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AEIIOACA AAeEIIAI IIEss

Aeaenaiae? Aeieo?eaae/ Naaaeueaa

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oae. 89050405207

Aeaaeeie? Aeaenaaae/ Ouuaiei

oae. 89205757454

Aa/iinoue ieeiaaea ia ia/eiaeanue, Iia auea anaaaea, e ieeiaaea ia
ieii/eony. Oa/aiea a?aiaie – iaeei ec /anoiuo neo/aaa aa/iinoe. O iaai
auei ia/aei, e iii ieii/eony. O aaneiia/iinoe iao e?ay, iao a?aieoe,
oieueei ai?eciio, ca eioi?ui i?inoe?aaony oa aea aaneiia/iinoue. Eeoue
Aieueoay Anaeaiiay nouanoaoao aa/ii n aaneiia/iui i?ino?ainoaii. Iia
«caiieiaia» iaiiiyoiie iiea, ia no?oeoo?e?iaaiiie, aa/ii ioeuene?othuae,
eieeaine?othuae, ?anoe?ythuaeny, oaeouae «iaoa?eae», aaea yia?aey
yeaeaaeaioia ianna. Yoe i?ioeannu ii?iaeaeatho oaioe/iua aaneiia/iua
aieiu. A Aieueoie Anaeaiiie eiiaaea neo/aeii aicieeatho oii?yaei/aiiua
oi/a/iua no?oeoo?e?iaaiiua ia?aciaaiey. Iaeii ec oaeeo ia?aciaaiee –
iaoa anaeaiiay. Oi/a/iia ia?aciaaiea iiaei aicieeiooue io noieeiiaaiey
ano?a/iuo aiei. Aeey Aieueoie Anaeaiiie yoi anaai eeoue oi/ea, aeey ian
– anaeaiiay. Aaiiao?e/anee iaoa anaeaiiay o?aoia?ia, n aunieie
ieioiinoueth «iaoa?ee», ioiineoaeueii ie?oaeathuaai oaina Aieueoie
Anaeaiiie (1094 – 10-94 a?/ni3, I.Ieaie). Ioiineoaeueii A.Anaeaiiie iaoa
aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue iaiiaaiuea, ii aeey ian yoi ieeeea?aeu eao. A
aaiiao?e/aneii o?aoia?iii i?ino?ainoaa iaoae anaeaiiie aicieeei
oece/aneia iiiaiia?iia i?ino?ainoai. Oece/aneia i?ino?ainoai
ia?aciaaeinue aeaaiaea?y eaaioai oece/aneiai aaeooia, eeanoa?ai e
aeiiaiai a oece/aneii aaeooia. Iiuiua oaea?u aiei A.Anaeaiiie ii oi/ea
(ii iaoae anaeaiiie) ii?iaeeei a aa iaae?ao a?iiaaeiia eiee/anoai
oaea?iuo aiei ?acee/iie aeeeiu, eioi?ua noaee iaoaoueny a caieiooii
iauaia noaeeeaaynue, oneeeaaynue e iiaeiuay ae?oa ae?oaa, na?anuaay
yia?aeth aiaia (a A.Anaeaiioth) a aeaea aiei. Eiaiii a yoio iiiaio
iiyaeeinue oa/aiea a?aiaie, a yoii naa?oieioiii ia?aciaaiee iaoa?ey =
yia?aey. Noiy/ea noa?e/aneea o?aoia?iua aieiu i?aia?aciaaeenue a
eeanoa?u e aeiiaiu n ?aaeeonii a 10-33 ni. (eaaiou
aaeooia),10-15ni(eaa?ee).,10-13ni.(/anoeoeu), 10-8ni.(aoiiu), 10-2ni.
(iueeiee), 102ni.-1010ni. (iaoai?eou, anoa?ieaeu, ieaiaou),
1011ni.-1014ni.(caacaeu), 1017 ni.-1023ni.(aaeaeoeee), 1025ni.
(neiieaiey aaeaeoee), 1028 ni.(Iaoaaaeaeoeea), 1041 ni.(iaoa anaeaiiay).
Eaaiou aaeooia caiieiytho aanue iauai iaoae anaeaiiie, e a yoie
naa?oieioiie n?aaea nouanoaotho aaeaeoeee, caacaeu, ieaiaou, a yoie
naa?oieioiie n?aaea aeeaai iu. E oae eae aeey ia?aciaaiey yoie
naa?oieioiie «oi/ee», eioi?oth iu iacuaaai iaoae anaeaiiie, yia?aey auea
«caeinoaiaaia» a Aieueoie Anaeaiiie, i?eoiaeeoueny aa ioaeaaaoue,
eaaioiaaii, aeice?iaaii. Iiyoiio ana iauaeou a iaoae anaeaiiie
oiaiueoathony, «na?anuaay», «ioaeaaay» a Aieueooth Anaeaiioth yia?aeth a
aeaea aiei ?acee/iie aeeeiu. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ioiineoaeueii
A.Anaeaiiie, iaoa anaeaiiay ae?ooaeueia. ?aaeeonu noa?e/aneeo iauaeoia,
?aaeeonu i?aeo e eeiaeiua ?acia?u iauaeoia oiaiueoathony a 1018 /anoue
io naiae aeeeiu. *oiau ociaoue ianeieueei oiaiueoaaony iauaeo,
iaiaoiaeeii aai ?aaeeon eee aeeeio ?acaeaeeoue ia 1018. Oiaiueoathony
ana oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoia, eo ianna, neea acaeiiaeaenoaee. ?aaeeon
i?ioiia oiaiueoaaony a 10-31 ni/nae. 10-13ni. ?acaeaeei ia 1018,
iieo/aai 10-31ni/nae. Oaea?iua aieiu aeeeiie a 10-31ni. i?iiecuaatho
oece/aneee aaeooi e iieeaeatho iaoo anaeaiioth. I?e yoii ianna eaaeaeiai
i?ioiia, iaoiaeyuaainy ieiei ian, oiaiueoaaony a 10-69 a?/nae.

Neio?iiii n iauaeoaie oiaiueoathony ia?u aeeeiu (naioeiao?u, iao?u) e
aeeeoaeueiinoue a?aiaie (naeoiaeu, ieioou). Iiyoiio ie iu, naieie
/oanoaaie, ie iaoe i?eai?u ia iiaoo caoeene?iaaoue yoiai oiaiueoaiey,
iioiio /oi iie naie oiaiueoathony. Ii iu aeaeei ?anoe?aiea i?ino?ainoaa,
e iauyniyai yoi eae ?acaaaaiea aaeaeoee, e onei?aiiia ?acaaaaiea
aaeaeoee. *ai aeaeueoa io ian iauaeo, oai iicaea i?eoiaeeo io iaai
eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay i?eiineo iai naaaeaiey i oii a?aiaie, eiaaea
iauaeou (/anoeoeu, aoiiu, ieaiaou) auee «e?oiiaa» e 1018 /anoue aeeeiu
io eo ?aaeeonia auea aieueoae, e naioeiao?, oai aaeaee, «aeeeiiaa», /ai
o ian, e aeeeoaeueiinoue naeoiaeu aieueoa, e i?ino?ainoai oai
?anoe?yaony auno?aa, ioiineoaeueii iaoaai. E iu «aeoeaii» «oaeaeyainy»
io aaeaeoee a eieeain, iiyoiio iai eaaeaony, /oi aaeaeoeee
«?acaaaathony» n onei?aieai.

Iniiaie iaoaai ie?a a iaoae anaeaiiie yaeyaony eiioeioaeueiue aaeooi. A
o?aoia?iii aaiiao?e/aneii i?ino?ainoaa iaoaai ie?a ii ia?acoao
aeaoia?iue oece/aneee eiioeieoi. Eiioeioaeueiue aaeooi iiey?eciaai. Aai
aeaoia?iinoue ia yaeyaony aaeeeaeiaie ieineinoueth, yoi o?oaeii
iauynieiia oece/aneia aeaoia?ea.

?aaeeon eaaioia eiioeioaeueiiai aaeooia ?ann/eoai I.Ieaieii e ?aaai
10-33ni. Eaaiou eiioeioaeueiiai aaeooia oiaea eieeaine?otho, e eniieiyy
yio?iieeiue (ae?ooaeueiue) «aeiea» ia?aae A.Anaeaiiie, oiaiueoathony
eaaeaeoth naeoiaeo a 10-51ni. A ca 10-43nae. oiaiueoathony a 10-94
ni/nae. I?e yoii ii?iaeaeay oaea?ioth aieio n aeeeiie neionieaeu a 10-94
ni. N ia?aiai acaeyaea oaeea aieiu ia iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue a iaoai ie?a,
oae eae iie iaiueoa naiuo iaeeeo iauaeoia. Ii oaea?iua aieiu a
oece/aneii aaeooia aeaeaeoony ia a aeaea /aeii/iiai aeaeaeaiey eaaioia
aaeooia, a eniieuecoy ieca?iia (/aeii/iia) «ioeeiiaiea» aiia?aaeaaiuo
inae nieiia eaaioia io no?iaie iiey?ecaoeee. Iiaeiaiui ia?acii noiy/ea
aieiu ia?aciaaee eeanoa?u e aeiiaiu, eioi?ua iu iacuaaai eaa?eaie,
/anoeoeaie, aoiiaie… Eaaiou eiioeioaeueiiai aaeooia ioeuene?otho
(enoaoe, /anoeoeu oiaea), i?iaaeeaaynue aeoaaea, /ai aei ioeaaie
ioiaoee, a cia/aiee naiae iannu e eiuo naieo oa?aeoa?enoee. A iiiaio
a?aiaie 10-43nae. eaaiou aaeooia «i?iaaeeaathony» io 1094 a?/ni3 aei
10-94a?/ni3. N ia?aiai acaeyaea yoiai ia iiaeao auoue, iioiio /oi ia
iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue io?eoeaoaeueiay ianna. Ii iia nouanoaoao. Iao ie?
ai anai iiey?ai. Io?eoeaoaeueiay ianna eiioeioaeueiuo eaaioia aaeooia
nicaeaao eiia i?ino?ainoai, a eioi?ii nouanoaoao aioeiiaeiaiue iai
aioeie?. Aioeie? ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a iaoai i?ino?ainoaa, o iaai
naia aioei?ino?ainoai. Caeanue iiaeii aeiaaaeoue, /oi aioeie? ii?iaeee
iao ie?, oae aea eae iao ie?, iaeiiiiiaioii, ii?iaeee aioeie?. A
?iaeaeaiee iaieo ie?ia naiia aeoeaiia o/anoea i?eieiaee eaaca?u, a a
eiioea iaieo ie?ia o/anoaotho «/a?iua aeu?u». Iaoa?ey iiae noa?ie
Oaa?oeoeeueaea, a «/a?iuo aeu?ao», i?iaaeeaaaony ia oieueei a
i?ino?ainoaa, ii e ai a?aiaie. Iaoa?ey a «/a?iuo aeu?ao» «oeaoaao» a
iaoa aoaeouaa, e eiioeo nouanoaiaaiey iaoaai ie?a, a a eiioea
i?i?uaaaony neaicue eiioeioaeueiue aaeooi a aioeie?, a aeaea yia?aee, e
oai aicieeatho eaaca?u. «*a?iua aeu?u» aioeie?a iiaea?eee iai eaaca?u.
Aieueoiai ac?uaa ia auei.

Eieeain /anoeoe, eo oiaiueoaiea, nicaeaao a?aaeoaoeeth. A aieiu,
aicieeathuea i?e eieeaina /anoeoe, nicaeatho ae?oaea aeaeu
acaeiiaeaenoaee a oae aea eciaiytho e?eaecio oece/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa,
i?aaeneacaiioth Eiaa/aaneei e ?eiaiii.

Oaiiay iaoa?ey, ?acaaaaiea aaeaeoee, ?anoe?aiea i?ino?ainoaa

Aeey oaeaeaiey io ian aaeaeoee ei ia iaycaoaeueii ?acaaaaoueny.
Aeinoaoi/ii anai /anoeoeai (anai oaeai e iauaeoai) iaoae anaeaiiie
oiaiueoaoueny a 10 18 /anoue io naiaai ?aaeeona eee eeiaeiiai ?acia?a.
Oi anoue, ?aaeeon /anoeoeu a 10 -13 ni. ?acaeaeeoue ia 10 18, e iieo/ei
10 -31 ni. Eiaiii a yoii neo/aa aaeaeoeee o ai?eciioa niauoee iaoae
anaeaiiie «oaaaatho» io ian ni nei?inoueth i?eia?ii a 3o10 10 ni./n.

Ii oae i?inoi i?ino?ainoai iaoaai ie?a ia iiaeao ?anoe?youeny, aeey
yoiai iaiaoiaeeii no?oeoo?e?iaaiiia, eaaioiaaiiia i?ino?ainoai. ?acia?u
eaaioia i?ino?ainoaa ecaanoiu aeaaii, eo ?aaeeon ninoaaeyao 10 -13 ni.,
a ia?eiae eo ?aaeoeee ae?oa n ae?oaii e n /anoeoeaie – 10 -23 nae.
Eaaiou i?ino?ainoaa oiaea eieeaine?otho. Eiaiii yoi oiaiueoaiea
(eieeain) canoaaeyao «?anoe?youeny» i?ino?ainoai. I?e yoii eciaiyaony
aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea /anoeoe e oae (eciaiythony eo oa?aeoa?enoeee
(eciaiythony eiinoaiou, ii iu e iaoe i?eai?u yoiai ia caiaoyo, oae eae e
iu e i?eai?u oiaea eciaiyainy)), /oi e yaeyaony oai, /oi iu iacuaaai
a?aiaiai, a oi/iaa – oa/aieai a?aiaie. Niaeanii NOI A.Yeiooaeia
nei?inoue iauaeoa a i?ino?ainoaa e oa/aiea a?aiaie a iai ii?aaeaeyaony e
eciaiyaony ioiineoaeueii iaaethaeaiee ec ae?oaiai aeaeaeouaainy iauaeoa
eee iieiyueiny iaaethaeaoaeai. Oi anoue, iaaeaeo iauaeoaie aeieaeia
nouanoaiaaoue eaeay-oi naycue (acaeiiaeaenoaea). Ii anee
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi aeaeaeoueany iauaeou e iaaethaeaoaee ?acaeaeaiu
aeaaioneeie ?annoiyieyie (ieeeea?aeaie naaoiauo eao), e iaaeaeo ieie
nieioiay «ionoioa», oi eciaiaiey iannu e a?aiaie a aeaeaeoueony iauaeoao
iiaeao ia i?iecieoe. Iaeiaei iii i?ienoiaeeo. E yoi iioiaea ia ienoeeo.
Ii anee iauaeou aeaeaeoony ioiineoaeueii i?ino?ainoaa (iao, ia yoe?a
E.Iuethoiia), ioiineoaeueii eaaioiaaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa, oiaaea ia
iaycaoaeueia acaeiinaycue aeaeaeoueony iauaeoia ae?oa n ae?oaii.
Nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey iauaeoa ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii i?ieaeaiiuo
iauaeoii eaaioia i?ino?ainoaa, i?e yoii eciaiyaony «yia?aiianuuaiiinoue»
iauaeoa e niaeanii i?iii?oeee A.Yeiooaeia, aaea

E = MC 2

eciaiyaony ianna iauaeoa, eioi?ay, ioithaeue, iaania/eaaaony ia aiciiaie
Oeaana, a oece/aneeie i?ioeannaie a oece/aneii aaeooia. Eciaiaiea iannu
i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth a?aaeoaoeee iauaeoa, eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue,
eciaiyao nei?inoue oa/aiey a?aiaie a aeaeaeouainy iauaeoa. Yoi
niaeanoaony n ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoueth nei?inoe oa/aiey
a?aiaie e neeu a?aaeoaoeee, /oi caia/aii o ianneaiuo einie/aneeo
iauaeoia (Oaa?oeoeeueae).

*oi oaeia eaaiou i?ino?ainoaa?

Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi eaaioaie i?ino?ainoaa yaeythony
«iaiieiioeaiiua» /anoeoeu n ?aaeeonii a 10 -13 ni. Ia ae?ooaeueiua, a
«iaiieiioeaiiua», eioi?ua aiineaaenoaee aoaeai iacuaaoue eaaioaie
i?ino?ainoaa. Iauai i?ino?ainoaa iiae noa?ie ai?eciioa niauoee
ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 10 84 ni 3. A eaaeaeii eoae/aneii naioeiao?a
i?ino?ainoaa iiaeao ?acianoeoueny 10 39 oooe eaaioia i?ino?ainoaa,
cia/eo, oiiiaeea iauai i?ino?ainoaa ia eiee/anoai eaaioia a eoae/aneii
naioeiao?a, iieo/aai 10 123 oooe. Yoi eiee/anoai eaaioia a iaoai ie?a
iiae ai?eciioii niauoee. Aicueiai iaeei ec aa?eaioia i?eia?iie ieioiinoe
aauanoaa ia eoae/aneee naioeiao? i?ino?ainoaa i?aaeeiaeaiiue
A.O?eaeiaiii, a eiaiii: 10 -30 a?./ni3. , e ?acaeaeea iauai iaoaai
i?ino?ainoaa ia n?aaeithth ieioiinoue iieo/ei cia/aiea 10 54 a?aii.
I?eia?ii oaeia eiee/anoai aauanoaa iaoiaeeony iiae ai?eciioii niauoee.
Caoai ?acaeaeei iauoth ianno aauanoaa ia ianno i?ioiia (10 -24 a?),
eaii?e?oy aeey e?aoeinoe iannu ae?oaeo /anoeoe, a oae aea
ianouanoaothuoth ianno iieiy iaeo?eii, i?aaeeiaeaiioth Iaaiii. Iu
iieo/aai cia/aiea 10 78 oooe. Yoi i?eia?iia eiee/anoai ?aaeueiuo
(ianoiyueo, a ioee/ea io eaaioia i?ino?ainoaa) /anoeoe a iaoai ie?a.
Aeaeaa ?acaeaeei eiee/anoai eaaioia i?ino?ainoaa 10 123 oooe ia
eiee/anoai ?aaeueiuo /anoeoe 10 78 oooe, e iieo/aai cia/aiea 10 45 .
Iineaaeiyy oeeo?a aiai?eo iai, ai neieueei ?ac eiee/anoai eaaioia
aieueoa eiee/anoaa ?aaeueiuo /anoeoe a iaoai ie?a. Eaaiou i?ino?ainoaa
ia ienoe/aneea, a ?aaeueiua. Oaia?ue iai neaaeoao ociaoue eaeiaa eo
ianna e eae ioee/athony eo oa?aeoa?enoeee io oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaeueiuo
/anoeoe, aaaeue eaaiou i?ino?ainoaa oioy e «iaiieiioeaiiua», ii aiieia
?aaeueiua.

Ioeaaie ianna eaaioia i?ino?ainoaa auoue ia iiaeao, eia/a au eo ia
nouanoaiaaei, e iie ia aeaeaeoony n ?aeyoeaenoneie nei?inoueth, cia/eo
iaeaaeatho ieca?iie iannie iieiy. Oi/iaa eaaiou ioeuene?otho, eeiyo n
/anoioie a 10 -23 aa?oe a naeoiaeo, ia?acoy iaiiia?acioth no?oeoo?o,
iiaeiaea ii?y I.Aee?aea, oiaiueoaynue i?e yoii a 10 -31 ni./c., e a 10
-54 ni. ca iiiaio a?aiaie a 10 -23 n. Oaia?ue i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi any
ianna eaaioia i?ino?ainoaa e yaeyaony «oaiiie iaoa?eae», eioi?ie ia
iaeei ii?yaeie (a 10) ?ac aieueoa, iaaeaee iau/iiai aauanoaa. E 10 54
a?. i?eaaaeyai iaeei ii?yaeie e iieo/aai 10 55 a?. – yoi iauay ianna
«oaiiie iaoa?ee», eioi?oth aeaeei ia eiee/anoai eaaioia aaeooia 10 123
oooe, e iieo/aai, /oi ianna iaeiiai eaaioa i?ino?ainoaa i?eia?ii ?aaia
10 -68 a?.

Iauay ianna eaaioia i?ino?ainoaa a iauaia i?ino?ainoaa n ?aaeeonii
i?eia?ii a 10 ?ac aieueoei, /ai ?aaeeon Caiee aoaeao ?aaia i?eia?ii 1
a?aiio. Oae /oi iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a ieaiaoa?iuo nenoaiao, a
aaeaeoeeao e iaaieueoeo neiieaieyo aaeaeoee iauaaeeiaiiay ianna eaaioia
i?ino?ainoaa i?aeoe/aneiai aeeyiey ia aauanoai ia eiaao, iioiio-oi
eieaeueii eaaiou i?ino?ainoaa iaiuooeiu a iaoa a?aiy ie/ai. Ii anoue
niinia (iaaei?iaie yenia?eiaio) auyaeaiey oiaiueoaiey eeiaeiuo ?acia?ia
iauaeoia, aeaaea oao, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony ia Caiea, ?yaeii n iaie. Yoi
oiaiueoaiea iauaeoia «i?iaioee?otho» oiaiueoathueany eaaiou
i?ino?ainoaa, e yoi iaeei ec iaia?aoeiuo i?ioeannia eciaiaiey yio?iiee a
iaoai ie?a, e yoi i?eaiaeeo e eaaeouaiony ?anoe?aieth i?ino?ainoaa, oioy
i?ino?ainoai ia ?anoe?yaony, oiaiueoathony eaaiou i?ino?ainoaa,
/anoeoeu, oiaiueoaainy iu, iaoe i?eai?u, ieaiaou, caacaeu, aaeaeoeee.
Eco/ay ec yoiai oiaiueoathuaainy ie?a anaeaiioth, iai eaaeaony, /oi iia
?anoe?yaony, /oi niaeo? eceo/aiee io aeaeueieo aaeaeoee niauai a
«e?anioth» noi?iio, /oi yaeyaony aoi?ui aa?eaioii yooaeoa Aeiiea?a. Yoi
eciaiaiea yio?iiee, inouanoaeyaiia a aeaea «na?ina» yia?aee (iannu)
/anoeoeaie a aeaea aiei, aeeeia eioi?uo ai iiiai ?ac iaiueoa 10 -13ni.

Yenia?eiaio, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee ?anoe?aiea i?ino?ainoaa

Aeey yenia?eiaioa iaiaoiaeeiu:

1. 1 eeeiiao? (105ni.), iioe/aneiai naaoiaieieia n aeeaiao?ii 7-9
iee?ii, e aoi?ia naaoiaieieii aeeeiie a 10 ni. Naaoiaieieia aeaeaoaeueii
oeaeueiua, aac niaae, /oiau ia aicieeaea eioa?oa?aioeey e io?aaeaiiay
aieia.

Naaoieceo/athuee aeeiae eee iieoi?iaiaeieeiaue eaca? n aeeeiie
eceo/aaiie aieiu 1,30 eee 1,55 iei.

Oaeia?, aeey iiaea/e ia naaoieceo/athuee aeeiae eee eaca?
yeaeo?ieiioeuenia n /anoioie a 0,33o10 9 aoe/n. Eeiaeiay aeeeia
eiioeuena (iaeaoa ye.iaa.aiei) aeieaeia auoue 1 aeaoeeiao? (10 ni.).

Eioa?oa?iiao? Iaoa-Oeaiaea?a, eee aiaeia, aeey ?acaeaeaiey iaeiiai eo/a
ia aeaa, aei iiiaaeaiey eo/a a iaa naaoiaieieia iaeiia?aiaiii. Aeey
eaaeaeiai naaoiaieieia naiy iieiaeia eo/a.

I?eaiiua eiioeu aeaoo aieieii (1ei. e 10 ni.) iaoeaeeaathony ia
oioiaeeiaeu, ii?iaeaeathuea ye. eiioeuenu io naaoiauo aniuoae, e eioi?ua
aeieaeiu iaoiaeeony io naaoiaieieii ia ?annoiyiee a 10ni. Nei?inoue
naaoa a naaoiaieieiao e a aicaeooa ?aciay. Aeeeia aieieii aeieaeia auoue
e?aoiie eeiaeiie aeeeia naaoieiioeuenia.

Eiiiuethoa?.

Eiiiuethoa?iay i?ia?aiia, aeey i?aa?auaiey ye.eiioeuenia io i?eieiathueo
oioiaeeiaeia a neionieaeu ia iiieoi?a, io iaieo naaoiaieieii.
O?iiiiao?aae i?eoiaea eaaeaeiai eiioeuena io iaieo naaoiaeeiaeia n
oi/iinoueth aei 10-10 nae.

Aeeeiiia naaoiaieieii iaiioaoue ia aa?aaai. Eniieueciaaoue enoi/ieee,
aeathuea aieiu aeeeiie 1,30 eee 1,55 iei. ioaeii iioiio, /oi o yoeo aiei
naiia ieceia caoooaiea a naaoiaieieiao. Oaeia? aeieaeai aicaoaeaeaoue
enoi/iee eiioeuenii, iinueay iaeaou aiei a naaoiaieieia. *anoioa
eiioeuenia 0,33o10 9 aoe/n. iaiaoiaeeia aeey onei?aiey i?ioeanna. A eiii
neo/aa iaaethaeaiey iiaoo caoyiooueny ia iiiai aeiae. Iaeaou aiei,
eiioeuenu, ec naaoiaieieii iiiaaeatho ia aeaa oioiaeeiaea, eioi?ua
i?aia?acotho naaoiaua eiioeuenu a yeaeo?e/aneea e ii i?iaiaeieeo
iiiaaeatho a eiiiuethoa?, aaea i?e iiiiue i?ia?aiiu oi?ie?othony a aeaa
neionieaeu. Yoe neionieaeu aeieaeiu auoue io?aaeaiu ia iiieoi?a iaeia
iaae ae?oaie, a nenoaia eii?aeeiao, /oiau yooaeo aue iaaeyaeiaa.

Eaaeaeue iiiaio a?aiaie a 10 -5 nae. a aeeeiiii naaoiaiaea aoaeao
iaoiaeeoueny

10 4 oooe eiioeuenia (iaeaoia aiei). Oei?a/eaaoueny aeeeiiue naaoiaiae
aoaeao 10 5 ni. ?acaeaeeoue ia 10 18 /anoue = 10 -13 ni/nae. Oei?i/aiea
ei?ioeiai naaoiaiaea iiaeii ia o/eouaaoue. Ye.iaa. aieiu a iaeaoa e nai
iaeao (eiioeuen) aeaeaeoony n ?aeyoeaenoneie nei?inoueth, oa/aiea
a?aiaie a yoeo iauaeoao ?aaii ioeth. Iie i?aeoe/anee ia eciaiythony. Ii
eciaiyaony n?aaea, ii eioi?ie iie aeaeaeoony. E iiyoiio aoaeao
eacaoueny, /oi ye.iaa. aieiu e iaeaou oaeeeiythony. Eaaeaeue iaeao
aoaeao oaeeeiyoueny : 10 ni. ?acaeaeeoue ia 10 18 /anoue, iieo/eony 10
-17 ni/nae. Ana iaeaou a aeeeiiii naaoiaiaea 10 4 oooe oiiiaeeoue ia 10
-17 ni/nae. iieo/aaony

10-13 ni/ca 10 -5 nae. Yoi ieca?iay aeeeia. I?aeoe/anee aa
caoeene?iaaoue iaaiciiaeii. N ia?aiai acaeyaea eaaeaony, /oi neionieaeu
aeaeaaoueny ia aoaeoo.

Ii naaoiaieieia, oaeia? e oioii?eaiieee oei?a/eaathony ec-ca oiaiueoaiey
?aaeeonia /anoeoe, aoiiia e iieaeoe, ec eioi?uo iie ninoiyo. A
oiaiueoaiea ?acia?ia ni na?inii iannu aea/ao ca niaie iioa?th yia?aee.
Yoi eiaaea-oi i?aaeeaaaee O.OIEE e Ae.II?EEEA?. Caeii i nio?aiaiee
yia?aee aua ia ioiaieee. Iiyoiio, ec oa?ythuaai ianno oaeia?a, eaaeaeoth
aoaeouoth naeoiaeo aoaeoo enoiaeeoue eiioeuenu ana aieueoae aeeeiu (n
iaoae oi/ee c?aiey), iaaeaee naeoiaeo iacaae. Oae aea aoaeoo eciaiyoueny
naaoiaeeiae eee eaca?.

Eaaeaeoth naeoiaeo /a?ac aeeeiiue naaoiaiae aoaeao i?ioiaeeoue 3o10 9
oooe iaeaoia. Yoi /enei iu aeaeei ia 10 -17 ni/nae. e iieo/aai noiia?iia
oaeeeiaiea iaeaoia a 3o10 -7 ni/nae. Iaaethaeaai ca neionieaeaie 10 000
nae. (10 4 nae.), e iieo/aai i?eoiae iaeaoia io aeeeiiiai naaoiaiaea,
ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeiai, a 3o10 -2 ni/ ca 10 4 nae. Yoi cia/aiea oaea
iiaeii caoeene?iaaoue. Iinea caionea onoaiiaee, /a?ac 10 4 nae. iiaeii
aoaeao iaaethaeaoue, /oi iaeaou io aeeeiiiai naaoiaiaea i?eoiaeyo e
oioi?aoeaioi?o i?eia?ii a 10 -12 nae. ?aiueoa, /ai io ei?ioeiai.

Eiaiii yoio yooaeo aucuaaao ia «?acaaaaiea» aaeaeoee, a ?anoe?aiea
i?ino?ainoaa.

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