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Основные понятия астрономии

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?aoa?ao

«Iniiaiua iiiyoey ano?iiiiee»

1. I?aaeiao ano?iiiiee

Ano?iiiiey – iaoea, eco/athuay aeaeaeaiea, no?iaiea, i?ienoiaeaeaiea e
?acaeoea iaaaniuo oae e eo nenoai. Iaeiieaiiua ath ciaiey i?eiaiythony
aeey i?aeoe/aneeo ioaeae /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ano?iiiiey yaeyaony iaeiie ec ae?aaiaeoeo iaoe, iia aicieeea ia iniiaa
i?aeoe/aneeo iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaea e ?acaeaaeanue aianoa n ieie.
Yeaiaioa?iua ano?iiiie/aneea naaaeaiey auee ecaanoiu oaea ouny/e eao
iacaae a Aaaeeiia, Aaeioa, Eeoaa e i?eiaiyeenue ia?iaeaie yoeo no?ai
aeey ecia?aiey a?aiaie e i?eaioe?iaee ii noi?iiai ai?eciioa.

E a iaoa a?aiy ano?iiiiey eniieuecoaony aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oi/iiai
a?aiaie e aaia?aoe/aneeo eii?aeeiao (a iaaeaaoeee, aaeaoeee,
einiiiaaoeea, aaiaeacee, ea?oia?aoee). Ano?iiiiey iiiiaaao
enneaaeiaaieth e inaiaieth einie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa, ?acaeoeth
einiiiaaoeee e eco/aieth iaoae ieaiaou ec einiina. Ii yoei aeaeaei ia
en/a?iuaathony ?aoaaiua ath caaea/e.

Iaoa Caiey yaeyaony /anoueth Anaeaiiie. Eoia e Nieioea aucuaatho ia iae
i?eeeau e ioeeau. Nieia/iia eceo/aiea e aai eciaiaiey aeeytho ia
i?ioeannu a caiiie aoiinoa?a e ia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue i?aaieciia.
Iaoaieciu aeeyiey ?acee/iuo einie/aneeo oae ia Caieth oaeaea eco/aao
ano?iiiiey.

Nia?aiaiiay ano?iiiiey oanii naycaia n iaoaiaoeeie e oeceeie, n
aeieiaeae e oeieae, n aaia?aoeae, aaieiaeae e n einiiiaaoeeie.
Eniieuecoy aeinoeaeaiey ae?oaeo iaoe, iia a naith i/a?aaeue iaiaauaao
eo, noeioee?oao eo ?acaeoea, auaeaeaay ia?aae ieie ana iiaua caaea/e.
Ano?iiiiey eco/aao a einiina aauanoai a oaeeo ninoiyieyo e ianooaaao,
eaeea iainouanoaeiu a eaai?aoi?eyo, e yoei ?anoe?yao oece/aneoth ea?oeio
ie?a, iaoe i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaoa?ee. Ana yoi aaaeii aeey ?acaeoey
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?e?iaea.

Iao/eaoenue i?aaeau/eneyoue ianooieaiea caoiaiee Nieioea e Eoiu,
iiyaeaiea eiiao, ano?iiiiey iieiaeeea ia/aei ai?ueaa n ?aeeaeiciuie
i?aae?annoaeeaie. Iieacuaay aiciiaeiinoue anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai iauyniaiey
aicieeiiaaiey e eciaiaiey Caiee e ae?oaeo iaaaniuo oae, ano?iiiiey
niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth ia?enenoneie oeeinioee.

Eo?n ano?iiiiee caaa?oaao oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneia e anoanoaaiiiiao/iia
ia?aciaaiea, iieo/aaiia aaie a oeiea.

Eco/ay ano?iiiieth, iaiaoiaeeii ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia oi, eaeea
naaaeaiey yaeythony aeinoiaa?iuie oaeoaie, a eaeea – iao/iuie
i?aaeiieiaeaieyie, eioi?ua ni a?aiaiai iiaoo eciaieoueny. Aaaeii, /oi
i?aaeaea /aeiaa/aneiio iiciaieth iao. Aio iaeei ec i?eia?ia oiai, eae
yoi iieacuaaao aeeciue.

A i?ioeii aaea iaeei oeeinio-eaeaaeeno ?aoeeny ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey ia?aie/aiu. Ii aiai?ee, /oi, oioy
ethaee e ecia?eee ?annoiyiey aei iaeioi?uo naaoee, oeie/aneee ninoaa
caacae iie ieeiaaea ia niiaoo ii?aaeaeeoue. Iaeiaei anei?a aue ioe?uo
niaeo?aeueiue aiaeec, e ano?iiiiu ia oieueei onoaiiaeee oeie/aneee
ninoaa aoiinoa? caacae, ii e ii?aaeaeeee eo oaiia?aoo?o.
Ianinoiyoaeueiuie ieacaeenue e iiiaea ae?oaea iiiuoee oeacaoue a?aieoeu
/aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey. Oae, o/aiua nia/aea oai?aoe/anee ioeaieee
oaiia?aoo?o ia Eoia, caoai ecia?eee aa n Caiee i?e iiiiue oa?iiyeaiaioa
e ?aaeeiiaoiaeia, iioii yoe aeaiiua iieo/eee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea io
i?eai?ia aaoiiaoe/aneeo noaioeee, ecaioiaeaiiuo e iineaiiuo ethaeueie ia
Eoio.

2. Ano?iiiie/aneea iaaethaeaiey e oaeaneiiu

Iniaaiiinoe ano?iiiie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee

A iniiaa ano?iiiiee eaaeao iaaethaeaiey, i?iecaiaeeiua n Caiee e eeoue n
60-o aiaeia iaoaai aaea, auiieiyaiua ec einiina – n aaoiiaoe/aneeo e
ae?oaeo einie/aneeo noaioeee e aeaaea n Eoiu. Aiia?aou naeaeaee
aiciiaeiui iieo/aiea i?ia eoiiiai a?oioa, aeinoaaeo ?aciuo i?eai?ia e
aeaaea aunaaeeo ethaeae ia Eoio. Ii oae iiea iiaeii enneaaeiaaoue
oieueei aeeaeaeoea e Caiea iaaaniua naaoeea. Ea?ay oaeoth aea ?ieue, eae
iiuou a oeceea e oeiee, iaaethaeaiey a ano?iiiiee eiatho ?yae
iniaaiiinoae.

Ia?aay iniaaiiinoue ninoieo a oii, /oi ano?iiiie/aneea iaaethaeaiey a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ianneaiu ii ioiioaieth e eco/aaiui iauaeoai. Iu ia
iiaeai aeoeaii aeeyoue ia iaaaniua oaea, noaaeoue iiuou (ca eneeth/aieai
?aaeeeo neo/aaa), eae yoi aeaeatho a oeceea, aeieiaee, oeiee. Eeoue
eniieueciaaiea einie/aneeo aiia?aoia aeaei a yoii ioiioaiee iaeioi?ua
aiciiaeiinoe.

E?iia oiai, iiiaea iaaaniua yaeaiey i?ioaeatho noieue iaaeeaiii, /oi
iaaethaeaiey eo o?aaotho a?iiaaeiuo n?ieia; oae, iai?eia?, eciaiaiea
iaeeiia caiiie ine e ieineinoe aa i?aeou noaiiaeony caiaoiui eeoue ii
enoa/aiee nioai eao. Iiyoiio aeey ian ia iioa?yee naiaai cia/aiey
iaeioi?ua iaaethaeaiey, i?iecaiaeeaoeany a Aaaeeiia e a Eeoaa ouny/e eao
iacaae iie e auee, ii nia?aiaiiui iiiyoeyi, i/aiue iaoi/iuie.

Aoi?ay iniaaiiinoue ano?iiiie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee ninoieo a neaaeothuai.
Iu iaaethaeaai iieiaeaiea iaaaniuo oae e eo aeaeaeaiea n Caiee, eioi?ay
naia iaoiaeeony a aeaeaeaiee. Iiyoiio aeae iaaa aeey caiiiai
iaaethaeaoaey caaeneo ia oieueei io oiai, a eaeii ianoa Caiee ii
iaoiaeeony, ii e io oiai, a eaeia a?aiy nooie e aiaea ii iaaethaeaao.
Iai?eia?, eiaaea o ian ceiiee aeaiue, a THaeiie Aia?eea eaoiyy ii/ue, e
iaiai?io. Anoue caacaeu, aeaeeiua eeoue eaoii eee ceiie.

O?aouey iniaaiiinoue ano?iiiie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee naycaia n oai, /oi ana
naaoeea iaoiaeyony io ian i/aiue aeaeaei, oae aeaeaei, /oi ie ia aeac,
ie a oaeaneii iaeuecy ?aoeoue, eaeia ec ieo aeeaea, eaeia aeaeueoa. Ana
iie eaaeoony iai iaeeiaeiai aeaeaeeie. Iiyoiio i?e iaaethaeaieyo iau/ii
auiieiytho oaeiaua ecia?aiey e oaea ii iei /anoi aeaeatho auaiaeu i
eeiaeiuo ?annoiyieyo e ?acia?ao oae.

?annoiyiea iaaeaeo iauaeoaie ia iaaa (iai?eia?, caacaeaie) ecia?ytho
oaeii, ia?aciaaiiui eo/aie, eaeoueie e iauaeoai ec oi/ee iaaethaeaiey.
Oaeia ?annoiyiea iacuaaaony oaeiaui e au?aaeaaony a a?aaeonao e aai
aeieyo. I?e yoii n/eoaaony, /oi aeaa caacaeu iaoiaeyony iaaeaeaei ae?oa
io ae?oaa ia iaaa, anee aeecee ae?oa ae?oao iai?aaeaiey, ii eioi?ui iu
eo aeaeei (?en. 1, caacaeu A e A). Aiciiaeii, /oi o?aouey caacaea N, ia
iaaa aieaa aeaeaeay io E, a i?ino?ainoaa e A aeeaea, /ai caacaea A.

Ecia?aiey auniou, oaeiaiai ?annoiyiey iauaeoa io ai?eciioa, auiieiytho
niaoeeaeueiuie oaeiia?iuie iioe/aneeie eino?oiaioaie, iai?eia?
oaiaeieeoii. Oaiaeieeo – yoi eino?oiaio, iniiaiie /anoueth eioi?iai
neoaeeo c?eoaeueiay o?oaa, a?auathuayny ieiei aa?oeeaeueiie e
ai?eciioaeueiie inae (?en. 2). N inyie ne?aieaiu e?oae, ?acaeaeaiiua ia
a?aaeonu e ieioou aeoae. Ii yoei e?oaai ion/eouaatho iai?aaeaiea
c?eoaeueiie o?oau. Ia ei?aaeyo e ia naiieaoao oaeiaua ecia?aiey
auiieiytho i?eai?ii, iacuaaaiui naenoaioii (naenoaiii).

Aeaeeiua ?acia?u iaaaniuo iauaeoia oaeaea iiaeii au?aceoue a oaeiauo
aaeeieoeao. Aeeaiao?u Nieioea e Eoiu a oaeiaie ia?a i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiau
– ieiei 0,5°, a a eeiaeiuo aaeeieoeao Nieioea aieueoa Eoiu ii aeeaiao?o
i?eia?ii a 400 ?ac, ii iii ai noieueei aea ?ac io Caiee aeaeueoa.
Iiyoiio eo oaeiaua aeeaiao?u aeey ian ii/oe ?aaiu.

Aaoe iaaethaeaiey

Aeey eo/oaai onaiaiey ano?iiiiee au aeieaeiu eae iiaeii ?aiueoa
i?enooieoue e iaaethaeaieyi iaaaniuo yaeaiee e naaoee. Oeacaiey e
iaaethaeaieyi iaaii?oaeaiiui aeacii aeaiu a i?eeiaeaiee VI. Iaoiaeaeaiea
nicaacaeee, i?eaioe?iaeo ia ianoiinoe ii Iiey?iie caacaea, ciaeiioth aai
ec eo?na oece/aneie aaia?aoee, e iaaethaeaiea nooi/iiai a?auaiey iaaa
oaeiaii auiieiyoue n iiiiuueth iiaeaeaeiie ea?ou caacaeiiai iaaa,
i?eeiaeaiiie e o/aaieeo. Aeey i?eaeeaeaiiie ioeaiee oaeiauo ?annoiyiee
ia iaaa iieacii ciaoue, /oi oaeiaia ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy caacaeaie
«eiaoa» Aieueoie Iaaeaaaeeoeu ?aaii i?eia?ii 5°.

I?aaeaea anaai, iaaei iciaeiieoueny n aeaeii caacaeiiai iaaa, iaeoe ia
iai ieaiaou e oaaaeeoueny a eo ia?aiauaiee ioiineoaeueii caacae eee
Nieioea a oa/aiea 1–2 ianyoeaa. (Ia oneiaeyo aeaeeiinoe ieaiao e
iaeioi?uo iaaaniuo yaeaieyo aiai?eony a oeieueiii ano?iiiie/aneii
eaeaiaea?a ia aeaiiue aiae.) Ia?yaeo n yoei iaaei iciaeiieoueny a
oaeaneii n ?aeueaoii Eoiu, n nieia/iuie iyoiaie, a caoai oaea e n
ae?oaeie naaoeeaie e yaeaieyie, i eioi?uo neacaii a i?eeiaeaiee VI. Aeey
yoiai ieaea aeaaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i oaeaneiia.

Oaeaneiiu

Iniiaiui ano?iiiie/aneei i?eai?ii yaeyaony oaeaneii. Oaeaneii n
iauaeoeaii ec aiaiooiai ca?eaea iacuaaaony ?aoeaeoi?ii, a oaeaneii n
iauaeoeaii ec eeic – ?ao?aeoi?ii.

Iacia/aiea oaeaneiia – nia?aoue aieueoa naaoa io iaaaniuo enoi/ieeia e
oaaee/eoue oaie c?aiey, iiae eioi?ui aeaeai iaaaniue iauaeo.

Eiee/anoai naaoa, eioi?ia iiiaaeaao a oaeaneii io iaaethaeaaiiai
iauaeoa, i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ieiuaaee iauaeoeaa. *ai aieueoa ?acia?
iauaeoeaa oaeaneiia, oai aieaa neaaua naaoyueany iauaeou a iaai iiaeii
oaeaeaoue.

Ianooaa ecia?aaeaiey, aeaaaaiiai iauaeoeaii oaeaneiia, i?iii?oeeiiaeai
oieoniiio ?annoiyieth iauaeoeaa, o.a. ?annoiyieth io iauaeoeaa,
niae?athuaai naao, aei oie ieineinoe, aaea iieo/aaony ecia?aaeaiea
naaoeea. Ecia?aaeaiea iaaaniiai iauaeoa iiaeii oioia?aoe?iaaoue eee
?anniao?eaaoue /a?ac ieoey? (?en. 7).

Oaeaneii oaaee/eaaao aeaeeiua oaeiaua ?acia?u Nieioea, Eoiu, ieaiao e
aeaoaeae ia ieo, a oaeaea – oaeiaua ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo caacaeaie, ii
caacaeu aeaaea a i/aiue neeueiue oaeaneii ec-ca ia?iiiie oaeaeaiiinoe
aeaeiu eeoue eae naaoyueany oi/ee.

A ?ao?aeoi?a eo/e, i?ieaey /a?ac iauaeoea, i?aeiieythony, ia?acoy
ecia?aaeaiea iauaeoa a oieaeueiie ieineinoe (?en. 7, a). A ?aoeaeoi?a
eo/e io aiaiooiai ca?eaea io?aaeathony e iioii oaeaea niae?athony a
oieaeueiie ieineinoe (?en. 7, a). I?e ecaioiaeaiee iauaeoeaa oaeaneiia
no?aiyony naanoe e ieieioio ana eneaaeaiey, eioi?uie iaecaaaeii
iaeaaeaao ecia?aaeaiea iauaeoia. I?inoay eeica neeueii eneaaeaao e
ie?aoeaaao e?ay ecia?aaeaiey. Aeey oiaiueoaiey yoeo iaaeinoaoeia
iauaeoea ecaioiaeytho ec ianeieueeeo eeic n ?aciie e?eaeciie
iiaa?oiinoae e ec ?aciuo ni?oia noaeea. Iiaa?oiinoe aiaiooiai
noaeeyiiiai ca?eaea, eioi?ay na?aa?eony eee aethieie?oaony, i?eaeatho
aeey oiaiueoaiey eneaaeaiee ia noa?e/aneoth oi?io, a ianeieueei eioth
(ia?aaiee/aneoth).

Niaaoneee iioee Ae.Ae. Iaenooia ?ac?aaioae nenoaio oaeaneiia,
iacuaaaioth iaieneiaie. Iia niaaeeiyao a naaa aeinoieinoaa ?ao?aeoi?a e
?aoeaeoi?a. Ii yoie nenoaia ono?iaia iaeia ec iiaeaeae oeieueiiai
oaeaneiia. Oiieia auioeei-aiaiooia noaeei – iaiene – eni?aaeyao
eneaaeaiey, aeaaaaiua aieueoei noa?e/aneei ca?eaeii. Eo/e, io?aceaoeany
io ca?eaea, io?aaeathony caoai io iina?aa?aiiie ieiuaaeee ia aioo?aiiae
iiaa?oiinoe iaienea e eaeoo a ieoey?, yaeythueeny oniaa?oainoaiaaiiie
eoiie. Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea oaeaneiie/aneea nenoaiu.

A oaeaneiia iieo/aaony ia?aaa?iooia ecia?aaeaiea, ii yoi ia eiaao
ieeaeiai cia/aiey i?e iaaethaeaiee einie/aneeo iauaeoia.

I?e iaaethaeaieyo a oaeaneii ?aaeei eniieuecothony oaaee/aiey nauoa 500
?ac. I?e/eia yoiai – aicaeooiua oa/aiey, aucuaathuea eneaaeaiey
ecia?aaeaiey, eioi?ua oai caiaoiaa, /ai aieueoa oaaee/aiea oaeaneiia.

Naiue aieueoie ?ao?aeoi? eiaao iauaeoea aeeaiao?ii ieiei 1 i.
Iaeaieueoee a ie?a ?aoeaeoi? n aeeaiao?ii aiaiooiai ca?eaea 6 i
ecaioiaeai a NNN? e onoaiiaeai a ai?ao Eaaeaca. Ii iicaieyao
oioia?aoe?iaaoue caacaeu a 10 ?ac aieaa neaaua, /ai aeaeeiua
iaaii?oaeaiiui aeacii.

3. Nicaacaeea. Aeaeeiia aeaeaeaiea caacae

Nicaacaeey

Ciaeiieoueny ni caacaeiui iaaii iaaei a aaciaea/ioth ii/ue, eiaaea naao
Eoiu ia iaoaao iaaethaeaoue neaaua caacaeu. I?ae?ania ea?oeia ii/iiai
iaaa n ?annuiaiiuie ii iaio ia?oeathueie caacaeaie. *enei eo eaaeaony
aaneiia/iui. Ii oae oieueei, eaaeaony, iiea au ia i?eaeyaeeoanue e ia
iao/eoanue iaoiaeeoue ia iaaa ciaeiiua a?oiiu caacae, iaeciaiiuo ii
naiaio acaeiiiio ?aniieiaeaieth. Yoe a?oiiu, iacaaiiua nicaacaeeyie,
ethaee auaeaeeee ouny/e eao iacaae. Iiae nicaacaeeai iiieiatho anth
iaeanoue iaaa a i?aaeaeao iaeioi?uo onoaiiaeaiiuo a?aieoe. Ana iaai
?acaeaeaii ia 88 nicaacaeee, eioi?ua iiaeii iaoiaeeoue ii oa?aeoa?iiio
aeey ieo ?aniieiaeaieth caacae.

Iiiaea nicaacaeey nio?aiytho naia iacaaiea n aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe.
Iaeioi?ua iacaaiey naycaiu n a?a/aneie ieoieiaeae, iai?eia? Aiae?iiaaea,
Ia?nae, Iaaan, iaeioi?ua – n i?aaeiaoaie, eioi?ua iaiiieiatho oeao?u,
ia?acoaiua y?eeie caacaeaie nicaacaeee (No?aea, O?aoaieueiee, Aanu e
ae?.). Anoue nicaacaeey, iacaaiiua eiaiaie aeeaioiuo (iai?eia?, Eaa,
?ae, Nei?ieii).

Nicaacaeey ia iaainaiaea iaoiaeyo, iuneaiii niaaeeiyy eo y?/aeoea
caacaeu i?yiuie eeieyie a iaeioi?oth oeao?o, eae iieacaii ia caacaeiuo
ea?oao. A eaaeaeii nicaacaeee y?eea caacaeu ecaeaaia iaicia/aee
a?a/aneeie aoeaaie, /aua anaai naioth y?eoth caacaeo nicaacaeey – aoeaie
?, caoai aoeaaie a, a e o.ae. a ii?yaeea aeoaaeoa ii ia?a oauaaiey
y?einoe; iai?eia?, Iiey?iay caacaea anoue, a nicaacaeey Iaeie
Iaaeaaaeeoeu

Iaaii?oaeaiiui aeacii a aaceoiioth ii/ue iiaeii aeaeaoue iaae ai?eciioii
ieiei 3000 caacae. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ano?iiiiu ii?aaeaeeee oi/iia
ianoiiieiaeaiea ianeieueeeo ieeeeiiia caacae, ecia?eee i?eoiaeyuea io
ieo iioiee yia?aee e ninoaaeee nienee-eaoaeiae yoeo caacae.

ss?einoue e oeaao caacae

Aeiai iaai eaaeaony aieoaui iooiai, /oi iaiaeii?iaeiinoe aicaeooiie
n?aaeu neeueiaa anaai ?annaeaatho aieoaua eo/e nieia/iiai naaoa.

Aia i?aaeaeia caiiie aoiinoa?u iaai anaaaea /a?iia, e ia iai iiaeii
iaaethaeaoue caacaeu e Nieioea iaeiia?aiaiii.

Caacaeu eiatho ?acioth y?einoue e oeaao: aaeue, aeaeoue, e?aniiaaoue.
*ai e?aniaa caacaea, oai iia oieiaeiaa. Iaoa Nieioea ioiineony e aeaeoui
caacaeai. ss?eei caacaeai ae?aaiea a?aau aeaee nianoaaiiua eiaia.

Aaeua caacaeu: Aaaa a nicaacaeee Ee?u, Aeueoae? a nicaacaeee I?ea
(aeaeiu eaoii e inaiueth). Ne?eon – y?/aeoay caacaea iaaa (aeaeia
ceiie); e?aniua caacaeu: Aaoaeueaaeca a nicaacaeee I?eiia e Aeueaeaaa?ai
a nicaacaeee Oaeueoea (aeaeiu ceiie), Aioa?an a nicaacaeee Nei?ieiia
(aeaeai eaoii); aeaeoay Eaiaeea a nicaacaeee Aicie/aai (aeaeia ceiie).

Naiua y?eea caacaeu aua a ae?aaiinoe iacaaee caacaeaie 1-e aaee/eiu, a
naiua neaaua, aeaeeiua ia i?aaeaea c?aiey aeey iaaii?oaeaiiiai aeaca, –
caacaeaie 6-e aaee/eiu. Yoa noa?eiiay oa?ieiieiaey nio?aieeanue e a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy. E enoeiiui ?acia?ai caacae oa?iei «caacaeiay aaee/eia»
ioiioaiey ia eiaao, iia oa?aeoa?ecoao naaoiaie iioie, i?eoiaeyuee ia
Caieth io caacaeu. I?eiyoi, /oi i?e ?aciinoe a iaeio caacaeioth aaee/eio
y?einoue caacae ioee/aaony i?eia?ii a 2,5 ?aca. ?aciinoue a 5 caacaeiuo
aaee/ei niioaaonoaoao ?acee/eth a y?einoe ?iaii a 100 ?ac. Oae, caacaeu
1-e aaee/eiu a 100 ?ac y?/a caacae 6-e aaee/eiu.

Nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu iaaethaeaiee aeatho aiciiaeiinoue iaia?oaeeoue
caacaeu i?eia?ii aei 25-e caacaeiie aaee/eiu. Ecia?aiey iieacaee, /oi
caacaeu iiaoo eiaoue ae?iaiua eee io?eoeaoaeueiua caacaeiua aaee/eiu,
iai?eia?: aeey Aeueaeaaa?aia caacaeiay aaee/eia m = 1,06, aeey Aaae m =
0,14, aeey Ne?eona m = – 1,58, aeey Nieioea m = – 26,80.

Aeaeeiia nooi/iia aeaeaeaiea caacae. Iaaaniay noa?a

Ec-ca inaaiai a?auaiey Caiee caacaeu iai eaaeoony ia?aiauathueieny ii
iaao. I?e aieiaoaeueiii iaaethaeaiee iiaeii caiaoeoue» /oi Iiey?iay
caacaea ii/oe ia iaiyao iieiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii ai?eciioa.

Ana aea ae?oaea caacaeu iienuaatho a oa/aiea nooie iieiua e?oae n
oeaio?ii aaeece Iiey?iie. A yoii iiaeii eaaei oaaaeeoueny, i?iaeaeaa
neaaeothuee iiuo. Oioiaiia?ao, onoaiiaeaiiue ia «aaneiia/iinoue»,
iai?aaei ia Iiey?ioth caacaeo e iaaeaaeii oe?aiei a yoii iieiaeaiee.
Ioe?iai caoai? i?e iieiinoueth ioe?uoii iauaeoeaa ia iie/ana eee /an.
I?iyaea noioia?aoe?iaaiiue oaeei ia?acii nieiie, oaeaeei ia iai
eiioeaio?e/aneea aeoae – neaaeu iooae caacae. Iauee oeaio? yoeo aeoa –
oi/ea, eioi?ay inoaaony iaiiaeaeaeiie i?e nooi/iii aeaeaeaiee caacae,
oneiaii iacuaaaony naaa?iui iiethnii ie?a. Iiey?iay caacaea e iaio
i/aiue aeecea. Aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiay aio oi/ea iacuaaaony
thaeiui iiethnii ie?a. A naaa?iii iieooa?ee ii iaoiaeeony iiae
ai?eciioii.

ssaeaiey nooi/iiai aeaeaeaiey caacae oaeiaii eco/aoue,
ainiieueciaaaoenue iaoaiaoe/aneei iino?iaieai – iaaaniie noa?ie, o.a.
aiia?aaeaaiie noa?ie i?iecaieueiiai ?aaeeona, oeaio? eioi?ie iaoiaeeony
a oi/ea iaaethaeaiey. Ia iiaa?oiinoue yoie noa?u i?iaoee?otho aeaeeiua
iieiaeaiey anao naaoee, a aeey oaeianoaa ecia?aiee no?iyo ?yae oi/ae e
eeiee. Oae, ioaaniay eeiey ZCZ? i?ioiaeyuay /a?ac iaaethaeaoaey,
ia?anaeaao iaai iaae aieiaie a oi/ea caieoa Z. Aeeaiao?aeueii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiay oi/ea Z? iacuaaaony iaaee?ii. Ieineinoue (NESW),
ia?iaiaeeeoey?iay ioaaniie eeiee ZZ? yaeyaony ieineinoueth ai?eciioa –
yoa ieineinoue eanaaony iiaa?oiinoe caiiiai oa?a a oi/ea, aaea
?aniieiaeai iaaethaeaoaeue. Iia aeaeeo iiaa?oiinoue iaaaniie noa?u ia
aeaa iieonoa?u: aeaeeioth, ana oi/ee eioi?ie iaoiaeyony iaae ai?eciioii,
e iaaeaeeioth, oi/ee eioi?ie eaaeao iiae ai?eciioii.

Inue aeaeeiiai a?auaiey iaaaniie noa?u, niaaeeiythuoth iaa iiethna ie?a
(? e ?’) e i?ioiaeyuoth /a?ac iaaethaeaoaey (N), iacuaatho inueth ie?a.
Inue ie?a aeey ethaiai iaaethaeaoaey anaaaea aoaeao ia?aeeaeueia ine
a?auaiey Caiee. Ia ai?eciioa iiae naaa?iui iiethnii ie?a eaaeeo oi/ea
naaa?a N, aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeiay ae oi/ea S – oi/ea thaa. Eeiey
NS iacuaaaony iieoaeaiiie eeieae, oae eae ii iae ia ai?eciioaeueiie
ieineinoe a iieaeaiue iaaeaao oaiue io aa?oeeaeueii iinoaaeaiiiai
noa?aeiy. (Eae ia ianoiinoe i?iaanoe iieoaeaiioth eeieth e eae ii iae e
ii Iiey?iie caacaea i?eaioe?iaaoueny ii noi?iiai ai?eciioa, au eco/aee a
V eeanna a eo?na oece/aneie aaia?aoee.) Oi/ee ainoiea A caiaaea W eaaeao
ia eeiee ai?eciioa. Iie ionoiyo io oi/ae naaa?a N e thaa S ia 90°. *a?ac
oi/eo N, iiethnu ie?a, caieo Z e oi/eo S i?ioiaeeo ieineinoue iaaaniiai
ia?eaeeaia, niaiaaeathuay aeey iaaethaeaoaey N n ieineinoueth aai
aaia?aoe/aneiai ia?eaeeaia. Iaeiiaoe, ieineinoue (AWQE), i?ioiaeyuay
/a?ac iaaethaeaoaey (oi/eo N) ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ine ie?a, ia?acoao
ieineinoue iaaaniiai yeaaoi?a, ia?aeeaeueioth ieineinoe caiiiai
yeaaoi?a. Iaaaniue yeaaoi? aeaeeo iiaa?oiinoue iaaaniie noa?u ia aeaa
iieooa?ey: naaa?iia n aa?oeiie a naaa?iii iiethna ie?a e thaeiia n
aa?oeiie a thaeiii iiethna ie?a.

Nooi/iia aeaeaeaiea naaoee ia ?acee/iuo oe?ioao

Oaia?ue iu ciaai, /oi n eciaiaieai aaia?aoe/aneie oe?iou ianoa
iaaethaeaiey iaiyaony i?eaioaoeey ine a?auaiey iaaaniie noa?u
ioiineoaeueii ai?eciioa. ?anniio?ei, eaeeie aoaeoo aeaeeiua aeaeaeaiey
iaaaniuo naaoee a ?aeiia Naaa?iiai iiethna, ia yeaaoi?a e ia n?aaeieo
oe?ioao Caiee.

Ia iiethna Caiee iiethn ie?a iaoiaeeony a caieoa, e caacaeu aeaeaeoony
ii e?oaai, ia?aeeaeueiui ai?eciioo. Caeanue caacaeu ia caoiaeyo e ia
ainoiaeyo, eo aunioa iaae ai?eciioii iaeciaiiay.

Ia n?aaeieo oe?ioao nouanoaotho eae ainoiaeyuea e caoiaeyuea caacaeu,
oae e oa, eioi?ua ieeiaaea ia iioneathony iiae ai?eciio (?en. 13, a).
Iai?eia?, ieieiiiey?iua nicaacaeey ia aaia?aoe/aneeo oe?ioao NNN?
ieeiaaea ia caoiaeyo. Nicaacaeey, ?aniieiaeaiiua aeaeueoa io naaa?iiai
iiethna ie?a, iinooi/iua iooe naaoee ioeacuaathony iaiaaeieai iaae
ai?eciioii. A nicaacaeey, eaaeauea aua aeaeueoa e thao, yaeythony ia
ainoiaeyuei.

Ii /ai aeaeueoa i?iaeaeaaaony iaaethaeaoaeue e thao, oai aieueoa thaeiuo
nicaacaeee ii iiaeao aeaeaoue. Ia caiiii yeaaoi?a ca nooee iiaeii auei
au oaeaeaoue nicaacaeey anaai caacaeiiai iaaa, anee au ia iaoaei Nieioea
aeiai. Aeey iaaethaeaoaey ia yeaaoi?a ana caacaeu ainoiaeyo e caoiaeyo
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ieineinoe ai?eciioa. Eaaeaeay caacaea caeanue i?iaiaeeo
iaae ai?eciioii ?iaii iieiaeio naiaai iooe. Aeey iaaethaeaoaey ia
yeaaoi?a Caiee naaa?iue iiethn ie?a niaiaaeaao n oi/eie naaa?a, a
thaeiue iiethn ie?a – n oi/eie thaa. Inue ie?a aeey iaai ?aniieiaeaia a
ieineinoe ai?eciioa.

Eoeueieiaoeee

Iiethn ie?a i?e eaaeouainy a?auaiee iaaa, io?aaeathuai a?auaiea Caiee
aie?oa ine, caieiaao iaeciaiiia iieiaeaiea iaae ai?eciioii ia aeaiiie
oe?ioa. Caacaeu ca nooee iienuaatho iaae ai?eciioii aie?oa ine ie?a
e?oae, ia?aeeaeueiua yeaaoi?o. I?e yoii eaaeaeia naaoeei ca nooee
aeaaaeaeu ia?anaeaao iaaaniue ia?eaeeai.

ssaeaiey i?ioiaeaeaiey naaoee /a?ac iaaaniue ia?eaeeai iacuaathony
eoeueieiaoeeyie. A aa?oiae eoeueieiaoeee aunioa naaoeea iaeneiaeueia, a
ieaeiae eoeueieiaoeee – ieieiaeueia. I?iiaaeooie a?aiaie iaaeaeo
eoeueieiaoeeyie ?aaai iienooeai.

O ia caoiaeyuaai ia aeaiiie oe?ioa
picscalex1000100090000035004000000000403000000000403000026060f00fe05574d
46430100000000000100bf070000000001000000dc05000000000000dc05000001000000
6c0000000000000000000000110000001300000000000000000000001502000049020000
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000400007c0100002c01000000000000000000000000000060cc0500e093040046000000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 naaoeea I aeaeiu (iaae ai?eciioii)
iaa eoeueieiaoeee, o caacae, eioi?ua ainoiaeyo e caoiaeyo, I1 e I2
ieaeiyy eoeueieiaoeey i?ienoiaeeo iiae ai?eciioii, ieaea oi/ee naaa?a. O
naaoeea I3, iaoiaeyuaainy aeaeaei e thao io iaaaniiai yeaaoi?a, iaa
eoeueieiaoeee iiaoo auoue iaaeaeeiu. Iiiaio aa?oiae eoeueieiaoeee
oeaio?a Nieioea iacuaaaony enoeiiui iieaeiai, a iiiaio ieaeiae
eoeueieiaoeee – enoeiiie iieii/ueth. A enoeiiue iieaeaiue oaiue io
aa?oeeaeueiiai noa?aeiy iaaeaao aaeieue iieoaeaiiie eeiee.

4. Yeeeioeea e «aeoaeaeathuea» naaoeea-ieaiaou

A aeaiiie ianoiinoe eaaeaeay caacaea eoeueieie?oao anaaaea ia iaeiie e
oie aea aunioa iaae ai?eciioii, iioiio /oi aa oaeiaia ?annoiyiea io
iiethna ie?a e io iaaaniiai yeaaoi?a ia iaiyaony. Nieioea aea e Eoia
iaiytho aunioo, ia eioi?ie iie eoeueieie?otho.

Anee ii oi/iui /anai caia/aoue i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie iaaeaeo aa?oieie
eoeueieiaoeeyie caacae e Nieioea, oi iiaeii oaaaeeoueny, /oi i?iiaaeooee
iaaeaeo eoeueieiaoeeyie caacae ia /aou?a ieioou ei?i/a, /ai i?iiaaeooee
iaaeaeo eoeueieiaoeeyie Nieioea. Cia/eo, ca a?aiy iaeiiai iai?ioa
iaaaniie noa?u Nieioea oniaaaao naeaeiooueny ioiineoaeueii caacae e
ainoieo – a noi?iio, i?ioeaiiieiaeioth nooi/iiio a?auaieth iaaa. Yoio
naeaea ninoaaeyao ieiei 1°, oae eae iaaaniay noa?a aeaeaao iieiue iai?io
– 360° ca 24 /. Ca 1 /, ?aaiue 60 iei, iia iiai?a/eaaaony ia 15°, a ca
4 iei – ia 1°. Ca aiae Nieioea iienuaaao aieueoie e?oa ia oiia
caacaeiiai iaaa.

Eoeueieiaoeee Eoiu caiacaeuaatho aaeanooi/ii oaea ia ia 4 iei, a ia
50 iei, oae eae Eoia aeaeaao iaeei iai?io iaano?a/o a?auaieth iaaa ca
ianyoe.

Ieaiaou ia?aiauathony iaaeeaiiaa e aieaa neiaeiui ia?acii. Iie
aeaeaeoony ia oiia caacaeiiai iaaa oi a iaeio, oi a ae?oaoth noi?iio,
eiiaaea iaaeeaiii auienuaay iaoee. Yoi iaoneiaeaii ni/aoaieai eo
enoeiiiai aeaeaeaiey n aeaeaeaieyie Caiee. Ia caacaeiii iaaa ieaiaou (a
ia?aaiaea n ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai «aeoaeaeathuea») ia caieiatho iinoiyiiiai
ianoa, oae aea eae Eoia e Nieioea. Anee ninoaaeoue ea?oo caacaeiiai
iaaa, oi oeacaoue ia iae iieiaeaiea Nieioea, Eoiu e ieaiao iiaeii eeoue
aeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiiaioa.

Aeaeeiia aiaeiaia aeaeaeaiea Nieioea i?ienoiaeeo ii aieueoiio e?oao
iaaaniie noa?u, iacuaaaiiio yeeeioeeie.

Ia?aiauaynue ii yeeeioeea, Nieioea aeaaaeaeu ia?anaeaao iaaaniue yeaaoi?
a oae iacuaaaiuo ?aaiiaeainoaaiiuo oi/eao. Yoi auaaao ieiei 21 ia?oa e
ieiei 23 naioya?y, a aeie ?aaiiaeainoaee. A yoe aeie Nieioea iaoiaeeony
ia iaaaniii yeaaoi?a, a ii anaaaea aeaeeony ieineinoueth ai?eciioa
iiiieai. Iiyoiio iooe

Nieioea iaae e iiae ai?eciioii ?aaiu, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aaiu
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeiy e ii/e.

22 ethiy Nieioea aeaeueoa anaai io iaaaniiai yeaaoi?a a noi?iio
naaa?iiai iiethna ie?a. A iieaeaiue aeey naaa?iiai iieooa?ey Caiee iii
auoa anaai iaae ai?eciioii, aeaiue naiue aeeeiiue – yoi aeaiue eaoiaai
nieioeanoiyiey, 22 aeaeaa?y, a aeaiue ceiiaai nieioeanoiyiey, Nieioea
iooiaeeo aeaeueoa anaai e thao io yeaaoi?a, a iieaeaiue iii noieo iecei,
e aeaiue naiue ei?ioeee.

Iaiaeanoaeaiea Nieioea a ae?aaiinoe ii?iaeeei ieou, a eiineacaoaeueiie
oi?ia iienuaathuea ia?eiaee/anee iiaoi?ythueany niauoey «?iaeaeaiey»,
«aine?anaiey» «aiaa-Nieioea» a oa/aiea aiaea: oie?aiea i?e?iaeu ceiie,
aa aic?iaeaeaiea aaniie e o.i. O?enoeaineea i?acaeieee iinyo a naaa
neaaeu eoeueoa Nieioea.

Aeaeaeaiea Nieioea ii yeeeioeea yaeyaony ioia?aaeaieai ia?auaiey Caiee
aie?oa Nieioea. Yeeeioeea i?ieaaaao /a?ac 12 nicaacaeee, iacuaaaiuo
ciaeeaeaeueiuie (io a?a/aneiai neiaa ciii – aeeaioiia), a eo
niaieoiiinoue iacuaaaony iiynii ciaeeaea. A iaai aoiaeyo neaaeothuea
nicaacaeey: ?uau, Iaai, Oaeaoe, Aeeciaoeu, ?ae, Eaa, Aeaaa, Aanu,
Nei?ieii, No?aeaoe, Eica?ia, Aiaeieae, Eaaeaeia ciaeeaeaeueiia
nicaacaeea Nieioea i?ioiaeeo ieiei ianyoea. Oi/ea aanaiiaai
?aaiiaeainoaey (iaeii e aeaoo ia?ana/aiee yeeeioeee n iaaaniui
yeaaoi?ii) iaoiaeeony a nicaacaeee ?ua. A nicaacaeeyo Aeaaa, Eaa,
Aeeciaoeu, Oaeaoe, Nei?ieii, No?aeaoe iiiai y?eeo caacae.

Aieueoie e?oa yeeeioeee ia?anaeaao aieueoie e?oa iaaaniiai yeaaoi?a iiae
oaeii 23°27′. A aeaiue eaoiaai nieioeanoiyiey, 22 ethiy, Nieioea
iiaeieiaaony a iieaeaiue iaae ai?eciioii auoa oi/ee, a eioi?ie iaaaniue
yeaaoi? ia?anaeaao ia?eaeeai ia yoo aaee/eio. Ia noieueei aea Nieioea
auaaao ieaea yeaaoi?a a aeaiue ceiiaai nieioeanoiyiey, 22 aeaeaa?y.
Oaeei ia?acii, aunioa Nieioea a aa?oiae eoeueieiaoeee iaiyaony a oa/aiea
aiaea ia 46°54′. Iiiyoii, /oi a iieii/ue a aa?oiae eoeueieiaoeee auaaao
ciaeeaeaeueiia nicaacaeea, i?ioeaiiieiaeiia oiio, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony
Nieioea. Iai?eia?, a ia?oa Nieioea i?ioiaeeo ii nicaacaeeth ?uau, a a
iieii/ue eoeueieie?oao nicaacaeea Aeaau. Ia ?enoiea 18 iieacaiu nooi/iua
iooe Nieioea iaae ai?eciioii a aeie ?aaiiaeainoaee e nieioeanoiyiee aeey
n?aaeieo oe?io (aaa?oo) e yeaaoi?a Caiee (aieco).

5. Caacaeiua ea?ou, iaaaniua eii?aeeiaou e a?aiy

Ea?ou e eii?aeeiaou

*oiau naeaeaoue caacaeioth ea?oo, ecia?aaeathuoth nicaacaeey ia
ieineinoe, iaaei ciaoue eii?aeeiaou caacae. Eii?aeeiaou caacae
ioiineoaeueii ai?eciioa, iai?eia?, aunioa, oioy e iaaeyaeiu, ii
iai?eaiaeiu aeey ninoaaeaiey ea?o, oae eae ana a?aiy iaiythony. Iaaei
eniieueciaaoue oaeoth nenoaio eii?aeeiao, eioi?ay a?auaeanue au aianoa
ni caacaeiui iaaii. Iia iacuaaaony yeaaoi?eaeueiie nenoaiie. A iae
iaeiie eii?aeeiaoie yaeyaony oaeiaia ?annoiyiea naaoeea io iaaaniiai
yeaaoi?a, iacuaaaiia neeiiaieai
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030000000000. Iii iaiyaony a i?aaeaeao ±90° e n/eoaaony iieiaeeoaeueiui
e naaa?o io yeaaoi?a e io?eoeaoaeueiui – e thao. Neeiiaiea aiaeiae/ii
aaia?aoe/aneie oe?ioa.

Aoi?ay eii?aeeiaoa aiaeiae/ia aaia?aoe/aneie aeieaioa e iacuaaaony
i?yiui ainoiaeaeaieai a.

I?yiia ainoiaeaeaiea naaoeea I ecia?yaony oaeii iaaeaeo ieineinoyie
aieueoiai e?oaa, i?iaaaeaiiiai /a?ac iiethnu ie?a e aeaiiia naaoeei I, e
aieueoiai e?oaa, i?ioiaeyuaai /a?ac iiethnu ie?a e oi/eo aanaiiaai
?aaiiaeainoaey. Yoio oaie ion/eouaatho io oi/ee aanaiiaai ?aaiiaeainoaey
? i?ioea oiaea /aniaie no?aeee, anee niio?aoue n naaa?iiai iiethna. Ii
eciaiyaony io 0 aei 360° e iacuaaaony i?yiui ainoiaeaeaieai iioiio, /oi
caacaeu, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia iaaaniii yeaaoi?a, ainoiaeyo a ii?yaeea
aic?anoaiey eo i?yiiai ainoiaeaeaiey. A yoii aea ii?yaeea iie
eoeueieie?otho ae?oa ca ae?oaii. Iiyoiio, a au?aaeatho iau/ii ia a
oaeiaie ia?a, a ai a?aiaiiie, e enoiaeyo ec oiai, /oi iaai ca 1 /
iiai?a/eaaaony ia 15°, a ca 4 iei – ia 1°. Iiyoiio i?yiia ainoiaeaeaiea
90° eia/a aoaeao 6 /, a 7 / 18 iei = 109°30?. A aaeeieoeao a?aiaie ii
e?ayi caacaeiie ea?ou iaaeienuaatho i?yiua ainoiaeaeaiey.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea e caacaeiua aeiaonu, aaea caacaeu ecia?aaeaiu ia
noa?e/aneie iiaa?oiinoe aeiaona.

Ia iaeiie ea?oa iiaeii ecia?aceoue aac eneaaeaiee oieueei /anoue
caacaeiiai iaaa. Ia/eiathuei iieueciaaoueny oaeie ea?oie o?oaeii, iioiio
/oi iie ia ciatho, eaeea nicaacaeey aeaeiu a aeaiiia a?aiy e eae iie
?aniieiaeaiu ioiineoaeueii ai?eciioa. Oaeiaiaa iiaeaeaeiay ea?oa
caacaeiiai iaaa. Eaeay aa ono?ienoaa i?inoa. Ia ea?oo iaeiaeai e?oa n
au?acii, ecia?aaeathuei eeieth ai?eciioa. Au?ac ai?eciioa yenoeaio?e/ai,
e i?e a?auaiee iaeeaaeiiai e?oaa a au?aca aoaeoo aeaeiu nicaacaeey,
iaoiaeyueany iaae ai?eciioii a ?aciia a?aiy. Eae iieueciaaoueny oaeie
ea?oie, neacaii a i?eeiaeaiee VII.

Aunioa naaoee a eoeueieiaoeee

Iaeaeai caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo aunioie h naaoeea I a aa?oiae
eoeueieiaoeee, aai neeiiaieai
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030000000000.

Ioaaniay eeiey ZZ? inue ie?a ??’ e i?iaeoeee iaaaniiai yeaaoi?a EQ e
eeiee ai?eciioa NS (iieoaeaiiay eeiey) ia ieineinoue iaaaniiai
ia?eaeeaia (PZSP’N) Oaie iaaeaeo iieoaeaiiie eeieae NS e inueth ie?a ??’
?aaai, eae iu ciaai, oe?ioa ianoiinoe
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030000000000. I/aaeaeii, iaeeii ieineinoe iaaaniiai yeaaoi?a e
ai?eciioo, ecia?yaiue oaeii
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aa000000000000001500220000000000040000002701ffff030000000000, ?aaai 90°

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030000000000 (?en. 20). Caacaea I ni neeiiaieai a, eoeueieie?othuay e
thao io caieoa, eiaao a aa?oiae eoeueieiaoeee aunioo

h = 90° –
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14000f0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000.

Ec yoie oi?ioeu aeaeii, /oi aaia?aoe/aneoth oe?ioo iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue,
ecia?yy aunioo ethaie caacaeu n ecaanoiui neeiiaieai 6 a aa?oiae
eoeueieiaoeee. I?e yoii neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi anee caacaea a iiiaio
eoeueieiaoeee iaoiaeeony e thao io yeaaoi?a, oi aa neeiiaiea
io?eoeaoaeueii.

Oi/iia a?aiy

Aeey ecia?aiey ei?ioeeo i?iiaaeooeia a?aiaie a ano?iiiiee iniiaiie
aaeeieoeae yaeyaony n?aaeiyy aeeeoaeueiinoue nieia/iuo nooie, o.a.
n?aaeiee i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie iaaeaeo aeaoiy aa?oieie (eee ieaeieie)
eoeueieiaoeeyie oeaio?a Nieioea. N?aaeiaa cia/aiea i?eoiaeeony
eniieueciaaoue, iioiio /oi a oa/aiea aiaea aeeeoaeueiinoue nieia/iuo
nooie neaaea eieaaeaony. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi Caiey ia?auaaony aie?oa
Nieioea ia ii e?oao, a ii yeeeino e nei?inoue aa aeaeaeaiey i?e yoii
iaiiiai iaiyaony. Yoi e aucuaaao iaaieueoea ia?aaiiia?iinoe a aeaeeiii
aeaeaeaiee Nieioea ii yeeeioeea a oa/aiea aiaea.

Iiiaio aa?oiae eoeueieiaoeee oeaio?a Nieioea, eae iu oaea aiai?eee,
iacuaaaony enoeiiui iieaeiai. Ii aeey i?iaa?ee /ania, aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
oi/iiai a?aiaie iao iaaeiaiinoe ioia/aoue ii iei eiaiii iiiaio
eoeueieiaoeee Nieioea. Oaeiaiaa e oi/iaa ioia/aoue iiiaiou eoeueieiaoeee
caacae, oae eae ?aciinoue iiiaioia eoeueieiaoeee ethaie caacaeu e
Nieioea oi/ii ecaanoia aeey ethaiai a?aiaie. Iiyoiio aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
oi/iiai a?aiaie n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo iioe/aneeo i?eai?ia ioia/atho
iiiaiou eoeueieiaoeee caacae e i?iaa?ytho ii iei i?aaeeueiinoue oiaea
/ania, «o?aiyueo» a?aiy. Ii?aaeaeyaiia oaeei ia?acii a?aiy auei au
aaniethoii oi/iui, anee au iaaethaeaaiia a?auaiea iaainaiaea
i?ienoiaeeei ni no?iai iinoiyiiie oaeiaie nei?inoueth. Iaeiaei
ieacaeinue, /oi nei?inoue a?auaiey Caiee aie?oa ine, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e
aeaeeiia a?auaiea iaaaniie noa?u, eniuouaaao ni a?aiaiai i/aiue
iaaieueoea eciaiaiey. Iiyoiio aeey «o?aiaiey» oi/iiai a?aiaie nae/an
eniieuecothony niaoeeaeueiua aoiiiua /anu, oiae eioi?uo eiio?iee?oaony
eieaaaoaeueiuie i?ioeannaie a aoiiao, i?ienoiaeyueie ia iaeciaiiie
/anoioa. *anu ioaeaeueiuo iana?aaoi?ee naa?ythony ii neaiaeai aoiiiiai
a?aiaie. N?aaiaiea a?aiaie, ii?aaeaeyaiiai ii aoiiiui /anai e ii
aeaeeiiio aeaeaeaieth caacae, iicaieyao enneaaeiaaoue ia?aaiiia?iinoe
a?auaiey Caiee.

Ii?aaeaeaiea oi/iiai a?aiaie, aai o?aiaiea e ia?aaea/a ii ?aaeei anaio
ianaeaieth ninoaaeytho caaea/o neoaeau oi/iiai a?aiaie, eioi?ay
nouanoaoao ai iiiaeo no?aiao.

Neaiaeu oi/iiai a?aiaie ii ?aaeei i?eieiatho ooo?iaiu ii?neiai e
aicaeooiiai oeioa, iiiaea iao/iua e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee,
ioaeaeathueany a ciaiee oi/iiai a?aiaie. Ciaoue oi/iia a?aiy ioaeii, a
/anoiinoe, e aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aaia?aoe/aneeo aeieaio ?aciuo ioieoia
caiiie iiaa?oiinoe.

N/ao a?aiaie. Ii?aaeaeaiea aaia?aoe/aneie aeieaiou. Eaeaiaea?ue

Ec eo?na oece/aneie aaia?aoee NNN? aai ecaanoiu iiiyoey ianoiiai,
iiyniiai e aeae?aoiiai n/aoa a?aiaie, a oaeaea /oi ?aciinoue
aaia?aoe/aneeo aeieaio aeaoo ioieoia ii?aaeaeytho ii ?aciinoe ianoiiai
a?aiaie yoeo ioieoia. Yoa caaea/a ?aoaaony ano?iiiie/aneeie iaoiaeaie,
eniieuecothueie iaaethaeaiey caacae. Ia iniiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiey oi/iuo
eii?aeeiao ioaeaeueiuo ioieoia i?iecaiaeeony ea?oia?aoe?iaaiea caiiie
iiaa?oiinoe.

Aeey n/aoa aieueoeo i?iiaaeooeia a?aiaie ethaee n ae?aaieo ii?
eniieueciaaee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eeai eoiiiai ianyoea, eeai
nieia/iiai aiaea, o.a. i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iai?ioa Nieioea ii
yeeeioeea. Aiae ii?aaeaeyao ia?eiaee/iinoue naciiiuo eciaiaiee.
Nieia/iue aiae aeeeony 365 nieia/iuo nooie 5 /ania 48 ieioo 46 naeoiae.
Ii i?aeoe/anee ianiecia?ei n nooeaie e n aeeeiie eoiiiai ianyoea –
ia?eiaeii niaiu eoiiuo oac (ieiei 29,5 nooie). Yoi e ninoaaeyao
o?oaeiinoue nicaeaiey i?inoiai e oaeiaiiai eaeaiaea?y. Ca iiiaiaaeiaoth
enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa nicaeaaaeinue e eniieueciaaeinue iiiai ?acee/iuo
nenoai eaeaiaea?ae. Ii ana eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e oeia: nieia/iua,
eoiiua e eoiii-nieia/iua. THaeiua neioiaiae/aneea ia?iaeu iieueciaaeenue
iau/ii eoiiuie ianyoeaie. Aiae, ninoiyuee ec 12 eoiiuo ianyoeaa,
niaea?aeae 355 nieia/iuo nooie. Aeey niaeaniaaiey n/aoa a?aiaie ii Eoia
e ii Nieioeo i?eoiaeeeinue onoaiaaeeaaoue a aiaeo oi 12, oi 13 ianyoeaa
e anoaaeyoue a aiae aeiaaai/iua aeie. I?iua e oaeiaiaa aue nieia/iue
eaeaiaea?ue, i?eiaiyaoeeny aua a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a i?eiyo oiaea nieia/iue eaeaiaea?ue, ii aieaa
niaa?oaiiiai ono?ienoaa, iacuaaaiue a?eai?eaineei, i eioi?ii aiai?eony
aeaeueoa.

I?e ninoaaeaiee eaeaiaea?y iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eaeaiaea?iiai aiaea aeieaeia auoue eae iiaeii
aeeaea e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe iai?ioa Nieioea ii yeeeioeea e /oi
eaeaiaea?iue aiae aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue oeaeia /enei nieia/iuo nooie,
oae eae iaoaeiaii ia/eiaoue aiae a ?aciia a?aiy nooie.

Yoei oneiaeyi oaeiaeaoai?ye eaeaiaea?ue, ?ac?aaioaiiue aeaenaiae?eeneei
ano?iiiiii Niceaaiii e aaaaeaiiue a 46 a. aei i.y. a ?eia THeeai
Oeaca?ai. Aiineaaenoaee, eae aai ecaanoii, ec eo?na oece/aneie
aaia?aoee, ii iieo/ee iacaaiea theeaineiai eee noa?iai noeey. A yoii
eaeaiaea?a aiaeu n/eoathony o?eaeaeu iiae?yae ii 365 nooie e iacuaathony
i?inouie, neaaeothuee ca ieie aiae – a 366 nooie. Ii iacuaaaony
aenieiniui. Aenieiniuie aiaeaie a theeaineii eaeaiaea?a yaeythony oa
aiaeu, iiia?a eioi?uo aac inoaoea aeaeyony ia 4.

N?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aiaea ii yoiio eaeaiaea?th ninoaaeyao 365
nooie 6 /, o.a. iia i?eia?ii ia 11 iei aeeeiiaa enoeiiie. A neeo yoiai
noa?ue noeeue ionoaaae io aeaenoaeoaeueiiai oa/aiey a?aiaie i?eia?ii ia
3 nooie ca eaaeaeua 400 eao.

A a?eai?eaineii eaeaiaea?a (iiaii noeea), aaaaeaiiii a NNN? a 1918 a. e
aua ?aiaa i?eiyoii a aieueoeinoaa no?ai, aiaeu, ieai/eaathueany ia aeaa
ioey, ca eneeth/aieai 1600, 2000, 2400 e o.i. (o.a. oao, o eioi?uo /enei
nioai aeaeeony ia 4 aac inoaoea), ia n/eoathony aenieiniuie. Yoei e
eni?aaeytho ioeaeo a 3 nooie, iaeaieeaathuothny ca 400 eao. Oaeei
ia?acii, n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aiaea a iiaii noeea ieacuaaaony
i/aiue aeeceie e ia?eiaeo ia?auaiey Caiee aie?oa Nieioea.

E XX a. ?acieoea iaaeaeo iiaui noeeai e noa?ui (theeaineei) aeinoeaea 13
nooie. Iineieueeo a iaoae no?aia iiaue noeeue aue aaaaeai oieueei a
1918 a., oi Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey, niaa?oaiiay a 1917 a. 25 ieoya?y
(ii noa?iio noeeth), ioia/aaony 7 iiya?y (ii iiaiio noeeth).

?acieoea iaaeaeo noa?ui e iiaui noeeyie a 13 nooie nio?aieony e a
XXI a., a a XXII a. aic?anoao aei 14 nooie.

Iiaue noeeue, eiia/ii, ia yaeyaony niaa?oaiii oi/iui, ii ioeaea a 1
nooee iaeiieony ii iaio oieueei /a?ac 3300 eao.

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