieiaei aiia?aaeaiea ethaeae. Ii/aio
caaeeaathony caacaeu? Neieueei eo neyao a ii/e? Aeaeaei ee iie io ian?
Anoue ee a?aieoeu o caacaeiie Anaeaiiie? N aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe /aeiaae
caaeoiuaaeny iaae yoeie e iiiaeie ae?oaeie aii?inaie, no?aieeny iiiyoue,
e iniuneeoue ono?ienoai oiai aieueoiai ie?a, a eioi?ii iu aeeaai.

Naiua ?aiiea i?aaenoaaeaiey ethaeae i iai nio?aieeenue a neaceao e
eaaaiaeao. I?ioee aaea e ouny/aeaoey, i?aaeaea /ai aicieeea e iieo/eea
aeoaieia iainiiaaiea e ?acaeoea iaoea i Anaeaiiie, ?ane?uaoay iai
caia/aoaeueioth i?inoaoo, oaeeaeoaeueiue ii?yaeie ie?icaeaiey. Iaaea?ii
aua a ae?aaiae A?aoeee aa iacuaaee Einiinii a yoi neiai ia?aiia/aeueii
icia/aei «ii?yaeie» e «e?anioo».

Nenoaiu ie?a – yoi i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?aniieiaeaiee a i?ino?ainoaa e
aeaeaeaiee Caiee, Nieioea, Eoiu, ieaiao, caacae e ae?oaeo iaaaniuo oae.

II. Ea?oeia ie?a.

A ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie eieaa, eioi?ay iacuaaaony «?eaaaaea», /oi cia/eo
«Eieaa aeiiia»,iiaeii iaeoe iienaiea – iaeii ec naiuo ia?auo a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa – anae Anaeaiiie eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai. Niaeanii «?eaaaaea»,
iia ono?iaia ia neeoeii neiaeii. A iae eiaaony, i?aaeaea anaai, Caiey.
Iia i?aaenoaaeyaony aaca?aie/iie ieineie iiaa?oiinoueth – «iaoe?iui
i?ino?ainoaii». Yoa iiaa?oiinoue iie?uoa naa?oo iaaii. A iaai – yoi
aieoaie, onayiiue caacaeaie «naiae». Iaaeaeo iaaii e Caieae –
«naaoyueeny aicaeoo».

Io iaoee yoi auei i/aiue aeaeaei. Ii aaaeii caeanue ae?oaia.
Caia/aoaeueia e a?aiaeeicia naia aea?ceay oeaeue – iauyoue iuneueth anth
Anaeaiioth. Ionthaea aa?ao enoiee oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi /aeiaa/aneee
?acoi niiniaai iniuneeoue, iiiyoue, ?acaaaeaoue aa ono?ienoai, nicaeaoue
a naiai aiia?aaeaiee iieioth ea?oeio ie?a.

III. Aeaeaeaiea ieaiao.

Iaaethaeay ca aiaee/iui ia?aiauaieai Nieioea n?aaee caacae, ae?aaiea
ethaee iao/eeenue caaeaaia?aiaiii ii?aaeaeyoue ianooieaiea oiai eee
eiiai a?aiaie aiaea. Iie ?acaeaeeee iieino iaaa aaeieue yeeeioeee ia 12
nicaacaeee, a eaaeaeii ec eioi?uo Nieioea iaoiaeeony i?eia?ii ianyoe.
Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, yoe nicaacaeey auee iacaaiu ciaeeaeaeueiuie. Ana
iie ca eneeth/aieai iaeiiai iinyo iacaaiey aeeaioiuo.

N i?aaeoo?aiiei ainoiaeii oiai eee eiiai nicaacaeey ae?aaiea ethaee
naycuaaee naie naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ?aaiou, e yoi io?aaeaii a naieo
iacaaieyo nicaacaeee. Oae, iiyaeaiey ia iaaa nicaacaeey Aiaeieay
oeacuaaei ia iaeeaeaaiia iieiaiaeuea, iiyaeaiea ?ua – ia i?aaenoiyuee
oiae ?uau aeey iaoaiey ee?u. N oo?aiiei iiyaeaieai nicaacaeey Aeaau
ia/eiaeanue oai?ea oeaaa, eioi?ay i?iaiaeeeanue i?aeiouanoaaiii
aeaiueiaie. Nionoy ianyoe ia iaaa iiyaeeanue ninaaeiaa nicaacaeea Aanu,
a yoi a?aiy eae ?ac i?ienoiaeeei acaaoeaaiea e iiaen/ao o?iaeay.

Aua ca 2000 eao aei i. y. Ae?aaiea iaaethaeaoaee caiaoeee n?aaee
ciaeeaeaeueiuo nicaacaeee iyoue iniauo naaoee, eioi?ua, iinoiyiii iaiyy
naia iieiaeaiea ia iaaa, ia?aoiaeyo ec iaeiiai ciaeeaeaeueiiai
nicaacaeey a ae?oaia. A iineaaenoaee a?a/aneea ano?iiiiu iacaaee yoe
naaoeea ieaiaoaie, o. a. «aeoaeaeathueie». Yoi Ia?eo?ee, Aaia?a, Ia?n,
THieoa? e Naoo?i, nio?aieaoea a naieo iacaaieyo aei iaoeo aeiae eiaia
ae?aaia?eineeo aiaia. E aeoaeaeathuei naaoeeai auee i?e/eneaiu oaeaea
Eoia e Nieioea.

Aa?iyoii, i?ioei iiiai noieaoee i?aaeaea /ai ae?aaiei ano?iiiiai
oaeaeinue onoaiiaeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe a aeaeaeaiee ieaiao
e, i?aaeaea anaai, onoaiiaeoue i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie, ii enoa/aiee eioi?uo
iieiaeaiea ieaiaou ia iaaa ii ioiioaieth e Nieioeo iiaoi?yaony. Yoio
i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie iicaea aue iacaai neiiaee/aneei ia?eiaeii ia?auaiey
ieaiaou. Iinea yoiai iiaeii auei aeaeaoue neaaeothuee oaa – no?ieoue
iauoth iiaeaeue ie?a, a eioi?ie aeey eaaeaeie ec ieaiao auei au
ioaaaeaii ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi e iieuecoynue eioi?ie iiaeii auei au
ca?aiaa i?aaeneacaoue iieiaeaiea ieaiaou ia ianeieueei ianyoeaa eee eao
aia?aae.

Ii oa?aeoa?o naiaai aeaeaeaiey ia iaaaniie noa?a ii ioiioaieth e Nieioeo
ieaiaou (a iaoai iiieiaiee) iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa a?oiiu. Ia?eo?ee e
Aaia?a iacaaiu aioo?aiieie eee ieaeieie, inoaeueiua – aiaoieie eee
aa?oieie.

Oaeiaay nei?inoue Nieioea aieueoa nei?inoe i?yiiai aeaeaeaiey aa?oiae
ieaiaou. Iiyoiio Nieioea iinoaiaiii iaaiiyao ieaiaoo. Eae e aeey
aioo?aiieo ieaiao, a iiiaio, eiaaea iai?aaeaiea ia ieaiaoo e ia Nieioea
niaiaaeaao, ianooiaao niaaeeiaiea ieaiaou n Nieioeai. Iinea oiai eae
Nieioea iaaiieo ieaiaoo, iia noaiiaeony aeaeeiie ia?aae aai ainoiaeii,
ai aoi?ie iieiaeia ii/e. Iiiaio, eiaaea oaie iaaeaeo iai?aaeaieai ia
Nieioea e iai?aaeaieai ia ieaiaoo ninoaaeyao 180 a?aaeonia, iacuaaaony
i?ioeainoiyieai ieaiaou. A yoi a?aiy iia iaoiaeeony a na?aaeeia aeoae
naiaai iiiyoiiai aeaeaeaiey. Oaeaeaiea ieaiaou io Nieioea ia 90
a?aaeonia e ainoieo iacuaaaony ainoi/iie eaaae?aoo?ie, a ia 90 a?aaeonia
e caiaaeo – caiaaeiie eaaae?aoo?ie. Ana oiiiyiooua caeanue iieiaeaiey
ieaiao ioiineoaeueii Nieioea (n oi/ee c?aiey caiiiai iaaethaeaoaey)
iacuaathony eiioeao?aoeeyie.

I?e ?aneiieao ae?aaieo ai?iaeia e o?aiia Aaaeeiiee iaia?oaeaiu aeanyoee
ouny/ aeeiyiuo oaaee/ae n ano?iiiie/aneeie oaenoaie. Eo ?anoeo?iaea
iieacaea, /oi ae?aaia aaaeeiineea ano?iiiiu aieiaoaeueii neaaeeee ca
iieiaeaieai ieaiao ia iaaa; iie noiaee ii?aaeaeeoue eo neiiaee/aneea
ia?eiaeu ia?auaiey e eniieueciaaoue yoe aeaiiua i?e naieo ?an/aoao.

IV. Ia?aua iiaeaee ie?a.

Ianiio?y ia aunieee o?iaaiue ano?iiiie/aneeo naaaeaiee ia?iaeia
ae?aaiaai Ainoiea, eo acaeyaeu ia no?iaiea ie?a ia?aie/eaaeenue
iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie c?eoaeueiuie iuouaieyie. Iiyoiio a Aaaeeiia
neiaeeeenue acaeyaeu, niaeanii eioi?ui Caiey eiaao aeae auioeeiai
ino?iaa, ie?oaeaiiiai ieaaiii. Aioo?e Caiee aoaeoi au iaoiaeeony
«oea?noai ia?oauo». Iaai – yoi oaa?aeue eoiie, iie?athueeny ia caiioth
iiaa?oiinoue e ioaeaeythuee «ieaeiea aiaeu» (ieaai, iaoaeathuee caiiie
ino?ia) io «aa?oieo» (aeiaeaeaauo) aiae. Ia yoii eoiiea i?ee?aieaiu
iaaaniua naaoeea, iaae iaaii aoaeoi au aeeaoo aiae. Nieioea ainoiaeeo
oo?ii, auoiaey ec ainoi/iuo ai?io, e caoiaeeo /a?ac caiaaeiua ai?ioa, a
ii/ueth iii aeaeaeaony iiae Caieae.

Niaeanii i?aaenoaaeaieyi ae?aaieo aaeioyi, Anaeaiiay eiaao aeae aieueoie
aeieeiu, auoyiooie n naaa?a ia tha, a oeaio?a aa iaoiaeeony Aaeiao. Iaai
oiiaeiaeyeinue aieueoie aeaeaciie e?uoa, eioi?ay iiaeaea?aeeaaaony ia
noieaao, ia iae a aeaea naaoeeueieeia iiaeaaoaiu caacaeu.

A Ae?aaiai Eeoaa nouanoaiaaei i?aaenoaaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio Caiey
eiaao oi?io ieineiai i?yiioaieueieea, iaae eioi?ui ia noieaao
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony e?oaeia auioeeia iaai. ?acuy?aiiue ae?aeii aoaeoi au
niaioe oeaio?aeueiue noiea, aneaaenoaea /aai Caiey iaeeiieeanue e
ainoieo. Iiyoiio ana ?aee a Eeoaa oaeoo ia ainoie. Iaai aea iaeeiieeinue
ia caiaae, iiyoiio ana iaaaniua naaoeea aeaeaeoony n ainoiea ia caiaae.

E eeoue a a?a/aneeo eieiieyo ia caiaaeiuo aa?aaao Iaeie Acee (Eiiey), ia
thaa Eoaeee e a Neoeeeee a /aoaa?oii aaea aei iaoae y?u ia/aeinue ao?iia
?acaeoea iaoee, a /anoiinoe, oeeinioee, eae o/aiey i i?e?iaea. Eiaiii
caeanue ia niaio i?inoiio nica?oeaieth yaeaiee i?e?iaeu e eo iaeaiiio
oieeiaaieth i?eoiaeyo iiiuoee iao/ii iauynieoue yoe yaeaiey, ?acaaaeaoue
eo enoeiiua i?e/eiu.

Iaeiei ec auaeathueony ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo iuneeoaeae aue Aa?aeeeo Yoanneee
(ie. 530 – 470 aa. aei i. y.). Yoi aio i?eiaaeeaaeao neiaa: «Ie?,
aaeeiue ec anaai, ia nicaeai ieeai ec aiaia e ieeai ec ethaeae, a aue,
anoue e aoaeao aa/ii aeeaui iaiai, caeiiiia?ii ainieaiaiythueiny e
caeiiiia?ii oaanathuei…» Oiaaea aea Ieoaai? Naiinneee (ie. 580 – 500
aa. aei i. y.) auneacae iuneue i oii, /oi Caiey, eae e ae?oaea iaaaniua
oaea, eiaao oi?io oa?a. Anaeaiiay i?aaenoaaeyeanue Ieoaai?o a aeaea
eiioeaio?e/aneeo, aeiaeaiiuo ae?oa a ae?oaa i?ic?a/iuo o?onoaeueiuo
noa?, e eioi?ui aoaeoi au i?ee?aieaiu ieaiaou. A oeaio?a ie?a a yoie
iiaeaee iiiauaeanue Caiey, aie?oa iaa a?auaeenue noa?u Eoiu, Ia?eo?ey,
Aaia?u, Nieioea, Ia?na, THieoa?a e Naoo?ia. Aeaeueoa anao iaoiaeeeanue
noa?a iaiiaeaeaeiuo caacae.

Ia?aoth oai?eth no?iaiey ie?a, iauyniythuoth i?yiia e iiiyoiia
aeaeaeaiea ieaiao, nicaeae a?a/aneee oeeinio Aaaeien Eieaeneee (ie. 408
– 355 aa. aei i. y.). Ii i?aaeeiaeee, /oi o eaaeaeie ieaiaou eiaaony ia
iaeia, a ianeieueei noa?, ne?aieaiiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii. Iaeia ec ieo
niaa?oaao iaeei iai?io a nooee aie?oa ine iaaaniie noa?u ii iai?aaeaieth
n ainoiea ia caiaae. A?aiy ia?auaiey ae?oaie (a ia?aoioth noi?iio)
i?aaeiieaaaeinue ?aaiui ia?eiaeo ia?auaiey ieaiaou. Oai naiui
iauyniyeinue aeaeaeaiea ieaiaou aaeieue yeeeioeee. I?e yoii
i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi inue aoi?ie noa?u iaeeiiaia e ine ia?aie iiae
ii?aaeaeaiiui oaeii. Eiiaeiaoeey n yoeie noa?aie aua aeaoo iicaieyea
iauynieoue iiiyoiia aeaeaeaiea ii ioiioaieth e yeeeioeea. Ana
iniaaiiinoe aeaeaeaiey Nieioea e Eoiu iauyniyeinue n iiiiuueth o?ao
noa?. Caacaeu Aaaeien ?acianoee ia iaeiie noa?a, aiauathuae a naay ana
inoaeueiua. Oaeei ia?acii, ana aeaeeiia aeaeaeaiea iaaaniuo naaoee
Aaaeien naae e a?auaieth 27 noa?.

Oianoii iaiiiieoue, /oi i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?aaiiia?iii, e?oaiaii,
niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueiii aeaeaeaiee iaaaniuo oae auneacae oeeinio Ieaoii.
Ii aea auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi Caiey iaoiaeeony a oeaio?a ie?a,
/oi aie?oa iaa ia?auaaony Eoia, Nieioea, aeaeaa oo?aiiyy caacaea Aaia?a,
caacaea Aa?iana, caacaeu A?ana, Caana e E?iiina. O Ieaoiia aia?aua
ano?a/athony iacaaiey ieaiao ii eiaie aiaia, iieiinoueth niaiaaeathuea n
aaaeeiineeie. Ieaoii aia?aua noi?ioee?iaae iaoaiaoeeai caaea/o: iaeoe, n
iiiiuueth eaeeo ?aaiiia?iuo e i?aaeeueiuo e?oaiauo aeaeaeaiee iiaeii
«nianoe yaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeyaiua ieaiaoaie». Ae?oaeie neiaaie, Ieaoii
noaaee caaea/o iino?ieoue aaiiao?e/aneoth iiaeaeue ie?a, a oeaio?a
eioi?ie, aaconeiaii, aeieaeia auea iaoiaeeoueny Caiey.

Oniaa?oainoaiaaieai nenoaiu ie?a Aaaeiena caiyeny o/aiee Ieaoiia
A?enoioaeue (384 – 322 aa. aei i. y.). Oae eae acaeyaeu yoiai
auaeathuaainy oeeinioa – yioeeeeiiaaeenoa aac?acaeaeueii ainiiaenoaiaaee
a oeceea e ano?iiiiee a oa/aiea ii/oe aeaoo ouny/ eao, oi inoaiiaethnue
ia ieo iiiiae?iaiaa.

A?enoioaeue, aneaae ca oeeinioii Yiiaaeieeii (ie. 490 – 430 aa. aei i.
y.), i?aaeiieiaeee nouanoaiaaiea /aou?ao «noeoee»: caiee, aiaeu,
aicaeooa e iaiy, ec niaoaiey eioi?uo aoaeoi au i?iecioee ana oaea,
ano?a/athueany ia Caiea. Ii A?enoioaeth, noeoee aiaea e caiey
anoanoaaiiui ia?acii no?aiyony aeaeaaoueny e oeaio?o ie?a («aiec»),
oiaaea eae iaiiue e aicaeoo aeaeaeoony «aaa?o» e ia?eoa?ee e oi oai
auno?aa, /ai aeeaea iie e naiaio «anoanoaaiiiio» ianoo. Iiyoiio a
oeaio?a ie?a iaoiaeeony Caiey, iaae iae ?aniieiaeaiu aiaea, aicaeoo e
iaiiue. Ii A?enoioaeth, Anaeaiiay ia?aie/aia a i?ino?ainoaa, oioy aa
aeaeaeaiea aa/ii, ia eiaao ie eiioea ie ia/aea. Yoi aiciiaeii eae ?ac
iioieo, /oi, e?iia oiiiyioouo /aou?ao yeaiaioia, nouanoaoao aua e iyoay,
iaoie/oiaeeiay iaoa?ey, eioi?oth A?enoioaeue iacaae yoe?ii. Ec yoe?a
aoaeoi au e ninoiyo ana iaaaniua oaea, aeey eioi?uo aa/iia e?oaiaia
aeaeaeaiea – yoi anoanoaaiiia ninoiyiea. «Ciia yoe?a» ia/eiaaony ieiei
Eoiu e i?inoe?aaony aaa?o, oiaaea eae ieaea Eoiu iaoiaeeony ie? /aou?ao
yeaiaioia.

Aio eae iienuaaao naia iiieiaiea ie?icaeaiey nai A?enoioaeue:

«Nieioea e ieaiaou ia?auathony ieiei Caiee, iaoiaeyuaeny iaiiaeaeaeii a
oeaio?a ie?a. Iao iaiiue, ioiineoaeueii oeaaoa naiaai, ia eiaao ieeaeiai
noiaenoaa ni naaoii nieia/iui, ineaieoaeueiie aaeeciu. Nieioea ia
ninoieo ec iaiy; iii anoue ia?iiiia neiieaiea yoe?a; oaieioa Nieioea
i?e/eiyaony aeaenoaeai aai ia yoe? ai a?aiy ia?auaiey aie?oa Caiee.
Eiiaou nooue nei?ii?aoiaeyuea yaeaiey, eioi?ua auno?i ?iaeaeathony a
aoiinoa?a e noieue aea auno?i en/acatho. Iea/iue Iooue anoue ia /oi
eiia, eae enia?aiey, ainieaiaiaiiua auno?ui a?auaieai caacae ieiei
Caiee… Aeaeaeaiey iaaaniuo oae, aiiaua aiai?y, i?ienoiaeyo ai?acaei
i?aaeeueiaa, /ai aeaeaeaiey caia/aaiua ia Caiea; eai, oae eae oaea
iaaaniua niaa?oaiiaa ethauo ae?oaeo oae, oi ei i?eee/anoaoao naiia
i?aaeeueiia aeaeaeaiea, e aianoa n oai naiia i?inoia, a oaeia aeaeaeaiea
iiaeao auoue oieueei e?oaiaui, iioiio /oi a yoii neo/aa aeaeaeaiea
auaaao aianoa n oai e ?aaiiia?iui. Iaaaniua naaoeea aeaeaeoony naiaiaeii
iiaeiaii aiaai, e eioi?ui iie aeeaea, /ai e aeeoaeyi Caiee; iiyoiio
naaoeea i?e aeaeaeaiee naiai ia ioaeaeathony a ioaeuoa e i?e/eio naiaai
aeaeaeaiey caeeth/atho a naieo naaa. Aunoea iaeanoe iaaa, aieaa
niaa?oaiiua, niaea?aeauea a naaa iaiiaeaeaeiua caacaeu, eiatho iiyoiio
iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiia aeaeaeaiea – anaaaea ai?aai. *oi aea eanaaony /anoe
iaaa, aeeaeaeoae e Caiea, a iiyoiio e iaiaa niaa?oaiiie, oi yoa /anoue
neoaeeo ianoii?aauaaieai ai?acaei iaiaa niaa?oaiiuo naaoee, eaeiau
ieaiaou. Yoe iineaaeiea aeaeaeoony ia oieueei ai?aai, ii e aeaai, e
i?eoii ii i?aeoai, iaeeiiaiiui e i?aeoai iaiiaeaeaeiuo caacae. Ana
oyaeaeua oaea no?aiyony e oeaio?o Caiee, a oae eae anyeia oaei no?aieony
e oeaio?o Anaeaiiie, oi iiyoiio e Caiey aeieaeia iaoiaeeoueny
iaiiaeaeaeii a yoii oeaio?a».

Noa?a caacae

Naoo?i

Ia?eo?ee

Aaia?a

Nieioea

Eoia

Caiey

THieoa?

Ia?n

I?e iino?iaiee naiae nenoaiu ie?a A?enoioaeue eniieueciaae
i?aaenoaaeaiey Aaaeiena i eiioeaio?e/aneeo noa?ao, ia eioi?uo
?aniieiaeaiu ieaiaou e eioi?ua a?auathony aie?oa Caiee. Ii A?enoioaeth,
ia?aii?e/eiie yoiai aeaeaeaiey yaeyaony «ia?aue aeaeaaoaeue» – iniaay
a?auathuayny noa?a, ?aniieiaeaiiay ca noa?ie «iaiiaeaeaeiuo caacae»,
eioi?ay e i?eaiaeeo a aeaeaeaiea ana inoaeueiia. Ii yoie iiaeaee eeoue
iaeia noa?a a eaaeaeie ec ieaiao a?auaaony n ainoiea ia caiaae,
inoaeueiua o?e – a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii iai?aaeaiee. A?enoioaeue n/eoae, /oi
aeaenoaea yoeo o?ao noa? aeieaeii eiiiaine?iaaoueny aeiiieieoaeueiuie
o?aiy aioo?aiieie noa?aie, i?eiaaeeaaeaueie oie aea ieaiaoa. Eiaiii a
yoii neo/aa ia eaaeaeoth iineaaeothuoth (ii iai?aaeaieth e Caiea)
ieaiaoo aeaenoaoao eeoue nooi/iia a?auaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, a nenoaia
ie?a A?enoioaey aeaeaeaiea iaaaniuo oae iienuaaeinue n iiiiuueth 55
oaa?aeuo o?onoaeueiuo noa?e/aneeo iaiei/ae.

Iicaea a yoie nenoaia ie?a auei auaeaeaii ainaiue eiioeaio?e/aneeo neiaa
(iaaan), eioi?ua ia?aaeaaaee naia aeaeaeaiea ae?oa ae?oao (?en. 1). A
eaaeaeii oaeii neia ian/eouaaeinue naiue noa?, aeaeaeoueo aeaiioth
ieaiaoo.

Ai a?aiaia A?enoioaey auneacuaaeenue e ae?oaea acaeyaeu ia no?iaiea
ie?a, a /anoiinoe, /oi ia Nieioea ia?auaaony aie?oa Caiee, a Caiey
aianoa n ae?oaeie ieaiaoaie ia?auaaony aie?oa Nieioea. I?ioea yoiai
A?enoioaeue auaeaeioe na?ueaciue a?aoiaio: anee au Caiey aeaeaaeanue a
i?ino?ainoaa, oi yoi aeaeaeaiea i?eaiaeeei au e ?aaoey?iiio aeaeeiiio
ia?aiauaieth caacae ia iaaa. Eae iu ciaai, yoio yooaeo (aiaee/iia
ia?aeeaeoe/aneia niauaiea caacae) aue ioe?uo eeoue a na?aaeeia 19 aaea,
/a?ac 2150 eao iinea A?enoioaey…

Ia neeiia naieo eao A?enoioaeue aue iaaeiai a aacaiaeee e aaaeae ec
Aoei. Ia naiii aeaea a naiai iiieiaiee ie?a ii eieaaaeny iaaeaeo
iaoa?eaeeciii e eaeaaeeci. Aai eaeaaeenoe/aneea acaeyaeu e, a /anoiinoe,
i?aaenoaaeaiea i Caiea eae oeaio?a ie?icaeaiey auei i?eniiniaeaii aeey
caueou ?aeeaee. Aio ii/aio a na?aaeeia aoi?iai ouny/aeaoey iaoae y?u
ai?ueaa i?ioea acaeyaeia A?enoioaey noaea iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ?acaeoey
iaoee…

V. Ia?aay aaeeioeaio?e/aneay nenoaia.

Nia?aiaiieeai A?enoioaey oaea auei ecaanoii, /oi ieaiaoa Ia?n a
i?ioeainoiyiee, a oaeaea Aaia?a ai a?aiy iiiyoiiai aeaeaeaiey
cia/eoaeueii y?/a, /ai a ae?oaea iiiaiou. Ii oai?ee noa? iie aeieaeiu
auee au inoaaaoueny anaaaea ia iaeeiaeiaii ?annoiyiee io Caiee. Eiaiii
iiyoiio oiaaea aicieeaee e ae?oaea i?aaenoaaeaiey i no?iaiee ie?a.

Oae, Aa?aeeeo Iiioeeneee (388 – 315 aa. aei i. y.) i?aaeiieaaae, /oi
Caiey aeaeaeaony «…a?auaoaeueii, ieiei naiae ine, iaiiaeiaea eieana, n
caiaaea ia ainoie aie?oa nianoaaiiiai oeaio?a». Ii auneacae oaeaea
iuneue, /oi i?aeou Aaia?u e Ia?eo?ey yaeythony ie?oaeiinoyie, a oeaio?a
eioi?uo iaoiaeeony Nieioea. Aianoa n Nieioeai yoe ieaiaou aoaeoi au e
ia?auathony aie?oa Caiee.

Aua aieaa niaeuo acaeyaeia i?eaea?aeeaaeny A?enoa?o Naiinneee (ie. 310 –
230 aa. aei i. y.). Auaeathueeny ae?aaiaa?a/aneee o/aiue A?oeiaae (ie.
287 – 212 aa. aei i.y. ) a naiai ni/eiaiee «Inaiieo» («En/eneaiea
ian/eiie»), ia?auaynue e Aaeiio Ne?aeocneiio, ienae i acaeyaeao
A?enoa?oa oae:

«Ou ciaaoue, /oi ii i?aaenoaaeaieth iaeioi?uo ano?iiiiia ie? eiaao oi?io
oa?a, oeaio? eioi?iai niaiaaeaao n oeaio?ii Caiee, a ?aaeeon ?aaai
aeeeia i?yiie, niaaeeiythuae oeaio?u Caiee e Nieioea. Ii A?enoa?o
Naiinneee a naieo «I?aaeeiaeaieyo», iaienaiiuo ei i?ioea ano?iiiiia,
ioaa?aay yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea, i?eoiaeeo e caeeth/aieth, /oi ie? ai?acaei
aieueoeo ?acia?ia, /ai oieueei /oi oeacaii. Ii iieaaaao, /oi
iaiiaeaeaeiua caacaeu e Nieioea ia iaiytho naiaai ianoa a i?ino?ainoaa,
/oi Caiey aeaeaeaony ii ie?oaeiinoe aie?oa Nieioea, iaoiaeyuaainy a aai
oeaio?a, e /oi oeaio? noa?u iaiiaeaeaeiuo caacae niaiaaeaao n oeaio?ii
Nieioea, a ?acia? yoie noa?u oaeia, /oi ie?oaeiinoue, iienuaaaiay ii aai
i?aaeiieiaeaieth, Caieae, iaoiaeeony e ?annoiyieth iaiiaeaeaeiuo caacae
a oaeii aea ioiioaiee, a eaeii oeaio? oa?a iaoiaeeony e aai
iiaa?oiinoe».

VI. Cenoaia Ioieaiay.

Noaiiaeaiea ano?aiiiee eae oi/iie iaoee ia/aeinue aeaaiaea?y ?aaioai
auaeathuaainy a?a/aneiai o/aiiai Aeiia?oa. Ii ia?aue ia/ae
nenoaiaoe/aneea ano?iiiie/aneea iaaethaeaiey e eo ananoi?iiiee
iaoaiaoe/aneee aiaeec, caeiaeee iniiau noa?e/aneie ano?aiiiee e
o?eaiiiiao?ee, ?ac?aaioae oai?eth aeaeaeaiey Nieioea e Eoiu e ia aa
iniiaa – iaoiaeu i?aaeau/eneaiey caoiaiee.

Aeiia?o iaia?oaeee, /oi aeaeeiia aeaeaeaiea Nieioea e Eoiu ia iaaa
yaeyaony ia?aaiiia?iui. Iiyoiio ii noae ia oi/eo c?aiey, /oi yoe naaoeea
aeaeaeoony ?aaiiia?ii ii e?oaiaui i?aeoai, iaeiaei oeaio? e?oaa niauai
ii ioiioaieth e oeaio?o Caiee. Oaeea i?aeou auee iacaaiu yenoeaio?aie.
Aeiia?o ninoaaee oaaeeoeu, ii eioi?ui iiaeii auei ii?aaeaeeoue
iieiaeaiea Nieioea e eoiu ia iaaa ia ethaie aeaiue aiaea. *oi aea
eanaaony ieaiao, oi, ii caia/aieth Ioieaiay, ii «ia naeaeae ae?oaeo
iiiuoie iauyniaiey aeaeaeaiey ieaiao, a aeiaieuenoaiaaeny i?eaaaeaieai a
ii?yaeie naeaeaiiuo aei iaai iaaethaeaiee, i?eniaaeeiea e iei aua
ai?acaei aieueoaa eiee/anoai naieo nianoaaiiuo. Ii ia?aie/eeny oeacaieai
naiei nia?aiaiieeai ia iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiinoue anao aeiioac, i?e
iiiiue eioi?uo iaeioi?ua ano?iiiiu aeoiaee iauynieoue aeaeaeaiea
iaaaniuo naaoee».

Aeaaiaea?y ?aaioai Aeiia?oa ano?iiiiu ioeacaeenue io iieiuo o?onoaeueiuo
noa?, i?aaeiieiaeaiiuo Aaaeienii, e ia?aoee e aieaa neiaeiui iino?iaieyi
n iiiiuueth yieoeeeeia e aeaoa?aioia, i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aua aei Aeiia?oa
Aiieeiiii Ia?aneei. Eeanne/aneoth oi?io oai?ee yieoeeeee/aneeo
aeaeaeaiee i?eaeae Eeaaaeee Ioieaiae.

Aeaaiia ni/eiaiea Ioieaiay «Iaoaiaoe/aneee neioaenen a 13 eieaao» eee,
eae aai iacaaee iicaea a?aau, «Aeueiaaano»(«Aaee/aeoaa») noae ecaanoiui
a n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iia eeoue a XII a. A 1515 a. ii aue iaia/aoai ia
eaoeineii ycuea a ia?aaiaea n a?aaneiai, a a 1528 a. a ia?aaiaea n
a?a/aneiai. O?eaeaeu «Aeueiaaano» ecaeaaaeny ia a?a/aneii ycuea, a 1912
a. ii ecaeai ia iaiaoeeii ycuea.

«Aeueiaaano» – yoi ianoiyuay yioeeeeiiaaeey aioe/iie ano?iiiiee. A yoie
eieaa Ioieaiae naeaeae oi, /oi ia oaeaaaeinue naeaeaoue ie iaeiiio ec
aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Ii ?ac?aaioae iaoiae, iieuecoynue eioi?ui iiaeii
auei ?ann/eoaoue iieiaeaiea oie eee ae?oaie ieaiaou ia ethaie iaia?aae
caaeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie. Yoi aio aeaeinue iaeaaei, e a iaeiii ianoa ii
caiaoee:

«Eaa/a, eaaeaony, aeaeaaoue naiua ieaiaou, /ai iinoe/ue eo neiaeiia
aeaeaeaiea…»

«Onoaiiaea» Caieth a oeaio?a ie?a, Ioieaiae i?aaenoaaee aeaeeiia
neiaeiia e ia?aaiiia?iia aeaeaeaiea eaaeaeie ieaiaou eae noiio
ianeieueeeo i?inouo ?aaiiia?iuo e?oaiauo aeaeaeaiee.

?

A N

I

O O

?en. 2.

?en .1.

Niaeanii Ioieaiath eaaeaeay ieaiaoa aeaeaeaony ?aaiiia?ii ii iaeiio
e?oao – yieoeeeeo. Oeaio? yieoeeeea a naith i/a?aaeue ?aaiiia?ii
neieueceo ii ie?oaeiinoe aieueoiai e?oaa, iacaaiiai aeaoa?aioii
(?en.1.). Aeey eo/oaai niaiaaeaiey oai?ee n aeaiiuie iaaethaeaiee
i?eoeinue i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi oeaio? aeaoa?aioa niauai ii ioiioaieth e
oeaio?o Caiee. Ii yoiai auei iaaeinoaoi/ii. Ioieaiae aue auioaeaeai
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi aeaeaeaiea oeaio?a yieoeeeea ii aeaoa?aioo yaeyaony
?aaiiia?iui ( o. a. aai oaeiaay nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey iinoiyiia), anee
?anniao?eaaoue yoi aeaeaeaiea ia ec oeaio?a aeaoa?aioa I e ia ec oeaio?a
Caiee O, a n iaeioi?ie «au?aaieaathuae oi/ee» A, iacaaiiie iicaea
yeaaioii (?en. 2.).

Eiiaeie?oy iaaethaeaiey n ?an/aoaie, Ioieaiae iaoiaeii
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo i?eaeeaeaiee iieo/ee, /oi ioiioaiey – ?aaeeonia
yieoeeeeia e ?aaeeonai aeaoa?aioia aeey Ia?eo?ey, Aaia?u, Ia?na,
THieoa?a e Naoo?ia ?aaiu niioaaonoaaiii 0.376, 0.720, 0.658, 0.192 e
0.103. Ethaiiuoii, /oi aeey i?aaeau/eneaiey iieiaeaiey ieaiaou ia iaaa
ia auei iaiaoiaeeiinoe ciaoue ?annoiyiey aei ieaiaou, a eeoue oiiiyiooia
ioiioaiea ?aaeeonia yieoeeeeia e aeaoa?aioia.

I?e iino?iaiee naiae aaiiao?e/aneie iiaeaee ie?a Ioieaiae o/eouaae oio
oaeo, /oi a i?ioeanna naiaai aeaeaeaiey ieaiaou ianeieueei ioeeiiythony
io yeeeioeee. Iiyoiio aeey Ia?na, THieoa?a e Naoo?ia ii «iaeeiiee»
ieineinoe aeaoa?aioia e yeeeioeea e ieineinoe yieoeeeeia e ieineinoyi
aeaoa?aioia. Aeey Ia?eo?ey e Aaia?u ii aaae eieaaaiey aaa?o e aiec n
iiiiuueth iaaieueoeo aa?oeeaeueiuo e?oaia. A oeaeii aeey iauyniaiey anao
caia/aiiuo a oi a?aiy iniaaiiinoae a aeaeaeaiee ieaiao Ioieaiae aaae 40
yieoeeeeia. Nenoaia ie?a Ioieaiay, a oeaio?a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony Caiey,
iacuaaaony aaioeaio?e/aneie.

E?iia ioiioaiey ?aaeeonia yieoeeeeia e aeaoa?aioia aeey niiinoaaeaiey
oai?ee n iaaethaeaieyie iaiaoiaeeii auei caaeaoue ia?eiaeu ia?auaiey ii
yoei e?oaai. Ii Ioieaiath, iieiue iai?io ii ie?oaeiinoe yieoeeeeia ana
aa?oiea ieaiaou niaa?oatho ca oio aea i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, /oi e Nieioea
ii yeeeioeea, o. a. ca aiae. Iiyoiio ?aaeeonu yieoeeeeia yoeo ieaiao,
iai?aaeaiiua e ieaiaoai, anaaaea ia?aeeaeueiu iai?aaeaieth n Caiee ia
Nieioea. O ieaeieo ieaiao – Ia?eo?ey e Aaia?u – ia?eiae ia?auaiey ii
yieoeeeeo ?aaai i?iiaaeooeo a?aiaie, a oa/aiee eioi?iai ieaiaoa
aica?auaaony e enoiaeiie oi/ea ia iaaa. Aeey ia?eiaeia ia?auaiee oeaio?a
yieoeeeea ii ie?oaeiinoe aeaoa?aioa ea?oeia ia?aoiay. O Ia?eo?ey e
Aaia?u iie ?aaiu aiaeo. Iiyoiio oeaio?u eo yieoeeeeia anaaaea eaaeao ia
i?yiie, niaaeeiythuae nieioea e Caieth. Aeey aiaoieo ieaiao iie
ii?aaeaeythony a?aiaiai, a oa/aiee eioi?iai ieaiaoa, iienaa iieioth
ie?oaeiinoue ia iaaa, aica?auaaony e oai aea caacaeai.

Aneaae ca A?enoioaeai Ioieaiae iiiuoaeny ii?iaa?aiooue i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aiciiaeiii aeaeaeaiee Caiee. Ii ienae:

«Nouanoaotho ethaee, eioi?ua ooaa?aeaeatho, aoaeoi au ie/oi ia iaoaao
aeiionoeoue, /oi iaai iaiiaeaeaeii, a caiey a?auaaony ieiei naiae ine io
caiaaea e ainoieo, e /oi iia aeaeaao oaeie iai?io eaaeaeua nooee.
I?aaaea, aiai?y i naaoeeao, ie/oi ia iaoaao aeey aieueoae i?inoiou
aeiionoeoue yoi, anee i?eieiaoue a ?an/ao oieueei aeaeeiua aeaeaeaiey.
Ii yoe ethaee ia niciatho, aei eaeie noaiaie niaoii oaeia iiaiea, anee
i?eniio?aoueny ei anaio, /oi niaa?oaaony aie?oa ian e a aicaeooa. Anee
iu niaeaneiny n ieie, – /aai a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iao, – /oi naiua
eaaeea oaea aiana ia aeaeaeoony eee aeaeaeoony oae aea , eae e oaea
oyaeaeua, iaaeaeo oai eae, i/aaeaeii, aicaeooiua oaea aeaeaeoony n
aieueoae nei?inoueth, /ai oaea caiiua; anee au iu niaeaneeenue n ieie,
/oi i?aaeiaou naiua ieioiua e naiua oyaeaeua eiatho nianoaaiiia
aeaeaeaiea, auno?ia e iinoiyiiia, oiaaea eae ia naiii aeaea iie n
o?oaeii aeaeaeoony io niiauaaiuo ei oie/eia, – ana – oaee yoe ethaee
aeieaeiu auee au niciaoueny, /oi Caiey aneaaenoaea naiaai a?auaiey eiaea
au aeaeaeaiea cia/eoaeueii auno?aa anao oao, eaeea i?ienoiaeyo aie?oa
iaa, eai iia niaa?oaea au oaeoth aieueooth, ie?oaeiinoue a oaeie iaeue
i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie. Oaeei ia?acii, oaea, eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaaee au
Caieth, eacaeenue au anaaaea aeaeaeoueieny ii i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio n iae
iai?aaeaieth, e ieeaeia iaeaei, ie/oi eaoyuaa eee a?ioaiiia ieeiaaea ia
eacaeinue au iai?aaeythueiny e ainoieo, eai Caiey iia?aaeeea au anyeia
aeaeaeaiea a yoii iai?aaeaiee».

N nia?aiaiiie oi/ee c?aiey iiaeii neacaoue, /oi Ioieaiae neeoeii
ia?aioeaiee ?ieue oeaio?iaaaeiie neeu. Ii oaeaea i?eaea?aeeaaeny
ioeai/iiai ooaa?aeaeaiey A?enoioaey, /oi a iiea oyaeanoe oaea iaaeatho
ni nei?inoyie, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiuie eo iannai…

A oeaeii aea, eae caiaoee A. Iaiiaeoe, «Iaoaiaoe/aneia ni/eiaiea»
Ioieaiay «auei ea?iaaaeueiui oanoaeai aaiiao?ee, i?acaeieeii
aeoai/aeoaai nicaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai oia a i?aaenoaaeaiee Anaeaiiie..
o?oae Ioieaiay i?aaenoaao ia?aae iaie eae aaeeeee iaiyoiee iaoee
aioe/iie ae?aaiinoe…».

Iinea aunieiai ?anoeaaoa aioe/iie eoeueoo?u ia aa?iiaeneii eiioeiaioa
ianooiee ia?eiae canoiy e ?aa?anna. Yoio i?a/iue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth aieaa ouny/e eao aue iacaai n?aaeiaaaeiaueai.
Aio i?aaeoanoaiaaei i?aa?auaiea o?enoeainoaa a ainiiaenoaothuoth
?aeeaeth, i?e eioi?ie ia auei ianoa aeey auniei?acaeoie iaoee aioe/iie
ae?aaiinoe. A yoi a?aiy i?iecioae aica?ao e iaeaieaa i?eieoeaiui
i?aaenoaaeaieyi i ieineie Caiea.

E eeoue ia/eiay n XI a. iiae aeeyieai ?inoa oi?aiauo niioaiee, n oneeeai
a ai?iaeao iiaiai eeanna – ao?aeoacee. Aeooiaiay aeeciue a Aa?iia ia/aea
i?iaoaeaeaoueny. A na?aaeeia XIII a. oeeinioey A?enoioaey auea
i?eniiniaeaia e o?enoeaineie oaieiaee, ioiaiaiu ?aoaiey oea?eiaiuo
niai?ia, cai?auaaoeo iaoo?oeeinioneea eaeae aaeeeiai ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai
oeeinioa. Acaeyaeu A?enoioaey ia ono?ienoai ie?a anei?a noaee
iaiouaieaiuie yeaiaioaie o?enoeaineie aa?u. Oaia?ue oaea iaeuecy auei
niiiaaaoueny a oii, /oi Caiey eiaao oi?io oa?a, onoaiiaeaiiiai a oeaio?a
ie?a, e /oi aie?oa iaai ia?auathony ana iaaaniua naaoeea. Nenoaia
Ioieaiay noaea eae au aeiiieiaieai e A?enoioaeth, iiiiaathuei
i?iaiaeeoue eiie?aoiua ?an/aou iieiaeaiee ieaiao.

Iniiaiua ia?aiao?u naiae iiaeaee ie?a Ioieaiae ii?aaeaeee a aunoae
noaiaie eneonii e n aunieie oi/iinoueth. Ni a?aiaiai, iaeiaei, ano?iiiiu
ia/aee oaaaeaeaoueny a oii, /oi iaaeaeo enoeiiui iieiaeaieai ieaiaou ia
iaaa e ?an/aoiui nouanoaotho ?anoiaeaeaiey. Oae, a ia/aea 12 aaea
ieaiaoa Ia?n ieacaeanue ia aeaa a?aaeona a noi?iia io oiai ianoa, aaea
ae iaaeeaaeaei auoue ii oaaeeoeai Ioieaiay.

*oiau iauynieoue ana iniaaiiinoe aeaeaeaiey ieaiao ia iaaa,
i?eoiaeeeinue aaiaeeoue aeey eaaeaeie ec ieo aei aeanyoe e aieaa
yieoeeeeia ni an? oiaiueoathueieny ?aaeeonaie oae, /oiau oeaio?
iaiueoaai yieoeeeea ia?auaeny ii e?oao aieueoaai. E 16 aaeo aeaeaeaiea
Nieioea, Eoiu e iyoe ieaiao iauyniyeinue n iiiiuueth aieaa /ai 80
e?oaia! E an? aea iaaethaeaiey, ?acaeae?iiua aieueoeie i?iiaaeooeaie
a?aiaie, auei o?oaeii «iiaeiaiaoue» iiae yoo noaio. I?eoiaeeeinue
aaiaeeoue iiaua yieoeeeeu, ianeieueei eciaiyoue eo ?aaeeonu, niauaoue
oeaio?u aeaoa?aioia ii ioiioaieth e oeaio?o Caiee. A eiia/iii eoiaa
aaioeaio?e/aneay nenoaia Ioieaiay, ia?aa?oaeaiiay yieoeeeeaie e
yeaaioaie, ?ooioea io nianoaaiiie oyaeanoe…

VII. Ie? Eiia?ieea.

Eieaa Eiia?ieea, auoaaeoay a aiae aai nia?oe, a 1543 aiaeo, iineea
ne?iiiia iacaaiea: «I a?auaiee iaaaniuo noa?». Ii yoi auei iieiia
ieni?iaa?aeaiea A?enoioaey acaeyaea ia ie?. Neiaeiay iaoeia iieuo
i?ic?a/iuo o?onoaeueiuo noa? ioioea a i?ioeia. N yoiai a?aiaie ia/aeanue
iiaay yiioa a iaoai iiieiaiee Anaeaiiie. I?iaeieaeaaony iia e ii iuia.

Aeaaiaea?y Eiia?ieeo iu ociaee, /oi Nieioea caieiaao iaaeeaaeauaa aio
iieiaeaiea a oeaio?a ieaiaoiie nenoaiu. Caiey aea ieeaeie ia oeaio?
ie?a, a iaeia ec ?yaeiauo ieaiao, ia?auathueony aie?oa Nieioea. Oae ana
noaei ia naie ianoa. No?iaiea Nieia/iie nenoaiu auei iaeiiaoe
?acaaaeaii.

Aeaeueiaeoea ioe?uoey ano?iiiiia iiiieieee naiueth aieueoeo ieaiao. Eo
aeaayoue: Ia?eo?ee, Aaia?a, Caiey, Ia?n, THieoa?, Naoo?i, O?ai, Iaiooi e
Ieooii. A oaeii ii?yaeea iie caieiatho naie i?aeou aie?oa Nieioea.
Ioe?uoi iiiaeanoai iaeuo oae Nieia/iie nenoaiu – anoa?ieaeia e eiiao. Ii
yoi ia eciaieei iiaie Eiia?ieeiaie ea?oeiu ie?a. Iai?ioea, ana yoe
ioe?uoey oieueei iiaeoaa?aeaeatho e ooi/iytho aa.

Oaia?ue iu iiieiaai, /oi aeeaai ia iaaieueoie ieaiaoa, iioiaeae ia oa?.
Caiey a?auaaony aie?oa Nieioea ii i?aeoa, ia neeoeii ioee/athuaeny io
ie?oaeiinoe. ?aaeeon yoie ie?oaeiinoe aeecie e 150 ieeeeiiai eeeiiao?ia.

?annoiyiea io Nieioea aei Naoo?ia – naiie aeaeueiae ec ecaanoiuo ai
a?aiaia Eiia?ieea ieaiao – i?eaeeceoaeueii a aeanyoue ?ac aieueoa
?aaeeona caiiie i?aeou. Yoi ?annoiyiea niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeee
aua Eiia?iee. ?acia?u Nieia/iie nenoaiu – ?annoiyiea io Nieioea aei
i?aeou aeaayoie ieaiaou, Ieooiia, aua ii/oe a /aou?a ?aca aieueoa e
ninoaaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii 6 ieeeea?aeia eeeiiao?ia.

Oaeiaa ea?oeia Anaeaiiie a iaoai iaiin?aaenoaaiiii ie?oaeaiee. Yoi e
anoue ie? ii Eiia?ieeo.

Ii Nieia/iay nenoaia aua ia any Anaeaiiay. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi yoi
oieueei iao iaeaiueeee ie?ie. A eae aea aeaeaeea caacaeu? I ieo Eiia?iee
ia ?eneiaae auneacuaaoue ieeaeiai ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiaiey. Ii i?inoi
inoaaee eo ia i?aaeiai ianoa, ia aeaeueiae noa?a, aaea auee iie o
A?enoioaey, e eeoue aiai?ee, e niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueii, /oi ?annoiyiea aei
caacae ai iiiaeanoai ?ac aieueoa ?acia?ia ieaiaoiuo i?aeo. Eae e
aioe/iua o/aiua, ii i?aaenoaaeye Anaeaiioth caieiooui i?ino?ainoaii,
ia?aie/aiiui yoie noa?ie.

Noa?a caacae

Naoo?i

THieoa?

Eoia

Caiey

. Aaia?a

Sol.

Ia?eo?ee

Ia?n

O?ai

VIII. Nieioea e Caacaeu.

A ynioth aaceoiioth ii/ue, eiaaea ie/oi ia iaoaao iaaethaeaieth, /aeiaae
n ino?ui c?aieai oaeaeeo ia iaainaiaea ia aieaa aeaoo – o?ao ouny/
ia?oeathueo oi/a/ae. A nienea, ninoaaeaiiii ai 2 aaea aei iaoae y?u
ciaiaieoii ae?aaiaa?a/aneei ano?iiiiii Aeiia?oii e aeiiieiaiiii iicaeiaa
Ioieaiaai, cia/eony 1022 caacaeu. Aaaaeee aea, iineaaeiee ano?iiii,
i?iecaiaeeaoee oaeea iiaen/aou aac iiiiue oaeaneiia, aeiaae eo /enei aei
1533.

Ii oaea a ae?aaiinoe iiaeic?aaaee i nouanoaiaaiee aieueoiai /enea
caacae, iaaeaeeiuo aeacii. Aeaiie?eo, aaeeeee o/aiue ae?aaiinoe,
aiai?ee, /oi aaeaniaaoay iieina, i?ioyioaoayny /a?ac ana iaai, eioi?oth
iu iacuaaai Iea/iui Iooai, anoue a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe niaaeeiaiea naaoa
iiiaeanoaa iaaeaeeiuo ii ioaeaeueiinoe caacae. Nii?u i no?iaiee Iea/iiai
Iooe i?iaeieaeaeenue aaeaie. ?aoaiea – a iieueco aeiaaaeee Aeaiie?eoa –
i?eoei a 1610 aiaeo, eiaaea Aaeeeae niiauee i ia?auo ioe?uoeyo,
naeaeaiiuo ia iaaa n iiiiuueth oaeaneiia. Ii ienae n iiiyoiui aieiaieai
e ai?aeinoueth, /oi oaia?ue oaeaeinue «naeaeaoue aeinooiiuie aeaco
caacaeu, eioi?ua ?aiueoa ieeiaaea ia auee aeaeeiuie e /enei eioi?uo ii
iaiueoae ia?a a aeanyoue ?ac aieueoa /enea caacae, ecaanoiuo ecae?aaea».

Ii e yoi aaeeeia ioe?uoea an? au? inoaaeyei ie? ca?cae caaaaei/iui.
Iaoaeaee ana iie, aeaeeiua e iaaeaeeiua, aeaenoaeoaeueii nin?aaeioi/aiu
a oiieii noa?e/aneii neia aie?oa Nieioea?

Au? aei ioe?uoey Aaeeeay auea auneacaia niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiiay, ii oai
a?aiaiai caia/aoaeueii niaeay iuneue. Iia i?eiaaeeaaeeo Aeaei?aeaii
A?oii, o?aae/aneay noaeueaa eioi?iai anai ecaanoia. A?oii auaeaeioe
eaeath i oii, /oi iaoa Nieioea – yoi iaeia ec ca?cae Anaeaiiie. Anaai
oieueei iaeia ec aaeeeiai iiiaeanoaa, a ia oeaio? anae Anaeaiiie. Ii
oiaaea e ethaay ae?oaay caacaea oiaea aiieia iiaeao iaeaaeaoue naiae
nianoaaiiie ieaiaoiie nenoaiie.

Anee Eiia?iee oeacae ianoi Caiee ioithaeue ia a oeaio?a ie?a, oi A?oii e
Nieioea eeoee yoie i?eaeeaaee.

Eaeay A?oii ii?iaeeea iaiaei ii?aceoaeueiuo neaaenoaee. Ec ia? auoaeaea
ioeaiea ?annoiyiee aei ca?cae. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, Nieioea – yoi caacaea,
eae e ae?oaea, ii oieueei naiay aeeceay e iai. Iiyoiio – oi iii oaeia
aieueoia e y?eia. A ia eaeia ?annoiyiea ioaeii ioiaeaeiooue naaoeei,
/oiau e iii auaeyaeaei oae, eae, iai?eia?, Ne?eon? Ioaao ia yoio aii?in
aeae aieeaiaeneee ano?iiii Atheaain (1629 – 1695). Ii n?aaiee aeane yoeo
aeaoo iaaaniuo oae, e aio /oi ieacaeinue: Ne?eon iaoiaeeony io ian a
nioie ?ac aeaeueoa, /ai Nieioea.

*oiau eo/oa i?aaenoaaeoue, neieue aaeeei ?annoiyiea aei caacaeu,
neaaeai, /oi eo/ naaoa, i?ieaoathuee ca iaeio naeoiaeo 300 ouny/
eeeiiao?ia, cao?a/eaaao ia iooaoanoaea io Ne?eona e iai ianeieueei eao.
Ano?iiiiu aiai?yo a yoii neo/aa i ?annoiyiee a ianeieueei naaoiauo eao.
Ii nia?aiaiiui ooi/iaiiui aeaiiui, ?annoiyiea aei Ne?eona – 8,7 naaoiauo
eao. A ?annoiyiea io ian aei nieioea anaai 8 naaoiauo ieioo.

Eiia/ii, ?aciua caacaeu ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa (yoi e o/oaii a
nia?aiaiiie ioeaiea ?annoiyiea aei Ne?eona). Iiyoiio ii?aaeaeaiea
?annoiyiee aei ieo e nae/an /anoi inoa?ony i/aiue o?oaeiie, a eiiaaea e
i?inoi ia?ac?aoeiie caaea/ae aeey ano?iiiiia, oioy ni a?aiaie Atheaaina
i?eaeoiaii aeey yoiai iaiaei iiauo niiniaia.

Caia/aoaeueiay eaeay A?oii e iniiaaiiue ia iae ?an/ao Atheaaina noaee
?aoeoaeueiui oaaii e iaeaaeaieth oaeiuie Anaeaiiie. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio
a?aieoeu iaoeo ciaiee i ie?a neeueii ?acaeaeioeenue, iie auoee ca
i?aaeaeu Nieia/iie nenoaiu e aeinoeaee ca?cae.

IX. Aaeaeoeea.

N XVII aaea aaaeiaeoae oeaeueth ano?iiiiia noaei eco/aiea Iea/iiai Iooe
– yoiai aeaaioneiai nia?aiey caacae, eioi?ua Aaeeeae oaeaeae a naie
oaeaneii. Oneeey iiiaeo iieieaiee ano?iiiiia – iaaethaeaoaeae auee
iaoeaeaiu ia oi, /oiau ociaoue, eaeiai iieiia /enei ca?cae Iea/iiai
Iooe, ii?aaeaeeoue aai aeaenoaeoaeueioth oi?io e a?aieoeu, ioeaieoue
?acia?u. Eeoue a XIX aaea oaeaeinue iiiyoue, /oi yoi aaeeiay nenoaia,
caeeth/athuay a naaa ana aeaeeiua ca?caeu. Ia ?aaiuo i?aaao ni anaie
aoiaeeo a yoo nenoaio e iaoa Nieioea, a n iei Caiey e ieaiaou. I?e/ai
?aniieaaathony iie aeaeaei ia a a? oeaio?a, a ia a? ie?aeia.

Iio?aaiaaeenue au? iiiaea aeanyoeeaoey ouaoaeueiuo iaaethaeaiee e
aeoaieeo ?acaeoiee, i?aaeaea /ai ia?aae ano?iiiiaie ?ane?ueinue ai anae
iieiioa no?iaiea Aaeaeoeee. Oae noaee iacuaaoue ca?caeioth nenoaio,
eioi?oth iu aeaeei, – eiia/ii, ecioo?e – eae iieino Iea/iiai Iooe.
(Neiai «aaeaeoeea» ia?aciaaii io iiaia?a/aneiai «aaeaeoeein», /oi cia/eo
«iea/iue».)

Ieacaeinue, /oi Aaeaeoeea eiaao aeiaieueii i?aaeeueiia no?iaiea e oi?io,
ianiio?y ia aeaeeioth eei/eiaaoinoue Iea/iiai Iooe, ia
aanii?yaei/iinoue, n eioi?ie, eae iai eaaeaony, ?annayiu ca?caeu ii
iaao. Iia ninoieo ec aeenea, aaei e ei?iiu. Eae aeaeii ec noaiaoe/aneiai
?enoiea, aeene i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eae au aeaa neiaeaiiua e?ayie
oa?aeee. Ii ia?aciaai ca?caeaie, eioi?ua aioo?e yoiai iauaia aeaeaeoony
ii ii/oe e?oaiaui i?aeoai aie?oa oeaio?a Aaeaeoeee.

Aeeaiao? aeenea ecia?ai – ii ninoaaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii 100 ouny/
naaoiauo eao. Yoi icia/aao, /oi naaoo iio?aaoaony noi ouny/ eao, /oiau
ia?ana/ue aeene ec eiioea a eiiaoe ii aeeaiao?o. Aio neieue ia?iiia
Aaeaeoeea ! A /enei ca?cae a aeenea – i?eaeeceoaeueii noi ieeeea?aeia.

A aaei niaea?aeeony n?aaieiia n yoei /enei ca?cae. (Neiai «aaei»
icia/aao «e?oaeue».) Iie caiieiytho neaaea niethniooue noa?e/aneee iauai
e aeaeaeoony ia ii e?oaiaui, a ii neeueii auoyiooui i?aeoai. Ieineinoe
yoeo i?aeo i?ioiaeyo /a?ac oeaio? Aaeaeoeee. Ii ?aciui iai?aaeaieyi iie
?ani?aaeaeaiu aeieaa eee iaiaa ?aaiiia?ii.

Oae ono?iaia iaoa Aaeaeoeea:

1 – noa?e/aneay ninoaaeythuay; 2 – aeene; 3 – yae?i; 4 – neie
aaciiueaauo iaeaeia; 5 – ei?iia

1

5

4

2 100 oun. Naaoiauo eao

3

Aeene e ie?oaeathuaa aai aaei iia?oaeaiu a ei?iio. Anee ?aaeeonu aeenea
e aaei n?aaieiu iaaeaeo niaie ii aaee/eia, oi ?aaeeon ei?iiu a iyoue, a
iiaeao auoue, e a aeanyoue ?ac aieueoa. Ii/aio «iiaeao auoue»? Aea
iioiio, /oi iia iaaeaeeia – ec ia? ia enoiaeeo ieeaeiai naaoa. Eae aea
ociaee oiaaea i iae ano?iiiiu?

Ana oaea a i?e?iaea nicaeatho oyaioaiea e eniuouaatho aai aeaenoaea. Ia
yoii aiai?eo Caeii anaie?iiai oyaioaiey, ioe?uoue Iuethoiiii. Aio e i
ei?iia ociaee ia ii naaoo, a ii nicaeaaaaiiio ath oyaioaieth. Iii
aeaenoaoao ia aeaeeiua ca?caeu, ia eceo/athuea naao iaeaea aaca.
Iaaethaeay ca aeaeaeaieai yoeo oae, ano?iiiiu e caiaoeee: ia ieo e?iia
aeenea e aaei aeaenoaoao /oi-oi au?.

Aeaoaeueiia eco/aiea yoiai «ia/oi» e iicaieeei a eiioea eiioeia
iaia?oaeeoue ei?iio, eioi?ay nicaea?o aeiiieieoaeueiia oyaioaiea. Iia
ieacaeanue i/aiue ianneaiie – a ianeieueei ?ac aieueoa iannu anao
ca?cae, aoiaeyueo a aeene e aaei.

Oaeiau naaaeaiey, iieo/aiiua niaaoneei ano?iiiiii ss. Yeianoi e aai
nio?oaeieeaie a Oa?ooneie iana?aaoi?ee.

Eiia/ii, eco/aoue iaaeaeeioth ei?iio i/aiue o?oaeii. Ec-ca yoiai e ia
neeoeii oi/iu iiea ioeaiee a? ?acia?ia e iannu. Ii a? aeaaiay caaaaeea a
ae?oaii: iu ia ciaai, ec /aai iia ninoieo. Iu ia ciaai, anoue ee a iae
ca?caeu, ionoue aeaaea e eaeea-oi iaiau/iua, nianai ia eceo/athuea naao.

Nae/an iiiaea i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi a? ianna neeaaeuaaaony aiana ia ec
ca?cae, a ec iaeue/aeoeo yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe – iaeo?eii. Yoe /anoeoeu
ecaanoiu oeceeai oaea aeaaii, ii e naie ii naaa iie oiaea a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie inoathony caaaaei/iuie. Iaecaanoii i ieo, iiaeii
neacaoue, naiia aeaaiia: anoue ee o ieo ianna iieiy, oi anoue oaeay
ianna, eioi?ie /anoeoea iaeaaeaao a ninoiyiee, eiaaea iia ia aeaeaeaony,
a noieo ia ianoa. Aieueoeinoai yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe oaeoth ianno eiatho.

Yoi, iai?eia?, yeaeo?ii, i?ioii, iaeo?ii, ec eioi?uo ninoiyo ana aoiiu.
A aio o oioiia, eaaioa naaoa, a? iao. Oioiiu nouanoaotho eeoue a
aeaeaeaiee. Iaeo?eii iiaee au neoaeeoue iaoa?eaeii aeey ei?iiu, ii eeoue
a oii neo/aa, anee o ieo anoue ianna iieiy.

Eaaei i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, n eaeei iaoa?iaieai iaeeaeatho ano?iiiiu
aanoae ec oece/aneeo eaai?aoi?ee, aaea noaayony nae/an niaoeeaeueiua
yenia?eiaiou, /oiau auynieoue, anoue ee o iaeo?eii ianna iieiy eee iao.
Aiciiaeii, eiaiii oeceee e ?aoao caaaaeeo iaaeaeeiie ei?iiu.

X. Caacaeiua ie?u.

E ia/aeo iaoaai aaea a?aieoeu ?acaaaeaiiie Anaeaiiie ?acaeaeioeenue
ianoieueei, /oi aeeth/eee a naay Aaeaeoeeo. Iiiaea, anee ia ana, aeoiaee
oiaaea, /oi yoa ia?iiiay ca?caeiay nenoaia e anoue any Anaeaiiay a
oeaeii.

Ii aio a 20-a aiaeu auee iino?iaiu iiaua e?oiiua oaeaneiiu, e ia?aae
ano?iiiiaie ioe?ueenue niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiiua ai?eciiou. Ieacaeinue,
/oi ca i?aaeaeaie Aaeaeoeee ie? ia eii/aaony. Ieeeea?aeu ca?caeiuo
nenoai, aaeaeoee, iioiaeeo ia iaoo e ioee/athueony io ia?, ?annayiu ooo
e oai ii i?inoi?ai Anaeaiiie.

Oioia?aoee aaeaeoee, naeaeaiiua n iiiiuueth naiuo aieueoeo oaeaneiiia,
ii?aaeatho e?anioie e ?aciiia?aceai oi?i: yoi e iiao/ea aeo?e ca?caeiuo
iaeaeia, e i?aaeeueiua oa?u, a eiua ca?caeiua nenoaiu aiiaua ia
iaia?oaeeaatho ieeaeeo ii?aaeae?iiuo oi?i, iie eei/eiaaou e aanoi?iaiiu.
Ana yoe oeiu aaeaeoee – nie?aeueiua, yeeeioe/aneea, iai?aaeeueiua, –
iieo/eaoea iacaaiey ii naiaio aeaeo ia oioia?aoeyo, ioe?uou aia?eeaineei
ano?iiiiii Y. Oaaaeii a 20-30-a aiaeu iaoaai aaea.

Anee au iu iiaee oaeaeaoue iaoo Aaeaeoeeo ecaeaeaea, oi iia i?aaenoaea
au ia?aae iaie nianai ia oaeie, eae ia noaiaoe/aneii ?enoiea, ii
eioi?iio iu ciaeiieeenue n a? no?iaieai. Iu ia oaeaeaee au ie aeenea, ie
aaei, ie, anoanoaaiii, ei?iiu, eioi?ay e aiiaua-oi iaaeaeeia. N aieueoeo
?annoiyiee auee au aeaeiu eeoue naiua y?eea ca?caeu. A ana iie, eae
auynieeinue, nia?aiu a oe?ieea iieinu, eioi?ua aeoaaie auoiaeyo ec
oeaio?aeueiie iaeanoe Aaeaeoeee. ss?/aeoea ca?caeu ia?acotho a?
nie?aeueiue oci?. Oieueei yoio oci? e aue au ?acee/ei ecaeaeaea. Iaoa
Aaeaeoeea ia nieiea, naeaeaiiii ano?iiiiii ec eaeiai-oi ca?caeiiai ie?a,
auaeyaeaea au i/aiue iioiaeae ia ooiaiiinoue Aiae?iiaaeu.

Enneaaeiaaiey iineaaeieo eao iieacaee, /oi iiiaea e?oiiua nie?aeueiua
aaeaeoeee iaeaaeatho – eae e iaoa Aaeaeoeea – i?ioyae?iiuie e ianneaiuie
iaaeaeeiuie ei?iiaie. Yoi i/aiue aaaeii: aaaeue anee oae, oi, cia/eo, e
aiiaua /ooue ee ia any ianna Anaeaiiie (eee, ai anyeii neo/aa,
iiaeaaeythuay a? /anoue) – yoi caaaaei/iay, iaaeaeeiay, ii oyaioathuay
«ne?uoay» ianna.

Iiiaea, a iiaeao auoue, e ii/oe ana aaeaeoeee nia?aiu a ?acee/iua
eieeaeoeau, eioi?ua iacuaatho a?oiiaie, neiieaieyie e naa?oneiieaieyie,
niio?y ii oiio, neieueei eo oai. A a?oiio iiaeao aoiaeeoue anaai o?e eee
/aou?a aaeaeoeee, a a naa?oneiieaiea – aei ouny/e eee aeaaea
ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia ouny/. Iaoa Aaeaeoeea, ooiaiiinoue Aiae?iiaaeu e
au? aieaa ouny/e oaeeo aea iauaeoia aoiaeyo a oae iacuaaaiia Ianoiia
naa?oneiieaiea. Iii ia eiaao /aoei i/a?/aiiie oi?iu.

I?eaeeceoaeueii oae aea ono?iaiu e ae?oaea naa?oneiieaiey, eaaeauea
aeaeaei io ian, ii aeiaieueii io/aoeeai ?acee/eiua a nia?aiaiiua e?oiiua
oaeaneiiu.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie ano?iiiiu iieaaaee, /oi yoe iauaeou – naiua
e?oiiua ia?aciaaiey ai Anaeaiiie e /oi eaeea-eeai au? aieueoea nenoaiu
ionoonoaotho. Ii aio auynieeinue, /oi yoi ia oae.

Ianeieueei eao iacaae ano?iiiiu ninoaaeee oaeeaeoaeueioth ea?oo
Anaeaiiie. Ia iae eaaeaeay aaeaeoeea i?aaenoaaeaia anaai eeoue oi/eie.
Ia ia?aue acaeyae iie ?annayiu ia ea?oa oaioe/ii. Anee aea
i?eaeyaeaoueny aieiaoaeueii, oi iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue a?oiiu, neiieaiey e
naa?oneiieaiey, eioi?ua auaeyaeyo caeanue oeaii/eaie oi/ae. Ii /oi
ii?aceoaeueiaa anaai, ea?oa iicaieyao iaia?oaeeoue, /oi iaeioi?ua oaeea
oeaii/ee niaaeeiythony e ia?anaeathony, ia?acoy eaeie-oi nao/aoue eee
y/aenoue oci?, iaiiieiathuee e?oaeaaa eee, iiaeao auoue, i/aeeiua niou n
?acia?aie y/aae a 100-300 ieeeeiiia naaoiauo eao.

Iie?uaatho ee oaeea «naoee» anth Anaeaiioth, aua i?aaenoieo auynieoue.
Ii ianeieueei ioaeaeueiuo y/aae, i/a?/aiiuo naa?oneiieaieyie, oaeaeinue
iiae?iaii eco/eoue. Aioo?e ieo aaeaeoee ii/oe iao, ana iie nia?aiu a
«noaiee».

ss/aeea – yoi i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia, ?aai/aa iacaaiea aeey naiiai e?oiiiai
ia?aciaaiey ai Anaeaiiie. Aieaa e?oiiuo nenoai a i?e?iaea iao. Yoi
iieacuaaao ea?oa Anaeaiiie. Ano?iiiiey aeinoeaea iaeiiaoe caaa?oaiey
iaeiie ec naiuo a?aiaeeiciuo naieo caaea/: any iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue,
eee, eae au? aiai?yo, ea?a?oey, ano?iiiie/aneeo nenoai oaia?ue oeaeeeii
ecaanoia. E an? aea…

XI. Anaeaiiay.

Aieueoa anaai ia naaoa – naia Anaeaiiay, ioaaouaathuay e aeeth/athuay a
naay ana ieaiaou, ca?caeu, aaeaeoeee, neiieaiey, naa?oneiieaiey e
y/aeee. Aeaeueiinoue aeaenoaey nia?aiaiiuo oaeaneiiia aeinoeaaao
ianeieueeeo ieeeea?aeia naaoiauo eao.

Ieaiaou, ca?caeu, aaeaeoeee ii?aaeatho ian oaeeaeoaeueiui ?aciiia?aceai
naieo naienoa, neiaeiinoueth no?iaiey. A eae ono?iaia any Anaeaiiay,
Anaeaiiay a oeaeii ?

A? aeaaiia naienoai – iaeii?iaeiinoue. Ia yoii iiaeii neacaoue e oi/iaa.
I?aaenoaaei naaa, /oi iu iuneaiii auaeaeeee ai Anaeaiiie i/aiue aieueoie
eoae/aneee iauai, n ?aa?ii a 500 ieeeeiiia naaoiauo eao. Iiaen/eoaai,
neieueei a iai aaeaeoee. I?iecaaae?i oaeea aea iiaen/?ou aeey ae?oaeo,
ii noieue aea aeaaioneeo iauaiia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ?acee/iuo /anoyo
Anaeaiiie. Anee ana yoi i?iaeaeaoue e n?aaieoue ?acoeueoaou, oi
ieaaeaony, /oi a eaaeaeii ec ieo, aaea au eo ie a?aoue, niaea?aeeony
iaeeiaeiaia /enei aaeaeoee. Oi aea naiia aoaeao e i?e iiaen/?oa
neiieaiee eee aeaaea y/aae.

Anaeaiiay i?aaenoa?o ia?aae iaie anthaeo iaeeiaeiaie – «nieioiie» e
iaeii?iaeiie. I?iua ono?ienoaa e ia i?eaeoiaoue. Ioaeii neacaoue, /oi ia
yoii ethaee oaea aeaaii iiaeic?aaaee. Oeacuaay ec niia?aaeaiee
iaeneiaeueiie i?inoiou ono?ienoaa ia iauoth iaeii?iaeiinoue ie?a,
caia/aoaeueiue iuneeoaeue Ianeaeue (1623-1662) aiai?ee, /oi ie? – yoi
e?oa, oeaio? eioi?iai aacaea, a ie?oaeiinoue ieaaea. Oae n iiiiuueth
iaaeyaeiiai aaiiao?e/aneiai ia?aca ii ooaa?aeaeae iaeii?iaeiinoue ie?a.

A iaeii?iaeiii ie?a ana «ianoa» ?aaiii?aaiu e ethaia ec ieo iiaeao
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia, /oi iii – Oeaio? ie?a. A anee oae, oi, cia/eo,
ieeaeiai oeaio?a ie?a aiana ia nouanoaoao.

O Anaeaiiie anoue e au? iaeii aaaeiaeoaa naienoai, ii i iai ieeiaaea
aeaaea e ia aeiaaaeuaaeenue. Anaeaiiay iaoiaeeoueny a aeaeaeaiee – iia
?anoe?yaony. ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo neiieaieyie e naa?oneiieaieyie iinoiyiii
aic?anoaao. Iie eae au ?acaaaathony ae?oa io ae?oaa. A naoue y/aenoie
no?oeoo?u ?anoyaeaaaony.

Ai ana a?aiaia ethaee i?aaeii/eoaee n/eoaoue Anaeaiioth aa/iie e
iaeciaiiie. Yoa oi/ea c?aiey ainiiaenoaiaaea aieioue aei 20-o aiaeia
iaoaai aaea. A oi a?aiy n/eoaeinue, /oi iia ia?aie/aia ?acia?aie iaoae
Aaeaeoeee. Iooe iiaoo ?iaeaeaoueny e oie?aoue, Aaeaeoeea ana ?aaii
inoaaony ana oie aea, eae iaeciaiiui inoaaony ean, a eioi?ii iieieaiea
ca iieieaieai niaiythony aea?aauey.

Ianoiyuee ia?aai?io a iaoea i Anaeaiiie i?iecaaee a 1922 – 1924 aiaeao
?aaiou eaieia?aaeneiai iaoaiaoeea e oeceea A. O?eaeiaia. Iie?aynue ia
oieueei /oi nicaeaiioth oiaaea A. Yeiooaeiii iauoth oai?eth
ioiineoaeueiinoe, ii iaoaiaoe/anee aeieacae, /oi ie? – yoi ia ia/oi
canouaoaa e iaeciaiiia. Eae aaeeiia oeaeia ii aeeaao naiae aeeiaie/aneie
aeeciueth, eciaiyaony ai a?aiaie, ?anoe?yynue eee naeeiaynue ii no?iai
ii?aaeae?iiui caeiiai.

O?eaeiai ioe?ue iiaeaeaeiinoue ca?caeiie Anaeaiiie. Yoi auei
oai?aoe/aneia i?aaeneacaiea, a auai? iaaeaeo ?anoe?aieai e naeaoeai
ioaeii naeaeaoue ia iniiaaiee ano?iiiie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee. Oaeea
iaaethaeaiey a 1928 – 1929 aiaeao oaeaeinue i?iaeaeaoue Oaaaeo,
ecaanoiiio oaea iai enneaaeiaaoaeth aaeaeoee.

Ii iaia?oaeee, /oi aeae?eea aaeaeoeee e oeaeua eo eieeaeoeau aeaeaeoony,
oaeaeyynue io ian ai ana noi?iiu. Ii oae e aeieaeii auaeyaeaoue, a
niioaaonoaee n i?aaeneacaieyie O?eaeiaia, iauaa ?anoe?aiea Anaeaiiie.

Eiia/ii, yoi ia icia/aao, /oi aaeaeoeee ?acaaaathony eiaiii io ian.
Eia/a iu aa?ioeenue au e noa?ui aicc?aieyi, e aeieiia?ieeiaie ea?oeia
ie?a n Caie?e a oeaio?a. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iauaa ?anoe?aiea Anaeaiiie
i?ienoiaeeo oae, /oi ana iie oaeaeythony ae?oa io ae?oaa, e ec ethaiai
ianoa ea?oeia yoiai ?acaaaaiey auaeyaeeo oae, eae iu aeaeei a? n iaoae
ieaiaou.

Anee Anaeaiiay ?anoe?yaony, oi, cia/eo, a aeae?eii i?ioeii neiieaiey
auee aeeaea ae?oa e ae?oao. Aieaa oiai: ec oai?ee O?eaeiaia neaaeoao,
/oi iyoiaaeoeaoue – aeaaaeoeaoue ieeeea?aeia eao iacaae ie ca?cae, ie
aaeaeoee au? ia auei e an? aauanoai auei ia?aiaoaii e naeaoi aei
eieinnaeueiie ieioiinoe. Yoi aauanoai auei oiaaea e iaiuneeii ai?y/ei.
Ec oaeiai iniaiai ninoiyiey e ia/aeinue iauaa ?anoe?aiea, eioi?ia
i?eaaei ni a?aiaiai e ia?aciaaieth Anaeaiiie, eaeie iu aeaeei e ciaai a?
nae/an.

Iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey i no?iaiee Anaeaiiie neeaaeuaaeenue ia i?ioyaeaiee
anae enoi?ee ano?iiiiee. Iaeiaei oieueei a iaoai aaea niiaea iiyaeoueny
nia?aiaiiay iaoea i no?iaiee e yaiethoeee Anaeaiiie – einiieiaey.

XII. Caeeth/aiea.

Iu ciaai no?iaiea Anaeaiiie a ia?iiiii iauaia i?ino?ainoaa, aeey
ia?ana/aiey eioi?iai naaoo o?aaothony ieeeea?aeu eao. Ii iuoeeaay iuneue
/aeiaaea no?aieony i?iieeiooue aeaeueoa. *oi eaaeeo ca a?aieoeaie
iaaethaeaaiie iaeanoe ie?a ? Aaneiia/ia ee Anaeaiiay ii iauaio ? E a?
?anoe?aiea – ii/aio iii ia/aeinue e aoaeao ee iii anaaaea
i?iaeieaeaoueny a aoaeouai ? A eaeiai i?ienoiaeaeaiea «ne?uoie» iannu ?
E iaeiiaoe, eae ca?iaeeeanue ?acoiiay aeeciue ai Anaeaiiie ?

Anoue ee iia au? aaea-ieaoaeue e?iia iaoae ieaiaou ? Ieii/aoaeueiua e
iieiua ioaaou ia yoe aii?inu iiea ionoonoaotho.

Anaeaiiay iaen/a?iaaia. Iaooiieia e aeaaeaea ciaiey, canoaaeythuay
ethaeae caaeaaaoue an? iiaua e iiaua aii?inu i ie?a e ianoie/eai eneaoue
ioaaou ia ieo.

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