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A oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie enoi?eee iaoee ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi i/aaaie
ie?iaie eoeueoo?u yaeyeenue eeoue no?aiu Ao?eee e Acee. Enoi?eee
ano?iiiiee n/eoaee, /oi eo iaoea ca?iaeeeanue a no?aiao Aeeaeiaai
Ainoiea (Aaaeeiiey, Anne?ey, Aaeiao), a oaeaea a Ae?aaiai Eeoaa e
Eiaeee. Iaeiaei a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey yoio acaeyae i?eoeinue
ia?aniio?aoue, oae eae aue ioe?uo aua iaeei i/aa eoeueoo?u. Ii ieacaeny
?aniieiaeaiiui ia oa??eoi?ee «Iiaiai naaoa» — a Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eea,
ia caieyo, caieiaaiuo iuia Aaaoaiaeie, thai-ainoi/iie /anoueth Iaeneee e
A?eoaineei Aiiaeo?anii. Iniaaiii eioa?anai iieoino?ia THeaoai, eioi?ue
iaeiaaea aue ianaeai eiaeaeoeaie iaey, nicaeaaoeie naith naiiauoioth
eoeueoo?o.

I ae?aaiae enoi?ee iaey noaei ecaanoii aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi o ieo aue
iau/ae ia?eiaee/anee ii/oe ai anao ianaeaiiuo ioieoao noaaeoue noaeu —
eaiaiiua noieau, ia eioi?uo aeaeaeenue niioaaonoaothuea caiene
aaaeiaeoeo niauoee e oeacuaaeanue aeaoa onoaiiaee noaeu. Aiciiaeii, /oi
iiiaea ec yoeo iaiyoieeia ae?aaiaai ia?iaea iaey yaeythony «thaeeaeiuie»
eee naycaiu n ?acee/iuie enoi?e/aneeie niauoeyie.

Ec yoeo iaiyoieeia noaei ecaanoii, /oi ca ia?aua 8 noieaoee iaoae y?u
?acee/iua ieaiaia iaey iino?ieee aieaa nioie ai?iaeia. Ii iiaieth
aieueoeinoaa a?oaieiaia, ia?eiae ?anoeaaoa iaey i?iaeieaeaeny n IV ii O
a. i. y. Iniaaiii aieueoeo oniaoia aeinoeaee iaey a ?acaeoee ano?iiiiee,
naycaiiie n i?aeoe/aneeie iio?aaiinoyie caieaaeaeey. A ?acee/iuo
iaaeienyo iaey iaia?oaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua ea?iaeeou aeey iaicia/aiey
ieaiao, Iiey?iie caacaeu e ?yaea nicaacaeee. A iaeiie ec iaeaeaiiuo
?oeiienae nio?aieeny aeaaea nienie i?aaenoiyueo nieia/iuo caoiaiee.
Ano?iiiie/aneea iaaethaeaiey i?iaiaeeeenue a nii?oaeaieyo, iaiiieiathueo
aaoie nia?aiaiiuo iana?aaoi?ee.

Ae?aaiea ano?iiiie/aneea iana?aaoi?ee

Ano?iiiiu iaey i?iaiaeeee iaaethaeaiey ca iaaaniuie naaoeeaie ec
eaiaiiuo iana?aaoi?ee, eioi?ua auee ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao — Oeeaea, Eiiaia,
Iaeaiea, *e/ai-Eoea… N?aaee ieo iniai auaeaeyaony naieie ?acia?aie
Ea?aeieue — iana?aaoi?ey a ai?iaea *e/ai-Eoea.

«Ea?aeieue» a ia?aaiaea n eniaineiai — «?aeiaeia oeeoee». Yoi
a?aiaeeiciia nii?oaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aunieoth ie?oaeoth aaoith,
noiyuoth ia aeaoonooiai/aoie i?yiioaieueiie ieaooi?ia. Ii neiaai
o/aiiai-iaeyienoa Y?eea Oiiiniia, iia iaiiiai iioiaea ia «aeaoouy?oniue
naaaeaaiue oi?o, aiae?oaeaiiue ia ei?iaeo, a eioi?ie aai i?eianee».

Nie?aeueiay eanoieoea aioo?e aaoie auaiaeeo a aa?oiaa iiiauaiea, ec
eioi?iai iiaeii iaaethaeaoue ca iaaii. Eaaae?aoiua ieia niio?yo ia oi/ee
ainoiaea e caoiaea Nieioea a aeie aanaiiaai e inaiiaai ?aaiiaeainoaey,
eaoiaai e ceiiaai nieioeanoiyiey.

Ano?iiiie/aneea ?an/aou ae?aoeia iaey ioee/aeenue iaaa?iyoiie
oi/iinoueth. Enneaaeoy ?oeiu ae?aaiaai ai?iaea Eiiaia, a?oaieiae
iaia?oaeeee aeaa eaiaiiua noaeu. Iie auee ?aniieiaeaiu ae?oa i?ioea
ae?oaa ia aa?oeiao oieiia, eioi?ua caiueaee n caiaaea e ainoiea aeieeio
Eiiaia.

Anee niio?aoue io iaeiie ec noae, oi iiaeii onoaiiaeoue, /oi nieioea
caoiaeeo i?yii ca aoi?oth anaai aeaa ?aca a aiaeo: 12 ai?aey e 7
naioya?y. Ia?aay aeaoa i?eoiaeeony ia naiue eiiaoe nooiai naciia.
Iiyoiio eiaaea aa/a?ii 12 ai?aey nieioea caoiaeeei i?yii ca noaeo, ii
anae aeieeia ?annueaeenue aiioeu, ecaauaaoea caieaaeaeueoeaa i oii, /oi
aiae i?eeacaee ia/aoue auaeeaaiea iieae oo?ii neaaeothuaai aeiy.

Eiaaea ai?iaea iaey inaiaiaeaeaeenue io aeaeoiaeae, a?oaieiae ia?auaee
aieiaiea ia oi, /oi ?aniieiaeaiea caeaiee eiaei aeey iaey i/aiue
aieueoia cia/aiea.

Ia?aaeei aaaeiua /anoe o?aiia (iai?eia?, «eiiueee» e?uo) auee
i?eaioe?iaaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oi eo iieiaeaiea iaicia/aei ainoiae,
eoeueieiaoeeth e caeao oao eee eiuo iaaaniuo naaoee.

Ae?oaie i?eia? — ie?aieaea Eoeoeueeai a ai?iaea *e/ai-Eoea, yaeythuay
niaie aeaaioneee eaiaiiue eaeaiaea?ue n iio?ynathuei yooaeoii a aeie
aanaiiaai e inaiiaai ?aaiiaeainoaey. Oaeeo ano?iiiie/anee auaa?aiiuo
nii?oaeaiee ia n/anoue ia caiea iaey!

Aeey iaey ano?iiiiey auea ia aano?aeoiie iaoeie. A oneiaeyo o?iieeia
(aaea iao ?acei iaicia/aiiuo i?e?iaeie a?aiai aiaea, a
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeiy e ii/e anaaaea inoaaony ii/oe iaeciaiiie)
ano?iiiiey neoaeeea i?aeoe/aneei oeaeyi. Io ae?aoeia-ano?iiiiia oee
oeacaiey i ia/aea oao eee eiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio.

A no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiue aeaiue a aonoii o?iie/aneii eano iaey au?oaaee
aea?aauey, a iinea eo aunuoaiey — naeeaaee. Caoai ia?aciaaaoeany iiey
canaaaee eoeo?ocie (yoi — oae iacuaaaiue iiaena/ii-iaiaaie iaoiae
caieaaeaeey).

Naeaeaoue ana ioaeii auei a naiii eiioea nooiai ia?eiaea e aac caoyaeae.
Eia/a iiiaoatho o?iie/aneea eeaie, i?iaeieaeathueany caeanue
iyoue-oanoue ianyoeaa iiae?yae. Ioeaea a ianeieueei aeiae iiaea noaoue
?ieiaie aeey anaai oeeeea ?aaio.

Eaoien/eneaiea e o?iiieiaey

Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyee iaey aii?inai eaoin/eneaiey e o?iiieiaee. Iie
yaeyeenue nicaeaoaeyie i?eaeiaeueiuo eaeaiaea?iuo nenoai, nouanoaaiii
ioee/athueony io anao ae?oaeo ecaanoiuo iai eaeaiaea?ae.
Oeaio?aeueiiaia?eeaineee eaeaiaea?ue eoeueoo? eiaeaeoeaa iaey e aoeoaeia
i?eiaiyeny a ia?eiae ieiei 300–1530 aa. i.y. Iniiaai ia ia?eiaee/iinoe
aeaeaeaiey Nieioea, Eoiu e neiiaee/aneeo ia?eiaeia ia?auaiey ieaiao
Aaia?u (584d) e Ia?na (780d).

O/aiua ?yaea no?ai iieiaeeee iiiai o?oaea, /oiau ?acaaaeaoue oaeiu
ienueiaiiinoe iaey, eo naiiauoiie eoeueoo?u e, a /anoiinoe, eaeaiaea?y.
Auei naeaeaii iiiai, oioy aeey iieiiai auyniaiey anao ia?aoaiiuo
aii?inia aua iio?aaoaony aieueoie o?oae. Iaeiaei oaea oaia?ue ecaanoii
iaiaei eioa?aniiai. Eeoa?aoo?a i eaeaiaea?a iaey aanueia iaoe?ia.

*oi aea oaeaeinue onoaiiaeoue o/aiui i eaeaiaea?a e o?iiieiaee iaey?
Nae/an oaea ecaanoii, /oi iaey i?eiaiyee iaeiia?aiaiii aeaa eaeaiaea?iua
nenoaiu, ioee/athueany i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth: aeeeiiue aiae e ei?ioeee
aiae. Ia?aue ec ieo i?eiaiyeny a a?aaeaeaineie aeecie, a aoi?ie aue
naycai n ?aeeaeiciuie ia?yaeaie.

365-aeiaaiue aiae ( «oaaa» ). Iaey ciaee aeaa aeaea aeeeiiuo aiaeia.
Aiae a 360 aeiae iacuaaeny «ooi» e aue nio?aiai oieueei aeey iniauo
oeaeae. A auoo aea i?eiaiyeny 365-aeiaaiue eaeaiaea?iue aiae, eioi?ue
iacuaaeny «oaaa» e eioi?ue ninoiye ec 18 ianyoeaa ii 20 aeiae. A eiioea
oaeiai aiaea aeiaaaeyeinue aua 5 aeiae, iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea «aeiae aac
eiaie» e n/eoaaoeony ?ieiauie. AE?aoeu ciaee, /oi «oaaa» ia aeiee aeiy
ei?i/a enoeiiiai nieia/iiai aiaea e /oi ca 60 eao iaaaaaao i?eia?ii 15
eeoieo nooie.

Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee eoeueoo?u iaey n/eoatho, /oi eaeaiaea?ue iaey
oi/iaa a?eai?eaineiai. Iie iauyniytho yoi oai, /oi, oioy iaey ia eiaee
ano?iiiie/aneeo eino?oiaioia, iie iao/eeenue aeinoeaaoue aunieie
oi/iinoe naieo iaaethaeaiee iaaaniuo naaoee, i?eiaiyy iniaue iaoiae,
ninoiyaoee a iaaethaeaiee neaicue aeeeiiua e oceea i?i?ace, naiaai ?iaea
«i?eoeaeu».

Aiae ia/eiaeny 16 ethey. Yoiio aeith niioaaonoaiaae ia?aue aeaiue
ianyoea Iii — ia?aiai ianyoea aiaea. Caeai/eaaeny aiae 10 ethey —
iineaaeiei aeiai ianyoea Eoioo. Inoaeueiua 5 aeiae aiaea yaeyeenue
«aeiyie aac eiaie». Yoa «iyoeaeiaaea» yaeyeanue eae au 19-i, ii ei?ioeei
ianyoeai aiaea e iacuaaeanue «Aaeaa». Ana iyoue aeiae Aaeaaa ioia/aeenue
eae i?acaeiee a /anoue iaeiiai ec aiaia — iie?iaeoaey neaaeothuaai
aiaea.

Ii i?aaeiieiaeaieth o?aioeocneiai o/aiiai AEaia AEaio a ae?aaiinoe
ia?aui ianyoeai aue ia Iii, a Eaoe’ei. Naie aeiaiaeu ii iniiauaaao ia
oii, /oi ianyoe Ooeue icia/athuee «eiiaoe», aue iineaaeiei ianyoeai
aiaea e caeai/eaaeny 17 aeaeaa?y. Caoai oee aacuiyiiua 5 aeiae e aiiaue
ia/eiaeny iiaue aiae, ia?aue aeaiue eioi?iai iaaeae ia 23 aeaeaa?y. A
yoii neo/aa iiaue aiae i?eia?ii niaiaaeae au n aeiai ceiiaai
nieioeanoiyiey. I?e yoii eioa?anii, /oi naii neiai Eaoe’ei icia/aao
«iiaia nieioea».

260-aeiaaiue aiae («oeieueeei»).

Nianai eia/a aue iino?iai ei?ioeee eaeaiaea?iue aiae iaey, iacuaaaoeeny
«oeieueeei» e eiaaoee ?eooaeueiia iacia/aiea. Ii ninoiye anaai ec 260
aeiae e aeaeeeny ia 13 ianyoeaa, eioi?ua, oae aea eae e «oaaa»,
niaea?aeaee ii 20 aeiae.

Ae?oaay iniaaiiinoue yoiai eaeaiaea?y — iaee/ea iaaeaee, ninoiyuae,
ec… 13 aeiae. Aeie iaaeaee iaicia/aeenue /eneaie io 1 aei 13. Iiyoiio
«oeieueeei» i?aaenoaaeye niaith naiaia?acioth eiiaeiaoeeth 20-aeiaaiuo
ianyoeaa e 13-aeiaaiuo iaaeaeue. A iai /enea iaaeaee e iacaaiey aeiae
iiaoi?yeenue a ii?aaeaeaiiie caeiiiia?iinoe. I?aaaea, ec iaeioi?uo
ea?iaeeoe/aneeo oaenoia iaey iiaeii naeaeaoue caeeth/aiea, /oi o
ae?aaieo iaey e?iia 13-aeiaaiie iaaeaee auea aua 9-aeiaaiay, a eioi?ie
n/ao aaeny ia ii aeiyi, a ii ii/ai, i?e/ai eaaeaeay ii/ue eiaea naiei
iie?iaeoaeai iaeiiai ec aeaayoe aiaia iiaecaiiiai oea?noaa.

A eaeaiaea?a iaey auee aua aeaa aieaa e?oiiuo oeeeea: 4-eaoiee, a
eioi?ii iiaoi?yeenue iacaaiey aeiae e /enea ianyoeaa, e 52-eaoiee
(i?aaenoaaeyaoee niaith eiiaeiaoeeth «oaaaa» e «oeieueeeia»). Iineaaeiee
ninoiye ec o?eiaaeoeaoe 4-eaoieo oeeeeia e ioaaouaae ia?eiae a 18 980
aeiae. A iai iiaoi?yeenue ia oieueei aeie e /enea iaaeaee, ii e /enea
ianyoea. A naiii aeaea, ia?eiae a 18 980 aeiae niaea?aeae 52 «oaaaa»
(365 * 52 =18 980) e a oi aea a?aiy 73 «oeieueeeia» (260 * 73 = 18 980).
Yoa caaeneiinoue e ninoaaeyea iniiao aa?iiiee eaeaiaea?y iaey.

Eaaeaeue Iiaue aiae iia ia/eiaoueny oieueei n iaeiiai ec neaaeothueo
/aou?ao aeiae: E’ai, Ioeoe, Eo e Eaaae. Aaeaaiaeii iie iineaaeiaaoaeueii
iaiyeenue, e caoai yoio ii?yaeie iiaoi?yeny.

Aeaoe?iaea ethaiai niauoey a eaeaiaea?a iaey anaaaea ninoiyea ec /enea
13-aeiaaiie iaaeaee, iacaaiey aeiy, /enea ianyoea e iacaaiey ianyoea.
Iai?eia?, anee aeaoa caienaia oae: «6 Eaiao 14 Ooeue», oi yoi cia/eo 6-a
/enei 13-aeiaaiie iaaeaee, aeaiue Eaiao, 14-a /enei ianyoea Ooeue. Oaeay
aeaoa iiaea iiaoi?eoueny oieueei /a?ac 52 aiaea, o. a. /a?ac 18 980
aeiae.

Oae eae a a?aaeaeaineii eaeaiaea?a iaey aiae ninoiye ec 365 aeiae, a
ianyoe ec 20 aeiae, oi /a?ac eaaeaeua /aou?a aiaea ia?aue aeaiue aiaea
i?eoiaeeeny ia iaeei e oio aea aeaiue ianyoea, ii a ?aciua /enea
iaaeaee. Iiyoiio aanue 52-eaoiee oeeee ae?aaiaai eaeaiaea?y iaey iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea «aa/iiai eaeaiaea?y» (oaae. 2), iieo/eaoaai
iacaaiea «eaeaiaea?iiai e?oaa».

Eoiiue eaeaiaea?ue.

Ae?aaiea iaey iieueciaaeenue oaeaea e iniaui eoiiui eaeaiaea?ai,
eaaeaeue ianyoe eioi?iai niaea?aeae 29 eee 30 aeiae. Eaaeaeue aeaiue
eoiiiai ianyoea iaicia/aeny niioaaonoaothuei /eneii, i?e/ai ia?aue
aeaiue ianyoea, eae e a 20-aeiaaiii ianyoea, n/eoaeny ioeaaui. Iinea
oanoe eoiiuo ianyoeaa caeai/eaaeny eoiiue iieoaiae, iinea /aai iiyoue
oae ia?aue eoiiue ianyoe. A ?aciia a?aiy a ae?aaieo ai?iaeao iaey, eae a
iaoa a?aiy a iaeioi?uo no?aiao Ainoiea, i?eiaiyeenue ?acee/iua aa?eaiou
eoiiuo eaeaiaea?ae. Ana caaenaei io oiai, eaeay eoiiay aeaoa n/eoaeanue
niioaaonoaothuae ia/aeueiie oeeeee/aneie aeaoa y?u iaey.

O?iiieiaey

A iniiao anao o?iiieiae/aneeo ?an/aoia aue iieiaeai aeaiue, eee «e’ei».
Aeaaaeoeaoue e’eiia ninoaaeyee iaeei «aeiaeue» (aeaaaeoeaoeaeiaaiue
ianyoe), a 18 aeiaeae niioaaonoaiaaee iaeiiio «ooio» (360-aeiaaiiio
aiaeo). Aeaeaa o?iiieiaey ninoiyea ec neaaeothueo oeeeeia:

1 e’aoo = 20 ooiai = 7200 aeiyi

1 aae’ooi = 20 e’aooiai = 144000 aeiae

1 ieeooi = 20 aae’ooiai = 2 880 000 aeiae

Anee ia?aaanoe yoe oeeeeu ia iaoe aiaeu, oi iieo/ei neaaeothuea
niioiioaiey:

1 e’aooi —ieiei 20 eao, o. a. 201

1 aae’ooi — » 400 » » 202

1 ieeooi — » 8000 » » 203

Enoiaeiie aeaoie eaoin/eneaiey iaey yaeyeanue eaaaiaea?iay aeaoa,
eiathuay iaicia/aiea «0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 4 Aoao 8 Eoioo». Yoa aeaoa
oieeoaony aeaiyei. Ii ?an/aoai aia?eeaineiai a?oaieiaa, yoiia?aoa e
eeiaaenoa, iaeiiai ec e?oiiaeoeo enneaaeiaaoaeae eoeueoo?u iaey, Y.
Oiiiniia, iia niioaaonoaoao 12 aaaonoa 3113 a. aei i. y. Ii iiaieth
ae?oaiai enneaaeiaaoaey eoeueoo?u iaey — A. Nieiaeaia, ia/aeueiay aeaoa
niioaaonoaoao 14 ieoya?y 3373 a. aei i. y., o. a. ia 260 eao noa?oa.
Aeieaia a?aiy iaa aeaou eiaee naieo i?eaa?aeaioeaa, ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?eiyoa neio?iiecaoeey ii Y. Oiiiniio.

Eaaaiaea?iinoue enoiaeiie aeaou aeaeia oioy au a oii /oi iia ia o?e
ouny/e eao noa?oa ii aic?anoo, /ai naiay ?aiiyy ecaanoiay iai aeaoa ec
enoi?ee iaey (292 a. i. y.), iaia?oaeaiiay a 1959 a. ia iaeiie ec noae.

Eoae, io aeaou «0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 4 Aoao 8 Eoioo» aaaeaony n/ao anao
inoaeueiuo aeao a enoi?ee iaey. Anee eaeia eeai niauoea ii eaeaiaea?th
iaey caoeene?iaaii ciaeaie «9. 14. 0. 0. 0. 6 Aoao 13 Ioai», oi yoi
cia/eo, /oi io enoiaeiie aeaou i?ioei 9 aae’ooiia» 14 e’aooiia 0 ooiia 0
aeiaeae 0 e’eiia. Eae ia?aaanoe yoo aeaoo ia iao eaeaiaea?ue? I?aaeaea
anaai iiaen/eoaai, neieueei i?ioei aeiae io enoiaeiie aeaou: 9 * 144 000
+ 14 * 7200 = 1 396 800 aeiae eee 3824 aiaea. Au/eoay ec yoie aeaou
enoiaeioth aeaoo, o. a. 3113, iieo/ei 711. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii iaoaio
eaoin/eneaieth niauoea i?iecioei a a 711 a. i. y.

*oi eanaaony au?aaeaiey «6 Aoao 13 Ioai», oi iii icia/aao, /oi niauoea
eiaei ianoi a 6-e aeaiue 13-aeiaaiie iaaeaee, aeaiue Aoao, 13 /enei
ianyoea Ioai. Yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue naeaeaoue aeaeueiaeoaa ooi/iaiea.
Oae eae ianyoe Ioai niioaaonoaoao ia?eiaeo n 22 ai?aey ii 11 iay
theeaineiai eaeaiaea?y, oi 13-a /enei yoiai ianyoea i?eoiaeeony ia 4 iay
711 a. i. y. ii theeaineiio eaeaiaea?th.

Eceiaeaiiue niinia ion/aoa aieueoeo i?iiaaeooeia a?aiaie i?eiaiyeny
i?aeiouanoaaiii o ae?aaieo iaey e iieo/ee iacaaiea «aeeeiiiai n/aoa». Ii
oaea a iineaaeiea aaea ia?aae eniaineei caaiaaaieai iie ia?aoee e
oi?iuaiiiio «ei?ioeiio n/aoo», ninoiyaoaio ec e’aooiia, o. a.
«aeaaaeoeaoeeaoie», aa?iaa, ec ia?eiaeia a 7200 aeiae.

Eaaeaeue e’aooi iaicia/aeny iacaaieai e /eneii aai iineaaeiaai aeiy.
Oae, e’aooi 13 Aoao icia/ae oaeie 7200-aeiaaiue ia?eiae, iineaaeiee
aeaiue eioi?iai i?eoiaeeeny ia 13-a /enei 13-aeiaaiie iaaeaee. Oae eae
7200 aeaeeony ia 20 aac inoaoea, oi eaaeaeue e’aooi ia/eiaeny ni aeiy
Eieo e caeai/eaaeny aeiai Aoao. Iaeiaei a eaaeaeii iineaaeothuai e’aooia
iineaaeiee aeaiue oioy e inoaaaeny Aoao, ii ii iaaeae ia ae?oaie aeaiue
iaaeaee. Ai aoi?ii e’aooia ii i?eoiaeeeny oaea ia 11-e aeaiue iaaeaee,
o. a. ia aeaa aeiy ?aiueoa, /ai i?aaeuaeouee. Yoi iieo/aaony iioiio, /oi
i?e aeaeaiee 7200 ia 13 a inoaoea aoaeao 11, o. a. ia aeaa aaeeieoeu
iaiueoa 13-aeiaaiie iaaeaee. Iineaaeiee aeaiue o?aoueaai e’aooia
ianooieo aua ia 2 aeiy ?aiueoa, /ai i?aaeuaeouee, — 9 Aoao. Caoai
iineaaeiaaoaeueii iieaeoo: 7 Aoao, 5 Aoao, 3 Aoao, 1 Aoao, 12 Aoao, 10
Aoao, 8 Aoao, 6 Aoao, 4 Aoao, 2 Aoao e iiyoue 13 Aoao. Caoai ana
iiaoi?yaony aiiaue.

Aeey iaaeyaeiinoe i?eaaaeai iaeei iieiue oeeee a 13 e’aooiia n
ia?an/aoii ia aiaeu iaoaai eaeaiaea?y.

10Aoao 21.IV.1441 — 5.I.1461

8 » 6.I.1461 — 22.IO.1480

6 » 23.IX.1480 — 10.V1.1500

4 » 11. VI.1500 — 26.II.1520

2 » 27.II.1520 — 13. XI. 1539

13 » 14.O1.1539 — 31.VII.1559

11 » 1.VIII.1559 — 17.IV.1579

9 » 18.IV.1579 — 2.I.1599

7 » 3.I.1599 — 19.1O.1618

5 » 20.IX.1618 — 6.VI.1638

3 » 7.VI.1638 — 21.II.1658

1 » 22.II.1658 — 8 XI.1677

12 » 9.XI.1677 — 26.VII.1697

Oaeei ia?acii, iieo/aeanue iieiay iiaoi?yaiinoue ii i?ioanoaee 13
e’aooiia: 7200 * 13 == 93 600 aeiae (o. a. ieiei 256 eao).

Oi/iinoue eaeaiaea?y.

*anoi aiai?yo, /oi eaeaiaea?ue iaey yaeyaony naiui oi/iui. Ianeieueei
ni?aaaaeeeai oaeia ooaa?aeaeaiea?

Ano?iiiiu iaey noiaee ii?aaeaeeoue i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue nieia/iiai
aiaea a 365,2420 nooie. Yoi anaai ia 0,0002 iaiueoa i?eiyoiai a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy cia/aiey o?iie/aneiai aiaea e niioaaonoaoao ioeaea a
iaeie nooee ca 5000 eao. Yoi aeaao iniiaaiea naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
eaeaiaea?ue iaey ianeieueei oi/iaa a?eai?eaineiai eaeaiaea?y.

Ano?iiiiu ae?aaieo ai?iaeia Eiiai e Iaeaiea oi?ioi ciaee
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue neiiaee/aneiai ianyoea Eoiu: ii eiiaineei
au/eneaieyi iia auea ?aaia 29,53020 nooie, a ii iaeaieneei — 29,53086.
N?aaeiaa ec yoeo aeaoo cia/aiee ninoaaeyao 29,53053, /oi ei?i/a
i?eiyoiai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy anaai ia 0,00006 aeiy. Anee aea i?e yoii
o/anoue, /oi enneaaeiaaiea iaaeienae ia iaeiie ec noae ai?iaea Eiiaia
i?eaaei e caeeth/aieth i ciaeiinoaa ano?iiiiia iaey n oeeeeii Iaoiia (V
a. aei i. y.), oi neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi e eoiiue eaeaiaea?ue iaey
oaeaea ioee/aeny aieueoie oi/iinoueth.

Eaeaiaea?ue iaey, ianiio?y ia naith ae?aaiinoue, oaeeaeoaeueii oi/ai. Ii
nia?aiaiiui ?an/?oai, aeeeia nieia/iiai aiaea ninoaaeyao 365,2422 aeiy,
oiaaea eae iaey ia aa?oeiao naieo ie?aieae au/eneeee aai aeeeio a
365,2420 aeiy. ?acieoea — anaai aeaa aeanyoeouny/iuo!

Aeey ninoaaeaiey noieue oi/iiai eaeaiaea?y, ii iiaieth o/aiuo,
iio?aaiaaeinue au iaaethaeaoue e caienuaaoue aeaeaeaiey ieaiao ia
i?ioyaeaiee i?eaeeceoaeueii aeanyoe ouny/ eao!

Aeaoe iyoiai nieioea

Iaey auee ia oieueei ano?iiiiaie, ii e ano?ieiaaie. Ana iaaaniua oaea,
aeoaeaeathuea ia oiia caacae, aeieaeiu auee, ii eo iiaieth, aeeyoue ia
eo noaeueao. E a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue — Nieioea…

Iiaeiaii ae?oaei ia?iaeai Iaciaia?eee, iaey n/eoaee, /oi Anaeaiiay
nouanoaoao a ?aieao aaeeeeo oeeeeia. AE?aoeu aiai?eee, /oi n iiiaioa
nioai?aiey ?iaea ethaeneiai ieioei oaea /aou?a oaeeo oeeeea, eee
«Nieioea». Iuia /aeiaa/anoai aeeaao a yiioo Iyoiai Nieioea.

A Aio?iiieiae/aneii iocaa a Iaeneea o?aieony ciaiaieoue aoeoaeneee
eaeaiaea?iue «Eaiaiue Nieioea» — ia?iiiue aacaeueoiaue iiiieeo
aeeaiao?ii 3,5 iao?a e aanii 24,5 oiiiu. ?aiueoa ii aue oeaaoiie. Ii
io?aaeaao i?aaenoaaeaiey ae?aaieo i aeaeaeii i?ioeii. A oeaio?a eaiiy
ecia?aaeai Oiiaoeo Iaey — aia Nieioea iuiaoiae yiioe. Ii noi?iiai
?aniieiaeaiu neiaieu /aou?ao i?aaeoanoaothueo yiio.

Nieia/iue eaiaiue ia ycuea neiaieia aiai?eo iai, /oi eaaeaeay yiioa
eiaea naiaai aiaa, /oi ca /aou?a i?aaeuaeoueo yiioe niaieeenue /aou?a
/aeiaa/aneea ?anu, i?aaeaea /ai iiyaeeenue nia?aiaiiua ethaee. Ana
i?aaeoanoaothuea eoeueoo?u iiaeaee ai a?aiy aaeeeeo eaoaeeeciia, e eeoue
iaiiiaea ethaee inoaeenue a aeeauo e iiaaaeaee i oii, /oi i?iecioei.

Ia?aia Nieioea aeeeeinue 4008 eao e auei ?ac?ooaii caieao?ynaieyie e
nuaaeaii yaoa?aie. Aoi?ia Nieioea aeeeeinue 4010 eao e auei oie/oiaeaii
aao?ii e aai y?inoiuie oeeeeiiaie. O?aouea Nieioea aeeeeinue 4081 aiae e
auei oie/oiaeaii iaiaiiui aeiaeaeai, i?ieeaoeiny ec e?aoa?ia ia?iiiuo
aoeeaiia. *aoaa?oia Nieioea aeeeeinue 5026 eao e iaei io aiaeu, caeeaoae
ana aie?oa a aeaaioneii iaaiaeiaiee. Caoai ?iaeeeinue Iyoia Nieioea,
eioi?ia naaoeo iai naaiaeiy. Iii ecaanoii eae «Nieioea Aeaeaeaiey»,
iioiio /oi, ii i?aaenoaaeaieyi eiaeaeoeaa, a yoo yiioo i?iecieaeao
aeaeaeaiea Caiee, io eioi?ai ana iiaeaioo.

Aiaeece?oy ieou i aeaaee /aou?ao Nieioe, o/aiua iaoiaeyo i?yiua aiaeiaee
n iaeioi?uie i?e?iaeiuie eaoano?ioaie. Eiaaea aea a oaeii neo/aa
neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue aaeeeie iiaeaeaeee caiee, eioi?ay iineoaeeo eiioeii
Iyoiai Nieioea?

AE?aoeu n/eoaee, /oi nei?i, oae eae Iyoia Nieioea oaea i/aiue noa?ia e
i?eaeeaeaaony e eiioeo naiaai oeeeea…

2012 aiae. I?i?i/anoai iaey

O/aiua ia?an/eoaee eaeaiaea?e iaey a niioaaonoaee n nia?aiaiiie nenoaiie
eaoin/eneaiey e ecaeaeee ec caaaaei/iuo iaaeienae ethaiiuoioth
eioi?iaoeeth…

Ieacuaaaony, ia ieaiaoa Caiey 23 aeaeaa?y 2012 aiaea i?iecieaeoo
iaeioi?ua niauoey. Aaaeue a yoio aeaiue aeieaeii caeii/eoueny Iyoia
Nieioea!

Niaeanii o?iiieiaee iaey, nia?aiaiiay yiioa ia/aeanue 12 aaaonoa 3114
aiaea aei i.y. e aeieaeia caaa?oeoueny 23 aeaeaa?y 2012 aiaea i.y. Ieeoi
iiea ia iauyniee, ioeoaea iaey acyee eiaiii yoe aeaou, e eaeea i?e/eiu
iiaoaeeee eo nicaeaoue oaeea neiaeiua nenoaiu ion/aoa a?aiaie.

Iaeiaei nae/an, eiaaea «aoaeeeueiee», nicaeaiiue iaey, aioia aio-aio
cacaiieoue, iu ia/eiaai iiieiaoue, /oi iie iaeaaeaee oaeeie ciaieyie, io
eioi?uo a iaoa a?aiy caaeneo auaeeaaiea ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai!

A 2012 aiaeo ai a?aiy aeaeaa?ueneiai nieioeanoiyiey Nieioea ieaaeaony a
ciia Iea/iiai iooe. Yoio ianeiaeiue ?an/ao iiaeao naeaeaoue ethaie
ano?iiii. Oaiiiai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi, eiaaea Nieioea ieaaeaony a
yoie ciia, aeieaeii i?iecieoe iaiiaeaiea ie?a, aai iiaia ?iaeaeaiea.

Iaeiei neiaii, i?i?i/anoai iaey eanaaony eaeiai-oi niauoey, eioi?ia
aeieaeii eciaieoue oiae enoi?ee. Iaeie i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi ia Caiea
ianooieo iiaay y?a — y?a aeooiaiiai i?ic?aiey. Ae?oaea neeiiiu n/eoaoue,
/oi iaey i?aaeneacuaaee eiiaoe naaoa.

A ?aoeeiiaeueii-eioaeeaeooaeueiii eeeiaoa XXI aaea nianai ia iiaeii
na?ueacii ioiineoueny e i?i?i/anoaai i eiioea naaoa. I?eiyoi n/eoaoue eo
i?iaeoeoii noaaa?iuo oiia e eaii?e?iaaoue. Ii ociaaay ana aieueoa i
aeinoeaeaieyo aaee/aeoae ae?aaiae oeeaeeecaoeee, eaeie-oi aioo?aiiee
aiein iaoaiouaaao: a ia i?eneooaoueny ee e ae?aaiei i?aaeaieyi?

Aae?oa nouanoaoao eaeie-oi ie/oiaeii iaeue oain, /oi aaoi?u yoiai
i?i?i/anoaa aiana ia noaaa?iua aeeea?e? Aae?oa iie ciaee /oi-oi oaeia,
/aai ia ciaai iu? *oi anee eo i?aaeneacaiea i aeaoa, eiaaea eii/eony
Iyoia Nieioea, ieaaeaony oi/iui? Iiaeao auoue, aaea-oi a caiiuo aeoaeiao
oaea c?aao oaeaniay aaieiae/aneay eaoano?ioa, i?aaeneacaiiay ioae?aoeaie
iaey…

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