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Особенности развития и эволюции звезд

Язык: русский
Формат: контрольна
Тип документа: Word Doc
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18

План

Введение

1. Понятие эволюции звезд

2. Образование звезд, стадия гравитационного сжатия

3. Эволюция на основе ядерных реакций

4. Конечные стадии эволюции

Заключение

Список литературы

Введение

Подавляющее большинство звезд меняет свои основные характеристики
(светимость, радиус) очень медленно. В каждый данный момент их можно
рассматривать как находящиеся в состоянии равновесия — обстоятельство,
которым мы широко пользовались для выяснения природы звездных недр. Но
медленность изменений — это еще не означает отсутствие их. Все дело в
сроках эволюции, которая для звезд должна быть совершенно неизбежной.

Проблема эволюции звезд, несомненно, принадлежит к числу
фундаментальнейших проблем астрономии. По существу, вопрос заключается в
том, как рождаются, живут, «стареют» и умирают звезды. Эта проблема по
самой своей сущности является комплексной. Она решается
целеустремленными исследованиями представителей разных отраслей
астрономии – наблюдателей и теоретиков. Ведь изучая звезды, никак нельзя
сразу сказать, какие из них находятся в генетическом родстве. Вообще эта
проблема оказалась очень трудной и несколько десятилетий совершенно не
поддавалась решению.

Постепенно вопрос о путях эволюции звезд прояснился, хотя отдельные
детали проблемы все еще далеки от решения. Особая заслуга в понимании
процесса эволюции звезд принадлежит астрофизикам-теоретикам,
специалистам по внутреннему строению звезд и прежде всего американскому
ученому М. Шварцшильду и его школе.

Цель контрольной работы – рассмотреть эволюцию звезд.

1. Понятие эволюции звезды

Эволюция звезд – изменение физических характеристик, внутреннего
строения и химического состава звезд со временем. Важнейшие задачи
теории эволюции звезд – объяснение образования звезд, изменения их
наблюдаемых характеристик, исследование генетической связи различных
групп звезд, анализ их конечных состояний.

Поскольку в известной нам части Вселенной около 98-99% массы
наблюдаемого вещества содержится в звездах или прошло стадию звезд,
объяснение эволюции звезд является одной из наиболее важных проблем
астрофизики.

Звезда в стационарном состоянии – это газовый шар, который находится в
гидростатическом и тепловом равновесии (т.е. действие сил тяготения
уравновешено внутренним давлением, а потери энергии на излучение
компенсируются энергией, выделяющейся в недрах звезды. “Рождение” звезды
– это образование гидростатически равновесного объекта, излучение
которого поддерживаются за счет собственных источников энергии. “Смерть”
звезды – необратимое нарушение равновесия, ведущее к разрушению звезды
или к ее катастрофическому сжатию.

Для понимания эволюции звезд принципиальное значение имеет вопрос об
источниках их энергии. Потери энергии на излучение с поверхности могут
восполняться за счет охлаждения недр, выделения гравитационной
потенциальной энергии при сжатии и ядерных реакций. Охлаждение и
гравитационное сжатие способны, например, поддерживать светимость Солнца
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г, светимость
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a5445b11111111111111b3503411bdaadb11111111111110010b11301111931691111196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эрг/с) в течение ~ 107 лет, звезды с
массой
30picscalex100010009000003d104000000008c03000000008c03000026060f000e0757
4d4643010000000000010043c20000000001000000ec06000000000000ec060000010000
006c00000000000000000000001a000000100000000000000000000000c2020000bc0100
0020454d4600000100ec0600000f00000001000000000000000000000000000000900600
001a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b6060038320400460000
002c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db01000000600000
006000000046000000d4020000c8020000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e4009
000c00000000000000244001000c00000000000000304002001000000004000000000080
3f214007000c000000000000000840000520020000140200000210c0db01000000000000
000000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d49484452000000
1b0000001108030000001b91270100000060504c54450000001111112222223333334444
44555555666666777777888888999999aaaaaabbbbbbccccccddddddeeeeeeffffffffff
ff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000009efafaf0000001174524e53ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffff0025ad996200000001624b47440f18ba00d90000003c74455874436f6d6d656e7400
20496d6167652067656e65726174656420627920474e552047686f737473637269707420
286465766963653d706e6d726177290accccb6850000000c636d50504a436d7030373132
00000003480073bc000000c74944415428536d518baec52008abf3818a1afeff6b6fbb7b
4eb22587640a14da9a2122866d9e8a69fec974213c5f80ad8ce4d5d2f5c4162b07caeec0
0ac36313061236182938b5957c031339a2ab9521e9975e4527297b055c7b7bd994710c62
3906571f9c51383a245a1aadbc315526ebd7f862cbcc96dea7c8fd7e2a31e90d557db041
8f8d6ccd286928b64fbbe7dbc1ac178dce04754e4a1e7dc72efcba4c4cbe5907c30f97e5
ed26791afbcf9d7d79f71f58542ec7a91f9fefe563ddbb9d9f18e55d7ff40fc22e165306
022e890000000049454e44ae42608200000840010824000000180000000210c0db010000
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00000000bf000000bf0000d8410000884103000000000000b3000000b3ffffd741000000
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0004000000150000000c00000004000000460000001400000008000000544e5050060100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009999990077777700dddddd00aaaaaa00bbbbbb003333330022222200cccccc00111111
0055555500444444008888880066666600eeeeee00111111111111111111111464111001
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11111111111162116112600101411511415111116f11311202113001015b80d15a0e111f
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1111100101460000001400000008000000544e5050070100004c00000064000000000000
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00000000000000803f00000000000000000000803f000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000220000000c000000ffffffff460000001c0000
0010000000454d462b024000000c000000000000000e0000001400000000000000100000
00140000000400000003010800050000000b0200000000050000000c0211001b00030000
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0000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff000000070000001fc0000018c0000032
6092832720fbc7b7607de7f060062718c006360f80673600007736000077370000e73300
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001b0000000000280000001b000000110000000100040000000000000000000000000000
000000100000000000000000000000ffffff009999990077777700dddddd00aaaaaa00bb
bbbb003333330022222200cccccc001111110055555500444444008888880066666600ee
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11111111111111111bf111fb10010f111111111111111111621161126001014115114151
11116f11311202113001015b80d15a0e111faa61d414c414d001011d03ee13e321130c34
fe11111ef00604111117d1110113061112d111d210060f11111381118213011111933391
1008001c61120411ce13011111111111100d041409160211c7120111111111111001031b
0d160311c01406111111111110010150711d0311701123111111111110000130411e0311
08114031111111111001009811600c4d00913036111111111000011678003970a6b3a811
11111111100601111234111111153611111111111001010c00000040092900aa00000000
00000011001b0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000 и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04000000150000000c00000004000000460000001400000008000000544e505006010000
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000000004c00000013000000500000003000000080000000e4000000000000008600ee00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- в течение ~ 105 лет, а
ядерные реакции соответственно ~ 1010 и ~ 106 лет. Геологические данные
свидетельствуют о том, что светимость Солнца была практически неизменной
в течение ~ 109 лет. Отсюда следует, что основным источником энергии
могут быть только ядерные реакции.

Выделение гравитационной энергии может играть определяющую роль лишь
тогда, когда температура недр звезды недостаточна для того, чтобы
ядерное энерговыделение могло компенсировать потери энергии, и звезда в
целом или ее часть должна сжиматься для поддержания равновесия.
Высвечивание тепловой энергии становится важным лишь после исчерпания
запасов ядерной энергии. Таким образом, эволюцию звезд можно представить
как последовательную смену источников энергии звезд.

Характерное время эволюции звезд слишком велико для того, чтобы можно
было всю эволюцию проследить непосредственно. Поэтому основным методом
исследования эволюции звезд является построение последовательностей
моделей звезд, описывающих изменения внутреннего строения и хим. состава
звезд со временем. Эволюционные последовательности затем сопоставляются
с результатами наблюдений, напр., с Герцшпрунга-Ресселла диаграммой
(Г.-Р.д.), суммирующей наблюдения большого числа звезд, находящихся на
разных стадиях эволюции. Особо важную роль играет сравнение с Г.-Р.д.
для звездных скоплений, поскольку все звезды скопления имеют одинаковый
начальный хим. состав и образовались практически одновременно. По
Г.-Р.д. скоплений различного возраста удалось установить направление
эволюции звезд. Детально эволюционные последовательности рассчитываются
путем численного решения системы дифференциальных уравнений, описывающих
распределение массы, плотности, температуры и светимости по звезде, к
которым добавляются уравнение состояния, законы энерговыделения и
непрозрачности звездного вещества и уравнения, описывающие изменение
химического состава звезды со временем.

Ход эволюции звезды зависит в основном от ее массы и исходного
химического состава. Определенную, но не принципиальную роль могут
играть вращение звезды и ее магнитное поле, однако роль этих факторов в
эволюции звезд еще недостаточно исследована. Химический состав звезды
зависит от времени, когда она образовалась, и от ее положения в
Галактике в момент образования. Звезды первого поколения сформировались
из вещества, состав которого определялся космологическими условиями.
По-видимому, в нем было примерно 70% по массе водорода, 30% гелия и
ничтожная примесь дейтерия и лития. В ходе эволюции звезд первого
поколения образовались тяжелые элементы (следующие за гелием), которые
были выброшены в межзвездное пространство в результате истечения
вещества из звезд или при взрывах звезд. Звезды последующих поколений
сформировались уже из вещества, содержавшего до 3-4% (по массе) тяжелых
элементов.

Наиболее непосредственным указанием на то, что звездообразование в
Галактике происходит и в настоящее время, является существование
массивных ярких звезд спектральных классов O и B, время жизни которых не
может превосходить ~ 107 лет. Скорость звездообразования в современную
эпоху оценивается в 5 в год.

2. Образование звезд, стадия гравитационного сжатия

Согласно наиболее распространенной точке зрения, звезды образуются в
результате гравитационной конденсации вещества межзвездной среды.
Необходимое для этого разделение межзвездной среды на две фазы – плотные
холодные облака и разреженную среду с более высокой температурой – может
происходить под воздействием тепловой неустойчивости Рэлея-Тейлора в
межзвездном магнитном поле. Газово-пылевые комплексы с массой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b8000000dc03000000000000c60088006800000013000000280000006800000013000000
0100040000000000000000000000000000000000100000000000000000000000ffffff00
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111e61111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111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, характерным размером (10-100) пк и концентрацией частиц n~102 см-3.
действительно наблюдаются благодаря излучению ими радиоволн. Сжатие
(коллапс) таких облаков требует определенных условий: гравитационная
энергия связи частиц облака должна превосходить сумму энергии теплового
движения частиц, энергии вращения облака как целого и магнитной энергии
облака (критерий Джинса). Если учитывается только энергия теплового
движения, то с точностью до множителя порядка единицы критерий Джинса
записывается в виде: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, где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- масса облака, T – температура
газа в К, n – число частиц в 1 см3. При типичных для современных
межзвездных облаков температурах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К могут сколлапсировать лишь облака с массой, не меньшей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. Критерий Джинса указывает, что для образования звезд реально
наблюдаемого спектра масс концентрация частиц в коллапсирующих облаках
должна достигать (103-106) см-3, т.е. в 10-1000 раз превышать
наблюдаемую в типичных облаках. Однако такие концентрации частиц могут
достигаться в недрах облаков, уже начавших коллапс. Отсюда следует, что
звездообразование происходит путем последовательной, осуществляющейся в
несколько этапов, фрагментации массивных облаков. В этой картине
естественно объясняется рождение звезд группами – скоплениями. При этом
все еще неясными остаются вопросы, относящиеся к тепловому балансу в
облаке, полю скоростей в нем, механизму, определяющему спектр масс
фрагментов.

Коллапсирующие объекты звездной массы называются протозвездами. Коллапс
сферически-симметричной невращающейся протозвезды без магнитного поля
включает несколько этапов. В начальный момент времени облако однородно и
изотермично. Оно прозрачно для собств. излучения, поэтому коллапс идет с
объемными потерями энергии, главным образом за счет теплового излучения
пыли, которой передают свою кинетическую энергию частицы газа. В
однородном облаке нет градиента давления и сжатие начинается в режиме
свободного падения с характерным временем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, где G – гравитационная
постоянная,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- плотность облака. С началом сжатия возникает
волна разрежения, перемещающаяся к центру со скоростью звука, а т.к.
коллапс происходит быстрее там, где плотность выше, протозвезда
разделяется на компактное ядро и протяженную оболочку, в которой
вещество распределяется по закону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. Когда концентрация частиц в ядре достигает ~ 1011 см-3
оно становится непрозрачным для ИК-излучения пылинок. Выделяющаяся в
ядре энергия медленно просачивается к поверхности благодаря лучистой
теплопроводности. Температура начинает повышаться почти адиабатически,
это приводит к росту давления, и ядро приходит в состояние
гидростатического равновесия. Оболочка продолжает падать на ядро, и на
его периферии возникает ударная волна. Параметры ядра в это время слабо
зависят от общей массы протозвезды: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11111111111167387f0111111111111111154198bd11981111111113811130111103e000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По мере увеличения массы ядра за счет аккреции, его температура
изменяется практически адиабатически, пока не достигнет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 К, когда начинается диссоциация молекул H2.
В результате расхода энергии на диссоциацию, а не на увеличение
кинетической энергии частиц, значение показателя адиабаты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становится меньше 4/3, изменения давления не способны компенсировать
силы тяготения и ядро повторно коллапсирует. Образуется новое ядро с
параметрами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01000000150000000c00000004000000150000000c000000040000004600000014000000
08000000544e50500601000051000000c404000000000000000000008d01000014000000
000000000000000000000000000000008e01000015000000500000003000000080000000
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00000000000000000000101000000000000000000000003f8800000000000003f8830000
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00001c006f300cc000639c000c700910063601f04018c3000006361f000c00f8201818c1
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00630cf00d800000e73301f04018c3006ee73300001b80f820180c700000180f820e7000
0c61801b7f0c3dc3cc008e207c1039c000630c600cc00000e73380000018667f6ee73380
0000000000180c3000000000000e70000c333f8c000400003e008620000039c000619bf0
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000600003700c6300000118001e19b600c3000007fff000000387e001c7fff0000000000
00381ff0000000000007e0001c3f00370002000037007ff000001f8000e1f9e03e3c0000
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000000000000000000000036000300000e00000000000000000000e00000000000000000
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0000000000000000000000003e000000000000000000000000004e040000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001c00000000000000
000000000000ffff510000002011000000000000000000008d0100001400000000000000
0000000000000000000000008e010000150000005000000068000000b800000068100000
00000000c60088008e01000015000000280000008e010000150000000100040000000000
000000000000000000000000100000000000000000000000ffffff00dddddd0077777700
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1111111111111111116ff6111111111111111111211d1121d11111a613114041131114a1
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00000000, окруженное ударным фронтом, на которое аккрецируют остатки
первого ядра. Подобная же перестройка ядра происходит при ионизации
водорода.

Дальнейший рост ядра за счет вещества оболочки продолжается до тех пор,
пока все вещество упадет на звезду либо рассеется под действием давления
излучения или звездного ветра, если ядро достаточно массивно. У
протозвезд с
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11111111111111117f111d61120411df130111111111110101011409160211d712011111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характерное время аккреции
вещества оболочки ta >tкн, поэтому их светимость определяется
энерговыделением сжимающихся ядер.

Звезда, состоящая из ядра и оболочки, наблюдается как ИК-источник из-за
переработки излучения в оболочке (пыль оболочки, поглощая фотоны
УФ-излучения ядра, излучает в ИК-диапазоне). Когда оболочка становится
оптически тонкой, протозвезда начинает наблюдаться как обычный объект
звездной природы. У наиболее массивных звезд оболочки сохраняются до
начала термоядерного горения водорода в центре звезды. Давление
излучения ограничивает массу звезд величиной, вероятно,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. Если
даже и образуются более массивные звезды, то они оказываются
пульсационно-неустойчивыми и могут потерять значительную часть массы на
стадии горения водорода в ядре. Продолжительность стадии коллапса и
рассеяния протозвездной оболочки того же порядка, что и время свободного
падения для родительского облака, т.е. 105-106 лет. Освещенные ядром
сгустки темного вещества остатков оболочки, ускоренные звездным ветром,
отождествляются с объектами Хербига-Аро (звездообразными сгущениями,
имеющими эмиссионный спектр). Звезды малых масс, когда они становятся
видимыми, находятся в области Г.-Р.д., занимаемой звездами типа Т Тельца
(карликовыми вспыхивающими звездами), более массивные – в области, где
находятся эмиссионные звезды Хербига (неправильные переменные звезды
ранних спектральных классов с эмиссионными линиями в спектрах).

Эволюционные треки ядер протозвезд с постоянной массой на стадии
гидростатического сжатия показаны на рис. 1. У звезд малых масс в
момент, когда устанавливается гидростатическое равновесие, условия в
ядрах таковы, что энергия в них переносится конвекцией. Расчеты
показывают, что температура поверхности полностью конвективной звезды
почти постоянна. Радиус звезды непрерывно уменьшается, т.к. она
продолжает сжиматься. При неизменной температуре поверхности и
уменьшающемся радиусе светимость звезды должна падать и на Г.-Р.д. этой
стадии эволюции соответствуют вертикальные участки треков.

По мере продолжения сжатия температура в недрах звезды повышается,
вещество становится более прозрачным, и у звезд с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возникают лучистые ядра, но оболочки
остаются конвективными. Менее массивные звезды остаются полностью
конвективными. Их светимость регулируется тонким лучистым слоем в
фотосфере. Чем массивнее звезда и чем выше ее эффективная температура,
тем больше у нее лучистое ядро (в звездах с
picscalex100010009000003350700000000e00400000000e004000026060f00b609574d
46430100000000000100aea8000000000100000094090000000000009409000001000000
6c00000000000000000000004900000010000000000000000000000091070000bc010000
20454d4600000100940900000f0000000100000000000000000000000000000090060000
1a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b606003832040046000000
2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000
60000000460000005c03000050030000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e400900
0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f
214007000c0000000000000008400005a80200009c0200000210c0db0100000000000000
0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d494844520000004a
0000001108030000004d47ca7700000060504c5445000000111111222222333333444444
555555666666777777888888999999aaaaaabbbbbbccccccddddddeeeeeeffffffffffff
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000009efafaf0000001174524e53ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ff0025ad996200000001624b47440f18ba00d90000003c74455874436f6d6d656e740020
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aa1aa1d49270c777de303ca9268fa9ab23fb329d3b5608932e8e6f58a905db79e0f3d081
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00000000000000001b40000040000000340000000100000002000000000000bf000000bf
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111111111111111111bf111fb10101011111111111111111111111111111111111111111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лучистое ядро возникает
сразу). В конце концов, практически вся звезда (за исключением
поверхностной конвективной зоны у звезд с массой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7fff0000c03800fc7fff00001c070000000000001c070000d9010000410bc60088001100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) переходит в состояние лучистого равновесия, при котором вся
выделяющаяся в ядре энергия переносится излучением.

3. Эволюция на основе ядерных реакций

При температуре в ядрах ~ 106 К начинаются первые ядерные реакции –
выгорают дейтерий, литий, бор. Первичное количество этих элементов
настолько мало, что их выгорание практически не выдерживает сжатия.
Сжатие прекращается, когда температура в центре звезды достигает ~ 106 К
и загорается водород, т.к. энергии, выделяющейся при термоядерном
горении водорода, достаточно для компенсации потерь на излучение.
Однородные звезды, в ядрах которых горит водород, образуют на Г.-Р.д.
начальную главную последовательность (НГП). Массивные звезды достигают
НГП быстрее звезд малой массы, т.к. у них скорость потерь энергии на
единицу массы, а следовательно, и темп эволюции выше, чем у
маломассивных звезд. С момента выхода на НГП эволюция звезд происходит
на основе ядерного горения. Ядерное горение может происходить до
образования элементов группы железа, у которых наибольшая среди всех
ядер энергия связи. Эволюционные треки звезд на Г.-Р.д. изображены на
рис. 2. Эволюция центральных значений температуры и плотности звезд
показана на рис. 3. При
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214007000c0000000000000008400005b8020000ac0200000210c0db0100000000000000
0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d4948445200000055
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555555666666777777888888999999aaaaaabbbbbbccccccddddddeeeeeeffffffffffff
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ff0025ad996200000001624b47440f18ba00d90000003c74455874436f6d6d656e740020
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6465766963653d706e6d726177290accccb6850000000c636d50504a436d703037313200
000003480073bc0000016149444154384fad94edae83300886b16ba1b51fe1feaff6d022
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c29ed3675fa8d1ca54f2ddd50262684bd0e113279138c91315864c12169cdca41f578b1b
1d844461503131c7f1eb34f3310a8790c971ef00f608e8e87e99b593d91fa956e865bf06
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3a0e04d76e09332ea94add6123013ffa48a9c43e21ea0b8db64ea36d1ddba19569039b56
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544e505006010000510000004c0100000000000000000000540000001000000000000000
0000000000000000000000005500000011000000500000003000000080000000cc000000
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000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff0000003ff800000000
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11111111111112f9c1111111111113e1118911120c11111cfa11111113e1111c011110c1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К
основным источником энергии является реакция водородного цикла, при
бОльших T – реакции углерод-азотного (CNO) цикла. Побочным эффектом
CNO-цикла является установление равновесных концентраций нуклидов 14N,
12C, 13C – соответственно
picscalex100010009000003630300000000a00200000000a002000026060f003605574d
46430100000000000100a0fa000000000100000014050000000000001405000001000000
6c00000000000000000000000b00000007000000000000000000000039010000d1000000
20454d4600000100140500000f0000000100000000000000000000000000000090060000
1a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b606003832040046000000
2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000
600000004600000000020000f4010000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e400900
0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f
214007000c00000000000000084000054c010000400100000210c0db0100000000000000
0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d494844520000000c
0000000804030000003fca03c200000030504c5445000000111111222222333333444444
777777888888999999bbbbbbcccccceeeeeeffffffffffff000000000000000000fe5236
ea0000000d74524e53ffffffffffffffffffffffff003de8228600000001624b47440b1f
d7c4c00000003c74455874436f6d6d656e740020496d6167652067656e65726174656420
627920474e552047686f737473637269707420286465766963653d706e6d726177290acc
ccb6850000000c636d50504a436d7030373132000000074f6db7a5000000284944415418
d36338a9c07ae6cc118683352d96675a185acf9c295092645879e6cca9b4350c78e400e8
821af3aa9a51ad0000000049454e44ae426082000840010824000000180000000210c0db
01000000030000000000000000000000000000001b400000400000003400000001000000
02000000000000bf000000bf000040410000004103000000000000b3000000b3ffff3f41
000000b3000000b3ffffff402100000008000000620000000c0000000100000015000000
0c00000004000000150000000c00000004000000460000001400000008000000544e5050
0601000051000000a000000000000000000000000b000000070000000000000000000000
00000000000000000c000000080000005000000030000000800000002000000000000000
8600ee000c00000008000000280000000c00000008000000010001000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff00c1e00000c3f000006f300000
7c100000c1e00000c3f000006f304e047c104e0451000000e80000000000000000000000
0b00000007000000000000000000000000000000000000000c0000000800000050000000
58000000a80000004000000000000000c60088000c00000008000000280000000c000000
0800000001000400000000000000000000000000000000000c0000000000000000000000
ffffff00cccccc002222220077777700444444001111110099999900bbbbbb0033333300
eeeeee0088888800a211111abba1010a8411117033620101167185921185060212300411
11150902a211111abba103008411117033620105167185921185010a1230041111150101
460000001400000008000000544e5050070100004c000000640000000000000000000000
0b0000000700000000000000000000000c000000080000002900aa000000000000000000
0000803f00000000000000000000803f0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000220000000c000000ffffffff460000001c00000010000000
454d462b024000000c000000000000000e00000014000000000000001000000014000000
0400000003010800050000000b0200000000050000000c0208000c00030000001e000400
000007010400040000000701040035000000410b8600ee0008000c000000000008000c00
00000000280000000c000000080000000100010000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000ffffff00c1e00000c3f000006f3000007c100000c1e00000
c3f000006f304e047c104e0459000000410bc600880008000c000000000008000c000000
0000280000000c0000000800000001000400000000000000000000000000000000000c00
00000000000000000000ffffff00cccccc00222222007777770044444400111111009999
9900bbbbbb0033333300eeeeee0088888800a211111abba1010a84111170336201011671
8592118506021230041111150902a211111abba103008411117033620105167185921185
010a12300411111501010c00000040092900aa0000000000000008000c00000000000400
00002701ffff03000000000095%,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% и 1% по массе. Преобладание азота в слоях,
где происходило горение водорода, подтверждается результатами наблюдений
Вольфа-Райе звезд, у которых эти слои оказываются на поверхности в
результате потери внеш. слоев. У звезд, в центре которых реализуется
CNO-цикл
(picscalex1000100090000032d0700000000d80400000000d804000026060f00a609574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), возникает конвективное ядро. Причина этого в очень
сильной зависимости энерговыделения от температуры:
picscalex100010009000003b707000000001e05000000001e05000026060f00320a574d
464301000000000001001bcf0000000001000000100a000000000000100a000001000000
6c0000000000000000000000610000000e0000000000000000000000060a000088010000
20454d4600000100100a00000f0000000100000000000000000000000000000090060000
1a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b606003832040046000000
2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000
60000000460000005003000044030000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e400900
0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f
214007000c00000000000000084000059c020000900200000210c0db0100000000000000
0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d4948445200000062
0000000f08030000002811eab800000060504c5445000000111111222222333333444444
555555666666777777888888999999aaaaaabbbbbbccccccddddddeeeeeeffffffffffff
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000009efafaf0000001174524e53ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ff0025ad996200000001624b47440f18ba00d90000003c74455874436f6d6d656e740020
496d6167652067656e65726174656420627920474e552047686f73747363726970742028
6465766963653d706e6d726177290accccb6850000000c636d50504a436d703037313200
000003480073bc0000014549444154384f959481b683200886c95254b4c3fb3fed0573e9
7675367656eef4c92ffc34e01f2293c209f37a4fc620d0a95758d3378107cadab9bc2d37
9163dc994d0a6e2911f11552018a44327cfa894483ad95d393775ac3aa8a0d891c440a7b
bc24a4144c13890687cc19b2f2400b09d2d658231735a048189e35ea1db6d2ab271252a9
1c4475ca5725cab661196fb0bb59a9e2946ecf66447325d0e1d095a60f87488cf11ef681
430aea887cc87af2e2fe15745ef77ad32542fd81878ed4115c39ee382a1c4182790f1645
a2e7d306a52b92a86528567491bebd161f30090b6c3dde436822e743aae3b393a8a2ff4f
1dfa81ae8f07309cae49e45281dd4319d11a9715a3c8f48abbad23185cd7f57495e3cdd6
149a157303da93dbb70e8662c5ec9cc5950f2bbe2a8d608816d14d25323ad8ca3fda8398
c0c0197dd7ab07997e45fe006734510eaea9476a0000000049454e44ae42608208400108
24000000180000000210c0db01000000030000000000000000000000000000001b400000
40000000340000000100000002000000000000bf000000bf0000c4420000704103000000
000080b3000080b3ffffc342000080b3000080b3ffff6f41210000000800000062000000
0c00000001000000150000000c00000004000000150000000c0000000400000046000000
1400000008000000544e5050060100005100000070010000000000000000000061000000
0e00000000000000000000000000000000000000620000000f0000005000000030000000
80000000f0000000000000008600ee00620000000f00000028000000620000000f000000
0100010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff00
7800000000000000000000000010100dfc000003f8000000001fc0000010101084000000
600000000003000000101010c00c1e00700000000003800000101010f80c3f007000001f
fc038000001010107806e3003000001ffc018000001010104007c1003000300000018003
001010107e018100381e78000001c3e7801010103e000002388ccc000011c5bc80101010
00000002188ccc000010c4ccc01010100000000318ccd8000018c66cc00d101000000001
ffccf800000fff7cc010101000000001ffccd800000fff3c8010101000000000001c7800
000003678010101000000000000c3800000001c70000000051000000c403000000000000
00000000610000000e00000000000000000000000000000000000000620000000f000000
5000000068000000b80000000c03000000000000c6008800620000000f00000028000000
620000000f00000001000400000000000000000000000000000000001000000000000000
00000000ffffff00dddddd00bbbbbb00cccccc007777770099999900eeeeee0044444400
66666600111111003333330022222200aaaaaa008888880055555500125e711111111111
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
1111111111010101df55961111111111111111111111112590a561111111111111111111
11111111111111111112590a5611111111111111110f0505911116111111111111111111
1111111118c11111111111111111111111111111111111111111118c1111111111111111
110101019711111111114e11111ecad11111111115071111111111111111111111111111
111111111111115071111111111111111106010179e5e1111111251111fb66bd11111111
140611111111111111111111111233333333371111111140611111111111111111010101
1fe5e11111111cd128f11178111111111105111111111111111111111116555555555311
1111111051111111111111111101010119111111111114a0051111181111111111fc1111
111111111142111111111111111111111111111fc1111111111111321101010113fe3eb1
111111137111111711111111115071111115885118699111111111111111111111111115
071111d000011b6f51050101117555211111111111111111111111311140611131115511
681102111111111111111111111311140611131e61646f11010303031111111111111111
111111111111119111105111511155115511031111111111111111111119111105111511
9511551103080f0111111111111111111111111111111135111fc111521155115c12a111
111111111111111111135111fc1115211f91551103030101111111111111111111111111
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2900aa000000000000000f00620000000000040000002701ffff030000000000. Поток
же лучистой энергии ~ T4, следовательно, он не может перенести всю
выделяющуюся энергию, и должна возникнуть конвекция, более эффективная,
чем лучистый перенос. У наиболее массивных звезд конвекцией охвачено
более 50% массы звезд. Значение конвективного ядра для эволюции
определяется тем, что ядерное горючее равномерно истощается в области,
значительно большей, чем область эффективного горения, в то время как у
звезд без конвективного ядра оно вначале выгорает лишь в малой
окрестности центра, где температура достаточно высока. Время выгорания
водорода заключено в пределах от ~ 1010 лет для
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460000001400000008000000544e5050070100004c000000640000000000000000000000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. Время всех последующих стадий
ядерного горения не превосходит 10% времени горения водорода, поэтому
звезды на стадии горения водорода образуют на Г.-Р.д. густонаселенную
область – главную последовательность (ГП). У звезд с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510000009001000000000000000000006100000010000000000000000000000000000000
00000000620000001100000050000000300000008000000010010000000000008600ee00
620000001100000028000000620000001100000001000100000000000000000000000000
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00000000000040000000003f80101010000001ffc00060000000003180101010000001ff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температура в центре никогда не достигает значений, необходимых для
загорания водорода, они неограниченно сжимаются, превращаясь в “черные”
карлики. Выгорание водорода при водит к увеличению ср. молекулярной
массы вещества ядра, и поэтому для поддержания гидростатического
равновесия давление в центре должно возрастать, что влечет за собой
увеличение температуры в центре и градиента температуры по звезде, а
следовательно, и светимости. К увеличению светимости приводит также и
уменьшение непрозрачности вещества с ростом температуры. Ядро сжимается
для поддержания условий ядерного энерговыделения с уменьшением
содержания водорода, а оболочка расширяется из-за необходимости
перенести возросший поток энергии от ядра. На Г.-Р.д. звезда
перемещается вправо от НГП. Уменьшение непрозрачности приводит к
отмиранию конвективных ядер у всех звезд, кроме наиболее массивныых.
Темп эволюции массивных звезд наиболее высок, и они первыми покидают ГП.
Время жизни на ГП составляет для звезд с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 около 10 млн. лет, с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5ff9d5824b653cbb97595a169a2288f7e4bf969ab89157b79ff87ddd95278e1478dfb1c1
76e6b6b97f4e4d4d42d75ffc3274443ec532e60c0f7b5919ecb687617993f9c2e718551b
80bf5ae60bdf278d3236046dd9fe156c6e75a6ab835f494d29adc8fc0f29fad76c467e00
321f400b237c3e5b0000000049454e44ae4260820840010824000000180000000210c0db
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000000b3000000b3ffff87412100000008000000620000000c0000000100000015000000
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00000000000000004a00000011000000500000003000000080000000cc00000000000000
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0000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff0000000000000000000e000010
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1c07000000001c0700000000510000006003000000000000000000004900000010000000
000000000000000000000000000000004a000000110000005000000068000000b8000000
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00000000000000000000000000000000100000000000000000000000ffffff0099999900
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444444008888880066666600eeeeee001111111111111111111111111111111111111111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666666666411111113e33bf11b0d160311c01406111111111101010150711d0311701123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64c0c01092830000003892834e404010fbc78000007efbc7eec0c0107de7c00000467de7
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00000010e73380000040e73380000010cffbc000007ccffbc00000107fff0000007e7fff
000000101c07000000001c070000000095010000410bc600880011004a00000000001100
4a0000000000280000004a00000011000000010004000000000000000000000000000000
0000100000000000000000000000ffffff009999990077777700dddddd00aaaaaa00bbbb
bb003333330022222200cccccc001111110055555500444444008888880066666600eeee
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464111010101111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111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около 70 млн. лет, а с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555555666666777777888888999999aaaaaabbbbbbccccccddddddeeeeeeffffffffffff
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000009efafaf0000001174524e53ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ff0025ad996200000001624b47440f18ba00d90000003c74455874436f6d6d656e740020
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6465766963653d706e6d726177290accccb6850000000c636d50504a436d703037313200
000003480073bc0000013c49444154384fad938d8e83201084871f5d1021fbfe4f7bb3e0
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734895680fe77aecac2e40ac09d8553075966531d68d1e0236b84254416ab5cd6c755f37
7a6c08aac9100116dd01daadf1beef8df5d55913bd3d872e486c927511b4f59bbdcb5a62
d8d9ff1b6ba21facca980a32594133adf555baa70cef1d79afbeaef55d018db4922db4b8
328ca3ac0d424ba93d50a3c76bfdc1ea49d851f0f9c9e2b82679f5aa37fd2e227cf93012
52b748d6e7bccefa6cd52913c019aeec6e15462688e31bb8c9eba46f6bf7b3366c8be720
3707bbd39c1bc62ef22ae2c0f79df5a96a8dfc250b7de319b58bf97989fa19faebeeace7
c8b39d83c7e0ae0bff74b7906367a18cecbf5b8b35d396638edfb19aa492a4fd0b8b7117
9bfe0f7a3840f3006e59930000000049454e44ae42608200084001082400000018000000
0210c0db01000000030000000000000000000000000000001b4000004000000034000000
0100000002000000000000bf000000bf000096420000884103000000000000b3000000b3
ffff9542000000b3000000b3ffff87412100000008000000620000000c00000001000000
150000000c00000004000000150000000c00000004000000460000001400000008000000
544e505006010000510000004c01000000000000000000004a0000001000000000000000
0000000000000000000000004b00000011000000500000003000000080000000cc000000
000000008600ee004b00000011000000280000004b000000110000000100010000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff000000000000000000
0700001000000000000000001fc08010000000000000000018c080100000000000000000
3260c010928300000000928327204010fbc78307807efbc7b760c0107de7c30fc0187de7
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b8000000a802000000000000c60088004b00000011000000280000004b00000011000000
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1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111f3d6d3f1001011111111111111111
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111bf111fb10010111111111
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111162116112600101
411511415111116f11111111111111111111111111111111411511415111116f11311202
113001015b80d15a0e111faa611111f911111fddf1111111163a03215b80d15a0e111faa
61d414c414d001011d03ee13e321130c3411116311112088a91111111113c1111d03ee13
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36111111111001021678003970a6b3a81111111111111111111111111143c11116780039
70a6b3a81111111111100101111234111111153611111111111111111111111111111111
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00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000220000000c000000
ffffffff460000001c00000010000000454d462b024000000c000000000000000e000000
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00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff0000000000
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80186736000000107736030fc018773600000010773701bcc018773700000010e73301f0
4018e73300000010e73380000018e73380000010cffbc0000078cffbc00000107fff0000
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000000000000100000000000000000000000ffffff009999990077777700dddddd00aaaa
aa00bbbbbb003333330022222200cccccc00111111005555550044444400888888006666
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11111111111111111111111111111162116112600101411511415111116f111111111111
11111111111111111111411511415111116f11311202113001015b80d15a0e111faa6111
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060f111113811182130111111119800311111c1111111113c11111111381118213011111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 около 10 млрд. лет.

Когда содержание водорода в ядре уменьшается до
picscalex100010009000003630300000000a00200000000a002000026060f003605574d
46430100000000000100a0fa000000000100000014050000000000001405000001000000
6c00000000000000000000000b00000007000000000000000000000039010000d1000000
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1a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b606003832040046000000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821af3aa9a51ad0000000049454e44ae426082000840010824000000180000000210c0db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ffffff00cccccc002222220077777700444444001111110099999900bbbbbb0033333300
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000000000000000000000000220000000c000000ffffffff460000001c00000010000000
454d462b024000000c000000000000000e00000014000000000000001000000014000000
0400000003010800050000000b0200000000050000000c0208000c00030000001e000400
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000000000000000000000000ffffff00c1e00000c3f000006f3000007c100000c1e00000
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00000000000000000000ffffff00cccccc00222222007777770044444400111111009999
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010a12300411111501010c00000040092900aa0000000000000008000c00000000000400
00002701ffff0300000000001%, расширение оболочек звезд с
picscalex100010009000003dd0600000000aa0400000000aa04000026060f004a09574d
4643010000000000010075a6000000000100000028090000000000002809000001000000
6c000000000000000000000041000000100000000000000000000000c0060000bc010000
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2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000
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0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f
214007000c000000000000000840000580020000740200000210c0db0100000000000000
0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d4948445200000042
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000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000009efafaf0000001174524e53ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ff0025ad996200000001624b47440f18ba00d90000003c74455874436f6d6d656e740020
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6a4b6c6b5a4faea523fd813d6e8c6477b07f8673672434e1eda4a11f5ceeda037fd97c24
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1d03ee13e321130c3411111119e82111111111111d03ee13e321130c39e11111ef010101
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1c61120411ce1301111111111111119b741111111c61120411ce13011111111111010101
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1b0d160311c01406111111111127b911111111111b0d160311c014061111111111010101
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30411e03110811403111111ee41111111111111130411e03110811403111111111010104
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1678003970a6b3a81111111111111111111111111678003970a6b3a811111111110f030a
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000000000000000000000000220000000c000000ffffffff460000001c00000010000000
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000000000000000000000000ffffff00000000000000000e00000010000000000000003f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сменяется общим
сжатием звезды, необходимым для поддержания энерговыделения. Сжатие
оболочки вызывает нагрев водорода в слое, прилегающем к гелиевому ядру,
до температуры его термоядерного горения, и возникает слоевой источник
энерговыделения. У звезд с массой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, у которых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 в меньшей степени зависит от температуры и область
энерговыделения не столь сильно концентрируется к центру, стадия общего
сжатия отсутствует.

Эволюция звезд после выгорания водорода зависит от их массы. Важнейшим
фактором, влияющим на ход эволюции звезд с массой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, является вырождение
газа электронов при больших плотностях. В вырожденном газе из-за большой
плотности число квантовых состояний с малой энергией ограничено в силу
принципа Паули и электроны заполняют квантовые уровни с высокой
энергией, значительно превышающей энергию их теплового движения.
Важнейшая особенность вырожденного газа состоит в том, что его давление
p зависит лишь от плотности:
picscalex100010009000003a306000000008c04000000008c04000026060f000e09574d
464301000000000001008a2c0000000001000000ec08000000000000ec08000001000000
6c000000000000000000000039000000120000000000000000000000ee050000f1010000
20454d4600000100ec0800000f0000000100000000000000000000000000000090060000
1a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b606003832040046000000
2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000
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000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000220000000c000000ffffffff
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cdf7db2b8113f1112e2cb101010111df148611111111111111111111111111111f318311
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1111111111111111111111211111110e040b0c00000040092900aa000000000000001300
3a0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000для нерелятивистского вырождения
и
picscalex100010009000003a306000000008c04000000008c04000026060f000e09574d
4643010000000000010069a20000000001000000ec08000000000000ec08000001000000
6c000000000000000000000039000000120000000000000000000000ee050000f1010000
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0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d494844520000003a
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000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
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000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff00f0000000c0000000
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73130301010111111111111111111111111111111111111111117b1a21116511135a510d
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1111111111111111111111211111110b07090c00000040092900aa000000000000001300
3a0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000для релятивистского вырождения.
Давление газа электронов намного превосходит давление ионов. Отсюда
следует принципиальный для эволюции звезд вывод: поскольку сила
тяготения, действующая на единичный объем релятивистски вырожденного
газа,
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00002701ffff030000000000, зависит от плотности так же, как и градиент
давления
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ffff030000000000, должна существовать предельная масса
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ffffffff460000001c00000010000000454d462b024000000c000000000000000e000000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, такая,
что при
picscalex1000100090000036f06000000006c04000000006c04000026060f00ce08574d
46430100000000000100325e0000000001000000ac08000000000000ac08000001000000
6c0000000000000000000000410000000e0000000000000000000000c006000088010000
20454d4600000100ac0800000f0000000100000000000000000000000000000090060000
1a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b606003832040046000000
2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000
6000000046000000180300000c030000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e400900
0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f
214007000c000000000000000840000564020000580200000210c0db0100000000000000
0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d4948445200000042
0000000f0803000000674ce96800000060504c5445000000111111222222333333444444
555555666666777777888888999999aaaaaabbbbbbccccccddddddeeeeeeffffffffffff
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000009efafaf0000001174524e53ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ff0025ad996200000001624b47440f18ba00d90000003c74455874436f6d6d656e740020
496d6167652067656e65726174656420627920474e552047686f73747363726970742028
6465766963653d706e6d726177290accccb6850000000c636d50504a436d703037313200
000003480073bc0000010a49444154384fa592eb8e85300884a717c15e34bcffd3ee9055
4ff5d81f9b25b1b6fa31c220ccace8c6d5a36a3b766fb709076b2902da13425b34c4a9c4
9443675203f2b602dd14b33ae61c14ec42a066a0d8e61b0f91b3b9a3ac09c7b7a84866ab
6726b82d6723254a1f9b9a7194b0052b3b616a068b18ec2c691945a69ca7754a144a242b
2c64889a53bd8e530e96f9e1e28664a19b8f81f4259d9e3cb9a6aac6abfde6a8cf32962f
895dc33a8ade38cd7c95955e782407b9d5d10bdb24de041edc4782d310b6204a3b14f9fa
53bbb0ac21beb8e2a57b1575891c490d103ed843384642133e4ebad00b57453552826e91
dd7c61b4fdf86eb90b38f1ca5d5e3ce6f087e3ff2534e6f6030cb430e0b131c2a1000000
0049454e44ae4260820000000840010824000000180000000210c0db0100000003000000
0000000000000000000000001b40000040000000340000000100000002000000000000bf
000000bf000084420000704103000000000080b3000080b3ffff8342000080b3000080b3
ffff6f412100000008000000620000000c00000001000000150000000c00000004000000
150000000c00000004000000460000001400000008000000544e50500601000051000000
340100000000000000000000410000000e00000000000000000000000000000000000000
420000000f000000500000003000000080000000b4000000000000008600ee0042000000
0f00000028000000420000000f0000000100010000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000ffffff000000000000000003c00000000000000000000001
80646c04928301800092830180000000fbc781e000fbc79f80646c047de7c078007de7f1
800000000627001e000627318000620106360007800636318000000067360003c067367b
c00462047736000f00773600000000007737003c0077370000046204e73300f000e73300
00000000e73381c000e7338000046204cffbc00000cffbc0000000007fff0000007fff00
000462041c070000001c07000000000051000000d4020000000000000000000041000000
0e00000000000000000000000000000000000000420000000f0000005000000068000000
b80000001c02000000000000c6008800420000000f00000028000000420000000f000000
0100040000000000000000000000000000000000100000000000000000000000ffffff00
9999990077777700dddddd00aaaaaa00bbbbbb003333330022222200cccccc0011111100
55555500444444008888880066666600eeeeee0011111111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111138c601010111111111111111111111111111111111
1111111111111111111111111111111c31010101411511415111116f1111111251111111
11111111411511415111116f1111111c310101015b80d15a0e111faa61111119b7511111
111111115b80d15a0e111faa6115e338310104011d03ee13e321130c3411111119e82111
111111111d03ee13e321130c3428111c31010105111117d111011306111111111114e8d1
11111111111117d111011306113c111c310e010111111381118213011111111111111f3a
d11111111111138111821301113c111c3101050a1c61120411ce1301111111111111119b
741111111c61120411ce1301163331333603000c1409160211c712011111111111115c75
111111111409160211c7120111111111110302011b0d160311c01406111111111127b911
111111111b0d160311c01406111111111101010150711d03117011231111111128e91111
1111111150711d0311701123111111111103000630411e03110811403111111ee4111111
1111111130411e031108114031111111110101019811600c4d0091303611111111111111
111111119811600c4d009130361111111101030c1678003970a6b3a81111111111111111
111111111678003970a6b3a8111111111101010111123411111115361111111111111111
1111111111123411111115361111111111010303460000001400000008000000544e5050
070100004c000000640000000000000000000000410000000e0000000000000000000000
420000000f0000002900aa0000000000000000000000803f00000000000000000000803f
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000022000000
0c000000ffffffff460000001c00000010000000454d462b024000000c00000000000000
0e000000140000000000000010000000140000000400000003010800050000000b020000
0000050000000c020f004200030000001e00040000000701040004000000070104007f00
0000410b8600ee000f004200000000000f0042000000000028000000420000000f000000
0100010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff00
0000000000000003c0000000000000000000000180646c04928301800092830180000000
fbc781e000fbc79f80646c047de7c078007de7f1800000000627001e0006273180006201
06360007800636318000000067360003c067367bc00462047736000f0077360000000000
7737003c0077370000046204e73300f000e7330000000000e73381c000e7338000046204
cffbc00000cffbc0000000007fff0000007fff00000462041c070000001c070000000000
4f010000410bc60088000f004200000000000f0042000000000028000000420000000f00
00000100040000000000000000000000000000000000100000000000000000000000ffff
ff009999990077777700dddddd00aaaaaa00bbbbbb003333330022222200cccccc001111
110055555500444444008888880066666600eeeeee001111111111111111111111111111
111111111111111111111111111111111138c60101011111111111111111111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111c31010101411511415111116f111111125111
111111111111411511415111116f1111111c310101015b80d15a0e111faa61111119b751
1111111111115b80d15a0e111faa6115e338310104011d03ee13e321130c3411111119e8
2111111111111d03ee13e321130c3428111c31010105111117d111011306111111111114
e8d111111111111117d111011306113c111c310e01011111138111821301111111111111
1f3ad11111111111138111821301113c111c3101050a1c61120411ce1301111111111111
119b741111111c61120411ce1301163331333603000c1409160211c71201111111111111
5c75111111111409160211c7120111111111110302011b0d160311c01406111111111127
b911111111111b0d160311c01406111111111101010150711d03117011231111111128e9
11111111111150711d0311701123111111111103000630411e03110811403111111ee411
11111111111130411e031108114031111111110101019811600c4d009130361111111111
1111111111119811600c4d009130361111111101030c1678003970a6b3a8111111111111
1111111111111678003970a6b3a811111111110101011112341111111536111111111111
111111111111111234111111153611111111110103030c00000040092900aa0000000000
00000f00420000000000040000002701ffff030000000000давление электронов не
может противодействовать тяготению и начинается сжатие. Предельная масса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. Граница области, в которой газ электронов вырожден, показана на рис. 3
. У звезд малых масс вырождение играет заметную роль уже в процессе
образования гелиевых ядер.

Второй фактор, определяющий эволюцию звезд на поздних стадиях, – это
нейтринные потери энергии. В звездных недрах при T ~108 К основную роль
в рождении нейтрино играют: фотонейтринный процесс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111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111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, распад квантов плазменных колебаний (плазмонов) на пары
нейтрино-антинейтрино
(picscalex1000100090000038504000000005403000000005403000026060f009e06574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), аннигиляция пар электрон-позитрон
(picscalex1000100090000032d08000000005805000000005805000026060f00a60a574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c049f3b06f365be2fa8521959205dcdddad62b89414bc9c8464ad4775ad9a75e8a30a6f7
e17d413c0fa792d6fdec849521b95f99e2d9acdeda22a5babb0b5aff3ded03c3ebdeb254
6ff571afd005c0e65d9fba287d30000000049454e44ae426082000000084001082400000
0180000000210c0db01000000030000000000000000000000000000001b4000004000000
0340000000100000002000000000000bf000000bf0000ee420000704103000000000000b
3000000b3ffffed42000000b3000000b3ffff6f412100000008000000620000000c00000
001000000150000000c00000004000000150000000c00000004000000460000001400000
008000000544e50500601000051000000700100000000000000000000760000000e00000
000000000000000000000000000000000770000000f00000050000000300000008000000
0f0000000000000008600ee00770000000f00000028000000770000000f0000000100010
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff000000001
00000000000000000080000003000001000c0000001800000080000007c00001001f0000
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00801b800f00003ff83c00007fff03301ffc19800fe0007ff83f8400ffff03983ffc1cc0
0660000100198400000e019c00800ce003e00001000f8400001c038c00801c6001c00001
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00000000000000000000040000000000000000000510000003c040000000000000000000
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068000000b80000008403000000000000c6008800770000000f000000280000007700000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011b3a92111111111111111111113111111111111b3a9211113111111111111111111111
8c81111111125211156111111111131111111111252111560111a2711111111111111111
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111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111046000000140000000800000
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0220000000c000000ffffffff460000001c00000010000000454d462b024000000c00000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) и урка-процессы. Важнейшая
особенность нейтрино состоит в том, что вещество звезды для них
практически прозрачно и нейтрино беспрепятственно уносят энергию из
звезды.

Гелиевое ядро, в котором еще не возникли условия для горения гелия,
сжимается. Температура в слоевом источнике, прилегающем к ядру,
увеличивается, скорость горения водорода возрастает. Необходимость
переноса возросшего потока энергии приводит к расширению оболочки, на
что тратится часть энергии. Поскольку светимость звезды не изменяется,
температура ее поверхности падает, и на Г.-Р.д. звезда перемещается в
область, занимаемую красными гигантамию Время перестройки звезды на два
порядка меньше времени выгорания водорода в ядре, поэтому между полосой
ГП и областью красных сверхгигантов мало звезд. С уменьшением
температуры оболочки возрастает ее прозрачность, вследствие этого
появляется внеш. конвективная зона и возрастает светимость звезды.

Отвод энергии из ядра посредством теплопроводности вырожденных
электронов и нейтринных потерь у звезд с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11ca3d1111111b111771111111113fef51119811600e4c00913036111111110100011678
003970a6b3a81111111111111111c611111119b38bd111111111383385111678003970a6
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111111111111111234111111153611111111110300010c00000040092900aa0000000000
000011005a0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000оттягивает момент
загорания гелия. Температура начинает заметно расти лишь тогда, когда
ядро становится почти изотермичным. Горение 4He определяет эволюцию
звезд с момента, когда энерговыделение превышает потери энергии путем
теплопроводности и излучения нейтрино. Это же условие относится к
горению всех последующих видом ядерного топлива.

Примечательная особенность звездных ядер из вырожденного газа,
охлаждаемых нейтрино, – это “конвергенция” – сближение треков, которые
характеризуют соотношение плотности
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111019593e4118066d011b0116041147b510180c11d71111110111a311b0811111101199
1180411111011180611061111110111456271111110411111231111111000c0000004009
2900aa000000000000000c000e0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000и
температуры Tc в центре звезды (рис. 3). Скорость энерговыделения при
сжатии ядра определяется скоростью присоединения вещества к нему через
слоевой источник, которая зависит только от массы ядра при данном виде
топлива. В ядре должен поддерживаться баланс притока и оттока энергии,
поэтому в ядрах звезд устанавливается одинаковое распределение
температуры и плотности. К моменту загорания 4He масса ядра
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00000000000011008c0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000в зависимости от
содержания тяжелых элементов. В ядрах из вырожденного газа загорание 4He
имеет характер теплового взрыва, т.к. энергия, выделяющаяся при горении,
идет на увеличение энергии теплового движения электронов, но давление с
ростом температуры почти не изменяется до тех пор, пока тепловая энергия
электронов не сравняется с энергией вырожденного газа электронов. Тогда
вырождение снимается и ядро быстро расширяется – происходит гелиевая
вспышка. Гелиевые вспышки, вероятно, сопровождаются потерей звездного
вещества. У шаровых звездных скоплений, где массивные звезды уже давно
закончили эволюцию и красные гиганты имеют массы
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0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f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, звезды на
стадии горения гелия находятся на горизонтальной ветви Г.-Р.д.

В гелиевых ядрах звезд с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газ не вырожден, 4He загорается спокойно, но ядра также
расширяются из-за возрастания Tc. У наиболее массивных звезд загорание
4He происходит еще тогда, когда они являются голубыми сверхгигантами.
Расширение ядра ведет к уменьшению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 в области водородного слоевого источника, и
светимость звезды после гелиевой вспышки падает. Для поддержания
теплового равновесия оболочка сжимается, и звезда уходит из области
красных сверхгигантов. Когда 4He в ядре истощается, снова начинается
сжатие ядра и расширение оболочки, звезда опять становится красным
сверхгигантом. Образуется слоевой источник горения 4He, который
доминирует в энерговыделении. Снова возникает внеш. конвективная зона.
По мере выгорания гелия и водорода толщина слоевых источников
уменьшается. Тонкий слой горения гелия оказывается термически
неустойчивым, т.к. при очень сильной чувствительности энерговыделения к
температуре
(picscalex100010009000003a50500000000fc0300000000fc03000026060f00ee07574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) теплопроводность вещества
недостаточна для того, чтобы погасить тепловые возмущения в слое
горения. При тепловых вспышках в слое возникает конвекция. Если она
проникает в слои, богатые водородом, то в результате медленного процесса
нейтронного захвата (s-процесса) синтезируются элементы с атомными
массами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от 22Ne до 209B.

Давление излучения на пыль и молекулы, образующиеся в холодных
протяженных оболочках красных сверхгигантов, приводит к непрерывной
потере вещества со скоростью до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c0630c00003ff80630c0000606360f80c0630c00003ff80630c0000667360000c0630c00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в год. Непрерывная потеря массы может
дополняться потерями, обусловленными неустойчивостью слоевого горения
или пульсациями, что может привести к выбросу одной или нескольких
оболочек. Когда количество вещества над углеродно-кислородным ядром
становится меньшим некоторого предела, оболочка для поддержания
температуры в слоях горения вынуждена сжиматься до тех пор, пока сжатие
способно поддерживать горение; звезда на Г.-Р.д. смещается почти
горизонтально влево. На этом этапе неустойчивость слоев горения также
может приводить к расширению оболочки и потере вещества. Пока звезда
достаточно горяча, она наблюдается как ядро планетарной туманности с
одной или несколькими оболочками. Когда слоевые источники смещаются к
поверхности звезды настолько, что температура в них становится ниже
необходимой для ядерного горения, звезда охлаждается, превращаясь в
белый карлик с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4111112341111111536111111111110001010c00000040092900aa000000000000001100
5a0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000, излучающий за счет расхода
тепловой энергии ионного компонента его вещества. Характерное время
охлаждения белых карликов ~ 109 лет. Нижняя граница масс одиночных
звезд, превращающихся в белые карлики, неясна, она оценивается в 3-6
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111111100601111234111111153611111111111001010c00000040092900aa0000000000
000011001b0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000. У звезд с
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00000000000011004a0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000электронный газ
вырождается на стадии роста углеродно-кислородных (C,O-) ядер звезд. Как
и в гелиевых ядрах звезд, из-за нейтринных потерь энергии происходит
“конвергенция” условий в центре и к моменту загорания углерода в
C,O-ядре
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0000000000001500430100000000040000002701ffff030000000000. Загорание 12C
при таких условиях, скорее всего, имеет характер взрыва и приводит к
полному разрушению звезды. Полного разрушения может не произойти, если
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c4c34eee95287427ba65b875af316f10d77c8f4d892d1472b8205136a5c653c6709ad047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. Такая плотность достижима, когда скорость
роста ядра определяется аккрецией вещества спутника в тесной двойной
системе.

4. Конечные стадии эволюции

У звезд с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могут, в
принципе, в центральной области последовательно выгореть кислород, неон,
магний, сера, кремний и образоваться ядро, состоящее из элементов группы
железа – от Sc до Ni. Условия в центре звезды при этом таковы, что
загорание каждого очередного элемента происходит, когда масса ядра
звезды, состоящего из этого элемента, близка к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. Звезда
приобретает структуру, подобную “луковице”: “железное” ядро окружено
многочисленными слоями из продуктов ядерного горения на предыдущих
стадиях. После образования “железного” ядра, а в некоторых случаях и
раньше, происходит гравитационный коллапс – потеря звездой
гидродинамической устойчивости, когда показатель адиабаты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cb82c86bbe6091b520f2d25d0439054c76ddbd0000b8df2b8358b250450000000049454e
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1515100000ec9811a51340090601150602178001010111234111201010100c0000004009
2900aa000000000000000c00090000000000040000002701ffff030000000000становит
ся меньше 4/3, т.к. при этом увеличение давления, обусловленное ростом
плотности, не способно остановить сжатие. Причинами понижения
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740000000e74524e53ffffffffffffffffffffffffff0045c0dcc800000001624b47440c
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cc0077777700dddddd006666660033333300eeeeee0055555500aaaaaa00bbbbbb008888
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0101111113411001010111111c31101010101111196110030401111113b9100101015111
1515100000ec9811a51340090601150602178001010111234111201010100c0000004009
2900aa000000000000000c00090000000000040000002701ffff030000000000могут
быть: захват электронов ядрами 20O и 24Mg в O-Ne-Mg-ядре звезд с массой
8-12
picscalex100010009000003d104000000008c03000000008c03000026060f000e07574d
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160311c01406111111111110010150711d0311701123111111111110000130411e031108
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111111100601111234111111153611111111111001010c00000040092900aa0000000000
000011001b0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000, фотодиссоциация (с
большой затратой энергии) ядер железа 56Fe=13 4He + 4n у звезд с
picscalex1000100090000036b0a00000000b80600000000b806000026060f00660d574d
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111111111111111101010c00000040092900aa0000000000000012008400000000000400
00002701ffff030000000000, рождение пар e++e- в C,O-ядрах звезд с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. В последнем случае в ходе коллапса происходит
детонация кислорода, которая приводит к полному разлету вещества звезды.
В результате коллапса достигаются плотности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, при которых энергетически выгодна
нейтронизация вещества. Для вырожденного газа нейтронов
picscalex1000100090000032906000000004a04000000004a04000026060f008a08574d
46430100000000000100190c000000000100000068080000000000006808000001000000
6c000000000000000000000037000000110000000000000000000000ba050000d6010000
20454d4600000100680800000f0000000100000000000000000000000000000090060000
1a040000b801000013010000000000000000000000000000c0b606003832040046000000
2c00000020000000454d462b014001001c000000100000000210c0db0100000060000000
60000000460000001c03000010030000454d462b224004000c000000000000001e400900
0c00000000000000244001000c000000000000003040020010000000040000000000803f
214007000c0000000000000008400005680200005c0200000210c0db0100000000000000
0000000000000000000000000100000089504e470d0a1a0a0000000d4948445200000038
000000120803000000396fed7c00000060504c5445000000111111222222333333444444
555555666666777777888888999999aaaaaabbbbbbccccccddddddeeeeeeffffffffffff
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000009efafaf0000001174524e53ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ff0025ad996200000001624b47440f18ba00d90000003c74455874436f6d6d656e740020
496d6167652067656e65726174656420627920474e552047686f73747363726970742028
6465766963653d706e6d726177290accccb6850000000c636d50504a436d703037313200
000003480073bc0000010e49444154384f95538b0e84200c9b801befecffbff6c6869c5e
eee1d54802ae6b5722f05fc8ed2887bf78bcf5db4472442ecff212986ba03d54fea94818
f0e031466697e4f53788e75986cce6991106b1d298b87e18964ee709e7c6a110113c54ee
bb9d9585991f21d13e23417129e8e83b431646415655e6460b56c4a98833c964c0022944
5ec2517594e70b1268dbe59471ebd684e20aee85df49862f20b2cc41d7b1648846cc9294
a2c18279282037608a7d530d90b80a9011d339bbabe6080db56fd4a21ca4094133e28ce6
4ab15dda0b39bd2b67f921e504690635efe21d5182b67c9b9b9f1b45b91e53fc463cbad1
751c25d6cf233e4d4ca7c78112cbfacbde9abd3a9d2566f50e5e9a3f004caf37e4330021
1c0000000049454e44ae4260820000000840010824000000180000000210c0db01000000
030000000000000000000000000000001b40000040000000340000000100000002000000
000000bf000000bf000060420000904103000000000000b3000000b3ffff5f42000000b3
000000b3ffff8f412100000008000000620000000c00000001000000150000000c000000
04000000150000000c00000004000000460000001400000008000000544e505006010000
510000001001000000000000000000003700000011000000000000000000000000000000
00000000380000001200000050000000300000008000000090000000000000008600ee00
380000001200000028000000380000001200000001000100000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000ffffff0000000000004000010c00000000c00001
0c0000000060001004000000006000010400000070603c0106000000fc307e1006000000
8c30e7010603ffc1ce30e70107000001ce1847ec850000000e180701cd83ffc0cc083e01
7d81ffc0fc0c1e1038800000800c0605000000008004660100000000f806661000000000
fc067e070000000000030003000000000003000051000000b00200000000000000000000
370000001100000000000000000000000000000000000000380000001200000050000000
68000000b8000000f801000000000000c600880038000000120000002800000038000000
120000000100040000000000000000000000000000000000100000000000000000000000
ffffff00aaaaaa00dddddd0011111100eeeeee007777770022222200bbbbbb0044444400
cccccc005555550066666600888888009999990033333300111111111111111111111111
111111111111111113111111111111111111831111111111111111111111111111111111
37111111111111111111a611111111111111111111111111111111111731111111111111
11111b1111111111111111111111111111111111166111111111111111111b1111111111
1111111111111111136e1111137111111136d51111111631111111111111111111111111
eb867a11117311111c62e0e111111e61111111111111111111111111b111cf1111d61111
29311603111112f111111130000000000c1111180d11e0311154111160611806111116d2
1111111111111111111111156a118081111981111811120dc1111c1c1111111111111111
111111111111e031111ec11111111c452b118c1631111136666666666e111111e811c911
1111011111866fa11c0f0a15b111111888888888831111116c66b5111111ce111115cf51
11a63111a11111111111111111111111611111111111ec11111117c11111111111111111
1111111111111111611111111111101114f11c0111111111111111111111111111111111
6c9c211111111cd117e117f1111111111111111111111111111111116766721111111891
1a96b9a11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111451111111111111111
111111111111111111111111111111111111112311111111460000001400000008000000
544e5050070100004c000000640000000000000000000000370000001100000000000000
0000000038000000120000002900aa0000000000000000000000803f0000000000000000
0000803f0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
220000000c000000ffffffff460000001c00000010000000454d462b024000000c000000
000000000e00000014000000000000001000000014000000040000000301080005000000
0b0200000000050000000c0212003800030000001e000400000007010400040000000701
04006d000000410b8600ee00120038000000000012003800000000002800000038000000
120000000100010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
ffffff0000000000004000010c00000000c000010c000000006000100400000000600001
0400000070603c0106000000fc307e10060000008c30e7010603ffc1ce30e70107000001
ce1847ec850000000e180701cd83ffc0cc083e017d81ffc0fc0c1e1038800000800c0605
000000008004660100000000f806661000000000fc067e07000000000003000300000000
000300003d010000410bc600880012003800000000001200380000000000280000003800
000012000000010004000000000000000000000000000000000010000000000000000000
0000ffffff00aaaaaa00dddddd0011111100eeeeee007777770022222200bbbbbb004444
4400cccccc00555555006666660088888800999999003333330011111111111111111111
111111111111111111111311111111111111111183111111111111111111111111111111
111137111111111111111111a61111111111111111111111111111111111173111111111
111111111b1111111111111111111111111111111111166111111111111111111b111111
11111111111111111111136e1111137111111136d5111111163111111111111111111111
1111eb867a11117311111c62e0e111111e61111111111111111111111111b111cf1111d6
111129311603111112f111111130000000000c1111180d11e03111541111606118061111
16d21111111111111111111111156a118081111981111811120dc1111c1c111111111111
1111111111111111e031111ec11111111c452b118c1631111136666666666e111111e811
c9111111011111866fa11c0f0a15b111111888888888831111116c66b5111111ce111115
cf5111a63111a11111111111111111111111611111111111ec11111117c1111111111111
11111111111111111111611111111111101114f11c011111111111111111111111111111
11116c9c211111111cd117e117f111111111111111111111111111111111676672111111
18911a96b9a1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111145111111111111
11111111111111111111111111111111111111111123111111110c00000040092900aa00
0000000000001200380000000000040000002701ffff030000000000и его давление
может противостоять тяготению, если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. В этом случае образуется
нейтронная звезда. При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коллапс неограничен и звезда превращается в черную дыру. При остановке
коллапса у границы нейтронной звезды возникает ударная волна, которая,
распространяясь наружу, вызывает сброс оболочки.

Целый комплекс процессов, сопровождающих термоядерные взрывы в ядрах и
гравитационный коллапс, еще не до конца ясен и требует дальнейшего
изучения. Это – кинетика ядерных реакций и догорание остатков ядерного
топлива, которое в принципе может остановить коллапс, перенос энергии,
нейтринные процессы, роль магнитных процессов и вращения, механизмы
передачи энергии от ядра к оболочке. Тем не менее, можно утверждать, что
явления, сопровождающие взрывное горение 12C и гравитационный коллапс
массивных звезд, при которых выделяется энергия ~ 1051 эрг в виде
излучения и кинетической энергии сброшенной оболочки и ~ (1053-1054) эрг
в виде нейтрино и антинейтрино, удовлетворительно объясняют наблюдаемые
вспышки сверхновых II типа. Продукты взрыва – молодые нейтронные звезды,
излучающие за счет кинетической энергии вращения, в течение первых
105-106 лет своего существования наблюдаются как пульсары.
Статистические оценки численности пульсаров указывают на то, что в них
превращаются все звезды с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, это грубо согласуется с предсказаниями теории и с
наблюдаемым числом сверхновых звезд.

Причина вспышек сверхновых I типа, которые происходят в звездных
системах, где в настоящее время заканчивают эволюцию старые объекты с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, все еще до конца не
ясна.

При взрывах сверхновых происходит синтез тяжелых элементов, которые
затем выбрасываются в межзвездное пространство вместе с элементами,
синтезированными в ходе предшествующей эволюции. Это определяет
важнейшее космологическое значение сверхновых звезд.

В ходе эволюции в оболочке звезды могут возникнуть условия, при которых
зона частичной двукратной ионизации гелия способна при сжатии звезды
поглощать энергию (она идет на ионизацию), а при расширении –
высвобождать ее, поддерживая пульсации. Границы области, в которой
действует этот механизм, определяют на Г.-Р.д. полосу нестабильности
(рис. 2), в которую попадают многие типы пульсирующих звезд: цефеиды,
звезды типа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Щита, RR Лиры и др. Аналогичным образом
зона неполной ионизации водорода может, вероятно, поддерживать
неустойчивость долгопериодических переменных типа Миры Кита.

Заключение

Эволюция звезд – изменение физических характеристик, внутреннего
строения и химического состава звезд со временем.

Современная теория эволюции звезд способна объяснить общий ход развития
звезд и находится в удовлетворительном качественном и количественном
согласии с данными наблюдений. В дальнейшем теория должна учесть влияние
вращения и магнитные поля, роль которых может быть особенно важной в
процессе образования звезд и на быстрых стадиях эволюции, таких,
например, как взрывы сверхновых звезд. Особую проблему представляют
эволюции звезд в тесных двойных системах, где на эволюцию влияет обмен
веществом между компонентами.

Список литературы

1. Зельдович Я.Б., Новиков И.Д. Теория тяготения и эволюция звезд. – М.,
1971.

2. Каплан С.А. Физика звезд. 3 изд. – М., 1977.

3. На переднем крае астрофизики (пер. с англ.). – М., 1979.

4. Происхождение и эволюция галактик и звезд. – М., 1976.

5. Шкловский И.С. Вселенная, жизнь, разум. – М, 1977.

6. Шкловский И.С. Звезды. Их рождение, жизнь и смерть. 2 изд. – М.,
1977.

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