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Концепция атомизма как концепция корпускулярно-волнового дуализма

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IEIENOA?NOAI AIOO?AIIEO AeAE ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

AAEAI?IAeNEEE TH?EAeE*ANEEE EINOEOOO

Eaoaae?a aoiaieoa?iuo e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo aeenoeeieei

Aeenoeeieeia: ” Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey ”

?AOA?AO

ii oaia: ” Eiioeaioeey aoiiecia eae eiioeaioeey ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaiai
aeoaeecia ”

Iiaeaioiaee: i?ioanni? eaoaae?u AeNYAe,

e.o.i., aeioe. Iiia?eia A.E.

I?iaa?ee: Nooaeaio 534 a?oiiu

Iaeyaeei A.I.

Aaeai?iae – 2008

Ieai ?aoa?aoaNo?aieoeuAaaaeaiea41. Iaoo?oeeinioneea i?aaeiinueee
nia?aiaiiuo aoiienoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee42. I?iaeaia aoiia: io
oeeinioneie eaeae – e oece/aneei iiaeaeyi53. Ie? aoiia n iiceoeee
nia?aiaiiuo iao/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee144. Eaeay ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaiai
aeoaeecia eae iaoiaeieiae/aneee i?eioeei155. Oeceea iee?iie?a eae
i?aeoe/aneay yia?aaoe/aneay i?iaeaia20Caeeth/aiea22Aa???

Eiaaea aiai?yo i nia?aiaiiie oeceea, iau/ii eiatho a aeaeo aeaa
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua eiioeaioeee, aicieeoea a aeaaaeoeaoii aaea – oai?eth
ioiineoaeueiinoe e eaaioiaoth oai?eth eae oece/aneoth oai?eth
iee?iie?a. Iaeiaei a iineaaeiaa aeaaaeoeaoeeaoea e yoei
ooiaeaiaioaeueiui io?aneyi ciaiey aeiaaaeeanue e aua iaeia aeoaieay
oece/aneay oai?ey – oai?ey eieeaeoeaiuo yaeaiee eee neia?aaoeea. Ii, oae
eee eia/a, ai anao yoeo iacaaiiuo oai?eyo i?enoonoaoao i?eioeei
aoiiecia, eiathuee, iiaeaeoe, iaeaieaa aeaaiea enoi?e/aneea o?aaeeoeee.

A iniiaa aoiienoe/aneie eaeae eaaeeo aii?in i i?aaeaea aeaeeiinoe oaea
ia /anoe. Iieiaeeoaeueiue ioaao ia yoio aii?in icia/ae, /oi eiaaony
oaeie iiiaio, /oi aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeaeaiea ethaiai oece/aneiai oaea
noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeiui, e nouanoaoao iaeia eee ianeieueei ?acee/iuo
/anoeoe-aoiiia, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho iniiao nouaai e ec ?acee/iuo
eiiaeiaoeee eioi?uo ninoiyo ana oaea. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa iaoa?ey auea au
iai?a?uaiie, aaneiia/ii aeaeeiie.

Aioe/iua a?aee ?aoaee yoio aii?in oeeinionee-oiic?eoaeueii, e o?aaeeoeey
oaeiai iiaeoiaea i?iaea?aeaeanue iinea ieo aua ii/oe aeaa ouny/aeaoey.
Iaoea aea a nia?aiaiiii aa iiieiaiee aicieeea eeoue a XVII aaea,
eiaaea yenia?eiaioo auei i?aaeinoaaeaii ?aoathuaa i?aai o/anoaiaaoue a
ianoaeaeaiee aii?inia auoey e aneaaenoaea /aai ia iiiiuue “/enoiio
?acoio” auee i?ecaaiu i?aaiu /oanoa. Eiaiii n yoiai a?aiaie e iiaeii
auei oaea ion/eouaaoue iiaeeeiiia iiciaiea aoiia eae oaeiaiai. Ii
aa?iainy e ia?aiia/aeai aoiienoe/aneie eiioeaioeee.

1. I???????a ?????e ?????o ??????? ??????e

Oiic?eoaeueiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi ethaia aauanoai ninoieo ec
iaeue/aeoeo iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe – aoiiia, auei auneacaii ieiei 2500 eao
iacaae ae?aaiaa?a/aneeie oeeinioaie Eaaeeiiii e Aeaiie?eoii.

Eaaeeii (5 aae aei i. y.) – ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinio-iaoa?eaeeno, iaeei
ec nicaeaoaeae aioe/iie aoiienoeee, aue o/eoaeai Aeaiie?eoa,
enoi?e/aneay ee/iinoue eioi?iai, eae nicaeaoaey caaa?oaiiie oeeinioneie
nenoaiu aoiienoeee i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth caneiieea ee/iinoue aai
o/eoaey. Eaaeeii aeey iauyniaiey ?aciiia?acey i?aaeiaoia ooaa?aeaeae
nouanoaiaaiea ioiineoaeueiiai iaauoey, oi anoue iaee/ey ionoiou
i?ino?ainoaa, iieiinoueth eeoaiiiai iaoa?ee, eae naiaia?aciie a?aiu, ia
eioi?ie ?acua?uaathony ana i?ienoiaeyuea a i?e?iaea aauanoaaiiua
i?ioeannu. Ionoioa ?acaeaeyao ana nouaa ia iiiaeanoai yeaiaioia.
Naienoaa yoeo yeaiaioia caaenyo io ia?aie/eaathuaai eo ionoiai
i?ino?ainoaa. ?acee/athony iie ii aaee/eia, oeao?a, aeaeaeaieth. Ii ana
yeaiaiou iuneyony eae iaeii?iaeiua, iai?a?uaiua e iioiio iaaeaeeiua
(atomoi). Eaaeeii n/eoae aeaeaeaiea naienoaii, aioo?aiia i?enoua aoiiai.

Aeaiie?eo (460-370 aei i. y.) – ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinio-iaoa?eaeeno,
nicaeaoaeue caaa?oaiiie oeeinioneie nenoaiu aoiienoeee. Enoi?e/aneia
ianoi oeeinioee Aeaiie?eoa ii?aaeaeyaony yoaiii ia?aoiaea
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie iaoo?oeeinioee e au?aaioea iiiyoey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
auoey. Yoi e iaoei naia io?aaeaiea a enoiaeiii iiiyoee oeeinioee
Aeaiie?eoa – iiiyoee “aoiia”, eae iaeioi?iai iaaeaeeiiai iaoa?eaeueiiai
eiaeeaeaeooia (a?a/aneia atomos, eae e eaoeineia individuum icia/aao
«iaaeaeeiue», eioi?ue i?eciaaony ia aicieeathuei e ia aeaiouei, ia
?ac?ooeiui, ia iiaeaa?aeaiiui eaeiio-eeai aicaeaenoaeth ecaia,
iiaeeeiiui auoeai, i?ioeainoiyuei ionoioa eae aaniethoiiio ie/oi. Aoii,
oaeei ia?acii, i?aa?auaeny o Aeaiie?eoa i?inoi a aaiiao?e/aneia oaei,
eioi?ia oaeaea ia?ac?ooeii, aa/ii e ia eiaao eaeeo-eeai oece/aneeo
naienoa. Aeaiie?eo io?eoeae aaneiia/ioth aeaeeiinoue iaoa?ee. Aoiiu
?acee/athony iaaeaeo niaie oieueei oi?iie, ii?yaeeii acaeiiiai
neaaeiaaiey, e iieiaeaieai a ionoii i?ino?ainoaa, a oaeaea aaee/eiie e
caaenyuae io aaee/eiu oyaeanoueth. Iie eiatho aaneiia/ii ?aciiia?aciua
oi?iu n aiaaeeiaie eee auioeeinoyie. Aeaiie?eo iacuaaao aoiiu oaeaea
“oeao?aie” eee “aeaeeeaie”, ec /aai neaaeoao, /oi aoiiu Aeaiie?eoa
yaeythony iaeneiaeueii iaeuie, aeaeaa iaaeaeeiuie oeao?aie eee
noaooyoeaie.

A nia?aiaiiie iaoea iiiai nii?eee i oii, yaeythony ee aoiiu Aeaiie?eoa
oece/aneeie eee aaiiao?e/aneeie oaeaie, iaeiaei nai Aeaiie?eo aua ia
aeioae aei ?acee/aiey oeceee e aaiiao?ee. Ec yoeo aoiiia, aeaeaeoueony a
?acee/iuo iai?aaeaieyo, ec eo “aeo?y” ii anoanoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iooai naeeaeaiey acaeiiiiiaeiaiuo aoiiia ia?acothony eae ioaeaeueiua
oeaeua oaea, oae e aanue ie?; aeaeaeaiea aoiiia aa/ii, a /enei
aicieeathueo ie?ia aaneiia/ii. Aoiiu aeey /aeiaaea iaaeaeeiu, a
/aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey iauyniythony enoa/aieyie ec aoiiia, “aeaeeeaie”,
aeaenoaothueie ia iaoe i?aaiu /oanoa e aucuaathueie niioaaonoaothuea
iuouaiey, oae /oi ia nouanoaoao ie neaaeeiai, ie ai?ueeiai, ie aaeiai,
ie /a?iiai naiiai ii naaa, ii oieueei aoiiu e ionoioa.

Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a aoiienoe/aneia o/aiea Aeaiie?eoa aian Yieeo?
(342-341 aei i. y.). Aeo?aaia aeaeaeaiea aoiiia caiaiyaony o Yieeo?a
iaaeaieai, aaiaeeony iiiyoea “aana aoiiia”. Iniaaiii i?eia/aoaeueii
o/aiea Yieeo?a i i?iecaieueiii ioeeiiaiee aoiiia io iaaeaiey ii i?yiie,
iainiiauaathuaa aicieeiiaaiea ie?ia (/enei eioi?uo aaneiia/ii) e
naiaiaeo eiaeeaeaea (o. a. aoiia e /aeiaaea). A ai?ueaa n o?aaeeoeeiiiui
aeey aioe/iie iaoo?oeeinioee iiiyoeai ?iea (noaeueau) Yieeo? aeioiaeeo
aei aani?aoeaaeaioiiai io?eoeaiey oi/iie caeiiiia?iinoe iaaaniuo
yaeaiee. Oeeinioneay iiyia Eoe?aoeey (1 aae aei i. y.) “I i?e?iaea
aauae”, iaienaiiay a oi?ia aeeaeaeoe/aneiai yiina, eceaaaao o/aiea
Yieeo?a – aeaaiui ia?acii aai oeceeo. Iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi yoi
aaeeinoaaiiue iieiinoueth nio?aieaoeeny iaiyoiee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie
iunee aioe/iie enoi?ee.

2. I???a ??a: ? ?????e ?? – e ????? ??eyi

Iaeieie ec ia?auo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oaeoia, naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaaoeie i
neiaeiinoe aeaenoaeoaeueiiai oece/aneiai aoiia, ia aai yeaeo?e/aneie
i?e?iaea noaee eeanne/aneea iiuou ii yeaeo?ieeco I. Oa?aaeay. Ia
iniiaaiee yoeo iiuoia ii yeaeo?ieeco ?acee/iuo nieae e ae?oaeo
niaaeeiaiee Oa?aaeae n oaa?aiiinoueth ooaa?aeaeae, /oi yeaeo?e/aneea
ca?yaeu eiathony a aoiiao anao yeaiaioia. Iaeiaei ia iniiaaiee yoeo
iiuoia aua iaeuecy auei n oaa?aiiinoueth iieaaaoue, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie nianoaaiii yeaeo?e/anoai, yaeyaony ee iii iai?a?uaiie noanoaioeeae
eee a i?e?iaea nouanoaotho iaaeaeeiua “aoiiu yeaeo?e/anoaa”.

Oae eae i?e yeaeo?ieeca iaeeiaeiaia eiee/anoai aoiiia ethaiai
iaeiiaaeaioiiai yeaiaioa anaaaea ia?aiineo iaeii e oi aea eiee/anoai
yeaeo?e/anoaa, iiaeii auei i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a i?e?iaea nouanoaoao
“aoii eiee/anoaa yeaeo?e/anoaa”, iaeeiaeiaue a aoiiao anao yeaiaioia.

Ia?aui oeacaieai ia neiaeioth no?oeoo?o aoiia – auee iiuou ii eco/aieth
eaoiaeiuo eo/ae, aicieeathueo i?e yeaeo?e/aneii ?ac?yaea a neeueii
?ac?aaeaiiuo aacao (a oae iacuaaaiie o?oaea E?oena). Aeey iaaethaeaiey
yoeo eo/ae ec noaeeyiiie o?oaee, a eioi?oth aiayiu aeaa iaoaeee/aneeo
yeaeo?iaea, auea/eaaaony ii aiciiaeiinoe aanue aicaeoo e caoai
i?iioneaaony neaicue iaa oie aunieiai iai?yaeaiey. I?e oaeeo oneiaeyo io
eaoiaea o?oaee ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii e aai iiaa?oiinoe ?ani?ino?aiythony
“iaaeaeeiua” “eaoiaeiua eo/e”, aucuaathuea y?eia caeaiia naa/aiea a oii
ianoa, eoaea iie iiiaaeatho. Ieacaeinue, /oi eaoiaeiua eo/e iaeaaeatho
oaeaea niiniaiinoueth i?eaiaeeoue a aeaeaeaiea eaaei iiaeaeaeiua oaea,
eioi?ua, iaoiaeynue ia eo iooe, ioeeiiythony io naiaai ia?aiia/aeueiiai
iieiaeaiey.

Auei auyniaii, /oi aeaenoaea eaoiaeiuo eo/ae iaia?oaeeaaaony oieueei
aioo?e o?oaee, oae eae noaeei aeey ieo ieacaeinue iai?iieoeaaiui.
Eco/aiea naienoa eaoiaeiuo eo/ae i?eaaei e caeeth/aieth, /oi iie ninoiyo
ec iaeue/aeoeo /anoeoe, ianoueo io?eoeaoaeueiue ca?yae e eaoyueo ni
nei?inoueth, aeinoeaathuae iieiaeiu nei?inoe naaoa. Oaeaea oaeaeinue
ii?aaeaeeoue ianno e aaee/eio eo ca?yaea. Yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae, oaeei
ia?acii, ninoaaeye aeey ieo nouiinoue eo i?e?iaeu.

Iaia?oaeaiiue a o?oaea E?oena yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae iieo/ee a
aeaeueiaeoai iacaaiea “yeaiaioa?iiai ca?yaea”, a a 1891 aiaeo
e?eaiaeneee oecee Aeae. Noiiae i?aaeeiaeee aeey iaai iacaaiea
“yeaeo?ii” (io a?a/. “yioa?ue”). Ii iiea yoe ?annoaeaeaiey a
enoi?eei-iao/iii ioiioaiee iineee eeoue /enoi aeiioaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

A eaoiaeiuo o?oaeao yeaeo?iiu ioaeaeythony io eaoiaea iiae aeeyieai
yeaeo?e/aneeo nee. Ii iie iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu e a ae?oaeo oneiaeyo.
Oae, iai?eia?, yeaeo?iiu iiaoo enioneaoueny e i?e yeaeo?iiiie yiennee
iaoaeeia, a oaeaea i?e oioiyooaeoa iiiaea aauanoaa oaeaea aua?anuaatho
yeaeo?iiu. Auaeaeaiea yeaeo?iiia naiuie ?aciiia?aciuie aauanoaaie
oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi yoe /anoeoeu aoiaeyo a eo ninoaa.

Aua ae?aaiea a?aee ciaee, /oi anee yioa?ue iaoa?aoue oa?noueth eee
iaoii, oi ii aoaeao i?eoyaeaaoue eaaeea i?aaeiaou, iai?eia? ia?uey eee
eoni/ee nieiiu. Yoi yaeaiea eco/ae Oeeueyi Aeeueaa?o (1540-1603),
eioi?ue i?aaeeiaeee iacaaiea “yeaeo?e/aneee” aeey iienaiey aeaenoaothuae
a aeaiiii neo/aa neeu i?eoyaeaiey. Yoi iacaaiea i?ienoiaeeo io
a?a/aneiai neiaa “yeaeo?ii”, icia/athuaai a ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai
“yioa?ue”. Aeeueaa?o e iiiaea ae?oaea o/aiua, a oii /enea e Aaiaeaeaiei
O?aieeei, enneaaeiaaee yeaeo?e/aneea yaeaiey. Aieueoay aea /anoue
ioe?uoee a iaeanoe yeaeo?e/anoaa e iaaiaoecia auea naeaeaia ia
i?ioyaeaiee XIX a.

Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi anee no?ao/iue noa?aeaiue, aaaeouee naay oae aea,
eae yioa?ue, iaoa?aoue oa?noyiie oeaiueth e naeeceoue aai ni noaeeyiiui
noa?aeiai, iaoa?oui oaeeiaie oeaiueth, oi iaaeaeo noa?aeiyie
i?ineaeeaaao yeaeo?e/aneay ene?a. Auei iaeaeaii oaeaea, /oi iaaeaeo
oaeeie noa?aeiyie aeaenoaoao neea i?eoyaeaiey. Oae, anee no?ao/iue
noa?aeaiue, iieo/eaoee yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae a ?acoeueoaoa iaoe?aiey
oa?noyiie oeaiueth, iiaeaaneoue ia ieoea e i?eaeeceoue e iaio
ca?yaeaiiiai noaeeyiiiai noa?aeiy, oi ca?yaeaiiue eiiaoe no?ao/iiai
noa?aeiy iiaa?iaony e noaeeyiiiio noa?aeith. A oi aea a?aiy eiiaoe
iayeaeo?eciaaiiiai no?ao/iiai noa?aeiy iooaeeeaaaony io oaeiai aea
iayeaeo?eciaaiiiai noaeeyiiiai noa?aeiy.

A ?acoeueoaoa yenia?eiaioaeueiiai eco/aiey oaeiai ?iaea yaeaiee
neiaeeeinue i?aaenoaaeaiea i nouanoaiaaiee aeaoo aeaeia yeaeo?e/anoaa,
iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea niieyiiai yeaeo?e/anoaa (eioi?ia niae?aaony ia
noaeeyiiii noa?aeia). Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?ioeaiiieiaeiua aeaeu
yeaeo?e/anoaa i?ioyaeaathony, oiaaea, eae iaeeiaeiaua iooaeeeaathony.
O?aieeei ianeieueei oi?inoee yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea, i?eiya aeiiouaiea,
niaeanii eioi?iio iiaeao ia?aoaeaoue io iauaeoa e ae?oaiio iauaeoo
yeaeo?e/anoai eeoue iaeiiai aeaea. Ii i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi a i?ioeanna
iaoe?aiey noaeeyiiiai noa?aeiy oaeeiaie oeaiueth iaeee yeaeo?e/aneee
“oetheae” ia?aoiaeeo ec oeaie a noaeei e noaeeyiiue noa?aeaiue
noaiiaeony iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiui aeaaiaea?y ecauoeo yeaeo?e/aneiai
oetheaea. A oeaie nicaeaaony iaaeinoaoie yeaeo?e/aneiai oetheaea, e iia
noaiiaeony io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiie. Ii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi ia naiii
aeaea ia ciaao, ia?aoae ee yeaeo?e/aneee oetheae ec oaeeiaie oeaie a
noaeeyiiue noa?aeaiue eee ec noaeeyiiiai noa?aeiy a oeaiue, e iiyoiio
?aoaiea n/eoaoue yeaeo?e/anoai ia noaeeyiiii ca?yaeaiiii noa?aeia
iieiaeeoaeueiui yaeyaony iicaieeoaeueiui. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
aeaenoaeoaeueii ecaanoii, /oi eiaaea noaeeyiiue noa?aeaiue iaoe?atho
oaeeiaie oeaiueth, oi io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua /anoeoeu – yeaeo?iiu –
ia?aoiaeyo ni noaeeyiiiai noa?aeiy ia oaeeiaoth oeaiue, e /oi O?aieeei a
naiai aeiiouaiee naeaeae ioeaeo [Iieeo E., Iieeia I. Oeiey -I: Ie?,
1978].

Eae auei neacaii auoa, i?aaenoaaeaiea i niaea?aeaueony a aauanoaao
yeaeo?e/aneeo /anoeoeao auei auneacaii a ea/anoaa aeiioacu aiaeeeneei
o/aiui A. Aeaeiinoiiii Noiiaai. Noiiae ciae, /oi aauanoaa iiaeii
?aceaaaoue yeaeo?e/aneei oieii, – iai?eia?, aiaeo iiaeii ?aceiaeeoue ia
aiaei?iae e eenei?iae. Aio auei ecaanoii oaeaea i ?aaioao Iaeeea
Oa?aaeay, onoaiiaeaoaai, /oi aeey iieo/aiey iaeioi?iai eiee/anoaa
yeaiaioa ec oiai eee eiiai aai niaaeeiaiey o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeaiiia
eiee/anoai yeaeo?e/anoaa. Iaaeoiuaay yoe yaeaiey, Noiiae a 1874a. e
i?eoae e auaiaeo i oii, /oi iie oeacuaatho ia nouanoaiaaiea
yeaeo?e/anoaa a aeaea aeene?aoiuo aaeeie/iuo ca?yaeia, i?e/ai yoe
aaeeie/iua ca?yaeu naycaiu n aoiiaie. Oaeei ia?acii, Noiiae e
i?aaeeiaeee a 1891 a. iacaaiea “yeaeo?ii” aeey iinooee?iaaiiie ei
aaeeieoeu yeaeo?e/anoaa. Yenia?eiaioaeueii aea yeaeo?ii aue ioe?uo a
1897 a. Aeae. Aeae. Oiiniiii (1856-1940) a Eaia?eaeaeneii oieaa?neoaoa.
[Iieeo E., Iieeia I. Oeiey -I: Ie?, 1978]

Iineaaeothuea enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi yeaeo?ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
/anoeoeo n io?eoeaoaeueiui ca?yaeii aaee/eiie –0,1602?10-18 Ee, n
iannie, ?aaiie 0,9108?10-30 ea, /oi ninoaaeyao 1/1873 iannu aoiia
aiaei?iaea. Yeaeo?ii eiaao i/aiue iaaieueoea ?acia?u e oioy ?aaeeon
yeaeo?iia oi/ii ia ii?aaeaeai aei neo ii?, iaeiaei ecaanoii, /oi ii
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa 1?10-15 i. A a 1925 a. auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi
yeaeo?ii a?auaaony aie?oa nianoaaiiie ine e eiaao iaaieoiue iiiaio.
[Iieeo E., Iieeia I. Oeiey -I: Ie?, 1978]

Ia?aua yenia?eiaiou, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo auea oaeoe/anee aeieacaia
?aaeueiinoue nouanoaiaaiey yeaeo?iiia, auee auiieiaiu aiaeeeneei oeceeii
Aeae. Oiiniiii a 1899 aiaeo. Ia iniiaaiee yoiai auea i?aaeeiaeaia
enoi?e/anee ia?aay iiaeaeue aoiia, eioi?ay, n oi/ee c?aiey Oiiniia,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiioth aeeaeeinoue, a eioi?ie
ieaaatho io?eoeaoaeueiua yeaeo?iiu. Iao/iue thii? iaicaae yoo iiaeaeue
“ioaeeiaii n ecthiii”.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee 12 eao yoa iiaeaeue i?aaenoaaeyeanue iao/iiio ie?o
aanueia i?aaaeiiiaeiaiie e ia ecaanoiii o?iaia i?eaeeaeaiey iaieioi
iienuaaea iaaethaeaaiua naienoaa i?ioeannia eceo/aiey, ca eneeth/aieai
niaeo?ia eceo/aiey eee iiaeiuaiey naaoa. Anee, iai?eia?, i?iionoeoue
yeaeo?e/aneee ?ac?yae /a?ac eaeie-eeai aac, oi aoiiu yoiai aaca aeatho
naa/aiea. Eiaiii oaeia eceo/aiea (naaoiaia) e iiaeii aeaeaoue a
aaci?ac?yaeiuo o?oaeao.

Iaeiaei ieacaeinue, /oi enioneaaiue naao eiaao ia nieioiie niaeo?, eae,
neaaeai, Nieioea eee eaiia iaeaeeaaiey, a eeiae/aoue, oi anoue a iai
i?enoonoaotho eeoue auaeaeaiiua eeiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeeei aiei (/anoio,
oeaaoia). Anee acyoue aiaei?iae, a aoiia eioi?iai, eae aiineaaenoaee
auynieea oeceea, eiaaony oieueei iaeei yeaeo?ii, oi n iiiiuueth iiaeaee
aoiia Oiiniia iiaeii i?aaeneacaoue iiyaeaiea eeiee eceo/aiey, ii oieueei
iaeiie.

Iaeiaei oeceeii Aaeueia?ii yenia?eiaioaeueii auei iaia?oaeaii o
aiaei?iaea iaee/ea oeaeie na?ee eeiee eceo/aiey ?acee/iuo /anoio. Aieaa
oiai, iiiaeanoaaiiua na?ee eeiee eceo/aiey aoiiia aiaei?iaea auee
iaia?oaeaiu oaeaea a eio?ae?aniie e a oeueo?aoeieaoiaie iaeanoyo. A
ecaanoiue iiuo ?aca?oi?aea, a eioi?ii iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua
aeueoa-/anoeoeu i?ieaoaee neaicue aauanoai oieueae, i?aeoe/anee ia
ioeeiiyynue (oieueei iaeay /anoue eo io?aaeaeanue a ia?aoioth noi?iio),
?aoeoaeueii i?ioeai?a/ee Oiiniiianeie iiaeaee aoiia.

Yoa iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiay /anoue aoiia auea ioe?uoa a 1911 a.
?aca?oi?aeii i?e enneaaeiaaiee aeaeaeaiey aeueoa-/anoeoe a aacao e
ae?oaeo aauanoaao [Ei?iaei I.A., Eo?n iauae oeiee – I: Aunoay oeiea,
1990].

Aeueoa-/anoeoeu, aua?anuaaaiua aauanoaaie aeoeaiuo yeaiaioia, eae
auynieeinue iicaeiaa, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua
eiiu aaeey, nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey eioi?uo aeinoeaaao ii?yaeea 20000
ei/nae. Aeaaiaea?y oaeie ia?iiiie nei?inoe aeueoa-/anoeoeu, i?ieaoay
/a?ac aicaeoo e noaeeeaaynue n iieaeoeaie aacia, auaeaatho ec ieo
yeaeo?iiu. Iieaeoeu, iioa?yaoea yeaeo?iiu, noaiiayony ca?yaeaiiuie
iieiaeeoaeueii, auaeoua aea yeaeo?iiu oio/an i?eniaaeeiythony e ae?oaei
iieaeoeai, ca?yaeay eo io?eoeaoaeueii. Oaeei ia?acii, a aicaeooa ia iooe
aeueoa-/anoeoe ia?acothony iieiaeeoaeueii e io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua
eiiu aaca. Niiniaiinoue aeueoa-/anoeoe eiiece?iaaoue aicaeoo auea
eniieueciaaia aiaeeeneei oeceeii Aeeueniiii aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue
aeaeeiuie iooe aeaeaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo /anoeoe e noioia?aoe?iaaoue eo.
Aiineaaenoaee aiia?ao aeey oioia?aoe?iaaiey /anoeoe iieo/ee iacaaiea
eaia?u Aeeueniia.

Enneaaeoy iooe aeaeaeaiey /anoeoe n iiiiuueth yoie eaia?u, ?aca?oi?ae
caiaoee, /oi a eaia?a iooe eo ia?aeeaeueiu, a i?e i?iioneaiee io/ea
ia?aeeaeueiuo eo/ae /a?ac neie aaca eee oiieoth iaoaeee/aneoth
ieanoeieo, iie auoiaeyo ia ia?aeeaeueii, a ianeieueei ?anoiaeyony, o.a.
i?ienoiaeeo ioeeiiaiea /anoeoe io eo ia?aiia/aeueiiai iooe. Iaeioi?ua
/anoeoeu ioeeiiyeenue i/aiue neeueii, iaeioi?ua aiana ia i?ioiaeeee
/a?ac oiieoth ieanoeieo [Ei?iaei I.A., Eo?n iauae oeiee – I: Aunoay
oeiea, 1990; Oa?ei A.I., Eo?n oeiee – I: Aunoay oeiea, 1983].

Enoiaey ec yoeo iaaethaeaiee, ?aca?oi?ae e i?aaeeiaeee naith noaio
no?iaiey aoiia: a oeaio?a aoiia iaoiaeeony iieiaeeoaeueiia yae?i, aie?oa
eioi?iai ii ?aciui i?aeoaeyi a?auathony io?eoeaoaeueiua yeaeo?iiu.

Eoae, /a?ac 12 eao iinea ioe?uoey Oiiniiii oaeoa nouanoaiaaiey “aoiia”
yeaeo?e/anoaa – yeaeo?iia Y.?aca?oi?aeii aue iinoaaeai oeacaiiue auoa
iiuo, ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai ei auea i?aaeeiaeaia eiay iiaeaeue aoiia –
“ieaiaoa?iay”, ii i?eioeeio iino?iaiey Nieia/iie nenoaiu.

?aca?oi?ae i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi aoii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeeiaie/aneoth
nenoaio iaiiaeiaea Nieia/iie: aianoi Nieioea a oeaio?a iaoiaeeony
ianneaiia iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiia yae?i (yoi io iaai ioneaeeaatho
iaeaoathuea iieiaeeoaeueiua /anoeoeu), a aie?oa iaai ii i?aeoai
aeaeaeoony io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiua yeaeo?iiu. Oaeei ia?acii, aieueoay
/anoue aoiia ieacuaaaony ionoie – /a?ac iaa-oi e eaoyo i?ieaoathuea
/anoeoeu.

Oaeei ia?acii, eco/aiea no?iaiey aoiia i?aeoe/anee ia/aeinue a 1897-1898
aa., iinea oiai eae auea ieii/aoaeueii onoaiiaeaia i?e?iaea eaoiaeiuo
eo/ae eae iioiea yeaeo?iiia e auee ii?aaeaeaiu aaee/eia ca?yaea e ianna
yeaeo?iia. Oaeo auaeaeaiey yeaeo?iiia naiuie ?aciiia?aciuie aauanoaaie
i?eaiaeee e auaiaeo, /oi yeaeo?iiu aoiaeyo a ninoaa anao aoiiia. Ii
aoii, eae ecaanoii, yeaeo?e/anee iaeo?aeai, ec yoiai neaaeiaaei, /oi a
aai ninoaa aeieaeia auea aoiaeeoue au? iaeia ninoaaiay /anoue,
o?aaiiaaoeaaaoay noiio io?eoeaoaeueiuo ca?yaeia yeaeo?iiia

Ii eeanne/aneay yeaeo?iaeeiaieea ia aeiioneaao onoie/eaiai nouanoaiaaiey
iiaeiaiie nenoaiu.

Oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiua neeu, aicieeathuea i?e eo a?auaiee, oaea?aeeaatho
eo ia naieo i?aeoaeyo e ia aeatho ei oeaoaoue. Yoa iiaeaeue aoiia eaaei
iauyniyao yaeaiea ioeeiiaiey aeueoa-/anoeoe. ?acia?u yae?a e yeaeo?iiia
i/aiue iaeu ii n?aaiaieth n ?acia?aie anaai aoiia, eioi?ua
ii?aaeaeythony i?aeoaie iaeaieaa oaeaeaiiuo io yae?a yeaeo?iiia, iiyoiio
aieueoeinoai aeueoa-/anoeoe i?ieaoaao /a?ac aoiiu aac caiaoiiai
ioeeiiaiey.

Oieueei a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aeueoa-/anoeoeu i/aiue aeecei iiaeoiaeeo
e yae?o, yeaeo?e/aneia iooaeeeaaiea aucuaaao ?aceia ioeeiiaiea aa io
ia?aiia/aeueiiai iooe. Oaeei ia?acii, eco/aiea ?annayiea aeueoa-/anoeoe
iieiaeeei ia/aei yaea?iie oai?ee aoiia.

Iaeiie ec caaea/, noiyaoeo ia?aae oai?eae no?iaiey aoiia a ia/aea aa
?acaeoey, auei ii?aaeaeaiea aaee/eiu ca?yaea yae?a ?acee/iuo aoiiia. Oae
eae aoii a oeaeii yeaeo?e/anee iaeo?aeai, oi, ii?aaeaeea ca?yae yae?a,
iiaeii auei au onoaiiaeoue e /enei ie?oaeathueo yae?i yeaeo?iiia. A
?aoaiee yoie caaea/e aieueooth iiiiuue ieacaei eco/aiea niaeo?ia
?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae.

?aioaaiianeea eo/e aicieeatho i?e oaea?a auno?i eaoyueo yeaeo?iiia i
eaeia-eeai oaa?aeia oaei e ioee/athony io eo/ae aeaeeiiai naaoa oieueei
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoae aeeeiie aieiu. A oi a?aiy eae ei?ioeea naaoiaua
aieiu eiatho aeeeio ieiei 4000 aiano?aiia (oeieaoiaua eo/e), aeeeiu aiei
?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae eaaeao a i?aaeaeao io 20 aei 0,1 aiano?aia. *oiau
iieo/eoue niaeo? ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae, iaeuecy iieueciaaoueny
iaueiiaaiiie i?eciie eee aeeo?aeoeeiiiie ?aoaoeie. (Aeeo?aeoeeiiiay
?aoaoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iioe/aneee i?eai?, niaieoiiinoue aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa ia?aeeaeueiuo uaeae a iai?ic?a/iii ye?aia eee io?aaeathueo
ca?eaeueiuo iieinie (oo?eoia), ?aaiiionoiyueo ae?oa io ae?oaa, ia
eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeo aeeo?aeoeey naaoa. Aeeo?aeoeeiiiay ?aoaoea ?aceaaaao
iaaeathuee ia iaa io/ie naaoa a niaeo?, /oi eniieuecoaony a nenoaia
iaoiaeia iiae eiaiai niaeo?ineiiee.)

Aeey ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae o?aaiaaeanue ?ao?oea n i/aiue aieueoei
eiee/anoaii aeaeaiee ia iaeei ieeeeiao? (i?eia?ii 1 iei. / 1 ii). Oaeoth
?ao?oeo eneonnoaaiii i?eaioiaeoue a i?eioeeia iaaiciiaeii. A 1912 a. o
oaaeoea?neiai oeceea Eaoy aicieeea iuneue eniieueciaaoue e?enoaeeu a
ea/anoaa aeeo?aeoeeiiiie ?aoaoee aeey ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae.

Iiuo aeanoyua iiaeoaa?aeee i?aaeiieiaeaiea Eaoy: anei?a oaeaeinue
iino?ieoue i?eai?u, eioi?ua aeaaaee aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue niaeo?
?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae ii/oe anao yeaiaioia.

Aeey iieo/aiey ?aioaaiianeeo niaeo?ia aioeeaoiae a ?aioaaiianeeo
o?oaeao aeaeatho ec oiai iaoaeea, niaeo? eioi?iai oioyo iieo/eoue, eee
aea iaiinyo niaaeeiaiea enneaaeoaiiai yeaiaioa. Ye?aiii aeey niaeo?a
neoaeeo oioiaoiaaa; iinea oioia?aoe/aneiai i?iyaeaiey ia iae aeaeiu ana
eeiee niaeo?a.

A 1913 a. aiaeeeneee o/aiue Iicee, eco/ay ?aioaaiianeea niaeo?u, iaoae
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo aeeeiaie aiei ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae e ii?yaeeiaiai
iiia?aie niioaaonoaothueo yeaiaioia – yoi iineo iacaaiea caeiia Iicee e
iiaeao auoue noi?ioee?iaaii neaaeothuei ia?acii: ei?ie eaaae?aoiua ec
ia?aoiuo cia/aiee aeeei aiei iaoiaeyony a eeiaeiie caaeneiinoe io
ii?yaeeiauo iiia?ia yeaiaioia.

Aua aei ?aaio Iicee iaeioi?ua o/?iua i?aaeiieaaaee, /oi ii?yaeeiaue
iiia? yeaiaioa oeacuaaao ia /enei ca?yaeia yae?a aai aoiia. A oi aea
a?aiy ?aca?oi?ae, eco/ay ?annaeaaiea aeueoa-/anoeoe i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee
/a?ac oiieea iaoaeee/aneea ieanoeiee, auyniee, /oi anee ca?yae yeaeo?iia
i?eiyoue ca aaeeieoeo, oi au?aaeaaiue a oaeeo aaeeieoeao ca?yae yae?a
i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaai iieiaeia aoiiiiai aana yeaiaioa. Ii?yaeeiaue
iiia?, ii e?aeia ia?a aieaa eaaeeo yeaiaioia, oiaea ?aaiyaony i?eia?ii
iieiaeia aoiiiiai aana.

Ana i?eaaaeaiiua auoa ?acoeueoaou iieacaee, /oi ca?yae yae?a /eneaiii
?aaai ii?yaeeiaiio iiia?o yeaiaioa. Oaeei ia?acii, caeii Iicee iicaieee
ii?aaeaeeoue ca?yaeu aoiiiuo yaea?. Oai naiui, aaeaeo iaeo?aeueiinoe
aoiiia, auei onoaiiaeaii e /enei yeaeo?iiia, a?auathueony aie?oa yae?a a
aoiia eaaeaeiai yeaiaioa [Ei?iaei I.A., Eo?n iauae oeiee – I: Aunoay
oeiea, 1990].

Aeaeaeoueeny onei?aiii ca?yae, – a a?auathueeny ii i?aeoa yeaeo?ii
eiaiii oaeei e yaeyaony, – enioneaao yia?aeth e aeieaeai i/aiue auno?i
oianoue ia yae?i, /oi oaeoe/anee niioaaonoaoao “en/aciiaaieth” aoiia,
iioiaeaai ia nieia/ioth nenoaio. Iaeiaei aoii ia naiii aeaea onoie/ea,
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii ia nianai niioaaonoaoao iiaeaee ii ia?aco
Nieia/iie nenoaiu. Aicieeea i?iaeaia niioaaonoaey ieaiaoa?iie iiaeaee
?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Noaee iaiaoiaeeiuie a yoie nayce iiaua
iiaeoiaeu a enneaaeiaaiee caeiiiia?iinoae no?oeoo?u aoiia.

?acaeaay yaea?ioth oai?eth ?aca?oi?aea, o/aiua i?eoee e iunee, /oi
neiaeiay no?oeoo?a eeiae/aouo niaeo?ia iaoneiaeaia i?ienoiaeyueie aioo?e
aoiiia eieaaaieyie yeaeo?iiia. Ii oai?ee ?aca?oi?aea, eaaeaeue yeaeo?ii
a?auaaony aie?oa yae?a, i?e/ai neea i?eoyaeaiey yae?a o?aaiiaaoeaaaony
oeaio?iaaaeiie neeie, aicieeathuae i?e a?auaiee yeaeo?iia. A?auaiea
yeaeo?iia niaa?oaiii neio?iiii aai auno?ui eieaaaieyi e aeieaeii
aucaaoue enioneaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei. Iiyoiio iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a?auathueeny yeaeo?ii eceo/aao naao ii?aaeaeaiiie
aeeeiu aieiu, caaenyuee io /anoiou ia?auaiey yeaeo?iia ii i?aeoa. Ii,
eceo/ay naao, yeaeo?ii oa?yao /anoue naiae yia?aee, aneaaenoaea /aai
ia?ooaaony ?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo iei e yae?ii; aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey
?aaiiaaney yeaeo?ii aeieaeai iinoaiaiii ia?aaeaeaaoueny aeeaea e yae?o,
i?e/ai oae aea iinoaiaiii aoaeao eciaiyoueny /anoioa ia?auaiey yeaeo?iia
e oa?aeoa? enioneaaiiai ei naaoa. A eiioea eiioeia, en/a?iaa anth
yia?aeth, yeaeo?ii aeieaeai “oianoue” ia yae?i, e eceo/aiea naaoa
i?ae?aoeony. Anee au ia naiii aeaea i?ienoiaeeei oaeia iai?a?uaiia
eciaiaiea aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?iia, oi e niaeo? iieo/aeny au anaaaea
iai?a?uaiue, a ia n eo/aie ii?aaeaeaiiie aeeeiu aieiu. E?iia oiai,
“iaaeaiea” yeaeo?iia ia yae?i icia/aei au ?ac?ooaiea aoiia e i?ae?auaiey
aai nouanoaiaaiey.

ssaea?iay iiaeaeue aoiia ?aca?oi?aea iieo/eea naia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
aeaaiaea?y ?aaioai Ieeuena Ai?a. a eioi?uo o/aiea i no?iaiee aoiia
ia?ac?uaii naycuaaaony n o/aieai i i?ienoiaeaeaiee niaeo?ia.

Eeiae/aoua niaeo?u iieo/athony i?e ?aceiaeaiee naaoa enioneaaiiai
?aneaeaiiuie ia?aie eee aacaie

Eaaeaeiio yeaiaioo ioaa/aao naie niaeo?, ioee/athueeny io niaeo?ia
ae?oaeo yeaiaioia. Aieueoeinoai iaoaeeia aeaao i/aiue neiaeiua niaeo?u,
niaea?aeauea ia?iiiia /enei eeiee (a aeaeaca aei 5000), ii ano?a/athony
e n?aaieoaeueii i?inoua niaeo?u.

Oaeei ia?acii, oai?ey ?aca?oi?aea auea aanneeueia iauynieoue ia oieueei
caeiiiia?iinoe a ?ani?aaeaeaiee eeiee niaeo?a, ie e naii nouanoaiaaiea
eeiae/aouo niaeo?ia.

Aeaoneee oecee Ieeuen Ai? noi?ioee?iaaa a yoie nayce iinooeaoeaiia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea. Ii i?iaicaeanee, /oi caeiiu iee?iie?a ei?aiiui ia?acii
ioee/athony io caeiiia iae?iie?a, a oi a?aiy, eae iiaeaeue aoiia
?aca?oi?aea auea iino?iaia ia i?eioeeieaeueii iae?ineiie/aneeo
i?aaenoaaeaieyo. Ia naiii aea aeaea yeaeo?ii a aoiia iiaeao aeaeaaoueny
ii i?aeoa e ia eceo/aoue, ii ia ii anyeie i?aeoa, a oieueei ii oaeie,
aeeeia eioi?ie niioaaonoaoao oeaeiio /eneo aeeei aiei aea A?ieey,
niioaaonoaothueo aeaeaeouaiony yeaeo?iio.

ssnii, /oi ?aciui nei?inoyi aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?iia aoaeoo
niioaaonoaiaaoue e ?aciua ?aaeeonu i?aeo eo aeaeaeaiey. Anee aea
yeaeo?ii eaeei-oi ia?acii (neaaeai, iiae aicaeaenoaeai aiaoiaai iiey)
ia?aneaeeaaao n i?aeou ia i?aeoo, oi aai yia?aey (oi/iaa, yia?aey aoiia
a oeaeii) iaiyaony, a ?aciinoue yoeo yia?aee eceo/aaony (eee
iiaeiuaaony) a aeaea eaaioa n /anoioie, ii?aaeaeyaiie niaeanii Ieaieo.
?an/ao i?eaae e aeanoyuaio niaeaneth n yenia?eiaioaeueiuie ?acoeueoaoaie
Aaeueia?a. Oaeei ia?acii, aue onoaiiaeai aua iaeei caeii iee?iie?a,
iicaieythuee oi/ii i?aaeneacuaaoue iiaaaeaiea iee?inenoai.

A 1913 a. Ai? i?aaeeiaeee naith oai?eth no?iaiey aoiia, a eioi?ie aio
oaeaeinue n aieueoei eneonnoaii niaeaniaaoue niaeo?aeueiua yaeaiey n
yaea?iie iiaeaeueth aoiia, i?eiaiea e iineaaeiae oae iacuaaaioth
eaaioiaoth oai?eth eceo/aiey, aaaaeaiioth a iaoeo iaiaoeeei
o/aiui-oeceeii Ieaieii.

Nouiinoue oai?ee eaaioia naiaeeony e oiio, /oi eo/enoay yia?aey
enioneaaony e iiaeiuaaony ia iai?a?uaii, eae i?eieiaeinue ?aiueoa, a
ioaeaeueiuie iaeuie, ii aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiuie ii?oeeyie – eaaioaie
yia?aee. Caian yia?aee eceo/athuaai oaea eciaiyaony nea/eaie, eaaio ca
eaaioii; ae?iaiia /enei eaaioia oaei ia iiaeao ie enioneaoue, ie
iiaeiuaoue. Aaee/eia eaaioa yia?aee caaeneo io /anoiou eceo/aiey: /ai
aieueoa /anoioa eceo/aiey, oai aieueoa aaee/eia eaaioa. Eaaiou eo/enoie
yia?aee iacuaathony oaeaea oioiiaie.

I?eiaiea eaaioiaua i?aaenoaaeaiey e a?auaieth yeaeo?iiia aie?oa yae?a,
Ai? iieiaeee a iniiao naiae oai?ee i/aiue niaeua i?aaeiieiaeaiey, eee
iinooeaou. Oioy yoe iinooeaou e i?ioeai?a/ao caeiiai eeanne/aneie
yeaeo?iaeeiaieee, ii iie iaoiaeyo naia ii?aaaeaiea a oao ii?aceoaeueiuo
?acoeueoaoao, e eioi?ui i?eaiaeyo, e a oii iieiaeoai niaeanee, eioi?ia
iaia?oaeeaaaony iaaeaeo oai?aoe/aneeie ?acoeueoaoaie e ia?iiiui /eneii
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oaeoia.

Iinooeaou Ai?a caeeth/athony a neaaeothuai. Yeaeo?ii iiaeao aeaeaaoueny
aie?oa ia ii ethaui i?aeoai, a oieueei ii oaeei, eioi?ua oaeiaeaoai?ytho
ii?aaeaeaiiuie oneiaeyi, auoaeathuei ec oai?ee eaaioia. Yoe i?aeou
iieo/eee iacaaiea onoie/eauo eee eaaioiauo i?aeo. Eiaaea yeaeo?ii
aeaeaeaony ii iaeiie ec aiciiaeiuo aeey iaai onoie/eauo i?aeo, oi ii ia
eceo/aao. Ia?aoiae aea yeaeo?iia n oaeaeaiiie i?aeou ia aieaa aeeceoth
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iioa?ae yia?aee. Iioa?yiiay aoiiii i?e eaaeaeii
ia?aoiaea yia?aey i?aa?auaaony a iaeei eaaio eo/enoie yia?aee. *anoioa
eceo/aaiiai i?e yoii naaoa ii?aaeaeyaony ?aaeeonaie oao aeaoo i?aeo,
iaaeaeo eioi?uie niaa?oaaony ia?aoiae yeaeo?iia. *ai aieueoa ?annoiyiea
io i?aeou, ia eioi?ie iaoiaeeony yeaeo?ii, aei oie, ia eioi?oth ii
ia?aoiaeeo, oai aieueoa /anoioa eceo/aiey.

I?inoaeoei ec aoiiia yaeyaony aoii aiaei?iaea, aie?oa yae?a eioi?iai
a?auaaony oieueei iaeei yeaeo?ii. Enoiaey ec i?eaaaeaiiuo iinooeaoia,
Ai? ?ann/eoae ?aaeeonu aiciiaeiuo i?aeo aeey yoiai yeaeo?iia e iaoae,
/oi iie ioiinyony, eae eaaae?aou iaoo?aeueiuo /enae: 1 : 2 ; 3 : … n.
Aaee/eia n iieo/eea iacaaiea aeaaiiai eaaioiaiai /enea. ?aaeeon
aeeaeaeoae e yae?o i?aeou a aoiia aiaei?iaea ?aaiyaony 0,53 aiano?aia.
Au/eneaiiua ionthaea /anoiou eceo/aiee, nii?iaiaeaeathueo ia?aoiaeu
yeaeo?iia n iaeiie i?aeou ia ae?oaoth, ieacaeenue a oi/iinoe
niaiaaeathueie n /anoioaie, iaeaeaiiuie ia iiuoa aeey eeiee
aiaei?iaeiiai niaeo?a. Oai naiui auea aeieacaia i?aaeeueiinoue ?an/aoa
onoie/eauo i?aeo, a aianoa n oai e i?eeiaeeiinoue iinooeaoia Ai?a aeey
oaeeo ?an/aoia.

A aeaeueiaeoai oai?ey Ai?a auea ?ani?ino?aiaia e ia aoiiioth no?oeoo?o
ae?oaeo yeaiaioia, oioy yoi e auei naycaiii n iaeioi?ui o?oaeiinoyie
ec-ca aa iiaeciu.

Oai?ey Ai?a iicaieeea ?ac?aoeoue i/aiue aaaeiue aii?in i ?aniieiaeaiee
yeaeo?iiia a aoiiao ?acee/iuo yeaiaioia e onoaiiaeoue caaeneiinoue
naienoa yeaiaioia io no?iaiey yeaeo?iiiuo iaiei/ae eo aoiiia. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?ac?aaioaiu noaiu no?iaiey aoiiia anao oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia. Iaeiaei, iaaei eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi ana yoe noaiu anoue eeoue
aieaa eee iaiaa aeinoiaa?iua aeiioacu, iicaieythuay iauynieoue iiiaea
oece/aneea e oeie/aneea naienoaa yeaiaioia.

Eae ?aiueoa oaea auei neacaii, /enei yeaeo?iiia, a?auathueony aie?oa
yae?a aoiia, niioaaonoaoao ii?yaeeiaiio iiia?o yeaiaioa a ia?eiaee/aneie
nenoaia. Yeaeo?iiu ?aniieiaeaiu ii neiyi, o.a. eaaeaeiio neith
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiia caiieiythuea eee eae au ianuuathuaa aai
/enei yeaeo?iiia. Yeaeo?iiu iaeiiai e oiai aea neiy oa?aeoa?ecothony
ii/oe iaeeiaeiaui caianii yia?aee, o.a. iaoiaeyony i?eia?ii ia
iaeeiaeiaii yia?aaoe/aneii o?iaia. Any iaiei/ea aoiia ?aniaaeaaony ia
ianeieueei yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae. Yeaeo?iiu eaaeaeiai neaaeothuaai neiy
iaoiaeyony ia aieaa aunieii yia?aaoe/aneii o?iaia, /ai yeaeo?iiu
i?aaeuaeouaai neiy. Iaeaieueoaa /enei yeaeo?iiia I, iiaoueo iaoiaeeoueny
ia aeaiiii yia?aaoe/aneii o?iaia, ?aaii oaeaiaiiiio eaaae?aoo iiia?a
neiy: N = 2n2, aaea n – iiia? neiy; N – iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai
yeaiaioia.

E?iia oiai, onoaiiaeaii, /oi /enei yeaeo?iiia a ia?oaeiii neia aeey anao
yeaiaioia, e?iia iaeeaaeey, ia i?aauoaao ainueie, a a i?aaeiineaaeiai
-ainaiiaaeoeaoe. Yeaeo?iiu ia?oaeiiai neiy, eae iaeaieaa oaeaeaiiua io
yae?a e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeiaiaa i?i/ii naycaiiua n yae?ii, iiaoo
io?uaaoueny io aoiia e i?eniaaeeiyoueny e ae?oaei aoiiai, aoiaey a
ninoaa ia?oaeiiai neiy iineaaeieo. Aoiiu, eeoeaoeany iaeiiai eee
ianeieueeeo yeaeo?iiia, noaiiayony ca?yaeaiiua iieiaeeoaeueii, oae eae
ca?yae yae?a aoiia i?aauoaao noiio ca?yaeia inoaaoeony yeaeo?iiia.
Iaiai?io aoiiu, i?eniaaeeieaoea yeaeo?iiu noaiiayony ca?yaeaiiua
io?eoeaoaeueii. Ia?acothueany oaeei iooai ca?yaeaiiua /anoeoeu,
iacuaathony eiiaie. Iiiaea eiiu a naith i/a?aaeue iiaoo oa?youe eee
i?eniaaeeiyoue yeaeo?iiu, i?aa?auaynue i?e yoii eee a
yeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiua aoiiu, eee a iiaua eiiu n ae?oaei ca?yaeii.

Oai?ey Ai?a ieacaea ia?iiiua oneoae oeceea e oeiee, iiaeieaey, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, e ?ane?uoeth caeiiia niaeo?ineiiee e iauyniaieth iaoaiecia
eo/aenioneaiey, a n ae?oaie – e auyniaieth no?oeoo?u ioaeaeueiuo aoiiia
e onoaiiaeaieth nayce iaaeaeo ieie. Iaeiaei inoaaaeinue aua iiiai
yaeaiee a yoie iaeanoe, iauynieoue eioi?ua oai?ey Ai?a ia iiaea.

Oae, aeaeaeaiea yeaeo?iiia a aoiiao Ai? i?aaenoaaeye eae i?inoia
iaoaie/aneia, iaeiaei, iii yaeyaony neiaeiui e naiaia?aciui. Yoi
naiaia?acea auei iauyniaii iiaie eaaioiaie oai?eae.

Ioe?uoia a eiioea i?ioeiai aaea Aaeea?aeai, a caoai enneaaeiaaiiia
Iuea?ii e Ia?e Eth?e, ?aca?oi?aeii, *aaeaeeii, Oa?ie yaeaiea
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe auyaeei oece/anee neiaeiue ninoaa “aoiia”,
“ianaeaiiue” i?ioiiaie, iaeo?iiaie, iaeo?eii e ae?oaeie yeaiaioa?iuie
/anoeoeaie. Noi?ie?iaaeanue e enoi?e/anee ia?aay no?ieiay oece/aneay
oai?ey iee?iie?a eaaioiaay iaoaieea. Yoio aaee/aeoee ia?aai?io a oeceea
i?iecioae ia ?oaaaea XX aaea. Oeceee ia?aoee a?aieoeu iiaie, iaaaaeiiie
aeinaea iaeanoe, iee?iie?.

Oaea? ii i?aaenoaaeaieyi, noaaoei i?eau/iuie, ieacaeny oai aieaa
/oanoaeoaeueiui, /oi a eiioea XIX aaea aeaaea auaeathueany oeceee auee
oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi iniiaiua caeiiu i?e?iaeu ?ane?uou, e inoaaony
eniieueciaaoue eo aeey iauyniaiey ?acee/iuo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia.

Aaaeue aei yoiai ooiaeaiaioaeueiua i?eioeeiu eeanne/aneie iaoaieee
Iuethoiia, yeaeo?iaeeiaieee Iaenaaeea e ae?. ?acaeaeia oeceee iieo/aee
ana iiaua e iiaua iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey naiae ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Ieeiio ia i?eoiaeeei a aieiao, /oi n oiaiueoaieai, e i?eia?o, iannu oae
eee oaaee/aieai eo nei?inoe caeiiu Iuethoiia, aeaaii n/eoaaoeany /ooue
ee ia naiii/aaeaeiuie, iiaoo ieacaoueny ianinoiyoaeueiuie.

E aio auynieeinue, /oi aoiiu iiaeaa?aeaiu ?ac?ooaieth. No?aiiua naienoaa
iaia?oaeee yeaeo?ii. Aai ianna au?anoaea ni nei?inoueth. Iniiaiay
oa?aeoa?enoeea oaea – ianna, n/eoaaoayny ni a?aiai Iuethoiia iaeciaiiie,
ieacaeanue caaenyuae io nei?inoe. A aaaeue ianno auei i?eiyoi
?anniao?eaaoue eae ia?o eiee/anoaa aauanoaa, niaea?aeauaainy a oaea.

Iiaua oai?ee – oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe e eaaioiaay iaoaieea noaee
iniiaie iiaiai iao/iiai ie?iiiieiaiey, a iiiai naeaeaaoay aeey yoiai
eeanne/aneay oeceea aiana ia ieacaeanue ioa?ioaiiie ia “iai/eio”
iaaeno?aeueiiai aeaeaeaiey iaoee, a noaea i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie /anoiue,
eee, oi/iaa, i?aaeaeueiue neo/aai oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe e eaaioiaie
iaoaieee i?e nei?inoyo, cia/eoaeueii iaiueoeo nei?inoe naaoa, e i?e
?acia?ao, cia/eoaeueii iaiueoeo ?acia?ia ?aaeueiuo iae?ioae.

3. I? ??a n ???e ?????o ???o ??????e

Aoii ninoieo ec iee?ineiie/anee iaeaiueeiai, iaeiaei aanueia ianneaiiai,
iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiiai yae?a, ie?oaeaiiiai yeaeo?iiaie. ssae?i
ninoaaeyao, oaeei ia?acii, iniiaioth /anoue iannu aoiia. Iii ninoieo ec
iaeo?iiia e i?ioiiia (iauaa iacaaiea ioeeiiu), naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie
i/aiue aieueoeie yaea?iuie neeaie, iaiiiai i?aauoathueie yeaeo?e/aneea
neeu, eioi?ua naycuaatho yeaeo?iiu n yae?ii. Yia?aey yae?a caaeneo io
oiai, ianeieueei neeueii aai iaeo?iiu e i?ioiiu oaea?aeeaathony
yaea?iuie neeaie. Yia?aey ioeeiia – yoi yia?aey, o?aaoaiay, /oiau
oaeaeeoue iaeei iaeo?ii eee i?ioii ec yae?a. Anee aeaa eaaeeo yae?a
niaaeeiythony, /oiau noi?ie?iaaoue aieaa oyaeaeia yae?i eee anee
oyaeaeia yae?i ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa aieaa eaaeeo, oi a iaieo neo/ayo
auaeaeyaony aieueoia eiee/anoai yia?aee.

i

E iee?iiauaeoai iau/ii ioiinyo iieaeoeu, aoiiiua yae?a, yeaiaioa?iua
/anoeoeu. Aeiaieueii aiaaoue naaiaeiy nienie yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe
aeeth/aao a naay eaaiou yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey (oioiiu) e aeaa a?oiiu
/anoeoe: oae iacuaaaiua aae?iiu e eaioiiu. Aeey aae?iiia oa?aeoa?ii
neeueiia (yaea?iia) acaeiiaeaenoaea, oiaaea eae eaioiiu ieeiaaea ia
o/anoaotho a neeueiuo acaeiiaeaenoaeyo. E eaioiiai ioiinyony yeaeo?ii,
ithii e aeaa iaeo?eii – yeaeo?iiiia e ithiiiia.

A?oiia aae?iiia nouanoaaiii iiiai/eneaiiaa. E iei ioiinyony ioeeiiu
(i?ioii e iaeo?ii), iaciiu (a?oiia /anoeoe, ianna eioi?uo iaiueoa iannu
i?ioiia) e aeia?iiu (a?oiia /anoeoe, ianna eioi?uo aieueoa iannu
iaeo?iia). Ii/oe anai yeaiaioa?iui /anoeoeai niioaaonoaotho
aioe/anoeoeu. Eneeth/aiea caeanue ninoaaeytho eeoue oioii e iaeioi?ua
iaeo?aeueiua iaciiu.

Aiai?y i oa?aeoa?enoeeao iee?iiauaeoia, i?aaeaea anaai aiai?yo ia eo
ianna iieiy e yeaeo?e/aneii ca?yaea. E i?eia?o, ianna yeaeo?iia m =
9,1?10-28 a, i?ioii eiaao ianno, ?aaioth 1836m, iaeo?ii – 1839m, ithii –
207m. Ioiinyueany e iaciiai ieiiu (?-iaciiu) eiatho ianno ieiei 270m, a
eaiiu (E-iaciiu) – io 970m aei 1750m. Ianno iieiy oioiia e iaieo
iaeo?eii iieaaatho ?aaiie ioeth.

Ianna iieaeoeu, aoiia, yae?a ?aaia noiia iann ninoaaeythueo aeaiiue
iee?iiauaeo /anoeoe ca au/aoii iaeioi?ie aaee/eiu, iacuaaaiie aeaoaeoii
iannu. Aeaoaeo iannu ?aaai aeaeaiiie ia eaaae?ao nei?inoe naaoa yia?aee,
eioi?oth iaaei cao?aoeoue aeey oiai, /oiau “?acaaeeoue” iee?iiauaeo ia
ninoaaeythuea aai /anoeoeu (yoo yia?aeth i?eiyoi iacuaaoue yia?aeae
nayce). *ai neeueiaa naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii /anoeoeu, oai aieueoa
aeaoaeo iannu. Iaeaieaa neeueii naycaiu ioeeiiu a aoiiiuo yae?ao —
i?eoiaeyueeny ia iaeei ioeeii aeaoaeo iannu i?aauoaao 10m.

Aaee/eia yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea ethaiai iee?iiauaeoa e?aoia aaee/eia
ca?yaea yeaeo?iia; iineaaeiyy ?aaia 1,6?10-19 Ee. Ia?yaeo n ca?yaeaiiuie
nouanoaotho iaeo?aeueiua iee?iiauaeou (iai?eia?, oioii, iaeo?eii,
iaeo?ii). Yeaeo?e/aneee ca?yae neiaeiiai iee?iiauaeoa ?aaai
aeaaa?ae/aneie noiia ca?yaeia ninoaaeythueo aai /anoeoe.

4. E?y ????ey?i-????i ???? ?e ???????? ?e??

Eeanne/aneay oeceea ciaeiieo n aeaoiy aeaeaie aeaeaeaiey -ei?ioneoey?iui
e aieiiaui. Aeey ia?aiai oa?aeoa?iu eieaeecaoeey iauaeoa a i?ino?ainoaa
e nouanoaiaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie o?aaeoi?ee aai aeaeaeaiey. Aeey aoi?iai
oa?aeoa?ii, iai?ioea, aeaeieaeecaoeey a i?ino?ainoaa; n aieiiaui
aeaeaeaieai ia niiinoaaeyaony ieeaeiai eieaeeciaaiiiai iauaeoa – yoi
anoue aeaeaeaiea naiie n?aaeu. Ia o?iaia iae?iyaeaiee ei?ioneoey?iia e
aieiiaia aeaeaeaiea /aoei ?aca?aie/aiu; iaeii aeaei – aeaeaeaiea
a?ioaiiiai eaiiy, ae?oaia – aeaeaeaiea aieiu, iaaaaathuae ia i?ea?aaeiue
ianie.

Yoe i?eau/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey, eae auei iiae/a?eiooi auoa, ia iiaoo auoue
ia?aianaiu a eaaioiaoth iaoaieeo.

Ia o?iaia iee?iyaeaiee oeacaiiia auoa /aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo
aeaoiy aeaeaie aeaeaeaiey a nouanoaaiiie ia?a noe?aaony – aeaeaeaiea
iee?iiauaeoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaeiia?aiaiii e aieiiauie e ei?ioneoey?iuie
naienoaaie. Anee noaiaoe/anee ?anniao?eaaoue eeanne/aneea ei?ioneoeu e
eeanne/aneea aieiu eae aeaa i?aaeaeueiuo neo/ay iienaiey aeaeaeaiey
iaoa?ee, oi iee?iiauaeou aeieaeiu caiyoue a yoie noaia ianoi aaea-oi
iina?aaeeia. Iie ia yaeythony ie “/enouie” (a eeanne/aneii iiieiaiee)
ei?ioneoeaie, ie “/enouie” aieiaie – iie yaeythony /ai-oi ea/anoaaiii
eiui. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iee?iiauaeo a eaeie-oi ia?a iioiae ia
ei?ioneoeo, a eaeie-oi ia?a – ia aieio, i?e/ai yoa ia?a caaeneo, a
/anoiinoe, io oneiaee, a eioi?uo ?anniao?eaaaony iee?iiauaeo. Anee a
eeanne/aneie oeceea ei?ioneoea e aieia – aeaa acaeiieneeth/athuea ae?oa
ae?oaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe (eeai /anoeoea, eeai aieia), oi oaia?ue, ia
o?iaia iee?iyaeaiee, yoe i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iauaaeeiythony a ?aieao
aaeeiiai iee?iiauaeoa. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai e i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaui aeoaeeciii (“aeoaeeci” icia/aao
“aeaienoaaiiinoue”).

Ia?aiia/aeueii eaeay aeoaeecia auea i?eiaiaia e yeaeo?iiaaieoiiio
eceo/aieth. Aua a 1917 a. Yeiooaei i?aaeeiaeee ?anniao?eaaoue aaaaeaiiua
Ieaieii eaaiou eceo/aiey eae naiaia?aciua /anoeoeu, iaeaaeathuea ia
oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiie yia?aeae, ii e ii?aaeaeaiiui eiioeuenii:

E = hu, p = hu / n.

Iicaeiaa (n 1923 a.) yoe /anoeoeu noaee iacuaaoue oioiiaie.

Aanueia y?ei ei?ioneoey?iua naienoaa yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey
i?iyaeeenue a yooaeoa Eiiioiia (1923 a.). Ionoue io/ie ?aioaaiianeeo
eo/ae ?annaeaaaony ia aoiiao aauanoaa. Ii eeanne/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi
?annayiiua eo/e aeieaeiu eiaoue oo aea aeeeio aieiu, /oi e iaaeathuea.
Iaeiaei iiuo iieacae, /oi aeeeia aieiu ?annayiiuo eo/ae aieueoa
ia/aeueiie aeeeiu aieiu, i?e/ai ?acieoea a aeeeiao aiei caaeneo io oaea
?annayiey. Yooaeo Eiiioiia iieo/ee iauyniaiea a i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi
io/ie ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae aaaeao naay eae iioie oioiiia, eioi?ua
eniuouaatho oi?oaea noieeiiaaiey n yeaeo?iiaie aoiiia, n auiieiaieai
caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee e eiioeuena aeey noaeeeaathueony /anoeoe. I?e
yoii aeinoeaaeinue ia oieueei ea/anoaaiiia, ii e eiee/anoaaiiia niaeanea
n yenia?eiaioii.

A 1924 a. aea A?ieeue i?aaeeiaeee ?ani?ino?aieoue oeacaiioth eaeath ia
oieueei ia nianoaaiii eceo/aiea, ii e aiiaua ia ana iee?iiauaeou.
Eiie?aoii, ii i?aaeeiaeee n eaaeaeui iee?iiauaeoii naycuaaoue, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, ei?ioneoey?iua oa?aeoa?enoeee (yia?aeth E e eiioeuen p), a n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, aieiiaua oa?aeoa?enoeee (/anoioo u e aeeeio aieiu e).
Acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?aciiai oeia inouanoaeythony, ii
aea A?ieeth, /a?ac iinoiyiioth Ieaiea h neaaeothuei ia?acii:

A = hu, p = 2?h / e

(aoi?ia ec yoeo niioiioaiee ecaanoii eae oi?ioea aea A?ieey).

Aeey oioiiia yoe niioiioaiey auiieiythony aaoiiaoe/anee, anee a oi?ioea
p = hu / c iiaenoaaeoue u = 2?c / e. Iao/iay niaeinoue aeiioacu aea
A?ieey ninoiyea a oii, /oi i?eaaaeaiiua niioiioaiey i?aaeiieaaaeenue
auiieiythueieny aeey anao iee?iiauaeoia, a /anoiinoe aeey oaeeo, o
eioi?uo anoue ianna iieiy e eioi?ua aei yoiai annioeee?iaaeenue n
ei?ioneoeaie.

Aeiioaca aea A?ieey iieo/eea a 1927 a. oaeoe/aneia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea:
auea iaia?oaeaia aeeo?aeoeey yeaeo?iiia. Enneaaeoy i?ioiaeaeaiea
yeaeo?iiia neaicue oiieea ieanoeiee, Aeyaenii e Aeaea?ia? (a oaeaea
Oa?oaeianeee) iaia?oaeeee ia ye?aia-aeaoaeoi?a oa?aeoa?iua
aeeo?aeoeeiiiua eieueoea. Aeey “yeaeo?iiiuo” aiei e?enoaeee/aneay
?aoaoea ieoaie nua?aea ?ieue aeeo?aeoeeiiiie ?aoaoee. Ecia?aiea
?annoiyiee iaaeaeo aeeo?aeoeeiiiuie eieueoeaie aeey yeaeo?iiia caaeaiiie
yia?aee iiaeoaa?aeeee oi?ioeo aea A?ieey.

A 1949 a. Oaa?eeaio n nio?oaeieeaie iinoaaeee eioa?aniue iiuo. Iie
i?iioneaee /a?ac aeeo?aeoeeiiiia ono?ienoai e?aeia neaaue yeaeo?iiiue
io/ie – i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie iaaeaeo iineaaeiaaoaeueiuie aeoaie
i?iioneaiey (iaaeaeo aeaoiy yeaeo?iiaie) aieaa /ai a 10000 ?ac i?aauoae
a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?ioiaeaeaiey yeaeo?iia /a?ac ono?ienoai. Yoi
aeaaaei oaa?aiiinoue, /oi ia iiaaaeaiea yeaeo?iia ia aeeytho ae?oaea
yeaeo?iiu io/ea. Iiuo iieacae, /oi i?e aeeeoaeueiie yeniiceoeee,
iicaieythuae ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue ia ye?aia-aeaoaeoi?a aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia
/enei yeaeo?iiia, aicieeaea oaeay aea aeeo?aeoeeiiiay ea?oeia, eae e a
neo/aa iau/iuo yeaeo?iiiuo io/eia. Ionthaea neaaeiaaei, /oi aieiiaua
naienoaa yeaeo?iiia iaeuecy iauynieoue eae iaeee yooaeo eieeaeoeaa
yeaeo?iiia: aieiiauie naienoaaie iaeaaeaao eaaeaeue ioaeaeueii acyoue
yeaeo?ii, e iee?iiauaeo, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eeanne/anee iiieiaaiie
ei?ioneoeie.

E eeanne/aneiio iiieiaieth iee?iiauaeoa eae ei?ioneoeu i?eaiaeeo
i?ioeann iaoaie/aneiai “?acae?iaeaiey” ie?oaeathueo ian oae ia ana aieaa
e aieaa iaeeea “/anoe/ee”. Iiyoiio aiieia anoanoaaiii, /oi a iau/iii
iai iiieiaiee iee?iiauaeou annioeee?othony i?aaeaea anaai n
ei?ioneoeaie. Yoiio niinianoaoao e oio oaeo, /oi aieueoeinoao
iee?iiauaeoia oa?aeoa?ia ii?aaeaeaiiay ianna iieiy e ii?aaeaeaiiua
ca?yaeu. Aanniuneaiii aiai?eoue, iai?eia?, i iieiaeia yeaeo?iia,
iaeaaeathuae iieiaeiiie iannie e iieiaeiiui yeaeo?e/aneei ca?yaeii
oeaeiai yeaeo?iia, a naieo oa?ieiao “iee?i/anoeoea”, “yeaiaioa?iay
/anoeoea” io?aaeaii i?aaenoaaeaiea i iee?iiauaeoa eae i iaeiae /anoeoea
(ei?ioneoea).

Iaeiaei eae yoi neaaeoao ec i?aaeuaeouaai ?anniio?aiey, iee?iiauaeo
aanueia nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io eeanne/aneie ei?ioneoeu. I?aaeaea
anaai, ii ia eiaao eeiaeiie o?aaeoi?ee, yaeythuaeny iaeciaiiui ao?eaooii
eeanne/aneie ei?ioneoeu. Eniieueciaaiea i?e ?anniio?aiee iee?iiauaeoa
oaeeo ei?ioneoey?iuo oa?aeoa?enoee, eae eii?aeeiaoa, eiioeuen, iiiaio,
yia?aey, ia?aie/eaaaony ?aieaie niioiioaiee iaii?aaeaeaiiinoae.
Acaeiii?aa?auaiey iee?iiauaeoia, naiii?iecaieueiua ?aniaaeu, iaee/ea
niaoeeoe/aneiai iaoie/oiaeaaiiai nianoaaiiiai iiiaioa (nieia),
niiniaiinoue i?ioiaeeoue neaicue iioaioeeaeueiua aa?uea?u – ana yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi iee?iiauaeou niaa?oaiii ia oiaeaeanoaaiiu
eeanne/aneei ei?ioneoeai.

Ei?ioneoey?iui i?aaenoaaeaieyi a eeanne/aneie oeceea i?ioeainoiyo
aieiiaua i?aaenoaaeaiey. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi ?aceoaeueiia
ioee/ea iee?iiauaeoia io eeanne/aneeo ei?ioneoe iauyniytho iaee/eai o
ieo aieiiauo naienoa. Aanueia iieacaoaeueii a yoii ioiioaiee neaaeothuaa
caia/aiea aea A?ieey: “A iioeea a oa/aiee noieaoey neeoeii i?aiaa?aaaee
ei?ioneoey?iui niiniaii ?anniio?aiey ii n?aaiaieth n aieiiaui. Ia
aeaeaeanue ee a oai?ee iaoa?ee ia?aoiay ioeaea? Ia aeoiaee ee iu neeoeii
iiiai i ea?oeia “/anoeoe” e ia i?aiaa?aaaee ee /?acia?ii ea?oeiie
aiei?”.

Aii?in, iiaeiyoue aea A?ieeai, niaa?oaiii oianoai. Iaeiaei neaaeoao
iianaoueny /?acia?iiai oaaee/aiey “aieiiaiai” aniaeoa i?e ?anniio?aiee
iee?iiauaeoia. Iaiaoiaeeii iiiieoue, /oi, anee, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
iee?iiauaeo ia yaeyaony eeanne/aneie ei?ioneoeie, oi oi/ii oae aea, n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii ia yaeyaony e eeanne/aneie aieiie.

Aanueia iio/eoaeai aiaeec iaeiie aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiiie ioeaee,
aeiioneaaiie i?e oi?iuaiiii ?anniio?aiee eaaioiaie iaoaieee.
I?iaeaiiino?e?oai yoo ioeaeo ia aeaoo i?eia?ao.

Ia?aue i?eia?. Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi aieiiaua naienoaa yeaeo?iia
iicaieytho auaanoe oneiaea eaaioiaaiey iiiaioa, eioi?ia a oai?ee Ai?a
iinooee?oaony. Yoio “auaiae” aeaeatho neaaeothuei ia?acii. Ionoue 2rn? –
aeeeia n-iie ai?ianeie i?aeou. Ii i?aeoa aeaeaeaony yeaeo?ii n
aeaa?ieeaaneie aeeeiie aieiu en = 2?h / pn. Iniiaiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea
ninoieo a oii, /oi ia aeeeia i?aeou aeieaeii oeeaaeuaaoueny n-?ac aeeeia
aieiu yeaeo?iia en. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, 2rn? = nen. Ionthaea iaiaaeeaiii
iieo/aaony eneiiia oneiaea eaaioiaaiey iiiaioa:

pnrn = nh.

Aoi?ie i?eia?. Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi aieiiaua naienoaa yeaeo?iia
iicaieytho auaanoe oi?ioeo aeey yia?aaoe/aneeo o?iaiae a iioaioeeaeueiie
yia, anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ?acee/iui noaoeeiia?iui ninoiyieyi
ioaa/aao ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei iieoaiei aea A?ieey, oeeaaeuaathuaany ia
oe?eia yiu (ii aiaeiaee n /eneii iieoaiei, oeeaaeuaathueony ia aeeeia
no?oiu, cae?aieaiiie ia eiioeao). Iaicia/ay /a?ac a oe?eio iaeiiia?iie
i?yiioaieueiie iioaioeeaeueiie yiu, caienuaatho a = nen / 2, ioeoaea
iaiaaeeaiii i?eoiaeyo e eneiiiio ?acoeueoaoo:

En = n2?2h2 / 2ma2.

Iaa eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoa i?aaeeueiu, iie neaaeotho ec no?iaie oai?ee.
Iaeiaei i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaiiue caeanue “auaiae” yoeo ?acoeueoaoia iaaei
i?eciaoue ianinoiyoaeueiui. A iaieo neo/ayo aeiiouaia iaeia e oa aea
i?eioeeieaeueiay ioeaea: a iniiao iieiaeaii iaaa?iia i?aaeiieiaeaiea,
aoaeoi yeaeo?ii a iioaioeeaeueiie yia eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth aeeeio aieiu
aea A?ieey, eee, eia/a aiai?y, ii?aaeaeaiiue eiioeuen. Iaeiaei, niaeanii
niioiioaieth AepxAex > h, eiioeuen iee?iiauaeoa a naycaiiii ninoiyiee
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth Aep > h / a. Iineieueeo a
i?eaaaeaiiuo auoa i?eia?ao Aep > h / e > h / a, oi neaaeiaaoaeueii,
eiioeuen ii ii?yaeeo aaee/eiu oaeie aea, eae e aeeeooaiay niioiioaieai
AepxAex > h iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue eiioeuena. ssnii, /oi a oaeeo oneiaeyo
iaeuecy aiai?eoue i eaeii-oi cia/aiee eiioeuena yeaeo?iia (a
niioaaonoaaiii, e aai aeaa?ieeaaneie aeeeiu aieiu) aeaaea
i?eaeeceoaeueii.

I?eaaaeaiiua i?eia?u yaii aeaiiino?e?otho i?aoaaee/aiea aieiiaiai
aniaeoa. Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea iaoiaeyuaainy a iioaioeeaeueiie yia yeaeo?iia
n eeanne/aneie aieiie aioo?e iaeiaai “?aciiaoi?a” iai?aaiia?ii. Ia?ac
yeaeo?iiiie aieiu a “?aciiaoi?a” anoue oaeia aea oi?iuaiea, eae e ia?ac
yeaeo?iia-oa?eea, aeaeaeouaainy ii eeanne/aneie i?aeoa. Neaaeoao ciaoue,
/oi iiae oa?ieiii “aeaa?ieeaaneay aieia” ioithaeue ia ne?uaaaony
eaeay-oi eeanne/aneay aieia. Yoi anaai eeoue io?aaeaiea a iaoeo
i?aaenoaaeaieyo oaeoa iaee/ey o iee?iiauaeoa aieiiauo naienoa.

Anee iee?iiauaeo ia yaeyaony ie ei?ioneoeie, ie aieiie, oi, iiaeao
auoue, ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeee neiaeic ei?ioneoeu e aieiu?
I?aaei?eieiaeenue ?acee/iua iiiuoee iiaeaeueii ecia?aceoue oaeie neiaeic
e oai naiui iaaeyaeii niiaeaee?iaaoue ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaie aeoaeeci.
Iaeia ec oaeeo iiiuoie naycaia n i?aaenoaaeaieai iee?iiauaeoa eae
aieiiaiai ia?aciaaiey, ia?aie/aiiiai a i?ino?ainoaa e ai a?aiaie. Yoi
iiaeao auoue aieiiaie iaeao, i eioi?ii iu oaea aiai?eee. Yoi iiaeao
auoue e i?inoi “ia?uaie” aieiu, iacuaaaiue iau/ii aieiiaui oeoaii.
Ae?oaay iiiuoea naycaia n eniieueciaaieai iiaeaee aieiu-ieeioa, niaeanii
eioi?ie iee?iiauaeo anoue iaeia “niaaeeiaiea” ei?ioneoey?iie
“na?aeoeaaeiu” n iaeioi?ie aieiie, oi?aaeythuae aeaeaeaieai
“na?aeoeaaeiu”.

Iaeei ec aa?eaioia iiaeaee aieiu-ieeioa ?anniio?ai a eieaa Ae. Aiia:

“Nia/aea iinooee?oai, /oi n /anoeoeae (iai?eia?, yeaeo?iiii) naycaii
“oaei”, caieiathuaa iaeoth iaeanoue i?ino?ainoaa; a aieueoeinoaa
i?eiaiaiee ia yaea?iii o?iaia aai iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae
iaoa?eaeueioth oi/eo. A ea/anoaa neaaeothuaai oaaa i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi n
“oaeii” naycaia aieia, aac eioi?ie oaei ia iaia?oaeeaaaony. Yoa aieia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eieaaaiey iaeiaai iiaiai iiey (o-iiey), aei
iaeioi?ie noaiaie iioiaeaai ia a?aaeoaoeeiiiia e yeaeo?iiaaieoiia, ii
eiathuaa naie nianoaaiiua oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou. Aeaeaa i?aaeiieaaaai, /oi
o-iiea e “oaei” acaeiiaeaenoaotho. Yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea aeieaeii aoaeao
i?eaiaeeoue e oiio, /oi “oaei” aoaeao no?aieony iaoiaeeony a iaeanoe,
aaea eioaineaiinoue o-iiey eiaao iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea. Inouanoaeaieth
yoie oaiaeaioeee aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?iia iaoatho iaoii?yaei/aiiua
aeaeaeaiey, eniuouaaaiua oaeii, eioi?ua iiaee au aicieeiooue, iai?eia?,
a neaaenoaea oeoeooaoeee naiiai o-iiey. Oeoeooaoeee aucuaatho
oaiaeaioeeth aeoaeaeaiey “oaea” ii anaio aeinooiiiio aio i?ino?ainoao.
Ii inouanoaeaieth yoie oaiaeaioeee iaoaao iaee/ea “eaaioiaie neeu”
eioi?ay ono?aieyao “oaei” a iaeanoe, aaea eioaineaiinoue o-iiey iaeaieaa
auniea. A eoiaa iieo/ei eaeia-oi ?ani?aaeaeaiea “oae”, i?aiaeaaeathuaa a
iaeanoyo n iaeaieueoae eioaineaiinoueth o-iiey.”

Ia eneeth/aii, /oi iiaeiaiua iiaeaee iiaoo iieacaoueny n ia?aiai
acaeyaea i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie – oioy au a neeo naiae iaaeyaeiinoe. Iaeiaei
iaiaoiaeeii n?aco aea iiae/a?eiooue – ana yoe iiaeaee ianinoiyoaeueiu n
iao/iie oi/ee c?aiey nia?aiaiiie oece/aneie oai?ee. Iu ia aoaeai
auyaeyoue, a /ai eiaiii caeeth/aaony ianinoiyoaeueiinoue ?anniio?aiiie
iiaeaee aieiu-ieeioa; ioiaoei eeoue a?iiicaeeinoue yoie iiaeaee,
eniieuecothuae oaeea eneonnoaaiiua iiiyoey, eae “o-iiea”, eioi?ia “aei
iaeioi?ie noaiaie iioiaea ia a?aaeoaoeeiiiia e yeaeo?iiaaieoiia”, eee
“eaaioiaay neea”, io?aaeathuay acaeiiaeaenoaea iaeiaai “oaea” n o-iieai.

Iaeiaei ianinoiyoaeueiinoue iiaeiaiuo iiaeaeae iauyniyaony ia /anoiuie,
a aeoaieeie, i?eioeeieaeueiuie i?e/eiaie. Neaaeoao ca?aiaa i?eciaoue
aaconiaoiie anyeoth iiiuoeo aoeaaeueiiai oieeiaaiey
ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaiai aeoaeecia, anyeoth iiiuoeo eaeei-oi ia?acii
niiaeaee?iaaoue neiaeic ei?ioneoeu e aieiu. Iee?iiauaeo ia yaeyaony
neiaeicii ei?ioneoeu e aieiu.

Eae aea neaaeoao iiieiaoue ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaie aeoaeeci?

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaie aeoaeeci iiieiatho eae
iioaioeeaeueioth niiniaiinoue iee?iiauaeoa i?iyaeyoue ?acee/iua naie
naienoaa a caaeneiinoe io oao eee eiuo aiaoieo oneiaee, a /anoiinoe,
oneiaee iaaethaeaiey. Eae ienae A.A.Oie, “o aoiiiuo iauaeoia a iaeieo
oneiaeyo aunooiatho ia ia?aaeiee ieai aieiiaua naienoaa, a a ae?oaeo —
ei?ioneoey?iua; aiciiaeiu e oaeea oneiaey, eiaaea e oa, e ae?oaea
naienoaa aunooiatho iaeiia?aiaiii. Iiaeii iieacaoue, /oi aeey aoiiiiai
iauaeoa nouanoaoao iioaioeeaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue i?iyaeyoue naay, a
caaeneiinoe io aiaoieo oneiaee, eeai eae /anoeoea, eeai eae aieia, eeai
i?iiaaeooi/iui ia?acii. Eiaiii a yoie iioaioeeaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe
?acee/iuo i?iyaeaiee naienoa, i?enoueo iee?iiauaeoo, e ninoieo aeoaeeci
aieia-/anoeoea. Anyeia eiia, aieaa aoeaaeueiia iiieiaiea yoiai aeoaeecia
a aeaea eaeie-eeai iiaeaee iai?aaeeueii”.

I?eaaaeai i?inoaeoee i?eia?. Ionoue io/ie yeaeo?iiia i?ioiaeeo neaicue
ye?ai n uaeyie e caoai iiiaaeaao ia ye?ai-aeaoaeoi?. I?e i?ioiaeaeaiee
/a?ac uaee yeaeo?iiu ?aaeecotho naie aieiiaua naienoaa, /oi
iaoneaaeeaaao oa?aeoa?iia aeey eioa?oa?aioeee ?ani?aaeaeaiea yeaeo?iiia
ca uaeyie. I?e iiiaaeaiee aea ia ye?ai-aeaoaeoi? yeaeo?iiu ?aaeecotho
naie ei?ioneoey?iua naienoaa – eaaeaeue ec ieo ?aaeno?e?oaony a
iaeioi?ie oi/ea ye?aia. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi yeaeo?ii i?ioiaeeo neaicue
uaeue eae aieia, a ?aaeno?e?oaony ia ye?aia eae /anoeoea.

A nayce n yoei aiai?yo i?e iaeieo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, /oi “iee?iiauaeo
anoue aieia”, a i?e ae?oaeo – “iee?iiauaeo anoue /anoeoea”. Oaeay
o?aeoiaea ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaiai aeoaeecia iai?aaeeueia. Iacaaeneii ie
io eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoa iee?iiauaeo ia yaeyaony ie aieiie, ie /anoeoeae,
ie aeaaea neiaeicii aieiu e /anoeoeu. Yoi anoue iaeee aanueia
niaoeeoe/aneee iauaeo, niiniaiue a caaeneiinoe io ianoiyoaeuenoa
i?iyaeyoue a oie eee eiie ia?a ei?ioneoey?iua e aieiiaua naienoaa.
Iiieiaiea ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaiai aeoaeecia eae iioaioeeaeueiie
niiniaiinoe iee?iiauaeoa i?iyaeyoue a ?acee/iuo aiaoieo oneiaeyo
?acee/iua naienoaa anoue aaeeinoaaiii i?aaeeueiia iiieiaiea. Ionthaea, a
/anoiinoe, neaaeoao auaiae: iaaeyaeiay iiaeaeue iee?iiauaeoa
i?eioeeieaeueii iaaiciiaeia.

5. O??a ????a ?e ?????ay y??????y ????

Yia?aaoe/aneay i?iaeaia – iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai, eioi?ua naaiaeiy
i?eoiaeeony ?aoaoue /aeiaa/anoao. Oaea noaee i?eau/iuie oaeea
aeinoeaeaiey iaoee e oaoieee, eae n?aaenoaa iaiiaaiiie nayce, auno?ue
o?ainii?o, inaiaiea einie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa. Ii ana yoi o?aaoao
ia?iiiuo cao?ao yia?aee. ?aceee ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey yia?aee
auaeaeioe iiaoth ino?oth i?iaeaio caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
eioi?ia i?aaenoaaeyao na?ueacioth iianiinoue aeey /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ie?iaua yia?aaoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe a aeeaeaeoea aeanyoeeaoey aoaeoo
eioaineaii aic?anoaoue. Eaeie-eeai iaeei enoi/iee yia?aee ia niiaeao eo
iaania/eoue, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeaaoue ana enoi/ieee yia?aee e
yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu.

Eae ecaanoii, a iniiaa i?iecaiaenoaa oaieiaie e yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee
eaaeeo i?ioeann naeeaaiey eneiiaaiuo yia?ai?ano?nia – oaey, iaooe e
aaca, a a aoiiiie yia?aaoeea – yoi aeaeaiea yaea? aoiiia o?aia e
ieooiiey i?e iiaeiuaiee eie iaeo?iiia.

Ianooaa aeiau/e e ?anoiaeiaaiey eneiiaaiuo yia?ai?ano?nia, iaoaeeia,
iio?aaeaiey aiaeu, aicaeooa aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeiiai
/aeiaa/anoao eiee/anoaa yia?aee ia?iiai, a caianu ?ano?nia, oau,
ia?aie/aiu. Iniaaiii ino?i noieo i?iaeaia auno?iai en/a?iaiey caiania
i?aaie/aneeo i?e?iaeiuo yia?ai?ano?nia. Ii 1 ea i?e?iaeiiai o?aia
caiaiyao 20 o oaey.

Ie?iaua caianu anao yia?ai?ano?nia ioeaieaathony aaee/eiie 355 Q, aaea Q
– aaeeieoea oaieiaie yia?aee, ?aaiay Q = 2,52·1017 eeae = 36·109 oiii
oneiaiiai oiieeaa (o.o.o.), o.a. oiieeaa n eaei?eeiinoueth 7000 eeae/ea,
oae /oi caianu yia?ai?ano?nia ninoaaeytho 12,8·1012 o.o.o.

Ec yoiai eiee/anoaa i?eia?ii 1/3 o.a. ~ 4,3·1012 o.o.o. iiaoo auoue
ecaea/aiu n eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiie oaoieee i?e oia?aiiie noieiinoe
oiieeaiaeiau/e. N ae?oaie noi?iiu nia?aiaiiua iio?aaiinoe a
yia?aiiineoaeyo ninoaaeytho 1,1·1010 o.o.o./aiae, e ?anooo ni
nei?inoueth 3-4% a aiae, o.a. oaeaaeaathony eaaeaeua 20 eao.

Eaaei ioeaieoue, /oi i?aaie/aneea eneiiaaiua ?ano?nu, aeaaea anee
o/anoue aa?iyoiia caiaaeeaiea oaiiia ?inoa yia?aiiio?aaeaiey, aoaeoo a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ec?anoiaeiaaiu a aoaeouai aaea.

Ioiaoei enoaoe, /oi i?e naeeaaiee eneiiaaiuo oaeae e iaooe, iaeaaeathueo
na?ienoinoueth ieiei 2,5 %, aaeaaiaeii ia?acoaony aei 400 iei.o.
na?ienoiai aaca e ieeneia acioa, o.a. ieiei 70 ea. a?aaeiuo aauanoa ia
eaaeaeiai aeeoaey caiee a aiae.

Eniieueciaaiea aea yia?aee aoiiiiai yae?a, ?acaeoea aoiiiie yia?aaoeee
oaeoe/anee nieiaao ino?ioo yoie i?iaeaiu. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ioe?uoea
aeaeaiey oyaeaeuo yaea? i?e caoaaoa iaeo?iiia, naeaeaaoaa iao aae
aoiiiui, i?eaaaeei e caianai yia?aaoe/aneiai eneiiaaiiai oiieeaa
nouanoaaiiue eeaae yaea?iiai ai?th/aai. Caianu o?aia a caiiie ei?a
ioeaieaathony ia?iiiie oeeo?ie 1014 oiii. Iaeiaei iniiaiay ianna yoiai
aiaaonoaa iaoiaeeony a ?annayiiii ninoiyiee – a a?aieoao, aacaeueoao. A
aiaeao ie?iaiai ieaaia eiee/anoai o?aia aeinoeaaao 4·109 oiii. Iaeiaei
aiaaouo ianoi?iaeaeaiee o?aia, aaea aeiau/a auea au iaaei?iaa, ecaanoii
n?aaieoaeueii iaiiiai. Iiyoiio ianno ?ano?nia o?aia, eioi?oth iiaeii
aeiauoue i?e nia?aiaiiie oaoiieiaee e i?e oia?aiiuo oeaiao, ioeaieaatho
a 108 oiii. Aaeaaiaeiua iio?aaiinoe a o?aia ninoaaeytho, ii nia?aiaiiui
ioeaieai, 104 oiii anoanoaaiiiai o?aia. Oae /oi yoe caianu iicaieytho,
eae neacae aeaaeaiee A.I.Aeaenaiae?ia, “oa?aoue Aeaiieeia ia/ oiieeaiie
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe i?aeoe/anee ia iaia?aie/aiiia a?aiy”.

Ae?oaay aaaeiay i?iaeaia nia?aiaiiiai eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa
-iaania/aiea nio?aiiinoe i?e?iaeu, /enoiou aiaeu, aicaeooiiai aannaeia.

Ecaanoia icaai/aiiinoue o/aiuo ii iiaiaeo “ia?ieeiaiai yooaeoa”,
aicieeathuaai ec-ca aua?inia oaeaeeneiai aaca i?e naeeaaiee
i?aaie/aneiai oiieeaa, e niioaaonoaothuaai aeiaaeueiiai iioaieaiey
eeeiaoa ia iaoae ieaiaoa. Aea e i?iaeaiu caaaciaaiiinoe aicaeooiiai
aannaeia, “eeneuo” aeiaeaeae, io?aaeaiey ?ae i?eaeeceeenue ai iiiaeo
?aeiiao e e?eoe/aneie /a?oa.

Aoiiiay yia?aaoeea ia iio?aaeyao eenei?iaea e eiaao ie/oiaeiia
eiee/anoai aua?inia i?e ii?iaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee. Anee aoiiiay
yia?aaoeea caiaieo iau/ioth yia?aaoeeo, oi aiciiaeiinoe aicieeiiaaiey
“ia?ieea” n oyaeaeuie yeieiae/aneeie iineaaenoaeyie aeiaaeueiiai
iioaieaiey aoaeoo ono?aiaiu.

*?acau/aeii aaaeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaii yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi aoiiiay
yia?aaoeea aeieacaea naith yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue i?aeoe/anee ai
anao ?aeiiao caiiiai oa?a. E?iia oiai, aeaaea i?e aieueoii ianooaaa
yia?aii?iecaiaenoaa ia AYN aoiiiay yia?aaoeea ia nicaeano iniauo
o?ainii?oiuo i?iaeai, iineieueeo o?aaoao ie/oiaeiuo o?ainii?oiuo
?anoiaeia, /oi inaiaiaeaeaao iauanoaa io a?aiaie iinoiyiiuo ia?aaicie
ia?iiiuo eiee/anoa i?aaie/aneiai oiieeaa.

Ii aaaeue anoue e aua iaeia i?iaeaia i eioi?ie nae/an aniiieiatho n
ai?anoueth e aiai?yo n aieueoei iianaieai.

A 1939 aiaeo aia?aua oaeaeinue ?anuaieoue aoii o?aia. I?ioei aua 3
aiaea, e a NOA aue nicaeai ?aaeoi? aeey inouanoaeaiey oi?aaeyaiie
yaea?iie ?aaeoeee. Caoai a 1945 a. auea ecaioiaeaia e eniuoaia aoiiiay
aiiaa, a a 1954 a. a iaoae no?aia auea iouaia a yenieoaoaoeeth ia?aay a
ie?a aoiiiay yeaeo?inoaioeey. Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo eniieueciaaeanue
ia?iiiay yia?aey ?aniaaea aoiiiiai yae?a. Aua aieueoaa eiee/anoai
yia?aee auaeaeyaony a ?acoeueoaoa neioaca aoiiiuo yaea?. A 1953 aiaeo a
NNN? aia?aua auea eniuoaia oa?iiyaea?iay aiiaa, e /aeiaae iao/eeny
aini?iecaiaeeoue i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea ia nieioea. Iiea
eniieueciaaoue aeey ie?iuo oeaeae yaea?iue neioac iaeuecy, ii, anee yoi
noaiao aiciiaeiui, oi ethaee iaania/ao naay aeaoaaie yia?aeae ia
ieeeea?aeu eao. Yoa i?iaeaia – iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee
nia?aiaiiie oeceee ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo 50 eao.

Ca?th??a

Ia?aua i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, /oi aauanoai ninoieo ec ioaeaeueiuo
iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe, iiyaeeinue a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe. A ae?aaiae Eiaeee
i?eciaaaeinue ia oieueei nouanoaiaaiea ia?ae/iuo iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe
aauanoaa, ii e eo niiniaiinoue niaaeeiyoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii, ia?acoy
iiaua /anoeoeu.

O?aioeocneee o/aiue Iuea? Aannaiaee aaae iiiyoea i iieaeoea, iiae
eioi?ie ii iiieiae ea/anoaaiii iiaia ia?aciaaiea, ninoaaeaiiia iooai
niaaeeiaiey ianeieueeeo aoiiia.

Ii iunee aiaeeeneiai o/aiiai ?. Aieey, ie? ei?ioneoe (iieaeoe), eo
aeaeaeaiea e “nieaoaiea” i/aiue neiaeiu. Ie? a oeaeii e aai iaeue/aeoea
/anoe -yoi oeaeaniia?acii ono?iaiiua iaoaieciu. Aaeeeee ?onneee o/aiue
I. A. Eiiiiinia ?acaee e iainiiaae o/aiea i iaoa?eaeueiuo aoiiao e
ei?ioneoeao. Ii i?eienuaae aoiiai ia oieueei iaaeaeeiinoue, ii e
aeoeaiia ia/aei – niiniaiinoue e aeaeaeaieth e acaeiiaeaenoaeth.

Aiaeeeneee o/aiue Aeae. Aeaeueoii ?anniao?eaae aoii eae iaeue/aeooth
/anoeoeo oeie/aneiai yeaiaioa, ioee/athuothny io aoiiia ae?oaeo
yeaiaioia i?aaeaea anaai iannie.

Aieueoie aeeaae a aoiiii-iieaeoey?iia o/aiea aianee o?aioeocneee o/aiue
AE. Aae-Ethnnae, eoaeueyineee o/aiue A. Aaiaaae?i, ?onneee o/aiue Ae. E.
Iaiaeaeaaa. A 1860 aiaeo a a. Ea?en?oy ninoiyeny iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
eiia?ann oeieeia. Aeaaiaea?y oneeeyi eoaeueyineiai o/aiiai N.
Eaiieoeoea?i auee i?eiyou neaaeothuea ii?aaeaeaiey aoiia e iieaeoeu:
iieaeoea – “eiee/anoai oaea, anooiathuaa a ?aaeoeee e ii?aaeaeythuaa
oeie/aneea naienoaa”; aoii –”iaeiaiueoaa eiee/anoai yeaiaioa, aoiaeyuaa
a /anoeoeu (iieaeoeu) niaaeeiaiee.

Onoaiiaeaiiua N. Eaiieoeoea?i aoiiiua iannu yeaiaioia iineoaeeee Ae. E.
Iaiaeaeaaao iniiaiie i?e ioe?uoee ia?eiaee/aneiai caeiia.

E????a

I. Iniiaiay

1. Aeioeioeaa Ae.E. Iniiau eaaioiaie iaoaieee. I., 1976.

2. Ai?aa/aa A.A. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. I., 2003.

3. Ea?iaieia N.O. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. I., 2000.

4. Eeieei A. Eaaioiaay iaoaieea. I., 1977.

5. Oa?ania E.A. Iniiau eaaioiaie iaoaieee. I., 1978.

Aeiiieieoaeueiay

1. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey / Iiae ?aae. N.E. Naiuaeia.
?inoia i/Ae, 2001.

2. Eo/oea ?aoa?aou. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. ?inoia
i/Ae, 2002.

3. Iaeaeuo A.I. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. I., 2002.

4. Neiiei A.TH. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. I., 2003.

5. Nieiiaoei A.A. Enoi?ey e eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. I.,
2002.

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