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Войниканис Е.А., Якушев М.В. 2004 – Информация. Собственность. Интернет. Традиция и новеллы в современном праве (книга)

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Aieieeaien A.A., sseooaa I.A. 2004 – Eioi?iaoeey. Nianoaaiiinoue.
Eioa?iao. O?aaeeoeey e iiaaeeu a nia?aiaiiii i?aaa

Eioi?iaoeey. Nianoaaiiinoue. Eioa?iao:O?aaeeoeey e iiaaeeu a nia?aiaiiii
i?aaa

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40092900aa00000000000000c900910000000000040000002701ffff030000000000

Aieieeaien A.A., sseooaa I.A. Eioi?iaoeey. Nianoaaiiinoue. Eioa?iao:
O?aaeeoeey e iiaaeeu a nia?aiaiiii i?aaa. – I.: Aieoa?n Eeoaa?, 2004.

Eieaa iaiauaao iiiaieaoiee iiuo niaaoi?ia a iaeanoe i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee, a oaeaea eo ?aciuoeaiey i iooyo
?acaeoey nia?aiaiiiai (eae ioa/anoaaiiiai, oae e ca?oaaaeiiai) i?aaa a
eiioaenoa aeiaaeueiuo eciaiaiee, eioi?ua niioonoaotho oi?ie?iaaieth
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa.

Oeaio?aeueiay i?iaeaia, eioi?ie iinayuaia eieaa – niioiioaiea
“eioi?iaoeee” (n?aaieoaeueii iiaiai iauaeoa i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey) e
“nianoaaiiinoe” (th?eaee/aneiai einoeoooa n iiiaiaaeiaie enoi?eae).
Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony enoi?e/aneiio aniaeoo: i?ineaaeeaay
yaiethoeeth a oieeiaaiee aeaiiuo iiiyoee, aaoi?u i?aaenoaaeytho ia noae
/eoaoaey auyaeaiiua i?iaeaiu e iooe eo ?aoaiey. I?e ?anniio?aiee
aii?inia, naycaiiuo n i?aaiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai Eioa?iaoa, aaoi?u
iie?athony ia iiaaeoea ca?oaaaeiua enneaaeiaaiey ii aeaiiie oaiaoeea.
Caaa?oaao eieao e?eoe/aneee aiaeec aeaenoaothuaai ?inneeneiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a.

Eieaa niaaaeaia ?acaa?iooie aeaeeia?aoeae ?inneeneeo e ca?oaaaeiuo
enoi/ieeia.

A I?eeiaeaiee ioaeeeoaony ia?aaiae Caeiia NOA “I naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee”.

Eieaa i?aaeiacia/aia aeey th?enoia, ?aaioathueo a noa?a eniieueciaaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, e niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe caeiiioai?/anoaa.

Niaea?aeaiea

I?aaeeneiaea

Summary

Aeaeeia?aoey

Eioi?iaoeey

Eioi?iaoeey eae oaiiiai nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u e eae i?aaeiao iiciaiey

Eioi?iaoeey eae iauaeo i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey

Nianoaaiiinoue

I?aai nianoaaiiinoe – enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue

I?ii?eaoa?iay eiioeaioeey eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe

Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue – nia?aiaiiua oaiaeaioeee

Eioa?iao

Eioi?iaoeey a Eioa?iaoa: iaeioi?ua iauea aii?inu

Iiaua iauaeou “naoaaie nianoaaiiinoe”

Eioi?iaoeey – Nianoaaiiinoue – Eioa?iao: ?inneeneay i?aeoeea
?aaoee?iaaiey

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee: eeanneoeeaoeey ii noa?ai
?aaoee?iaaiey

“Iai?ioeeueiia” caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia Eioa?iaoa

I?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?aoi?ie?iaaieth ?inneeneiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa

Caeeth/aiea

I?eeiaeaiea. Caeii NOA “I naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee”)

I?eia/aiey

I?aaeeneiaea

E eaeie au nioeeieiae/aneie, eoeueoo?ieiae/aneie eee aeaaea
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee nia?aiaiiinoe iu ie ia?aoeeenue, n aieueoie aeieae
aa?iyoiinoe iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a ia?aoth aeanyoeo ianoaeaeaaiuo
iiiyoee aieaeao “eioi?iaoeey”, oae eee eia/a oaycaiiay n ?acaeoeai e
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. I?aaeiaoii ianoiyuaai
enneaaeiaaiey oaeaea yaeyaony “eioi?iaoeey”, ii oieueei a aa i?aaiaii
?aeo?na. Iu ia?aoeiny e enoi?ee iiiyoey, aai ii?aaeaeaieth e aiciiaeiui
eioa?i?aoaoeeyi, iaeiaei a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ian aoaeao eioa?aniaaoue
niaianoeiinoue “eioi?iaoeee” n iaai?ii iaoaieciia ?aaoee?iaaiey, oaea
eiathueony a nia?aiaiiii i?aaa. Eiuie neiaaie, iu au oioaee “i?iaa?eoue
ia i?i/iinoue” i?aaiaoth oai?eth e, ii aiciiaeiinoe, iaiaoeoue iaeaieaa
aaeaeaaoiua e yooaeoeaiua iooe ?aoaiey i?iaeai, noi?ie?iaaaoeony a
eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a iauanoaaiiie aeecie e noaaoeo iniai aeooaeueiuie a
nayce n ?acaeoeai aeiaaeueiie eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiioieeaoeeiiiie naoe, ca
eioi?ie cae?aieeinue iacaaiea “Eioa?iao”.

I?aai niiniaii niioaaonoaiaaoue iaeeaeaieyi naieo ?aaeueiuo e
iioaioeeaeueiuo noauaeoia oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee iii yaeyaony
noaaeeueiui, o.a. inoaaony iaeciaiiui a oa/aiea ioiineoaeueii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie. Io i?aaa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
o?aaoaony iiaeeueiinoue, iineieueeo iii aeieaeii ianeoaeeaaoue ?aaeueiua
yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua iio?aaiinoe, eioi?ua i?aoa?iaaatho
iinoiyiiua eciaiaiey. ?aaiiaanea iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy oaiaeaioeeyie –
iaania/aieai aa?aioee e naiaa?aiaiiie ?aaeoeeae ia /anoi
iai?iaiice?oaiua eciaiaiey – ninoaaeyao iaiouaieaioth /a?oo yooaeoeaii
ooieoeeiie?othuae i?aaiaie nenoaiu. Yoi, eacaeinue au, o?eaeaeueiia
iieiaeaiea i?aaiaie oai?ee iiaeaa?aaaony naaiaeiy ei??aeoeee, ana
aieueoaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao aeeiaie/aneay ninoaaeythuay oeacaiiiai
?aaiiaaney. A /anoiinoe, i?aaeeaaaaony ?anniao?eaaoue “iaiaoiaeeioth
noaiaiue aeeiaie/iinoe” eae yeaiaio noaaeeueiinoe caeiia, i?e/ai ?a/ue
eaeao ia oieueei i aeiiieiaiee e niaa?oainoaiaaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
ii e i aai “nouanoaaiiii iaiiaeaiee”*(1). E niaeaeaieth, iaoaieciu
oaeiai iaiiaeaiey aei neo ii? ia eco/aiu aeaoaeueii, a ?annoaeaeaiey
iauaai oa?aeoa?a i?ieeaatho iaei naaoa ia i?ienoiaeyuaa. Caiaoei, e
i?eia?o, /oi iaoii?yaei/aiiinoue eciaiaiee a ?inneeneii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo, eioi?ay onoaoaeyaony aunieeie
eiee/anoaaiiuie (/anoioiuie) iieacaoaeyie, i?eaiaeeo e iaecaaaeiui
eiioeeeoai e eieeeceyi. Ethaiiuoii, /oi i?aaiaay aeiaiaoeea i?aeoe/anee
ioeacaeanue io aiciiaeiinoe “aaniethoiiai” ?aoaiey iiaeiaiuo eieeecee,
o.a. io aiieia anoanoaaiiiai aeey i?aaiaaaea eaeaaea no?ieiie e
iai?ioeai?a/eaie nenoaiu ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia. Ianoaeaeaaony aeaaea
oeaeaniia?aciinoue nicaeaiey e ?acaeoey iiauo io?aneae i?aaa –
eieeeceiiiiai i?aaa*(2), eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?aaa, “eioa?iao-i?aaa” e
o.ae. Iu iieo/aai a eoiaa aeiaieueii iao?aaeeoeeiiioth neooaoeeth:
i?aaii?eoycaiey, eeoue io/anoe o?aaoee?iaaiiua caeiiii, eciaiaiey,
eioi?ua aua “ia onoiyeenue”, ia iieo/eee aaeaeaaoiiai io?aaeaiey e
i?eciaiey a nenoaia i?aaa, oaea iieo/atho naieo caueoieeia, naia “eiaae”
n?aaee i?aaenoaaeoaeae oie aea naiie i?aaiaie nenoaiu.

Auaiae, eioi?ue iai?aoeaaaony nai niaie, caeeth/aaony a i?eaeaiee
aieueoaai aana i?ioeanno o?ainoi?iaoeee i?aaiauo einoeoooia – aoaeue oi
yaiethoeey, ioiaia, caiaia eee aaaaeaiea iiauo, – oiaaea eae eo
nio?aiaiea a ea/anoaa nenoaiiia?acothueo yeaiaioia iooiaeeo ia aoi?ie
ieai. Oaeay niaia i?ei?eoaoia, a naith i/a?aaeue, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
ia?ainiuneaiee naiiai iiiyoey “i?aaa” eae nenoaiu ii?i*(3). Eiuie
neiaaie, ia oieueei i?ioeaiaeaenoaea i?aaa, ii oaeaea e aai aacaeaenoaea
eee aeaaea i?inoi i?iiaaeeaiea oiaaea, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i iiauo
yeiiiie/aneeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannao, cao?oaeiytho
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiaie nenoaiu, canoaaeytho aa ?aaioaoue
“aoieinooth”. Iniaia aieiaiea, eioi?ia oaeaeyaony nia?aiaiiuie th?enoaie
i?aaiaie aeeiaieea, iiaeao iieacaoueny /?acia?iui, /oi, iaeiaei, eaaei
inii?eoue, anee iiaeieoe e ionoonoaeth eaaaeueiiai ioaaoa ia oa eee eiua
cai?inu iauanoaa eae e aiieia ?aaeueiie oa?ica ia i?inoi
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo, ii oaeaea e iaia?aoeiuo iineaaenoaee. Aicueiai a
ea/anoaa i?eia?a ?acaeaathueany naaiaeiy ao?iuie oaiiaie aeioaoiieiaee.
Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aaiiie eiaeaia?ee (aua iaeiiai iacaaiey aeey
aeioaoiieiaee) ii?aaeatho aiia?aaeaiea, ii iaeiia?aiaiii aucuaatho
o?aaiao e iianaiey eae ni noi?iiu iauaaoaeae, oae e ni noi?iiu
enneaaeiaaoaeae-i?ioanneiiaeia. I/aaeaeii, /oi iiiai/eneaiiua aeeneonnee
a o/aiuo e iieeoe/aneeo e?oaao, aeaaea n o/aoii eo ioaee/iiai oa?aeoa?a,
iiaoo eiaoue i?aeoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou oieueei i?e oneiaee eaaaeueiiai
cae?aieaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie iiceoeee. Ia i?aaa eae nioeeaeueiii ?aaoeyoi?a
eaaeeo ia oieueei ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ianoiyuaa, ii e ioaaonoaaiiinoue
ca aoaeouaa, a nayce n /ai oianoii aiai?eoue oaea ia noieueei i
naiaa?aiaiiinoe ioaaoa, neieueei i aai iia?aaeathuai oa?aeoa?a*(4).

A ianoiyuai enneaaeiaaiee aaoi?u iiiuoaeenue iniuneeoue i?ioeann
o?ainoi?iaoeee nenoaiu i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ia i?eia?a niioiioaiey
i?aaiauo einoeoooia “eioi?iaoeee” e “nianoaaiiinoe”. Aeooaeueiinoue yoie
oaiu ia aucuaaao niiiaiee, iniaaiii anee o/anoue oi ia?iiiia aieiaiea,
eioi?ia ai anai ie?a oaeaeyaony ?aaoee?iaaieth ioiineoaeueii iiauo,
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?aaiioiioaiee, a oaeaea iaaeinoaoi/ioth oai?aoe/aneoth
e i?aeoe/aneoth i?i?aaioaiiinoue a nia?aiaiiii ?inneeneii i?aaa i?iaeai,
eioi?ua aicieeatho a nayce n aiaea/aiiinoueth a eiioaeno eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
ioiioaiee o?aaeeoeeiiiiai einoeoooa nianoaaiiinoe. A i?ioeanna ?aaiou
iaae eieaie noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi aeey ?anniio?aiey oeacaiiuo aii?inia
o?aaoaony iinoiyiii ia?auaoueny aua e iaeiie iaeieco/aiiie iaeanoe
i?aaiauo enneaaeiaaiee – e niaoeeoeea i?aaiauo ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n
eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa. Eiaiii iiyoiio i?aaeeaaaaiay /eoaoaeyi ?aaioa
iieo/eea iacaaiea, auianaiiia ia ia?aoth no?aieoeo iaeiaeee.

Summary

The book sums up the many years experience of the authors in the theory
of Information Law.

The new information technologies raised questions about the nature of
property, intellectual property, and information as an object of legal
regulation.

The goal of the book is to analyze the interrelation between the
existing concepts of information and property.

The codified conception of property as a bundle of sticks (possession,
use and disposal) is still dominant in the Russian academic society.

However, this traditional view of property fails to describe many
relationships involving information, first and foremost because it
cannot express the full range of property rights.

The possible get-out, as suggested, requires the replacement of
traditional concept with an alternative, which extends the old, fixed
and inflexible limits of the notion ‘property’.

Without taking into consideration the foreign legal practice and
historical analysis, no one may give clear answers to the question, how
information can be treated as somebody’s property.

To come to the legal understanding of information it should be studied
as a phenomenon of modern culture, inherent part of everyday life and
topical matter of scientific and philosophical disputes.

The development of the Internet added a lot of material for
interpretation and analysis.

Thus, the question on the information as a legal institute deals
primarily with the legal regulation of subjects, which appeared and
formed along with the Internet era.

So the logic of the book can be well explained: it explores the ‘new and
old’ – new for the Russians, but old for the historians – concept of the
property rights in the context of information society and refers for
this purpose to the Internet as its most relevant environment.

The last chapter of the book presents the implications of these
discoveries for the improvement of legal protection of information in
the Russian Federation.

The array of foreign legal contexts explored in the book, authors
believe, could be helpful to realize better all vices, lacks and
failures of the Russian legal practice and to specify their advisable
changes.

Aeaeeia?aoey

I?eaaaeaiiua ieaea enoi/ieee io?aaeatho nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie aeeneonnee ia oaio “nianoaaiiinoue – eioi?iaoeey –
Eioa?iao”, auianaiioth a caaeaaea ianoiyuae eieae. Aeaeeia?aoey ia
oieueei ia i?aoaiaeoao ia yioeeeeiiaaee/iinoue (en/a?iuaathuee ia?a/aiue
eeoa?aoo?u ii aeaiiie oaiaoeea iio?aaiaae au niaoeeaeueiiai
aeaeeia?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey), ii e iineo “noauaeoeaiue” oa?aeoa?,
iineieueeo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaeai? enoi/ieeia, a eioi?uo icao/aia
iiceoeey eeai niaiaaeathuay, eeai noiaeiay n oie, eioi?oth ionoaeaatho
aaoi?u ianoiyuae eieae.

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Eioi?iaoeey

Caeaiea iaoaai ianeieueei
eneonnoaaiii

nicaeaiiiai aeaaiiieo/ey
neeoeii

eaaei iiaeao ?ooiooue, eae
oieueei a

iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue ieaaeaony,
/oi

i?e iiiiue anaai eeoue
ianeieueeeo

neia, oaeeo eae
“eioi?iaoeey”,

“yio?iiey”, “ecauoi/iinoue”,
iaeuecy

?aoeoue anao iaoeo i?iaeai.

Eeiae Oaiiii. I?acaeie/iay
iiaicea*(5)

Eioi?iaoeey eae oaiiiai nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?ue eae i?aaeiao iiciaiey

Ethaie iauaeo i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii, e aeaaea a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, yeaiaioii aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eiiiiiaioii iauaeoeaiie
ea?oeiu ie?a. Aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, ioee/iay io i?e?iaeu e eoeueoo?u,
anee i?eaea?aeeaaoueny iaieaioeaineie o?aeoiaee, iaoiaeeony aia aeanoe
iiiyoeeiiai iuoeaiey e eae i?aaeiao iiciaiey /aeiaaea (a naiii oe?ieii
niunea yoiai neiaa) aeiioneaao eeoue “aneiioioe/aneia i?eaeeaeaiea”*(6).
Oi eee eiia yaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?eciaaony nouanoaothuei e
noaiiaeony i?aaeiaoii aiaeeca, i?eeiaeaiey oai?/aneeo oneeee eee
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaenoaey oieueei a neeo oiai, /oi iii oaea aioei a
iiea /aeiaa/aneiai aini?eyoey e, oaeei ia?acii, a e?oa /aeiaa/aneeo
eioa?ania. I?aaiaia iniuneaiea yaeaiey, i?ioeanna eee niauoey yaeyaony a
yoii niunea aoi?e/iui, iineieueeo i?eciaiey e eiio?iey ni noi?iiu
iauanoaa o?aaoao aeaeaei ia ana i?ienoiaeyuaa, a, oi/iaa, oieueei oi,
aicaeaenoaea /aai iuouaaony ia iae?io?iaia (o?iaia nioeeaeueiuo
ioiioaiee) e nouanoaiaaiea /aai i/aaeaeiui ia?acii cao?aaeaaao
nioeeaeueiua (yeeoa?iua eee ianniaua) eioa?anu. Ionthaea, nianoaaiii,
aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiiay iiiuoea ii?aaeaeaiey iauaeoa i?aaiioiioaiey
/a?ac iiiyoea aeaaa*(7).

Iauaeoii i?aaa noaiiaeony eeoue oi, /oi yaeyaony cia/eiui aeey iauanoaa,
a ?aoathuei (oioy, ai?i/ai, ia aaeeinoaaiiui) e?eoa?eai aeey iaaeaeaiey
oiai eee eiiai yaeaiey i?aaiaui noaoonii inoaaony aei neo ii? aai
yeiiiie/aneay oeaiiinoue: oieueei oi, /oi iiaeao noaoue iieiii?aaiui
i?aaeiaoii oicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa, aoiaeeo a “iiea c?aiey” i?aaa. A aae
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee oaeei iauaeoii noaiiaeony eioi?iaoeey e ana,
/oi n iae naycaii.

Eaaaeueiua ii?aaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee a eo/oai neo/aa iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae “iaeo?aeueiua”, o.a. ie/aai nouanoaaiiiai ia
i?iyniythuea, ii aeiioneathuea ioiineoaeueii oe?ieia oieeiaaiea e
iicaieythuea ?aoi?ie?iaaoue caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ia cao?aaeaay
iniiaiiieiaeaiee. Iiyoiio i?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e aiaeeco oaeeo
ii?aaeaeaiee, ia?aoeiny aia/aea e enoi?ee iiiyoey. Iaaa?iia, ia o?aaoao
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?acuyniaiee eee iainiiaaiee oacen i oii, /oi iiiyoea
“eioi?iaoeee” ieacaeinue a oeaio?a aieiaiey aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaiaea?y
oaoiieiae/aneiio anieaneo, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai noaea “eiiiuethoa?iay
?aaiethoeey”. Naii neiai “eioi?iaoeey”, eae ecaanoii, i?ienoiaeeo io
eaoeineiai “information”, /oi icia/aao “?acuyniaiea” eee
“inaaaeiieaiiinoue”. Ia?aua oaae a oai?ee eioi?iaoeee auee naeaeaiu aua
a ia?aie iieiaeia XX a.: a 1928 a. ?. Oa?oee aia?aua aeae eiee/anoaaiiia
ii?aaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeee, a a 1948 a. auoea ciaiaieoay eieaa E. Oaiiiia
“Iaoaiaoe/aneay oai?ey nayce”, aaea eioi?iaoeee aeaaony oaea
noaoenoe/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea*(8). Iineieueeo eeaa?iaoe/aneia iiieiaiea
eioi?iaoeee enoiaeeo aeaaiui ia?acii ec oi?ioeu, i?aaeeiaeaiiie
Oaiiiiii, iu inoaiiaeiny ae?aooea ia eaeayo, eaaeaueo a aa iniiaaiee. A
oai?ee Oaiiiia iiiyoea “eioi?iaoeey” oanii naycaii n iiiyoeyie
“yio?iiey” e “naycue”. Eioi?iaoeeae ieacuaathony oieueei oa
ia?aaeaaaaiua niiauaiey, eioi?ua oiaiueoatho iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue o
iieo/aoaey eioi?iaoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eioi?iaoeey ecia?yaony
?aciinoueth yio?iiee nenoaiu aei e iinea iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee. Anee
oeaeaaua e?eoa?ee nenoaiu-i?eaiieea eioi?iaoeee iaicia/eoue “A”, niauoea
a nenoaia-ia?aaeao/eea iaicia/eoue “A”, a yio?iieth – “I”, oi yio?iieae
nenoaiu aoaeao ?aciinoue I(A) – I(A/A). Iieo/aaony, /oi ecia?aiea
yio?iiee nenoaiu eiaao oeaiiinoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iicaieyao
ioeaieoue aeeyiea niauoey A ia niauoea A /a?ac iieacaoaeue eiee/anoaa
eioi?iaoeee. Cia/eo, eioi?iaoeey aunooiaao eae ia?a ioiioaiey,
acaeiinayce iaaeaeo nenoaiaie, yaeaieyie, i?ioeannaie, a ia eae
iieacaoaeue ninoiyiey nenoai*(9). Aaaeii ioiaoeoue e aua iaeei iiiaio:
anee eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaao a aeaea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo neaiaeaie
(ca?yaeaie, ciaeaie), eioi?ua eiatho eiee/anoaaiiia ecia?aiea, oi
niaea?aeaiea, eee naiaioe/aneay noi?iia acaeiiaeaenoaey iooiaeeo ia
aoi?ie ieai, oae eae yaeyaony, eae oeacuaaao nai Oaiiii ai aaaaeaiee e
naiae eieaa, “e??aeaaaioiie a ioiioaiee eiaeaia?iie i?iaeaiu”*(10).

Eioi?iaoeey ia oieueei oanii naycaia n i?ioeannii aa ia?aaea/e
(o?ainiennee), ii a eiia/iii eoiaa ii?aaeaeyaony yoei i?ioeannii. Eiuie
neiaaie, eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia noieueei niaieoiiinoue
naaaeaiee, neieueei niaieoiiinoue neiaieia, iiaeeaaeaueo
aeaeiaee?iaaieth. Aeaeiaee?iaaiea eee ?aniiciaaaiea ?anniao?eaaaony i?e
yoii eae niyoea iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe (yio?iiee) iin?aaenoaii auai?a,
inouanoaeyaiiai iieo/aoaeai eioi?iaoeee. Aeaeueiaeoay ?ac?aaioea oai?ee
eioi?iaoeee aaeanue a iai?aaeaiee ?anoe?aiey iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeee”,
eioi?ia aeeth/aao ioiuia naiaioe/aneee e i?aaiaoe/aneee aniaeou.

Oae, oaea I. Aeia?, oaeaea iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia eeaa?iaoeee e
nia?aiaiiie oai?ee eioi?iaoeee, iiieiaao iiae eioi?iaoeeae “iaicia/aiea
niaea?aeaiey, iieo/aiiiai ec aiaoiaai ie?a a i?ioeanna iaoaai
i?eniiniaeaiey e iaio e i?eniinaaeeaaiey iaoeo /oanoa”*(11). A
ii?aaeaeaiee eioi?iaoeee aeey Aeia?a ia?aii/a?aaeiui yaeyaony iiiaio
aeoeaiiai iaiaia ni n?aaeie, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aeinoeaaaony i?e?auaiea
ciaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, nianoaaiii “eioi?iaoeeae”, ii Aeia?o, yaeyaony
“eioi?iaoeey aicaeaenoaey” (eee “acaeiiaeaenoaey”, /oi aeeaea e
eiee/anoaaiiie eiioeaioeee Oa?oee). I?aaenoaaeaiiay a oaeii aeaea
eioi?iaoeey oa?yao naith aaoiiiiiinoue, naienoai auoue iacaaeneiie io
eaeiai-eeai noauaeoa (iineoaey). Eiuie neiaaie, iia oaea ia iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae iaeia noanoaioeeaeueiia ia/aei – ia/oi a?iaea
ieaoiiianeiai “ie?a eaeae” eee iiiia?ianeiai “o?aoueaai ie?a”, –
nouanoaothuaa iiieii iiuoa.

A i?eaaaeaiiuo ii?aaeaeaieyo eioi?iaoeee niaea?aeeony oeacaiea e aua ia
iaeii iaiouaieaiia naienoai eioi?iaoeee – aa i?ioeainoiyiea oaino.
Eiino?oeoeaiue eee oai?/aneee iioaioeeae eioi?iaoeee a oai?ee
eioi?iaoeee iaoae au?aaeaiea a iiiyoee “iaayio?iiey”. “Iaayio?iieth, –
eae oeacuaaao Y.O. Eeea, – /anoi ioeai/ii aeaoeie?otho eae yio?iieth n
io?eoeaoaeueiui ciaeii. Yoi iiaeao aucuaaoue aieueoea iaaei?acoiaiey.
Iaayio?iiey (IIA) aeaenoaeoaeueii ecia?yaony a oao aea aaeeieoeao, eae
yio?iiey (iai?eia?, a aeoao). Iai?aaeaiea aa aeaenoaeoaeueii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia yio?iiee. Aa oaaee/aiea aucuaaao oaeia aea oiaiueoaiea
yio?iiee. Iaeiaei yoe aaee/eiu eciaiythony a nenoaia ii naiinoiyoaeueiui
caeiiiia?iinoyi e eo aaniethoiua cia/aiey iaei caaenyo ae?oa io ae?oaa.
Iaayio?iiey yaeyaony ia?ie ii?yaeea, oii?yaei/aiiinoe, aioo?aiiae
no?oeoo?u, naycaiiie eioi?iaoeee”*(12).

?acaeoea yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee nii?iaiaeaeaeinue ao?iui
?inoii iao/iiai e iauanoaaiiiai eioa?ana e iauaoeeinioneei e
aoiaieoa?iui aii?inai, naycaiiui n eniieueciaaieai eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee. Aeinoaoi/ii auno?i noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi eioi?iaoeey eae
i?aaeiao iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey ia iiaeao auoue naaaeaia e ioiineoaeueii
e?aoeiio iaai?o iienaiee e aeaoeieoeee. Iaeiia?aiaiii ?anoe?eeinue e
iiiyoea eioi?iaoeee: oaia?ue eioi?iaoeey oa?aeoa?eciaaea ia oieueei
oi?iaeueioth no?oeoo?o oaoiieiae/aneie ia?aaioee ?aciiia?aciiai
niaea?aeaiey, ii e anth niaieoiiinoue eiiioieeaoeaiuo yaeaiee a iaeanoe
iaoee.

N oi/ee c?aiey enoi?ee eoeueoo?u e oeeinioee ethaiiuoii ioiaoeoue
aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiioth oaiaeaioeeth, eioi?ay caeeth/aaony a
oieaa?naeecaoeee iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeey” aieioue aei iaaeaeaiey aai
naienoaaie “oieaa?naeueiie noanoaioeee”*(13). A eiia/iii eoiaa
noi?ie?iaaeny oeaeue ?yae ianiaiaaeathueo i?aaenoaaeaiee oeeinioneiai
ieaia ia oi, /oi aea iiaeao ninoaaeyoue niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey
“eioi?iaoeey”.

Ai-ia?auo, “ieaeeenoe/aneay” oai?ey io?eoeaao nouanoaiaaiea iaeiae
“eioi?iaoeee” aiiaua. Eioi?iaoeey aini?eieiaaony eae oneiaiia
iaicia/aiea /aai-oi, /oi ia iiaeao auoue aini?eiyoi i?aaiaie /oanoa eee
caoeene?iaaii iao/iie aiia?aoo?ie.

Ai-aoi?uo, eiioeaioeey “eiiauoey” eioi?iaoeee iniiaaia ia
i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi eioi?iaoeey nouanoaoao, ii ia a iaoai oece/aneii
ie?a (aaea iu iiaeai eeoue iaaethaeaoue aa ioaeaeueiua i?iyaeaiey).
Oaeay eiioeaioeey aeinoaoi/ii “eiae/ii” iauyniyao oae iacuaaaiua
ia?aii?iaeueiua yaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee, ii eaeao a?ac?ac n
iauai?eiyoie iao/iie ea?oeiie ie?a.

A-o?aoueeo, aeiioneaaony aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey “/enoie”
eioi?iaoeee, aac eaeie-eeai niaoeeoe/aneie oi?iu aa i?aaenoaaeaiey, /oi
iaeaieaa aeecei oaieiae/aneie ea?oeia ie?a.

A-/aoaa?ouo, eioi?iaoeey iiaeao auoue ?anniio?aia eae iaeii ec
“nouiinoiuo i?iyaeaiee iaoa?ee”, eioi?ia a i?eioeeia iiaeao auoue
i?aaeiaoii iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey ia?yaeo n “i?i/eie” iaoa?eaeueiuie
iauaeoaie.

A-iyouo, nouanoaoao iiaiea i “ia?ae/iinoe” eioi?iaoeee ii n?aaiaieth ni
“aoi?e/iie” iaoa?eae, i?e yoii oaeoe/anee aanue ie? ninoieo ec iaeiie
eioi?iaoeee a ?acee/iuo aa i?iyaeaieyo.

A-oanouo, “noauaeoeaenoneia” i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eioi?iaoeee aeiioneaao aa
nouanoaiaaiea eeoue eae noauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue, eneeth/eoaeueii a
i?aaenoaaeaiee iuneyuaai noauaeoa. Ia?a/aiue “eiioeaioeee” iiaeii
i?iaeieaeeoue eee eniieueciaaoue eioth eeanneoeeaoeeth. Nooue aeaea io
yoiai ia iaiyaony. Eiia/ii, oeeinioey ia onoaiaaeeaaao eaeeo-eeai
i?aa?aae eee cai?aoia ia auaeaeaeaiea naiuo niaeuo aeiioac, iia oieueei
o?aaoao iainiiaaiey, iaiaoiaeeiiai e aeinoaoi/iiai, anee iieueciaaoueny
iauai?eiyoie oa?ieiieiaeae. Iauei iaaeinoaoeii iiiuoie i?eaeaoue
eioi?iaoeee “oeeinioneee niune” yaeyaony ia?aiin ia eioi?iaoeeth
i?eciaeia e ea/anoa, i?eienuaaaiuo ?aiaa iaoa?ee, aeooiaiui i?ioeannai e
o.i., o.a. oiio eee eiiio ia/aeo, i?eieiaaiiio ca oi/eo ion/aoa i?e
iino?iaiee iaoaoece/aneeo (ii naiaio niuneo eee i?aoaiaeothueo auoue
oaeiauie) eiioeaioeee. Ae?oaie no?aoaaeae yaeyaony “oanoe?iaaiea”
eioi?iaoeee (e niaeaeaieth, iae?eoe/aneia) ia i?aaeiao aa niioaaonoaey
eeanne/aneiio oeeinioneiio iiiyoeeiiio eino?oiaioa?eth, aeeth/athuaio
aeeoioiieth noauaeoa e iauaeoa, iaoa?ee e aeooa, o?ainoeaiaeaioeee e
eiiaiaioiinoe e o.i. Aaoi?aie iiaeiaiuo aeiioac ia o/eouaaaony oio oaeo,
/oi oeeinioey, eaeie au eoeueoo?iue “eieaeae” iia naaa ie i?enaieea, ia
iaiaa i?i/eo oaiiiaiia /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u iiaeaa?aeaia yaiethoeee, a
iauai e oeaeii iaia?aoeiie. Iiiaiaaeiaay enoi?ey oeeinioneeo iiiyoee
(eae, ai?i/ai, e iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa ae?oaeo iaoe) ieeae ia iiaeao
yaeyoueny aeieacaoaeuenoaii eo aaniethoiie, o.a. aiaa?aiaiiie
enoeiiinoe. Ii anae aeaeeiinoe, oeeinioee i?eaeaony nie?eoueny n oai,
/oi niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi yiioe iaeuecy oieueei eeoue i?e iiiiue
iaoaie/aneiai ia?aianaiey oai?aoe/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee aaeeeeo oiia
i?ioeiai ia yaeaiey nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u.

Ethaiiuoii, /oi eaeay ia oieaa?naeueiie i?eiaieiinoe oai?ee eioi?iaoeee
ieacaeanue niaeacieoaeueiie ia oieueei aeey oeeinioia, ii e aeey
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeieiaee, nioeeieiaee, ineoieiaee, yeiiiieee e ae?oaeo
iaoe.

Ioeaaeeoue eo iue iuoaeny oaea E. Oaiiii, eioi?ue a e?aoeii i?aaeeneiaee
e “O?oaeai ii oai?ee eioi?iaoeee”, a?inei icaaeaaeaiiii “I?acaeie/iue
yeeiaae” (Bandwagon), iaienae o?aco, auianaiioth a yiea?ao e ianoiyuaio
?acaeaeo*(14). Oaiiii, eiia/ii aea, aa?ee, e i?eoii aaca?aie/ii, a
i?aaioo naiae oai?ee, iaeiaei, aoaeo/e /anoiui (a ia oieueei ciaiaieoui)
o/aiui, ii i?aaeinoa?aaae nia?aiaiieeia io iiniaoiuo auaiaeia e
iaiainiiaaiiie yeno?aiieyoeee, eaeeie au iiaoaeaeaieyie iie ie auee
aucaaiu.

Eoeueoo?a, ia ciaiaie eioi?ie auaaaeaii “Eiioaio e Aeinooi”, a?yae ee
i?eiao a ea/anoaa naiaai ooiaeaiaioa “iaoa?eth” eee “aeoo”, aeaaea anee
eo noaioo eiaiiaaoue iiaeiui oa?ieiii “eioi?iaoeey”. Eae e a neo/aa n
i?aaii, iu yaeyainy naaiaeiy naeaeaoaeyie inaiaiey e iniuneaiey
oeeinioeae oiai, /oi i?eiineo aianoa n niaie eioi?iaoeeiiiue aae. “Iinea
iaoaoeceee nouaai e aeaeeiiai, iinea iaoaoeceee yia?aee e aeaoa?ieiecia
– iaoaoeceea iaaeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoe e eiaea: Aa iaoaoece/aneee i?eioeei
(Aia Eaeaieoea) – aeia?iinoue, a i?i?ie aa – AeIE”*(15). Oae aua a 1976
a. ioa?aeoa?eciaae ianooieaooth yiioo AEai Aiae?eea?. A eieaa “Ninoiyiea
iinoiiaea?ia” 1979 a. O?ainoa Eeioa? oaycuaaao ianooieaiea “yiioe
iinoiiaea?ia” n eciaiaieai “noaoona ciaiey”: oaoiieiaee i?aa?auatho
ciaiea a eioi?iaoeeth. Yenoa?ei?ecaoeee ciaiey ioiineoaeueii noauaeoa,
aai ia?aaiae ia ycue iaoei, eioi?iio aeinooiii eeoue eiee/anoaaiiia
ecia?aiea, aeaeatho ec ciaiey oiaa?. Aaeioiiaaiea, aeaenoaeoaeueii,
i?iaeaoue iaeuecy, caoi iiaeii i?iaeaoue eioi?iaoeeth, e ioiuia oaea ia
oieueei a aeaea ?oeiiene. “Oae aea, eae iaoeeiiaeueiua ainoaea?noaa
ai?ieenue ca inaiaiea oa??eoi?ee, a caoai ca ?anii?yaeaiea nu?ueaauie
?ano?naie e aeaoaaie ?aai/ae neeie e eo yenieoaoaoeeth, iaaei iieaaaoue,
iie aoaeoo ai?ioueny a aoaeouai ca inaiaiea eioi?iaoeee”*(16). O
Ia?oaeea Iaeethyia “aeiiaieeii” eoeueoo?iie o?ainoi?iaoeee eaaeaeue ?ac
ieacuaaaony oaoiieiaey, eioi?ay, yaeyynue i?iaeieaeaieai iaoaai ss,
iaoneiaeeaaao eae aini?eyoea ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea, oae e oei
nioeeaeueiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee. Iinono?oeoo?aeenou, ni naiae noi?iiu, ia
onoatho iiaoi?youe, /oi eeth/ii e i?ienoiaeyuaio yaeyaony ycue e /oi
naycue iaaeaeo eeiaaenoeeie, aaiaoeeie e eeaa?iaoeeie yaeyaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie e i/aaeaeiie. Ai?i/ai, yoi – oaia ioaeaeueiiai
enneaaeiaaiey.

Nianoaaiii, ?aciiia?acea i?aaenoaaeaiiuo oi/ae c?aiey a eiia/iii eoiaa
eeoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaiaeiicia/iinoue iiaeoiaeia e noieue
niaoeeoe/aneiio iauaeoo enneaaeiaaiey e i?aaeinoa?aaaao io iiniaoiuo
iiiuoie aeaoue aeaoeieoeee oaeiio iauaeoo, iniiauaaynue eeoue ia oaeoa
aai aiaea/aiiinoe a iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Ia aucuaaao, iaeiaei,
niiiaiee, /oi a enoi?e/aneie ?ao?iniaeoeaa inaiaiea /aeiaaeii
“eioi?iaoeee” (a naiii oe?ieii niunea yoiai neiaa) yaeyaony noieue aea
aaaeiui iauaoeeaeeecaoeeiiiui niauoeai, eae “inaiaiea aauanoaa” (o.a.
aiciiaeiinoe i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeiuo iaoa?eaeia a aioiaua
iaoa?eaeueiua i?iaeoeou) a aeienoi?e/aneoth yiioo e “inaiaiea yia?aee”
(o.a. aiciiaeiinoe i?aia?aciaaiey iaeieo aeaeia yia?aee a ae?oaea) a
yiioo eiaeono?eaeueiuo ?aaiethoeee.

Oi, /oi ia niaio eiaeono?eaeueiiio i?eoiaeeo eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai,
yaeyaony ia oieueei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui eeeoa, ii e i?aaeiaoii na?ueaciuo
ecuneaiee, a ?aaiie ia?a cao?aaeaathueo eioa?anu aoiaieoa?iuo e oi/iuo
iaoe. A 1970-1980 aa. (nai oa?iei iiyaeyaony a ia/aea 1970-o aa.) oai?ee
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa iineee a oeaeii ooiie/aneee oa?aeoa?. E.
Ianoaea aue oaaaeaeai, /oi eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai aoaeao aaneeanniaui
e aaneiioeeeoiui; Ae. Aaee ia niiiaaaeny, /oi ciaiea e aai i?iaiaeiee –
o/aiue caeioo eeth/aaia iieiaeaiea a iauanoaa aoaeouaai. Ii ia oieueei
aeaeaaiia auaeaaaeinue ca aeaenoaeoaeueiia. I?ei?eoaoiia iieiaeaiea
iaoeiaieeo i?iecaiaenoa, aani?aoeaaeaioiue ?ino noa?u oneoa,
oi?ie?iaaiea oae iacuaaaiie oaoie/aneie a?enoie?aoee – yoi oaea ia
ooiiey, a ii?aaaeaaoea naay i?iaiicu. I?aaaea, ooiie/aneei, ii e?aeiae
ia?a n oi/ee c?aiey oeeinioee, inoaaony iiieiaiea oiai, /oi aea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eioi?iaoeey. Eioi?iaoeey ioiaeaeanoaeyaony ni
ciaieai, a ?anoe?aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naoae aini?eieiaaony eae oaeo
iiauoaiiie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe iauanoaa ana a oii aea ciaiee, eioi?ia
aneaaenoaea eiee/anoaaiiiai iaeiieaiey a oa/aiea aaeia iaeiiaoe-oi
ia?aei iiaia ea/anoai*(17).

I?e ?anniio?aiee iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeey” iaaiciiaeii ia cao?iiooue
i?iaeaio “eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu”. Aeaei a oii, /oi a eiioeaioeeyo
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa eioaeeaeooaeueiay naiaiaea ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaoiiiieae (informational autonomy), o.a.
iacaaeneiinoueth a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee eee inouanoaeaiee auai?a
ioiineoaeueii eioi?iaoeee, iunee e eo au?aaeaiey*(18). Enneaaeiaaiea
oneiaee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey inouanoaeaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu,
canoaaeyao eneaoue ioaaou ia neaaeothuea aii?inu. Aeeth/aao ee iiiyoea
eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu oieueei ia?a/aiue i?aiyonoaee, eioi?ua
aeieaeiu auoue ono?aiaiu (o.a. ii?aaeaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii a
iaaaoeaiuo oa?ieiao), eee niaea?aeeo oaeaea iiceoeaiua o?aaiaaiey?
ssaeyaony ee iii noauaeoeaiui eee nouanoaotho iauaeoeaiua e?eoa?ee aeey
“ecia?aiey” eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu? Iaciaai o?e iniiaiuo iauaeoeaiuo
e?eoa?ey, eioi?ua iicaieytho aiai?eoue i iaee/ee eee ia ionoonoaee
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaoiiiiee: yoi oneiaey aeey aeinooia, oneiaey aeey
oai?/aneiai eniieueciaaiey e oneiaey aeey e?eoe/aneiai aini?eyoey
eioi?iaoeee.

*oi eanaaony eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay eaeao io eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe e
eiaeeaeaeo (iio?aaeoaeth), oi caeanue ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaao aiciiaeiinoue auai?a. A eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a a ea/anoaa
oneiaey aeey naiaiaeiiai auai?a (ioai?a) eioi?iaoeee aunooiaao, a
/anoiinoe, aa ?aciiia?acea, eioi?ia ia naiaeeony e aa iiiaieaiaeueiinoe,
o.a. e eiee/anoaaiiiio iieacaoaeth enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee. I?aaeaeu,
ioiineoaeueii eioi?uo i?aai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai auai?a iiaeii n/eoaoue
?aaeueiui, yaeythony ooieoeeae oneiaee aeinooia, a oaeaea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee i auai?a, eioi?ie iaeaaeaao eiaeeaeae.
Oaeei ia?acii, oi?aaeaiea eioi?iaoeeae i?e iiiiue ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaee
aeinooia e iae nicaeaao aeey eiaeeaeaeia aiciiaeiinoue
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue eioa?anothuoth eioi?iaoeeth e iaeaa/aao i?eiyoea
ioiineoaeueii eniieueciaaiey eiie?aoiie eioi?iaoeee iniciaiiuo ?aoaiee.
Aeey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia eioi?iaoeee e aa eniieueciaaiey o?aaoaony
iaania/aiea aiciiaeiinoe i?yiiai aeinooia. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
noauaeoeaiia i?aaenoaaeaiea eiaeeaeaeia ia oaeiaeaoai?aiee eo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo cai?inia yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui, ii iaaeinoaoi/iui
oneiaeai aeey iiaeeeiiie eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu. Aeaei a oii, /oi o
eiaeeaeaeia iiaoo ionoonoaiaaoue naaaeaiey i iaee/ee ii?aaeaeaiiie
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay iiaea au noaoue eeth/aaie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
e?eoe/aneie iiceoeee, eneeth/athuae iaieioee?iaaiea iauanoaaiiui
iiaieai. A nayce n yoei i?aaiaua ii?iu, eanathueany “aeaaeaiey”
eioi?iaoeeae e ?aaoee?othuea aeinooi e iae, ieacuaathony aeeciaiii
aaaeiuie: n eo iiiiuueth nicaeaaony n?aaea, a eioi?ie eioi?iaoeey
ieacuaaaony aieaa eee iaiaa aeinooiiie.

Ii eioi?iaoeey ia oieueei iio?aaeyaony eiaeeaeaeii, nouanoaoao oaeaea
eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ie eioi?iaoeeiiiay naoue iaiaieaaaony n eiaeeaeaeii,
o.a. eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay iinooiaao a naoue io eiaeeaeaea, aeeth/ay
eioi?iaoeeth i iai, o.a. aai ia?niiaeueiua aeaiiua. Eiuie neiaaie,
eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaoiiiiey iiae?acoiaaaao ii?aaeaeaiioth noaiaiue
aeoeaiinoe eiaeeaeaeia ia oieueei a ea/anoaa /eoaoaeae eee neooaoaeae,
ii oaeaea a ea/anoaa oao, eoi aiai?eo eee ieoao, o.a. e?aaoeaiuo, eee
niceaeathueo noauaeoia. Eiaiii iiyoiio i?aaiaua ii?iu aeieaeiu
ii?aaeaeyoue ia oieueei i?aaeea aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee, ii e i?aaeea aa
eniieueciaaiey. Nioeeaeueiua i?aeoeee, eanathueany nai?a e
eniieueciaaiey ia?niiaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia
eioaeeaeooaeueioth naiaiaeo ia oieueei iin?aaenoaii cai?aoeoaeueiuo eee
?ac?aoathueo ii?i, o.a. i?yiui iooai, ii oaeaea e iiin?aaeiaaiii,
iineieueeo eiino?oe?otho niiniau aini?eyoey eiaeeaeaeaie ae?oa ae?oaa e
naieo naay. Eiuie neiaaie, ia?niiaeueiay eioi?iaoeey aeoeaii
eniieuecoaony n oeaeueth eiino?oe?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai oieaa?noia,
ia?aiao?u eioi?iai ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeythony ea/anoaii ia?aoiie nayce n
iio?aaeoaeai.

Aeaaea anee ia oaeoaeyoueny a oeeinioneea aniaeou acaeiiaeaenoaey
?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo oaiiiaiia, aiieia i/aaeaeiui yaeyaony oio oaeo,
/oi iaaeaeo nenoaiaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e auoeai nioeeoia,
aeeth/athuei aanue niaeo? eaeaieiaee e eoeueoo?iuo i?aeoee,
onoaiaaeeaathony ioiioaiey acaeiiaeeyiey. Eiuie neiaaie, eiina?aaoeaiue
acaeyae ia i?aai, iiiuoea aai “caeiina?ae?iaaoue” eee eciee?iaaoue io
aeeyiey ?acaeaathuaainy, eae eaaeaony, ii naiei nianoaaiiui caeiiai
nioeeoia ieacuaathony ianinoiyoaeueiuie. I?aaeony iai eee iao
eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a, iia yaeyaony ?aaeueiinoueth, a ii?iaeaeaiiia
ath ie?iaicc?aiea – iniiaie, aaciaui aanniciaoaeueiui o?iaiai,
ii?aaeaeythuei e i?aaeii?aaeaeythuei niiniau ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e
iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia, aeeth/ay
i?aai.

Oa?aeoa? e aeeiaieea eciaiaiee a nia?aiaiiuo i?aaiauo nenoaiao iiaoo
i?eia?anoe niaa?oaiii iiaua, iaecaanoiua i?aaeaea /a?ou. Noaaeeueiinoue
i?aaa ana a aieueoae noaiaie caaeneo io oa?aeoa?enoee naienoaaiiiai
aeaiiie nenoaia aeeiaiecia, o.a. io niiniaia aeeiiiaeaoeee nenoaiu e
eciaiythueiny aiaoiei oneiaeyi. Ethaay iii?aaea caeiia yaeyaony
eeethno?aoeeae e i?eaaaeaiiiio oaceno, ii iineieueeo a oeaio?a iaoaai
aieiaiey – eioi?iaoeey, iu aoaeai aiai?eoue eeoue i oao eciaiaieyo,
eioi?ua io?aaeatho iiyaeaiea iiaiai i?aaiaiai iauaeoa eee aio
niioonoaotho. Neaaeoao n?aco iaiai?eoueny, /oi a iauaeoa i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey iu aoaeai ?acee/aoue aai i?aaiaoth e aiai?aaiaoth
noi?iiu*(19) Ethaie i?aaiaie iauaeo eae oaeiaie i?eiaaeeaaeeo
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e nouanoaoao naiinoiyoaeueii, iacaaeneii io iaee/ey
eee ionoonoaey ioiinyueony e iaio i?aaiauo ii?i. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
iauaeoaie i?aaa iu ai?aaa eiaiiaaoue eeoue oa iauaeou, eioi?ua iiieii
naiaai i?e?iaeiiai eee eoeueoo?iiai auoey ia?aoatho oaeaea e auoea
i?aaiaia, o.a. iaaeaeythony niioaaonoaothuei i?aaiaui noaoonii e
iiae/eiythony i?aaiaiio aicaeaenoaeth. I?eciaiea i?aaii iiaiai iauaeoa
?aaoee?iaaiey iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaii ?acee/iuie niiniaaie, /oi ai
iiiaii iaoneiaeaii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie eaaeeoeeaoeeae iauaeoa, eia/a
aiai?y, oai ianoii eee oaie eii?aeeiaoaie, eioi?ua aio i?enaaeaathony a
?aieao i?aaiaie nenoaiu. Anee iiaue iauaeo aeiioneaao iiaeaaaeaiea iiae
aieaa oe?ieoth eaoaai?eth, oi aii?inia i?aeoe/anee ia aicieeaao,
iineieueeo iauaeo i?eciaaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth iauaeoia, aeey eioi?uo
i?aaiaie ?aaeei oaea onoaiiaeai, e ieeaeeo aeiiieieoaeueiuo eee
niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaee aeey aai ?aaoee?iaaiey, eae i?aaeei, ia o?aaoaony.
Niaa?oaiii eiay neooaoeey aicieeaao, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia iauaeoa
“ia?aiai o?iaiy”, o.a. iauaeoa, auaeaeyaiii ia?yaeo n iaeioi?uie
ae?oaeie i?e ia?aie e iaeaieaa iauae oeiieiaecaoeee. I?eia?ii a aeaiiii
neo/aa iiaeao neoaeeoue no.128 AE ?O, a eioi?ie ia?a/eneythony aeaeu
iauaeoia a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa. Oioy a aeieo?eia iauaeoai a?aaeaeaineiai
i?aaiioiioaiey (a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa) anaaaea oaeaeyee aieueoia aieiaiea,
eo ia?a/aiue iiyaeeny aia?aua a aeaenoaothuai AE. Iaeiaei Eiaeaen ia
oieueei cae?aiee auaiaeeiia ec iieiaeeoaeueiiai i?aaa e noaaoaa oaea
o?aaeeoeeiiiui aeaeaiea iauaeoia, ii e aaae iiaue iauaeo – eioi?iaoeeth.
Ia i?eoiaeeony niiiaaaoueny a naiaa?aiaiiinoe oaeie iiaaeeu, ii noieue
aea ianiiiaiii, /oi i?aaiaie ?aaeei eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony Eiaeaenii
eeoue /anoe/ii (a ioiioaiee neoaeaaiie e eiiia?/aneie oaeiu) e ia aeaao
ia oieueei i?aeoe/aneeo, ii e oai?aoe/aneeo ioaaoia ia i?iaeaiu,
naycaiiua n oai, /oi ia “ath?ie?aoe/aneii” ycuea iau/ii iacuaatho
eioi?iaoecaoeeae, a ia “ioaeeoeenoe/aneii” – ia?aoiaeii e
eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao.

Eioi?iaoeey eae iauaeo i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey

Iiiyoea “eioi?iaoeey” aioei a iianaaeiaaiinoue, aioei a iao/iue e
oeeinioneee eiioaenou. Eaeei aea ia?acii iii aoiaeeo a i?aaiaie
eiioaeno? Nianoaaiii, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue ioaao /anoe/ii niaea?aeeony oaea
a iacaaiee ianoiyuae ?aaiou. ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea
(oai?/aneeo oneeee e iao/iuo ecuneaiee), nicaeaiea iiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iauaeoia iieo/atho i?aaiaoth caueoo a ?aieao einoeoooia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. A eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa i?ei?eoaoiia
cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao i?iaeaia ?aaoee?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee eae oaeiaie, ia
“i?eaycaiiie” e niaoeeoeea naiaai iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey e oi?ia aa
i?aaenoaaeaiey, io?aiie eioi?uo, aeaiiino?e?oy i?aaeaeu naieo
aiciiaeiinoae, ia?aie/eaaaony eeanne/aneee, caeiiiaeaoaeueii
cae?aieaiiue i?aaiaie einoeooo eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Iiyoiio
e iu nin?aaeioi/einy ia iienea nouanoaaiiuo naienoa eioi?iaoeee eiaiii a
oaeii iiieiaiee.

Aua iaeii caia/aiea iaoiaeieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a: ia neaaeoao niaoeaaoue
oeeinioneea e iao/iua aeaoeieoeee n i?aaiaui (eaaaeueiui eee
aeieo?eiaeueiui) ii?aaeaeaieai iiiyoey. Yoi ia icia/aao, /oi
aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe oeeinioee e iaoee ia iiaoo auoue o/oaiu i?aaiaie
oai?eae e a neo/aa oniaoiie “ai?iaaoeee” aieoe, a oii eee eiii aeaea, a
aeaenoaothuea ii?iaoeaiua aeou. Aaaeii, iaeiaei, ioaeaaaoue naaa io/ao a
oii, /oi oaeea aiaoiea ii ioiioaieth e i?aao aeaoeieoeee (e
niioaaonoaothuea ei iauaeou) i?eiaaeeaaeao eiie ?aaeueiinoe e o?aaotho
cia/eoaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaiey, iiaeeoeeaoeee aeey oiai, /oiau auoue
“iiiciaiiuie” a i?aaiaii i?ino?ainoaa a ea/anoaa aai ninoaaiie /anoe eee
yeaiaioa. E?iia oiai, i?aai aeieaeii ?aaioaoue oieueei n oaie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iauaeoa, eioi?ua, ai-ia?auo, yaeythony aannii?iuie (ii
e?aeiae ia?a, aeey i?ioanneiiaeia a niioaaonoaothuae iaeanoe),
ai-aoi?uo, ioaeaeathony eiaiii a i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee (o.a. aucuaatho
eee i?iaioee?otho i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu ii?iaoeaiuie
onoaiiaeaieyie yoeee, neiaeeaoeony eee neeaaeuaathueony iau/aaa,
oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie e i?i/.), iaeiiaoe, a-o?aoueeo, yaeythony
aini?eei/eauie e i?aaiaiio aicaeaenoaeth (eiaaea i?aaiaua eino?oiaiou, a
oii /enea i?aaiaua naieoeee, ii aiciiaeiinoe iieiinoueth ioaa/atho
naiaio i?aaeiacia/aieth).

No?oeoo?a iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeey”, ii iiaieth A.A. No?aeueoeiaa,
ii?aaeaeyaony acaeiiaeaenoaeai aeaoo oi?i aa i?iyaeaiey eee au?aaeaiey –
naaaeaiee e niiauaiee, eioi?ua, oioy e aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa,
iaeaaeatho i?eioeeieaeueii ?aciuie naienoaaie*(20). Naaaeaiey (“ciaiey”,
aiaeeeneee yeaeaaeaio – knowledge) oa?aeoa?ecothony eaeaaeueiinoueth
(ioiineoaeueiie iacaaeneiinoueth io iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey),
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iaoie/oiaeeiinoueth, aeeiaie/iinoueth (aiciiaeiinoueth
iiaeeoeeaoeee) e niiniaiinoueth iaeaieeaaoueny. Ia?a/eneaiiua naienoaa
iicaieytho ?anniao?eaaoue naaaeaiey eae yooaeoeaiue eino?oiaio iiciaiey,
oa?aeoa?ecothuee aai eaeaaeueioth (a ia ?aaeueioth) noi?iio, o.a.
inoaaeythuee ca i?aaeaeaie ?anniio?aiey i?ioeann aai cae?aieaiey,
eioi?ue ia?aaiaeeo naaaeaiey a eaoaai?eth yiie?e/aneie aeaiiinoe.
Naaaeaiey yaeythony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo eino?oiaioia iiciaiey /aeiaaeii
ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ia?aaea/a naaaeaiee iaaeaeo noauaeoaie
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii niiauaiee
(“neaiaeia”, aiaeeeneea yeaeaaeaiou – message eee communication).
Niiauaiey iaeaaeatho naienoaaie iaoa?eaeueiinoe (niiniaiinoueth auoue
caoeene?iaaiiuie ia iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea e aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia i?aaiu
/oanoa), i?eioeeieaeueiie (oece/aneie) oie/oiaeeiinoe e, iaeiiaoe,
noaoe/iinoe (iaeciaiiinoe iaai?a ninoaaeythueo eo eiaeia). Ioeaieaay
cia/aiea aeaiiiai aeaea eioi?iaoeee, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi niiauaiey
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey ei?iona
ciaiee eee oiai, /oi i?eiyoi iacuaaoue “eoeueoo?iui ianeaaeeai”.
I?eaaaeaiiia niiinoaaeaiea n iaaeyaeiinoueth aeaiiino?e?oao, ianeieueei
ouaoaeueii e inoi?iaeii iaiaoiaeeii iiaeoiaeeoue e ii?aaeaeaieth
i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia eae eioi?iaoeee a oeaeii, oae e eaaeaeie ec oi?i aa
i?iyaeaiey.

Aii?in ia ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiey oiai eee eiiai ec oi?ioi
ecaanoiuo iauaeoia, aeeth/ay aii?in i aai i?e?iaea e eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo
i?eciaeao, auaeyaeeo ia noieue aeooaeueiui ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeecii
aiciiaeiuo niiniaia aoiaeaeaiey a i?aaiaoth nenoaio iiauo iauaeoia, eo
acaeiiaeaenoaey, a a i?aaeaeueiii neo/aa oaeaea e niaianoeiinoe n yoie
nenoaiie.

Iiaue iauaeo i?aaiioiioaiey iiaeao auoue iaaycai nenoaia i?aaa eae
yeaiaio aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ioaeaeathueeny a i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee, ii
ia iiaeaeathueeny ?aaeoeoeee e nouanoaothuei eaoaai?eyi e einoeoooai e
o?aaothuee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, auaeaeaiey a i?aaeaeao nenoaiu iniaiai
iaai?a i?aaiauo n?aaenoa (iaoaieciia ?aaoee?iaaiey). Oi, eae aoaeao
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue ioaaaeaiiue aeey iiaiai iauaeoa “iaoaieci” n
nenoaiie a oeaeii e eae aoaeoo auno?aeaaoueny eo acaeiiioiioaiey –
iio?aaoaony ee, e i?eia?o, iiaeeoeoee?iaaoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua einoeooou
eee aiciiaeii ia?aie/eoueny eo iiaui enoieeiaaieai, – i?aeoe/anee
iaaiciiaeii i?aaeoaaaeaoue eee nieaie?iaaoue ca?aiaa. Iiaue iauaeo a
i?yiii niunea “inaaeaaaony” i?aaii, e iaiaoiaeeiua ei??aeoe?iaee
i?iecaiaeyony iaiin?aaenoaaiii a oiaea oaeiai inaiaiey. Ii iaoaio
iiaieth, iienaiiue niinia yaeyaony ia oieueei ?eneiaaiiui (iineieueeo
oa?iaeaao iieieaaaoue, aiciiaeii, e ia aiieia niaa?oaiioth, ii ana-oaee
?aaioathuoth nenoaio), ii aaaeao oaeaea e o?oaeii ?ac?aoeiui
oai?aoe/aneei i?iaeaiai, eioi?ua iiaeii auei au iaieoe eee ecaaaeaoue,
i?eiaiyy eioth no?aoaaeth. Eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu oaea nouanoaothuae
nenoaiu, iaania/eaaoue i?aainoaaiiinoue a n?aaenoaao e oeaeyo, eiaaea
?a/ue eaeao i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aicaeaenoaey ia iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey,
anaaaea aieaa aeaeaoaeueii e ii?aaaeaiii, /ai iiiuoaoueny ei?aiiui
ia?acii eciaieoue nenoaio. Ni?aaaaeeeaia ioiineoaeueii iieeoe/aneeo e
yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee, a /ai ?inneeneiio ianaeaieth i?eoiaeeeinue
oaea iaiaeiie?aoii oaaaeeoueny ia nianoaaiiii iiuoa, aeaiiia
?annoaeaeaiea ioiineony a ia iaiueoae noaiaie e e i?aao.

I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea iiaiai iauaeoa iiaeao no?ieoueny ii aiaeiaee n
ae?oaeie iauaeoaie*(21). A yoii neo/aa, i?aaaea, i?eoiaeeony eiaoue
aeaei n i?aaiaie oeeoeeae, ii aa i?eiaiaiea, anee o/eouaaoue
?acoeueoaoeaiinoue iino?iaiey, iiaeii n/eoaoue aiieia ii?aaaeaiiui.
“Onoaiiaeaiea oeeoeee naii ii naaa icia/aao ia aieaa /ai i?eciaiea oiai
oaeoa, /oi iiaua, o?aaothuea ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiey aicieeee iicaea
neiaeaiey nenoaiu i?aaa (eeai oioy e aicieeee a oi aea a?aiy, ii
i?eciaiu caneoaeeaathueie i?aaiaie eaaeeoeeaoeee iicaea) e iioiio iiaoo
caiyoue a iae ianoi ia eia/a eae iooai i?yiiai ioaee/iiai aeiiouaiey eo
ia eiia, /oaeia ianoi eee, eiuie neiaaie, i?e noieeiiaaiee aeaoo
i?eciaiiuo iio?aaiinoae – aiaea/aiey a th?eaee/aneoth noa?o
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeeciaiiuo ioiioaiee e nio?aiaiey oeaeinoiinoe i?aaa –
aeinoeaioo eiii?iienn, i?e eioi?ii oeaeinoiinoue, nenoaiiinoue i?aaa
nio?aiaia”*(22). N ae?oaie noi?iiu, anoaao aii?in i iieiioa aiaeiaee,
eiaaea o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeeoue niaoeeoe/aneea naienoaa e i?eciaee
iauaeoa, aac o/aoa eioi?uo aaaaeaiea oeeoeee noaiiaeony iaeiyooaeoeaiui
e ia?anoaao ioaa/aoue naiae oeaee.

Caeanue iiaeao iiii/ue aaaaeaiea nenoai eii?aeeiao, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo
iiaeii n aeinoaoi/iie noaiaiueth oi/iinoe e aeaoaeecaoeee ii?aaeaeeoue
oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?i, i?eeiaeeiuo e ?anniao?eaaaiiio iauaeoo, a oaeaea
niiaeaee?iaaoue (eee oioy au i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue) ia oieueei
iai?aaeaiiinoue, ii e oeaeaniia?aciinoue oao eee eiuo i?ioeannia
?aaoeyoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey. Eaeay i i?aaa eae nenoaiiii ia?aciaaiee,
eiathuai iiiaio?iaiaaoth no?oeoo?o*(23), iicaieyao i?aaenoaaeoue
niaieoiiinoue ii?i eee ioaeaeueiua ii?iu eae iiiaeanoai yeaiaioia,
eioi?ua iaoiaeyony a ianeieueeeo acaeiiaeiaeaiiuo aeaea?oiauo n-ia?iuo
i?ino?ainoaao e /uea ianoiiieiaeaiea a eaaeaeii ec i?ino?ainoa
iaeiicia/ii iienuaaaony n aaaaeaieai niioaaonoaothueo nenoai ion/aoa.
Oaeei ia?acii, a eaaeaeii ec i?ino?ainoa aai yeaiaiou (i?aaiaua ii?iu)
caieiatho ii?aaeaeyaiia nenoaiie ion/aoa (aua?aiiuo eii?aeeiao)
iieiaeaiea, /oi iicaieyao iienaoue ana naienoaa aeaiiiai yeaiaioa,
iiyaeythueany a aeaiiii i?ino?ainoaa. Anee i?aaiaay ii?ia iiaeao auoue
ioianaia e eaeiio-eeai no?oeoo?iiio iiae?acaeaeaieth i?aaa, oi
niioaaonoaothuee ae i?ino?ainoaaiiue yeaiaio iaeaaeaao ecia?aieai,
iniiaaiiui ia i?eciaea, oi?ie?othuai yoi no?oeoo?iia iiae?acaeaeaiea; a
i?ioeaiii neo/aa – ia iaeaaeaao. Aiaeiaey iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeaia a
ioiioaiee einie/aneiai ei?aaey, aunioa iieaoa eioi?iai ia iiaeao auoue
au?aaeaia /a?ac ieineinoiua aaia?aoe/aneea eii?aeeiaou. Iiaeii
auaeaeeoue ii e?aeiae ia?a /aou?a oaeeo i?ino?ainoaa i?aaiauo ii?i.

Ia?aoth nenoaio eii?aeeiao, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
aiaeece?oaiua ii?iu, iiaeii oneiaii iaicia/eoue eae
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiioth. Oaeoe/anee ?a/ue eaeao i eii?aeeiaoao ii?iu,
iienuaathueo aa ianoiiieiaeaiea a oece/aneii ie?a. Iaeaieaa i/aaeaeiu
eii?aeeiaou ii?iu, iauaeoii ?aaoee?iaaiey eioi?ie yaeythony ioiioaiey ii
iiaiaeo oiai eee eiiai eiouanoaa, eae i?aaeei, eiathuaai aaia?aoe/aneoth
eieaeecaoeeth. Neiaeiaa, ia ia?aue acaeyae, i?eaanoe
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua eii?aeeiaou ii?i, eiathueo aeaei n
?aaeeieceo/aieai (/anoioiui niaeo?ii), aicaeooiui e einie/aneei
i?ino?ainoaii, n Eioa?iaoii. Ii e a yoeo neo/ayo niaoeeoe/aneea
“iao?e/aneea” oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaoo (e aeieaeiu auoue) iaeiicia/ii
ii?aaeaeaiu aaiaeii iiauo eii?aeeiaoiuo inae. A /anoiinoe, oieueei oaeei
niiniaii aiciiaeii oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia (ionoue aeaaea ia o?iaia
iaoaiaoe/aneeo aano?aeoeee) iienaiea eaaeouaainy aeey iiiaeo
ia?ac?aoeiui aii?ina i th?enaeeeoeee a Eioa?iaoa. “Iauaiiiyoiui”
aiaeiaii oaeie nenoaiu eii?aeeiao yaeyaony niaieoiiinoue i?aaee,
ii?aaeaeythueo aeaenoaea i?aaiauo ii?i “a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie”.
Oi?iaeecaoeey i?aaiauo ii?i a aeaiiie nenoaia eii?aeeiao iicaieyao
oaeiaii (iaaeyaeii) aeaiiino?e?iaaoue eieeecee i?aaiauo ii?i,
i?eieiaaiuo a ?acee/iuo th?enaeeeoeeyo e aeaenoaothueo a ?aciia a?aiy.

Ca aoi?oth nenoaio eii?aeeiao iiaeii i?eiyoue noauaeoiia i?ino?ainoai
(niioaaonoaothuaa niaieoiiinoe i?aaee, ii?aaeaeythueo aeaenoaea i?aaiauo
ii?i “ii e?oao eeoe”). Nenoaia ecia?aiee a iai no?ieony a niioaaonoaee n
ethauie aiciiaeiuie aeaeaie noauaeoia, ecaanoiuo i?aao. I?aaiaua ii?iu
?aniieaaathony niaeanii iaee/eth iaiaoiaeeiuo i?eciaeia e iiaoo
ioiineoueny e ?acee/iui io?aneyi i?aaa. Niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia,
eiathueo ecia?aiea “ee/iinoue”, ninoaaeyao i?aaiaie noaoon ee/iinoe,
ecia?aiea “aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai” – nouanoaaiioth /anoue i?aaiaiai
noaoona oicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii e o.ae. A ?aciua
enoi?e/aneea yiioe yeaiaiou yoiai i?ino?ainoaa iiaoo eiaoue eee ia
eiaoue oa eee eiua ecia?aiey (iai?eia?, aei neo ii? ionoonoaotho
i?aaiaua ii?iu, eiathuea ecia?aiea “/aeiaa/anoai”). A naiia iineaaeiaa
a?aiy iiyoue-oaee ?acaeoea Eioa?iaoa iinoaaeei na?ueacioth i?iaeaio
“?aciuaaiey” no?iaeo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo oaeeie aeaeaie i?aaiauo noauaeoia,
eae th?eaee/aneea e oece/aneea eeoea (i?aaiecaoeee e a?aaeaeaia),
iineieueeo aeey aiieia yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey “naoaauo” ?aaeee
oeacaiiua ?acee/ey niaa?oaiii iai?eioeeieaeueiu.

O?aouey nenoaia eii?aeeiao – ooieoeeiiaeueiay. Ecia?aiey aeaiiiai
i?aaiaiai i?ino?ainoaa niioaaonoaotho ooieoeeiiaeueiiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth
iauaeoia i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, o.a. ii?aaeaeytho iaeanoue eo
i?eeiaeaiey. Aaconeiaii, oaeie eeanneoeeaoeeiiiue e?eoa?ee ioee/aaony
cia/eoaeueiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth, iaeiaei eeoue n aai i?eaea/aieai
noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui iauaaeeiaiea i?aaiauo ii?i, ioiinyueony e
?aaoee?iaaieth eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?eia?,
o?ainii?oe?iaee a?ocia (ia naiaeyuaeny eeoue e caeeth/aieth aeiaiai?ia
ia?aaicee), einie/aneie eee eioi?iaoeeiiiie. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oae
iacuaaaiua eiiieaeniua io?anee i?aaa (o?ainii?oiia, oaiiaeaiiia e ae?.)
iiaoo iieo/eoue aieaa iaaeyaeiia e a eiia/iii n/aoa aieaa iainiiaaiiia
iienaiea.

Iaeiiaoe, a /aoaa?oie, oaoieei-th?eaee/aneie nenoaia eii?aeeiao i?aaiaua
ii?iu ?ani?aaeaeythony a niioaaonoaee ni naiae th?eaee/aneie
niaoeeoeeie. Nthaea iiaoo auoue ioianaiu oaeea ecia?aiey, eae “iaoiae
?aaoee?iaaiey”, “enoi/iee ii?iu”, “i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue ii?iu e
iaoa?eaeueiiio eee i?ioeannoaeueiiio i?aao” e ae?., io?aaeathuea
i?eiyoua iniiaaiey, a oaeaea niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo niaea?aeaieai iiiyoey
e ciaeiaie oi?iie – aai ii?aaeaeaieai.

Eaaei caiaoeoue, /oi i?eaaaeaiiua i?eia?u no?oeoo?e?iaaiey ianneaia
i?aaiauo ii?i eiatho i?yiua aiaeiaee a i?aeoeea nicaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiii-iieneiauo eino?oiaioia. I?eiaieoaeueii, neaaeai, e
i?aaiaui aacai aeaiiuo i?iecaiaeeony eiaeaene?iaaiea eaaeaeiai
aoiaeyuaai a oaeea aacu aeieoiaioa (ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa), /oi a
aeaeueiaeoai ?acei iaeaa/aao aai iaoiaeaeaiea ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio i?eciaeo
eee niaieoiiinoe i?eciaeia. Oaeei ia?acii, inoaeinue naeaeaoue
neaaeothuee oaa, aeiaaaey “eiaeaene?iaaiea” aei o?iaiy i?aaiaie ii?iu,
i?e/ai ia oieueei ii aeoaaeoii-i?aaeiaoiie eeai ea?a?oe/aneie
eeanneoeeaoeee (“?oa?eeaoeee”). Iaeaieaa aeeceie aeey iienuaaaiie
iaoiaeieiaee noaiiaeony eeanneoeeaoeey oae iacuaaaiiai oanaoiiai oeia, a
iniiao eioi?ie iieiaeaii ?acaeaeaiea iaeiiai e oiai aea iiiaeanoaa
iiiyoee ii ?aciui iniiaaieyi, a oaeaea ia?aciaaiea neiaeiuo eiaeaenia
iooai niaaeeiaiey i?inouo eiaeaenia, oeene?oaiuo a ianeieueeeo
ea?a?oe/aneeo “aea?aaueyo” (eaoaai?ee, oanaoia – io aiae. “facet” –
a?aiue, aniaeo).

I?iecaaaey iaeiicia/iia iienaiea ioaeaeueiie i?aaiaie ii?iu eee a?oiiu
i?aaiauo ii?i (i?aaiaiai einoeoooa, io?anee ?aaoee?iaaiey e o.ae.) iooai
i?enaiaiey ae ii?aaeaeaiiuo eii?aeeiao a ?anniao?eaaaiuo ecia?aieyo e
i?ino?ainoaao (“eiaeaene?iaaiey”), a aeaeueiaeoai aanueia oaeiaii
onoaiaaeeaaoue niioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie i?aaiauie ii?iaie
(einoeoooaie) a aeaea nenoai ia?aaainoa e o?aaiaiee, na?oiie?iaaiiuo ii
ca?aiaa aua?aiiui i?eciaeai (a?oiiai i?eciaeia), niioaaonoaothueo, a
naith i/a?aaeue, oai eee eiui eii?aeeiaoiui ecia?aieyi. Yoi yaeyaony
aeinoaoi/ii iaaeyaeiui n?aaenoaii i?iaa?ee ia oieueei ianoa oiai eee
eiiai i?aaiaiai einoeoooa a iauae nenoaia i?aaa, ii e ?aaeueiie
yooaeoeaiinoe aai i?eiaiaiey.

Eiia/ii, yoi oieueei iaeei ec aiciiaeiuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey, ii, eae
iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, aai eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa ii
“aeeaaiinoe?iaaieth” i?aaiauo iiaaee, enneaaeiaaieth eo i?aeoe/aneie
oeaeaniia?aciinoe iiaeao ieacaoueny e?aeia iieaciui.

Eiay a aeaeo i?eaaaeaiiua auoa ?annoaeaeaiey, iii?iaoai
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue iaeioi?ua iieiaeaiey ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.
Ie aeey eiai ia nae?ao, /oi neiaeeaoeeny ia naaiaeiy a ?inneeneii i?aaa
iiaeoiae e ?aaoee?iaaieth iaae?athueo neeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia
aeaeae io niaa?oainoaa. A oi aea a?aiy iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi ii noaiaie
?ac?aaioaiiinoe eee iieiiou “ioaaoa” ?inneeneia eioi?iaoeeiiiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai nouanoaaiii “ionoaao” io ca?oaaaeiuo nenoai i?aaa.
I?aeoe/anee ai anao no?aiao ie?a eiaeeoeeaoeey ii?iaoeaiiai ianneaa,
ioiinyuaainy e eioi?iaoeeiiiui i?aaiioiioaieyi, iaoiaeeony ia ia/aeueiie
noaaeee. Ii, e niaeaeaieth, ?inneeneea caeiiiaeaoaee oaea oniaee
“auaeaeeoueny”, i?eiya aua a ia/aea – na?aaeeia 1990-o aa. aei neo ii?
oi?iaeueii aeaenoaothuea caeiiu “a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeee”, /uea
niaea?aeaiea ia eiaao eaeeo-eeai aiaeiaia ca ?oaaaeii.

A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?a/ue eaeao i Oaaea?aeueiii caeiia io 25 oaa?aey
1995 a. “Ia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?iaoecaoeee e caueoa eioi?iaoeee” (aeaeaa
Caeii ia eioi?iaoeee). Ia/iai n ?anniio?aiey eaaaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeey”. Auei oaea aeinoaoi/ii neacaii i neiaeiinoyo,
aicieeathueo i?e iiiuoea aeaoue eioi?iaoeee anaiauaiethuaa ii?aaeaeaiea.
Ae?oaia aeaei, e ia yoii oaeaea oea ?a/ue, – aeaoue oceiiao/iia
ii?aaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeee, /oi auei n oniaoii naeaeaii a oeceea,
eeaa?iaoeea eee noaoenoeea. Anee iiae i?aaii iiieiaoue
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, oi anoanoaaiii, /oi aiai?eoue i i?yiii caeinoaiaaiee
ec eaeie-eeai iaoee, aeeth/ay th?eni?oaeaioeeth, ia i?aaenoaaeyaony
aiciiaeiui. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai auioaeaeaii aaeaine?iaaoue iaaeaeo
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth auoue iiiyoiui aeey aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey, o.a.
ecaaaeaoue e?aeiinoe “i?aaa aeey th?enoia”, e ia iaiueoae
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth caeeth/eoue naie iieiaeaiey a no?ieioth nenoaio
iiiyoee e iaania/eoue oaeei ia?acii i?eiyoea ni?aaaaeeeauo e, aeaaiia,
i?iaiice?oaiuo ?aoaiee. Iaeiaei eiia/iay oeaeue i?eiyoey ethaiai caeiia
– onoaiiaeaiea i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia aeey niioaaonoaothueo iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, eioi?ua aei yoiai ia ?aaoee?iaaeenue i?aaii eee
?aaoee?iaaeenue ia a iieiie ia?a, iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii e o.i. E
?aaeecaoeey yoie oeaee yaeyaony, ii nooe, iniiaiui e?eoa?eai aeey
ioeaii/iuo noaeaeaiee.

?inneeneee Caeii ia eioi?iaoeee niaea?aeeo ii?aaeaeaiey eae nianoaaiii
“eioi?iaoeee”, oae e “aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee”, o.a. ?acee/aao
eioi?iaoeeth eae oaeiaoth, eae iaiaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo, e eioi?iaoeeth,
naycaiioth n iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai. A oi aea a?aiy, eae noaiiaeony
ynii ec aeaeueiaeoaai eceiaeaiey ii?iaoeaiiai oaenoa, i?aaiaie ?aaeei
Caeii onoaiaaeeaaao oieueei aeey aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee.
Iieo/aaony, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeee aeaaony eae au aeey ?acuyniaiey
i?e?iaeu iauaeoa, eioi?ue aaiaeeony caoai a noa?o i?aaiaiai aicaeaenoaey
a oi?ia eneeth/eoaeueii “aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee”. Ia eiie?aoiua
cai?inu eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa oaeay iiceoeey ioaaoa ia aeaao. Aieaa
oiai, aii?in ia eioi?iaoeee, nouanoaothuae iacaaeneii io iaoa?eaeueiuo
iineoaeae, anoaao ia anaaaea e ia iaycaoaeueii a nayce n yeaeo?iiiie
eioi?iaoeeae. Iai?eia?, no.139 e 771 AE ?O, no.11 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia
“I niaeaoaieyo i ?acaeaea i?iaeoeoeee”, no.10 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “I
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeia” eiatho a aeaeo ia aeieoiaioe?iaaiioth
eioi?iaoeeth, a naaaeaiey, o.a. oi, /oi ninoaaeyao aa niaea?aeaoaeueioth
(eaeaaeueioth) noi?iio*(24).

E ana aea ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea “eioi?iaoeee”, eioi?ia aeaii
a no.2 Caeiia ia eioi?iaoeee (“…naaaeaiey i eeoeao, i?aaeiaoao,
oaeoao, niauoeyo, yaeaieyo e i?ioeannao iacaaeneii io oi?iu eo
i?aaenoaaeaiey”), yaeyaony, ii iaoaio iiaieth, neeoeii iauei,
iaiiieiathuei aiaeiae/iia ii?aaeaeaiea ec “Neiaa?y ?onneiai ycuea” N.E.
Iaeaaiaa, oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeii n/eoaoue i?eaieaiui. E?eoeea
eaaaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey “eioi?iaoeee”, eioi?ia niaea?aeeony a Caeiia,
oaea aeaaii noaea iauei ianoii. Iiaeii, eiia/ii, oaeoaeoueny a
?anniio?aiea ?acee/iuo naienoa e oa?aeoa?enoee eioi?iaoeee, aeey oiai
/oiau auaanoe a ?acoeueoaoa aieaa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia n i?aaiaie oi/ee
c?aiey ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey. A yoii neo/aa iu aoaeai aiai?eoue ia
eaeaaeueiinoe eioi?iaoeee, aiciiaeiinoe aa iaia?aie/aiiiai
eniieueciaaiey e o.i. Iaeiaei iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aeoeea ?acaeoey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a noa?a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee iioea ii eiiio
iooe. Eniieuecoy oeeinioneoth oa?ieiieiaeth, inaaeaaaiue naaiaeiy i?aaii
iiaeoiae iiaeii iaicia/eoue eae eiaeoeoeaiue. Eioi?iaoeey eae oaeiaay
inoaaony ia ia?eoa?ee: i?aai anaaaea ?aaoee?oao ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n
oai eee eiui eioi?iaoeeiiiui iauaeoii, a ia n eioi?iaoeeae eae oaeiaie.
Eiaiii iiyoiio – iineieueeo iii eeoue aini?iecaiaeeo naiia iauaa
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eioi?iaoeee, niaiaaeathuaa n iauai?eiyoui, –
ii?aaeaeaiea “eioi?iaoeee”, i?aaeeiaeaiiia Caeiiii ia eioi?iaoeee,
iiaeii n/eoaoue oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui. Ii naiaio i?aaiaiio niaea?aeaieth
iii yaeyaony iaeo?aeueiui. Ii eaeaa iii e aeieaeii auoue oaeiaui,
iineieueeo naith eiie?aoecaoeeth iiiyoea eioi?iaoeee iieo/aao oieueei a
nayce n oai eee eiui eioi?iaoeeiiiui iauaeoii (“eioa?iao-naeoii”,
“aeiiaiiui eiaiai” e o.i.). Ia neo/aeii, /oi ie a iaeiie no?aia ie?a iao
anaiauaiethuaai (eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai) caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii Eioa?iaoo.
Nouanoaothuea ii?iaoeaiua aeou ?aaoee?otho eneeth/eoaeueii /anoiua
aniaeou ooieoeeiie?iaaiey Naoe – aeayoaeueiinoue iia?aoi?ia,
?ani?aaeaeaiea aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa, ai?ueao ni niaiii e o.i. A naiii
aeaea, eioi?iaoeey eae oaeiaay (o.a., aiiaua aiai?y, naaaeaiey) ia
iiaeao auoue aiaea/aia a nenoaio iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee aac
niioaaonoaothuaai i?aia?aciaaiey, eioi?ia oeene?oao aa oi?io e niinia
iiaea/e. Eiuie neiaaie, oi?ia e niinia o?aineyoeee eioi?iaoeee
ieacuaathony iaioaeaeeiuie io aa niaea?aeaiey.

Aieaa oiai, ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeey” /a?ac en/a?iuaathuee
ia?a/aiue aai i?eciaeia i?aaenoaaeyaony e?aeia iaia?niaeoeaiui.
Anoanoaaiii, iu eiaai a aeaeo eaaaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea, a ia iao/iua
aeeneonnee. A nayce n yoei iiaeii aniiiieoue iiiyoea naiaeiiai noiaenoaa
E. Aeoaaiooaeia, eiaaea iiiaeanoai iauaeoia ia iaeaaeatho iaai?ii
onoie/eauo oeiiauo i?eciaeia, iaeiaei iauaaeeiythony ia iniiaaiee
o?aaiaioa?iie iauiinoe: oa eee eiua i?eciaee yaeythony iaueie aeey
iaeiie /anoe iauaeoia, ae?oaea – aeey ae?oaie, ii aiaeiaee n oeaaoii
aeac eee oi?iie iina o aeeceeo ?iaenoaaiieeia. Oi/ii oae aea iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ia nouanoaoao i?eciaeia, eioi?ua au yaeyeenue
iaueie aeey anao aac eneeth/aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia.

Anee aa?iooueny e OC ia eioi?iaoeee, oi i?iaeaia, ia iao acaeyae,
ninoieo ia noieueei a iaaei?aaioaiiie aeaoeieoeee, neieueei a oii, /oi
cayaeaiiue a ea/anoaa nouanoaothuaai e iienaiiue a aeaoeieoeee iauaeo
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oae e inoaaony ia aienaiiui a nenoaio
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ioiioaiee.

Nianoaaiii, eiaiii ecia/aeueii ioeai/iua, oai?aoe/anee iaiainiiaaiiua
iieiaeaiey OC ia eioi?iaoeee aini?aiyonoaiaaee ?aaeueiiio i?eiaiaieth
Caeiia e aianaieth oii?yaei/aiiinoe a niioaaonoaothuea i?aaiioiioaiey.
Aiiaua aiai?y, yoio caeii iinayuai ia noieueei eioi?iaoeee eae oaeiaie
(aii?aee aai iacaaieth), neieueei eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai
(aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee). Anee auoue oi/iui, oi, a niioaaonoaee
ni no.1, ii “?aaoee?oao ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea i?e: oi?ie?iaaiee e
eniieueciaaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia ia iniiaa nicaeaiey, nai?a,
ia?aaioee, iaeiieaiey, o?aiaiey, iienea, ?ani?ino?aiaiey e
i?aaeinoaaeaiey iio?aaeoaeth aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee; nicaeaiee e
eniieueciaaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e n?aaenoa eo iaania/aiey;
caueoa eioi?iaoeee, i?aa noauaeoia, o/anoaothueo a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannao e eioi?iaoecaoeee”. Ec i?eaaaeaiiiai ia?a/iy (?aaii eae e ec
iacaaiey naiiai caeiia) aeaeii, /oi e i?aaeiaoo aai ?aaoee?iaaiey
ioiinyony aeinoaoi/ii ?acii?iaeiua iauaeou – i?ioeannu nicaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia; i?ioeannu nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee
(ec aeaeueiaeoaai ii?iaoeaiiai iaoa?eaea iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
?a/ue eaeao i oae iacuaaaiie eioi?iaoecaoeee); aii?inu caueou
eioi?iaoeee.

N iiceoeee Caeiia ia eioi?iaoeee, a iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo,
neeaaeuaathueony a iaeanoe eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee,
iniiaiuie eaoaai?eyie yaeythony eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu, ninoiyuea ec
aeieoiaioia e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, e eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu,
oi?ie?othueany ec ianneaia aeieoiaioia a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoaiao.
Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu naiaeyony eeoue e aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee. Ii?yaeie aeieoiaioe?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee aeieaeai
onoaiaaeeaaoueny i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, “ioaaonoaaiiuie ca
i?aaiecaoeeth aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa, noaiaea?oecaoeeth aeieoiaioia e eo
ianneaia, aaciianiinoue ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”. Aeiioneaaony
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea th?eaee/aneie neeu aeieoiaioa, iieo/aiiiai ec
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu, yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie
iiaeienueth (i?e iaee/ee a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia
i?ia?aiiii-oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, iaania/eaathueo eaeaioeoeeaoeeth
iiaeiene, e niaethaeaiee onoaiiaeaiiiai ?aaeeia eo eniieueciaaiey).
?aaeei eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie iiaeiene a naiii Caeiia ia
onoaiiaeai.

Oeacaiiua iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey ?acaeaathony “a ?aieao i?ioeanna
eioi?iaoecaoeee”, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyaony eae “i?aaiecaoeeiiiue
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee e iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ioeann nicaeaiey
iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae e
?aaeecaoeee i?aa a?aaeaeai, i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, i?aaiia
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee ia
iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia”. Ethaiio
th?enoo niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeia oai?aoe/aneay ianinoiyoaeueiinoue e
i?aeoe/aneia iaoaeianoai iiaeiaiiai ?iaea “iaoeiia?aciuo ii?aaeaeaiee”.

Oaeei ia?acii, eco/aiea no?oeoo?u, oa?ieiieiae/aneiai aiia?aoa e
iaoaieciia i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey (naiaeeiuo e na?oeoeeaoeee e
eeoeaice?iaaieth), caeiaeaiiuo a Caeii ia eioi?iaoeee, i?eaiaeeo e
neaaeothuei ?acoeueoaoai.

A Caeiia ia ?ane?uaaaony iiiyoea eioi?iaoeee eae ioaeaeueiiai iauaeoa
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa (eae iia iaicia/aaony a AE ?O), i?e/ai ia o/eouaaaony
e oi, /oi ec i?aaeoniio?aiiiai a Caeiia ?aaeeia ?aaoee?iaaiey
(aeaenoaothuaai eeoue aeey “eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia”) niaa?oaiii iaynai
oa?aeoa? i?aaiaie io?aiu eioi?iaoeee, nouanoaothuae a oi?ia naaaeaiee
(ii iauaio i?aaeeo iaaeieoiaioe?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee). Oai naiui auea
caeiaeaia “ieia caiaaeeaiiiai aeaenoaey” a aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee (eae
aoaeao iieacaii a neaaeothueo aeaaao, yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioiineony
aeaaea ia noieueei e “aeiiaee?iaaieth” neiaaie oeia “eioi?iaoeeiiiua
?ano?nu” eee “eioi?iaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu”, neieueei e ia?aoaiiinoe
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo aii?inia i?aa ia eioi?iaoeeiiiua iauaeou).

Aacioiineoaeueii e niaea?aeaieth Caeiia ia eioi?iaoeee aii?in i
niaoeeoeea i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea aeeeaiiu: neaaeoao ee nicaeaaaoue aeey eioi?iaoeee
iniaue iaai? ii?iaoeaii cae?aieaiiuo iaoaieciia ?aaoee?iaaiey eee
neaaeoao ainiieueciaaoueny oaea eiathueieny i?aaiauie n?aaenoaaie,
eioi?ua iiaoo ieacaoueny ia iaiaa yooaeoeaiuie, /ai aiiaue nicaeaiiua?
Ia?aie oi/ee c?aiey i?eaea?aeeaaeny A.A. Aeici?oeaa, aoi?ie – E.E.
Aa/eei. A.A. Aeici?oeaa (e niaeaeaieth, aaca?aiaiii ooaaeoee ec aeecie a
ia/aea 2003 a.) iieaaae, /oi “eioi?iaoeeiiiua ioiioaiey i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie iiaue, i?eoii naiinoiyoaeueiue, aeae eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa”*(25).
Aieaa eiii?iiennioth iiceoeeth caieiaao E.E. Aa/eei, aeey eioi?ie
eioi?iaoeeiiiue iauaeo yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii “eiiieaeniiai i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey”, a oii /enea iin?aaenoaii i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe e aauiiai i?aaa*(26).

I oii, /oi ioia/aiiay aeeeaiia iineo ia oieueei
oai?aoeei-iiciaaaoaeueiue, ii e eiie?aoii-i?aeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?,
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oioy au ?aaeueii nouanoaothuay i?iaeaia iiaeoiaeia e
i?aaiaie io?aia oaeiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauaeoa, eae i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea. A ?innee “o?aaeeoeeiiii” io?aia “i?ia?aii aeey YAI e aac
aeaiiuo” inouanoaeyaony ii?iaie, eioi?ua aiaeiae/iu ii?iai aeey io?aiu
aaoi?neeo i?aa. Ai?i/ai, i?eia?ii oaeei aea ia?acii ianoieo aeaei a
no?aiao Aa?iiaeneiai nithca. Eia/a aiai?y, a ioiioaiee eiiiuethoa?iuo
i?ia?aii io?aiyaony oaeoe/anee oi?ia eo i?aaenoaaeaiey, ii ia
niaea?aeaoaeueiay niaoeeoeea, ooieoeeiiaeueiay cia/eiinoue.
Ia?aoaiiinoue aeaiiie i?iaeaiu ia oai?aoe/aneii o?iaia, aeiionoeiay aeey
ia/aeueiiai yoaia eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, niaa?oaiii
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueia a nouanoaothueo oneiaeyo eo ao?iiai ?acaeoey. Ni
noi?iiu e?oiiaeoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ana aieueoa
aieinia auneacuaaaony a iieueco oae iacuaaaiie eoioeyoeaiie io?aiu,
ni/aoathuae iaoiaeu eae aaoi?neiai, oae e iaoaioiiai i?aaa. A oi aea
a?aiy aacioaaoiie inoaaony /anoue aii?inia ia iauaia i?aaiii/ee
?ac?aaio/eeia e aeia?iniaanoiuo i?eia?aoaoaeae i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia,
ioiinyueony e eaoaai?ee oae iacuaaaiiai ioe?uoiai i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey (“i?ia?aii n ioe?uoui enoiaeiui eiaeii”), iiaeeoeeaoeey e
?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iai, ii iauaio i?aaeeo, ?ac?aoaaony aac eaeeo-eeai
ia?aie/aiee*(27). Oai naiui nouanoaaiiay aeiey i?enoueo aaoi?neiio i?aao
iaoiaeia io?aiu noaiiaeony anee ia aanniuneaiiie, oi, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
iayooaeoeaiie. Aua a iaiueoae noaiaie, ia ia?aue acaeyae, aeey iiaeiaiuo
neo/aaa iiaeoiaeyo iaoiaeu, oa?aeoa?iua aeey iaania/aiey i?aa ia
eiouanoaaiiua iauaeou (i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e eiuo aauiuo i?aa). Iaeiaei
oae ee yoi?

Nianoaaiiinoue

Neiai “nianoaaiiinoue” ioyaiuaii
a

iaoai iuoeaiee aioe/iui
noaoe/iui

ii?aaeaeaieai e iioiio ai
anao

neo/ayo naiaai
eniieueciaaiey

oaeueneoeoee?oao aeeiaie/aneee
oa?aeoa?

iaoaai aeeciaiiiai noeey.
Iu

inoaaeyai oaeea ii?aaeaeaiey ia
ioeoi

/oaeaeuo ie?o e aano?aeoiuo
yoeeia,

th?enoia, oeeinioia, aeiioneaai
eie

ea?aoue iieeoe/aneeo
aeieo?eia?ia,

caiyouo aanniuneaiiie naa?ie,
a

iaaeaeo oai ia iaoaoeceea iaeiiai
yoiai

iiiyoey iieieony ana a
oeaeii

iiieiaiea yeiiiie/aneie
enoi?ee

iaoeo aeiae.

Inaaeueae Oiaiaea?. Caeao
Aa?iiu*(28)

I?aai nianoaaiiinoe – enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue

I?aai nianoaaiiinoe auei ecaanoii oaea ae?aaiei, ii i oii, a eaeie
enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae iii aicieeei, /oi iineoaeeei i?e/eiie aai
aicieeiiaaiey e /oi ia?ae/iaa – nianoaaiiinoue eee aeiaiai?, aauiua eee
iaycaoaeuenoaaiiua i?aaa, – niaoeeaeenou i?iaeieaeatho nii?eoue, e yoe
nii?u, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia caaa?oaony ieeiaaea. N oi/ee c?aiey iinoaaeaiiie
a ianoiyuae ?aaioa i?iaeaiu, oeaeaniia?aciaa ?anniio?aoue iniiaiua aaoe
yaiethoeee, eioi?oth i?aoa?iaei iiiyoea nianoaaiiinoe ia i?ioyaeaiee
enoi?ee. Eiuie neiaaie, iu inoaiiaeiny eeoue ia ianeieueeeo eeth/aauo
ii?aaeaeaieyo e oa?aeoa?enoeeao nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ua n/eoaeenue
iainii?eiuie a oo eee eioth enoi?e/aneoth yiioo, a caoai iinoa?aainy
oioy au a iaueo /a?oao ?ane?uoue a ioiioaiee iiiyoey nianoaaiiinoe
i?iaeaio i?aainoaaiiinoe eee ?aoeaioeee.

Eae ioaaoeo nia?aiaiiue th?eno ia aii?in i oii, /oi aea oaeia
nianoaaiiinoue? A ioee/ea io i?aaenoaaeoaeae eiuo iaoe, o eioi?uo ia
anyeee na?ueaciue aii?in nouanoaoao iaiueoaa eee aieueoaa eiee/anoai
aiciiaeiuo ioaaoia a caaeneiinoe io iao/iie niaanoe, o th?enoa a
ea/anoaa nianeoaeueiiai i?enoaieua anaaaea inoathony ii?iu, cae?aieaiiua
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Eiuie neiaaie, th?eno n /enoie niaanoueth iiaeao
nineaoueny ia caeii, e anee ?a/ue eaeao i i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, oi oaeay
no?aoaaey eaaeaony aiieia iainiiaaiiie. A yoii aii?ina, a ioee/ea io
iiiaeo ae?oaeo, caeii ia eiaao i?iaaeia, ii ia iie/eo, a, iai?ioea,
auneacuaaaony aiieia ii?aaeaeaiii. Eiia/ii, a caaeneiinoe io
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e oie eee eiie i?aaiaie nenoaia, ioaaou aoaeoo
ioee/aoueny, i?e/ai nouanoaaiii. Iu ia?aie/einy aeaoiy nenoaiaie –
eiioeiaioaeueiie e aiaeinaeniineie, o.a. oaie, ia aaca eioi?uo auei
nicaeaii iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?aai e a ?aieao eioi?uo iaaethaeaaony
naaiaeiy iinoaiaiiue i?ioeann naeeaeaiey e oieoeeaoeee ii?i
eiiia?/aneiai i?aaa.

A iauai i?aaa iiae nianoaaiiinoueth iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiii/ee noauaeoa ia aauue. Nienie oaeeo i?aaiii/ee ia
yaeyaony cae?uoui, a eo ea?a?oey neoaeeo aieaa i?aaeiaoii aeey
aeieo?eiaeueiuo nii?ia, /ai iaiaoiaeeiui eino?oiaioii aeey i?eiyoey
noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee*(29). Eiuie neiaaie, i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeia i?aaiii/ea
aeaeaao ec aai iaeaaeaoaey nianoaaiieea, e iineieueeo i?aaiii/ey iiaoo
auoue ?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo ianeieueeeie eeoeaie, i?aai nianoaaiiinoe
iiaeao i?eiaaeeaaeaoue eaaeaeiio ec ieo iaeiia?aiaiii. “A eeanne/aneie
caiaaeiie th?eni?oaeaioeee i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ?anniao?eaaeinue eae
iaeaieaa iieiia ainiiaenoai eeoea iaae aauueth”*(30). I?eaaaeai eeoue
aeaa i?eia?a. Noaouey 544 A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena O?aioeee ii?aaeaeyao
nianoaaiiinoue eae “i?aai iieueciaaoueny e ?anii?yaeaoueny aauaie
iaeaieaa aaniethoiui ia?acii n oai, /oiau iieueciaaiea ia yaeyeinue
oaeei, eioi?ia cai?auaii caeiiaie eee ?aaeaiaioaie”. Ae?oaie y?eee
i?eia? – ia?aa?ao 903 Aa?iaineiai a?aaeaeaineiai oeiaeaiey: “Nianoaaiiee
aaue iiaeao, anee oiio ia i?aiyonoaoao caeii eee i?aaa o?aoueeo eeoe,
?anii?yaeaoueny aauueth ii naiaio oniio?aieth e ono?aiyoue ethaia
aiaoaoaeuenoai”. Noiaeiua ii?iu iiaeii iaeoe a A?aaeaeaineeo eiaeaenao
Eniaiee (no.348), Ii?ooaaeee (no.1305) e Oaaeoea?ee (no.641), /oi ia
oaeeaeoaeueii, anee o/anoue, /oi aeeyiea Eiaeaena Iaiieaiia e
A?aaeaeaineiai oeiaeaiey ia a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai yoeo no?ai
auei naiui iaiin?aaenoaaiiui. Ii a /ai aea, nianoaaiii, aeieaeii
au?aaeaoueny “ainiiaenoai iaae aauueth”? Naiue yniue ioaao ia yoio
aii?in aeaao i.1 no.209 AE ?O. ?a/ue eaeao i oi?ioi ecaanoiie o?eaaea
aeaaeaiey, iieueciaaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey. Caiaaeiay i?aaiaay o?aaeeoeey a
oeaeii e ?inneeneia i?aai a /anoiinoe, eae n/eoaaony, caeinoaiaaee
iiiyoea nianoaaiiinoe ec ?eineiai i?aaa.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eaeath “iieiiai ainiiaenoaa iaae aauueth”, “plena in re
potestas”, o ?eineeo th?enoia iaeoe iiaeii*(31). N “o?eaaeie” aeaei
ianoieo neiaeiaa, iineieueeo aa iu oianeaaeiaaee ia iaiin?aaenoaaiii io
?eieyi, a /a?ac iaiaeaeoiia i?aai*(32). E ianeieueei iaoaaaeeoaeueii
auaeyaeeo caeeth/aiea E. Iooai e I. Iieeiae-Aeeiianeie i oii, /oi
“iaiaeaeoenou nicaeaee aeaoeieoeeth nianoaaiiinoe, iieiinoueth
ioaa/athuoth o?aaiaaieyi ?eineiai i?aaa: dominium proprietas est jus
utendi, fruendi, abutendi re sua, quaetenus juris ratio patitur
(nianoaaiiinoue yaeyaony i?aaii oiio?aaeyoue aauue, iieueciaaoueny aa
ieiaeaie e ?anii?yaeaoueny nianoaaiiie aauueth, iineieueeo yoi
aeiioneaao i?aaiaie ii?yaeie)”*(33). I?eaaaeai caia/aiea i?ioanni?a A.A.
E?aniieooneiai ii iiaiaeo ?aceiaeaiey niaea?aeaiey nianoaaiiinoe ia
yeaiaiou: “I?eciaiiue eeanneeaie e cae?aieaiiue caeiiii i?eciae iieiiou
ainiiaenoaa nianoaaiieea iaae aauueth aucuaae, iaeiaei, aua o eeanneeia
iiiuoee ?aceiaeeoue niaea?aeaiea nianoaaiiinoe ia aai ninoaaiua /anoe.
Oae, Iaaae n/eoae, /oi i?aai iieueciaaiey e ecaea/aiey ieiaeia
(usufructus) ninoaaeyao nouanoaaiioth /anoue nianoaaiiinoe, pars domimi
(D.7.1.4.). Aai nia?aiaiiee e aioaaiieno Oeueieai ioa?anuaae anyeea
iiiuoee /anoiuo ia?a/eneaiee ninoaaa nianoaaiiinoe e ianoaeaae ia
aaeeinoaa ainiiaenoaa nianoaaiieea e anaiauiinoe niaea?aeaiey aai
i?aaa”*(34). Iieo/aaony, a eiaiii e oaeiio auaiaeo i?eoiaeyo
niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe ?eineiai i?aaa, /oi ie iaeei ec ae?aaieo ?eineeo
oaenoia ia niaea?aeeo ii?aaeaeaiey nianoaaiiinoe, oioy naii iiiyoea,
ianiiiaiii, auei ecaanoii e oe?iei eniieueciaaeinue ae?aaieie
?eieyiaie*(35).

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi i/aiue iaiiiaea caiaaeiua th?enou aaciaiai?i/ii
i?eieiatho naaiaeiy o?eaaeo i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea. Eae au i?iaeieaeay
nii?u ?eineeo th?enoia, iaeie ec ieo neeiiythony e i?ei?eoaoo i?aaa
iieueciaaiey eee i?aaa iieueciaaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey (o.a. auiinyo ca
neiaee i?aai aeaaeaiey), ae?oaea aeiaaaeytho e o?eaaea eiua i?aaiii/ey
(iai?eia?, i?aaiii/ea oi?aaeaiey eee i?aai ia aeiaeeeaoeeth), iaeiiaoe,
o?aouee i?aaeii/eoatho aiai?eoue ia ionoonoaee aaeeiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe.

Aa?iainy e ?eineiio i?aao. ?eineea th?enou ia i?inoi ia niiaee i?eeoe e
aaeeiiio iiaieth e ia niiaee aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiea i?aao nianoaaiiinoe,
eioi?ia au ?acaeaeyee ana aac eneeth/aiey. Ana aieueoaa i?eciaiea n?aaee
niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe eeanne/aneie th?eni?oaeaioeee iieo/aao oi/ea
c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie “no?anoue e aeaoeieoeeyi”, noieue oa?aeoa?iay
aeey n?aaeiaaaeiaiai eaiiie/aneiai i?aaa e oianeaaeiaaiiay aiineaaenoaee
aa?iiaeneei ?aoeeiiaeeciii, ?eineei th?enoai auea aeoaiei /oaeaeie.
Iiaiea Aeae. Aa?iaia ii aeaiiiio aii?ino iaeiicia/ii: “Nooaeaioia o/ao,
/oi a yoii ie?eaaea oceeo ii?i e iaii?aaeaeaiiuo iaueo oa?ieiia
eiieeoeeoii niaea?aeaeanue neiaeiay nenoaia ioaea/aiiuo iiiyoee. Eiaiii
yoio naiue eiioeaiooaeeci ?eineiai i?aaa noaaeony a i?eia? a n?aaiaiee n
ia?oeeoey?eciii e i?aaiaoeciii aiaeeeneiai e aia?eeaineiai i?aaa. Yoi
icia/aao niio?aoue ia ?eineia i?aai THnoeieaia aeacaie aa?iiaeneeo
th?enoia aieaa iicaeiaai a?aiaie”*(36). Ec ioa/anoaaiiuo aaoi?ia oie aea
iiceoeee i?eaea?aeeaaaony A.I. Nie?ei*(37).

Iieo/aaony, /oi ia ?eineia i?aai, a aai ia?aaioea, ia/aei eioi?ie
iieiaeeee a N?aaeiea aaea aeinnaoi?u e eioi?ay aeinoeaea naiaai aiiaay o
iaiaoeeeo iaiaeaeoenoia, iineoaeeea iniiaie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie oai?ee i?aaa. Aeooo ?eineiai
i?aaa, a oii /enea e a aii?ina i nianoaaiiinoe, ieacuaaaony aeeaea
aiaeinaeniineay i?aaiaay nenoaia. “Eae yoi ie ia?aaeienaeueii, ii
iaaeaeo ?eineei th?enoii e th?enoii iauaai i?aaa aieueoa iauaai, /ai
iaaeaeo ?eineei th?enoii e aai i?aaiieeii, nia?aiaiiui oeeaeeenoii. Eae
th?eno iauaai i?aaa, oae e ?eineee th?eno ecaaaatho iaiauaiee e ii
aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeaiee”*(38). A oi aea a?aiy ia neaaeoao caauaaoue,
/oi a N?aaeiea aaea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo aeaoiy i?aaiauie nenoaiaie auee aua
ia noieue ?aceoaeueiu. Iiiyoea “oaiaeaeueiie ?anuaieaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe”*(39), eioi?ui i?iaeieaeatho iieueciaaoueny a no?aiao
iauaai i?aaa, auei oaeaea oi?ioi ecaanoii e a eiioeiaioaeueiie
Aa?iia*(40).

Iiiuoaainy naeaeaoue ia?aua auaiaeu. Naaaeaiea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e
aaia?aeueiie eaeaa ainiiaenoaa iaae aauueth ni noi?iiu iaeiiai eeoea,
oae aea eae e naaaeaiea i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea e oceiio e cae?uoiio
ia?a/ith, – “caaiaaaiey”, eioi?ua aeaoe?othony iaeneioi aeaoiy-o?aiy
noieaoeyie. Aeaaiia, /oi aaeaeaaoiia eceiaeaiea enoi?ee – yoi ia oieueei
aeaiue iaoea, eioi?ay anaaaea no?aieony e iauaeoeaiinoe, ii e io?aaeaiea
nia?aiaiiuo i?aaiauo oaiaeaioeee, aeey eioi?uo enoi?e/aneea oaeou
ea?atho ?ieue aeiiieieoaeueiuo e, iaaei neacaoue, aaniiuo a?aoiaioia. “A
no?aiao ?iiaii-aa?iaineiai i?aaa, – eae ioia/aao I.E. Eoeaaei, –
iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e “?anuaieaieth” i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia iaeei
e oio aea iauaeo”*(41). ?a/ue eaeao ia iainiaeaiee ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey
eaieoaeii io nianoaaiiinoe ia eaieoae, i aic?anoathuae ?iee einoeoooa
aeiaa?eoaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, i iieiaeaiee iaieiaoaey, i?aaa eioi?iai
oioy e auoaeatho ec aeiaiai?a, aieaa n?iaeie aauiui i?aaai.

Iaeiaei noieo ee ioa?anuaaoue iiiuoee aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiey nianoaaiiinoe
eae th?eaee/aneie ?aaeueiinoe (/oi, nianoaaiii, ia io?eoeaao ieeoi) a
iieueco i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey /anoiuo iiaeaeae nianoaaiiinoe?
?anoai?yaony ee nianoaaiiinoue aac inoaoea a naiai i?aeoe/aneii
i?eiaiaiee? Enoi?ey oaea ia i?aaa, a oeeinioey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii,
/oi iiaeiaiiai ?iaea aii?inu, ni?aaaaeeeaua ioiineoaeueii ethaiai
iiiyoey, iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu eae a iieueco iauaai iiiyoey, oae e a
iieueco aai /anoiuo i?iyaeaiee. N iaoae oi/ee c?aiey, e?aeia aieia (o.a.
iai?yioth iacaaeneiia io oie eee eiie nenoaiu i?aaa) ii?aaeaeaiea
nianoaaiiinoe aeae A. ?aeiao a naiai enneaaeiaaiee “Ai?ei?iua iniiaaiey
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa” (1913)*(42). Eae ieoao A. ?aeiao: “Oi, /oi
iacuaaaony ioiioaieai i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eee nianoaaiiinoueth, – yoi
i?aaeaeueiia, aeaeaa ianaiaeeiia e ia?aceiaeeiia ia yeaiaiou ioiioaiea
iaaeaeo eeoeii e aauueth. Iii iiaeao eiinoeooe?iaaoueny e oai, aaea iao
ieeaeiai iiceoeaiiai i?aaa. Anee ?iaeicii ia naiai ino?iaa i?iecaiaeeo
oieueei aeey naay eaeea-oi i?aaeiaou, oi yoe i?aaeiaou i?eiaaeeaaeao
aio”*(43). Eoae, ia?aui nouanoaaiiui iiiaioii aeey oyniaiey i?aaiaie
i?e?iaeu iiiyoey nianoaaiiinoe yaeyaony i?inoioa yoiai iiiyoey, aai
ia?ae/iinoue ii ioiioaieth e ethaiio niaea?aeaieth, eioi?ia a iaai
aeeaaeuaaaony a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee. Iaeiaei
i?inoioa ia icia/aao ionoiou, oioy e iinooee?oao (eae e a neo/aa n
ii?aaeaeaieai “auoey” o Aaaaey) aeaeueiaeooth iaii?aaeaeeiinoue iiiyoey
/a?ac ?iaeiaeaeiaua ioee/ey. Aoi?ui iaiaoiaeeiui iiiaioii a ii?aaeaeaiee
nianoaaiiinoe yaeyaony aa aaniethoiue oa?aeoa?: “A nouiinoe
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe oei?aiaii oi, /oi aa iineoaeue iaeaaeaao aaniethoiui
i?aaii eaeei oaiaeii ia?acii ia?auaoueny n i?eiaaeeaaeauae aio
aauueth”*(44). Iniaoth oeaiiinoue a nayce n i?iaeaiie oaea iaoeo aeiae,
naycaiiie n nioeeaeecaoeeae nianoaaiiinoe, i?aaenoaaeytho ?annoaeaeaiey
oeeinioa i iacaaeneiinoe i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe io iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey
oao eee eiuo i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea. A. ?aeiao eiae niaeinoue
(iineieueeo io?eoeaeinue a aeaiiii neo/aa ii?aaeaeaiea ia oieueei
iauai?eciaiiia, ii e noaaoaa eeanne/aneei*(45)) ?ac e iaanaaaea
ioaa?aiooue eioa?i?aoaoeeth nianoaaiiinoe eae noiiu eee aaeeinoaa anao
aauiuo i?aa: “Ni anae ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth neaaeoao ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
nianoaaiiinoue ia yaeyaony aauiui i?aaii, ii ioiioaieai e aaue, a
eioi?ii ei?aiyony ana aauiua i?aaa. Yoi ioiioaiea i?iaeieaeaao
nio?aiyoue iieioth oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue, aeaaea anee ana yoe i?aaa
i?aaeinoaaeaiu ae?oaei ethaeyi”*(46).

Ia aii?in i oii, /oi aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianoaaiiinoue, aiciiaeai e
ae?oaie ioaao, eioi?ue iniiauaaaony ia eiii iiieiaiee iiiyoey eee
aeaoeieoeee. Nioeainy ia o/aiea Y. Eanne?a?a i iiiyoee eae ooieoeee.
Ooieoeey, aeathuay oei caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo /eaiaie ?yaea, ia anoue naia
/eai ?yaea. Ii oaeei ia?acii iiiyoea ia auaiaeeony, a i?aaeiieaaaaony,
aaaeue, i?aaeienuaay iaeioi?iio iiiaiia?aceth ii?yaeie e naycue
yeaiaioia, iu i?aaeiieaaaai oaea iaee/ea iiiyoey. Eaaeaeay ooieoeey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie anaiauee caeii, ioaaouaathuee, aeaaiaea?y
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui cia/aieyi, eioi?ua iiaeao i?eieiaoue ia?aiaiiay, ana
ioaeaeueiua neo/ae, a eioi?uo ii i?eiaiei. I?ioea eiaeee ?iaeiaiai
iiiyoey, noiyuae iiae ciaeii noanoaioeee, auaeaeaaaony eiaeea
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiiyoey i ooieoeee*(47). N oi/ee c?aiey eiaeee ooieoeee
ii?aaeaeaiea nianoaaiiinoe eae ainiiaenoaa iaae aauueth ii?aaaeaiii
iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iiae yoi iiiyoea iiaeoiaeyo ana neo/ae
ia?aie/aiiiai ?aaeueiiai ainiiaenoaa iaae ?aaeueii nouanoaothueie
aauaie, a oaeaea e iioiio, /oi yoi iiiyoea yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
eiaeoeoeaiiai (a niunea, eioi?ue aeeaaeuaae a yoi iiiyoea nai Eanne?a?)
enneaaeiaaiey.

I?e yoii iao ieeaeie iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiieiaoue iiae aauueth iaeoth
iaoa?eaeueioth aaeeieoeo (eiouanoai). Iaiiiiei iaeii oiieia iaaethaeaiea
I. Oiaiaea?a ioiineoaeueii oiai, /oi a iuiaoiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (a ni
a?aiai Oiaiaea?a – aoi?ie oii “Caeaoa Aa?iiu” oaeaeae naao a ai?aea 1922
a. – caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a noa?a aauiuo i?aa i?aeoe/anee ia i?aoa?iaei
eciaiaiee) “eeoea” e “aaue” aiiaua ia yaeythony iiiyoeyie i?aaa, a
“eeoue i?i/a?/eaatho aaiaeueioth a?aieoeo iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e anai
i?i/ei, iie inouanoaeytho, oae neacaoue, anoanoaaiiiiao/iia
?acee/aiea”*(48). Ec i?eaaaeaiiiai iaaethaeaiey I. Oiaiaea? aeaeaao
auaiae i oii, /oi anee aioe/iia i?aai auei i?aaii oae, oi nia?aiaiiia
i?aai – yoi i?aai ooieoeee: “Ii/aio niaea?aeaiea iaoaioiiai caeiia ia
iiaeaeaaony aeeth/aieth a aauiia i?aai? Ii/aio aaoi?neia i?aai
ieacaeinue ia a ninoiyiee iiiyoeeii ioaeaeeoue aeooiaiia oai?aiea io aai
oi?i, eioi?ua iiaeii ia?aaeaaaoue, oaeeo eae ?oeiienue e ia/aoiay
i?iaeoeoeey? Ii/aio a iaeiie e oie aea ea?oeia a i?ioeai?a/ee n aauiui
i?aaii i?eoiaeeony ?acee/aoue ooaeiaeanoaaiioth e iaoa?eaeueioth
nianoaaiiinoue – iin?aaenoaii ?acaeaeaiey i?eia?aoaiey i?eaeiaea e
i?eia?aoaiey i?aaa ia aini?iecaaaeaiea? Ii/aio iioeuaiea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eaeae eee aecian-ieaia iaiaeacoaii, a iioeuaiea
eei/ea aoiaae, ia eioi?ii naeaeai iaa?inie, iaeacuaaaony a oaieiaiii
ii?yaeea? Iioiio /oi naaiaeiy iaae iaie ana aua aeiaeaao iiiyoea
oaeaniie aaue: O?aaiaaieai aoaeouaai noaiiaeony ia?ano?ieea anaai
i?aaiaiai iuoeaiey ii aiaeiaee n aunoae oeceeie e iaoaiaoeeie”*(49). A
ea/anoaa i?eia?a, eae neacae au Oiaiaea?, “noieanoe/aneiai ?aaeecia
iiiyoee” iiaeii i?eaanoe oi/eo c?aiey A.A. Aaeiaa, eioi?ue aiciouaaony
iaiiieiaieai “oiai i/aaeaeiiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /oi i?aaeiaou
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, aaue (aeieoiaiou) e ia/oi eaeaaeueiia (i?aaa e
“neiaieu”) iauaeoeaii iaaiciiaeii iiaeaa?aiooue eaeaioe/iiio i?aaiaiio
?aaoee?iaaieth, niiaueoue ei iaeeiaeiaue i?aaiaie ?aaeei”*(50).
Nianoaaiii, aaniiuo a?aoiaioia a iieueco naiae oi/ee c?aiey A.A. Aaeia
ia i?eaiaeeo, a aianoi yoiai eaoaai?e/ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi oae i?inoi ia
iiaeao e ia aeieaeii auoue: “Anee aea aacaeieoiaioa?iua aoiaae – yoi
ia/oi aanoaeaniia, ii ia niaiaaeathuaa n noauaeoeaiuie i?aaaie, oi
ioaeia eiino?oeoeey iniaaiiiai aaniethoiiai i?aaa ia yoi naiia “ia/oi
aanoaeaniia”, eai i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia aanoaeaniia, a oii /enea e ia
i?aai, auoue ia iiaeao. Ai anyeii neo/aa, ia aeieaeii”*(51).
Anoanoaaiii, /oi noaeaaiay i?aeoeea, eioi?ay, iaace?ay ia “iinooeaou
th?eaee/aneie iaoee”, neeaaeuaaaony a iieueco i?eciaiey i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia aacaeieoiaioa?iua aeoeee e ae?oaea oeaiiua aoiaae,
aucuaaao o aaoi?a e?aeia iaaaoeaiua yiioeee. Caaa?oay “iieaie/aneee
aeeaeia” nia?aiaiiiai th?enoa n oeeinioii i?ioeiai, ioaaoei A.A. Aaeiao
neiaaie naiiai I. Oiaiaea?a, eioi?ue aue oaaaeaeai a oii, /oi, eiaaea
i?aao iaaycuaatho o?aaeeoeeiiiua, ii noaaoea ionouie noaiu, “i?aai
aeaeaaony ia i?oaeeai, a iaocie, e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue i?iaeieaeaao
aeaeaaoueny aeaeueoa ia aianoa n enoi?eae i?aaa, ii iiieii iaa”*(52).

*oiau ia iieacaoueny aieineiaiuie eee ia nicaeaoue aia/aoeaiea ia
eniieueciaaiee eiaeiie a?aoiaioaoeee i?e oeeoe?iaaiee oeeinioneeo
aoi?eciia, ia?aoeiny oaea ia e ?inneeneie, a e ca?oaaaeiie i?aaiaie
oai?ee e i?aeoeea. Ca?oaaaeiua th?enou na?ueacii ianoaeaeatho
aiciiaeiinoue i?eciaiey i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia oieueei a ioiioaiee
aacaeieoiaioa?iuo aeoeee (paperless fund shares), ii oaeaea e a
ioiioaiee eiuo aanoaeaniuo aauae, oaeeo eae i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea,
niaea?aeaiea eioa?iao-naeoa eee aeaaea ia?niiaeueiua aeaiiua*(53). E
aeaei aiana ia a oii, /oi oaeia ?anoe?eoaeueiia oieeiaaiea i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe anaaaea yaeyaony oianoiui – e i?eia?o, aii?in i i?eciaiee
“nianoaaiiinoueth” ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo yaeyaony, ii iaoaio iiaieth,
aeeneonneiiiui, – ?a/ue eaeao i iieueca e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ianoaeaeaiey
aeaiiie i?iaeaiaoeee. Eiaaea i?aai iaoiaeeony a iienea iiauo ?aoaiee,
eiaaea iii auioaeaeaii aaeaioe?iaaoueny e iiaui oaoiieiaeyi, ethaay
iiceoeey, a oii /enea e oaeay, eioi?ay noaaeo iiae niiiaiey iinooeaou
th?eaee/aneie aeiaiaoeee, eiaao i?aai ia nouanoaiaaiea. *oi aea eanaaony
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, oi aai, eae e i?aaa a oeaeii, eiia/iie caaea/ae
yaeythony i?iaeaeaeaiea e caueoa iauacia/eiuo (n yeiiiie/aneie eee eiie
oi/ee c?aiey) aeaa e oeaiiinoae, a iineaaeiea, ii caia/aieth
caneoaeaiiiai i?ioanni?a i?aaa O.A. Eioaia, iaiaoiaeeii iiieiaoue eae
“ieth?aeenoe/iua e iiiaeanoaaiiua, aeeiaie/iua e eciaiythueany,
aeiioaoe/iua e ia naiii/aaeaeiua, i?iaeaiaoe/iua nei?aa, /ai
ii?aaeaeythuea”*(54). Eiaiii oaeei (eiaaea ca oi/eo ion/aoa i?eieiathony
eiia/iua – iieeoe/aneea e iauanoaaiiua – oeaee, a ia aano?aeoiua
iiiyoey) yaeyaony acaeyae ia nianoaaiiinoue n oi/ee c?aiey
th?eaee/aneiai ?aaeecia, i?ecuaathuaai th?enoia “auianoe ca neiaee
neaioe/aneea niiiaiey e ioe?uoi iiaeeeth/eoueny e ii?iaoeaiiio
enneaaeiaaieth”*(55).

Aica?auaynue e i?eia?ai, iu au oioaee ia?eniaaoue a iaueo /a?oao
noaeaaiia ?aoaiea Aiiineiai noaea aoi?iai o?iaiy, i?eciaaoaai ca
i?iaaeaea?ii i?aai ae?ooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea
naeoa*(56). Ene aue i?aaeuyaeai o/anoieeii, eioi?iio auei ioeacaii a
aeaeueiaeoai aeinooia e /aoo (Chat-rooms). A noaeaaiii ?acae?aoaeuenoaa
?a/ue oea i caeiiiinoe ?aoaiey i?iaaeaea?a a ioiioaiee iieueciaaoaey, n
eioi?ui ia auei caeeth/aii ieeaeiai aeiaiai?a. Aiciiaeiua iniiaaiey aeey
eneeth/aiey ec /aoa noae oniio?ae a ia?.1004 AAO*(57), iieaaay, /oi
i?iaaeaea? iaeaaeaao “ae?ooaeueiui i?aaii ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue
nianoaaiiinoe” (virtuelles Hausrecht), eioi?ia ninoieo ia a /ai eiii,
eae a i?aaa eniieueciaaoue a niioaaonoaothueo oeaeyo (o.a. aeey caueou
naiaai i?aaa) ?aciauaiiia ia na?aa?a i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea (Software).
Eae oaeiaia i?aai ia eniieueciaaiea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey noae
eaaeeoeoee?iaae a eiia/iii n/aoa eae “ae?ooaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue”
(virtuelles Eigentum) e i?aaeinoaaee ioaao/eeo niioaaonoaothuoth caueoo.
Enoaoe (ecaiaiiue o/anoiee /aoa), ii iiaieth noaea, naycae naay
iaycaoaeuenoaii, au?acea naia aeia?iaieueiia niaeanea ia o/anoea a /aoa.
N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oio, eoi aeiionoee aai aac eaeeo-eeai
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneiaee e iieueciaaieth /aoii (o.a. i?iaaeaea?), ia
ai?aaa i?iecaieueii i?ae?aoeoue oaeia iieueciaaiea. Iaeiaei noae
?aca?aie/ee oa oneiaey, eioi?ua iiaee au auoue onoaiiaeaiu i?iaaeaea?ii
ca?aiaa e oaeei ia?acii i?aaeinoaaeoue aio aieueooth naiaiaeo aeaenoaee,
e oa ia?aie/aiey, caeiiiinoue eioi?uo naycaia n ?aaeoeeae ae?oaeo
o/anoieeia. Oaeei ia?acii, “ae?ooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue”, eae neaaeoao
ec noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey, oa?aeoa?ecoaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aiana ia
i?aaii ia ono?aiaiea ethaiai ia?ooaiey (eae yoi eiaao ianoi a neo/aa
“eeanne/aneie nianoaaiiinoe”) – aa no?oeoo?a iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaeneo io
iaeeaeaiee o/anoieeia ioe?uoiai eiiioieeaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, o.a. n
naiiai ia/aea naycaia n i?aaii iieueciaaiey o?aoueeo eeoe*(58).

I?eiaiaiea iiaie eiino?oeoeee, eae iieaaaao ecaanoiue iaiaoeeee
niaoeeaeeno a oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiii i?aaa A.-O. Eaaea?*(59),
caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey ia oieueei a nayce n ?ani?ino?aiaieai iiiyoey
nianoaaiiinoe ia ae?ooaeueiia i?aai ?anii?yaeaiey i?ia?aiiiui
iaania/aieai (i?e eioi?ii iauai?eiyoia i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe eae aauiii i?aaa oaeoe/anee en/acaao), ii e a nayce n
i?iaeaiie, eioi?oth aeaiiia noaeaaiia aeaei noaaeo ia?aae i?aaiaie
aeiaiaoeeie. I?e o?aaoee?iaaiee aii?ina i caueoa i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
i?iaaeaea?a noae i?eaaaioe e aiaeiaee n aa?eaioii ?anii?yaeaiey
?aaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth. A eiaiii – noae nineaeny ia oieiaaiea
noiaeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa i?e eniieueciaaiee i?aaa ia ono?aiaiea
ia?ooaiee, iai?eia?, a ioiioaiee oi?aaeythuaai noia?ia?eaoii, eioi?ue,
eae neaaeoao ec noaeaaiie i?aeoeee, oaeaea ia naiaiaeai a inouanoaeaiee
naiaai i?aaa*(60). Ioiaoei, /oi oaeia, eacaeinue au, oe?ieia oieeiaaiea
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe icia/aao aai na?ueaciia
ia?aie/aiea: anee i?aaiii/ea ii ?anii?yaeaieth nianoaaiiinoueth caaeneo
io eniieueciaaiey aeeiaieee aioo?enaoaauo eiiioieeaoeee, oi nianoaaiiee
ieacuaaaony naycaiiui ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaycaoaeuenoaaie, ia?ooaiea eioi?uo
(aucaaiiia aeaeaieai caueoeoue naith “ae?ooaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue”)
iiaeao auoue i?eciaii i?iecaieueiui, o.a. iaaeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiiui e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iacaeiiiui.

Anee aa?eoue aeiaieueii iaiaeeaeaiiiio auaiaeo, eioi?ue aeaeaao a naiae
noaouea, iinayuaiiie nianoaaiiinoe a ?eineii i?aaa, A.I. Nie?ei, oi
ionoonoaea iiiyoeeiie nenoaiu o ?eieyi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
i?aaeii/oaiee, eioi?ia ioaeaaaee eae ?ac eiaeea ioiioaiee*(61). Eiuie
neiaaie, iiiyoea nianoaaiiinoe iiaeii i?eciaoue iaiaoiaeeiui eeoue a oii
neo/aa, anee iii ia iiaeaaeyao nouanoaothuea e aicieeathuea ioiioaiey, a
niiniaii aeeth/eoue a naay ana eo ?aciiia?acea. Inoaaony, iaeiiaoe,
aiciiaeiinoue enoiaeeoue i?e ii?aaeaeaiee nianoaaiiinoe ia ec
i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe (eioi?ay oaeoe/anee e iaoneiaeeaaao iiiaiia?acea
i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea), a ec iniaaiiinoe caueou, eioi?ie iieuecothony
oa eee eiua ioiioaiey. Anee aaniethoiay caueoa, nii?ioeaeaiea
iinyaaoaeuenoao ni noi?iiu ethauo o?aoueeo eeoe iiaeii i?eciaoue
ia?ae/iui, ii?aaeaeythuei aeey nianoaaiiinoe, oi iauaeoaie nianoaaiiinoe
aoaeoo ana oa iauaeou, eioi?ua iauanoai aeaeaao e niiniaii caueuaoue
oaeei ia?acii. E aii?ino i i?eiaieiinoe iiiyoee “ooieoeey”,
“ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue”, i?e/ai i?eiaieoaeueii ia oieueei e oai?aoe/aneei,
ii e e i?aeoe/aneei aniaeoai niioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe e eioi?iaoeee, iu
aua aa?iainy.

Aeey nia?aiaiiiai yoaia ?acaeoey i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe oa?aeoa?ii
?anoe?aiea aai i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, iaeaieaa
i?eaieaiui i?aaiaui ?aaeeiii aeey iiauo iauaeoia yaeyaony ?aaeei
nianoaaiiinoe, a iioiio aoaeao iaaaniieacii aua ?ac ia?aoeoueny e
th?eaee/aneiio iaiieiaieth iiiyoey “aaue”. Noaouey 128 AE ?O ioiineo e
aauai aeaiueae e oeaiiua aoiaae. Oaea yoi aiai?eo a iieueco oiai, /oi
i?ioee a?aiaia, eiaaea iiae “aauaie” iiieiaee a aoeaaeueiii niunea
ie?oaeathuea /aeiaaea iaoa?eaeueiua i?aaeiaou. Ae?oaei naeaeaoaeuenoaii
iooiaea io eeanne/aneie ia?aaeeaiu iiaeii n/eoaoue iiyaeaiea a eiaeaena
oaeiai neiaeiiai iauaeoa, eae i?aaei?eyoea. A naiii aeaea, i?aaei?eyoea
– ia aauue, a eiouanoaaiiue eiiieaen, aeeth/athuee, iiieii i?i/aai,
eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa, i?aaa o?aaiaaiey e aeieae (no.132 AE ?O), e
ana-oaee iii yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii ia oieueei naeaeie, ii e i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?eaaaeaiiua i?eia?u yaeythony nei?aa
eneeth/aieai (oae, /oiau aeeth/eoue i?aaei?eyoea a eiouanoaaiiue iai?io,
iio?aaiaaeanue niaoeeaeueiay noaouey), e iniiaiie i?aae?annoaeie
inoaaony i?aeoe/anee iao?iiooui. Aaue eae i?aaeiao i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
iiaoo auoue aeaeeiuie e iaaeaeeiuie, aeaeaeeiuie e iaaeaeaeeiuie,
neiaeiuie e i?inouie, e o.ae., e o.i., ii iie inoathony i?aaeaea anaai
aauaie, aeey eioi?uo ii?aaeaeythuei i?eciaeii yaeyaony oaeaniinoue. Ia
neo/aeii eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ioiinyo ia e i?aao nianoaaiiinoe, a
auaeaeytho a iniaoth iiaeio?aneue a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, e
“eioaeeaeooaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue” ?inneeneay i?aaiaay aeieo?eia
?anniao?eaaao, niioaaonoaaiii, eeoue eae oneiaiia iaicia/aiea aeey
?aaoee?iaaiey oie noa?u e i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e iae iauaeoia, eioi?ua e
i?aao nianoaaiiinoe i?yiiai ioiioaiey ia eiatho*(62).

E caeanue aiiaue iieacii ia?aoeoueny e enoi?ee. ?eineiio i?aao auei
ecaanoii aeaeaiea aauae ia “oaeaniua” e “aanoaeaniua”, eioi?ia
ano?a/aaony a Einoeoooeeyo Aay (2.12-14). A ea/anoaa eeethno?aoeee oiai,
/oi aea neaaeoao iiieiaoue iiae aanoaeaniuie aauaie, Aae i?eaiaeeo i?aai
ianeaaeiaaiey, i?aai ocoo?oeoa e iaycaoaeuenoaaiiia i?aai. “Niiinoaaeyy
yoi ianoi enoi/ieeia n i?eia?aie, i?eaiaeeiuie Aaai, i?eoiaeeony
i?eciaoue, /oi, ?acaeaeyy aaue ia oaeaniua e aanoaeaniua, Aae ?acoiaao
iiae iineaaeieie ia aaue a niunea i?aaeiaoia aiaoiaai ie?a, a eiaiii
i?aaa”*(63). Iineieueeo i?e iiiuoea i?eiaieoue ?aaeei nianoaaiiinoe e
i?aaai, oae aea eae e i?e iiiuoea aeeth/eoue i?aaa a ia?a/aiue iauaeoia
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa (no.128 AE ?O), eiaao ianoi ia?aaeien “i?aaa ia
i?aai”, “aanoaeaniua aaue” ?eineiai i?aaa, eae iai i?aaenoaaeyaony,
a?yae ee iiaoo neoaeeoue yooaeoeaiui eino?oiaioii ?aaoee?iaaiey
ioiioaiee eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Eiie oi/ee c?aiey
i?eaea?aeeaaaony Ae.A. Io?cei: “…aanoaeaniia eiouanoai iiyaeeinue a
?eineii /anoiii i?aaa a neeo aai iai?aacieaeaiiie eiae/iinoe,
aeioiaeyuae aei i?eieoeaiinoe a naieo /anoiuo i?iyaeaieyo; aanoaeaniia
eiouanoai auei ioaa?aiooi iinoaioe/iui a?aaeaeaineei i?aaii ec-ca
i?aeoeoeecia caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee e aa eceeoiaai oaea/aiey oeeinioeae
iaoa?eaeecia”*(64). Oaeia aoi?enoe/aneia ooaa?aeaeaiea auaeyaeeo
iaeioaaaeeoaeueiui. Eae, nianoaaiii, e oaaaeaeaiiinoue aaoi?a a oii, /oi
eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue iaycaia naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai
auaeaeaieth “iaeioi?uo aanoaeaniuo eiouanoa a eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa”,
eioi?ua e i?aao nianoaaiiinoe ieeaeiai ioiioaiey ia eiatho*(65). Nei?aa,
?aoeeiiaeueiay eiaeea caiaaeiiai iuoeaiey (eiaeea iineaaeiaaoaeueiie
?aoeaioeee) e aua aieaa ianoiyoaeueiay eiaeea yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
“iiaeneacaee” iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aaeeia nianoaaiiinoe
oaeaea e ia iaiaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou (eiouanoaa e i?aaa).

A eieaa aia?eeaineiai enneaaeiaaoaey Aeaea?aie ?aoeeia “Aae aeinooia”
(“The Age of Access”), auoaaeoae a naao a 2000 a., auaeaeythony
neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe a nia?aiaiioth yiioo.
Ai-ia?auo, aauiia eiouanoai iaanoeaieaaaony n oi/ee c?aiey naiaai
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey. Oae, a i?eia?aoaaiii aaoiiiaeea
iio?aaeoaey eioa?anotho a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia?ea, aeecaei,
aaciianiinoue e eeoue ai aoi?oth i/a?aaeue – aa oa?aeoa?enoeee eae
n?aaenoaa ia?aaeaeaeaiey. Ai-aoi?uo, oiaa?ii, iiieii iaoa?eaeueiuo
i?aaeiaoia (aauae), noaiiayony ia?aaeeaaiey (paid-for-experience). Oa ec
ieo, eioi?ua n/eoathony i?anoeaeiuie e eioi?ua iiaeaeathony
eiiia?/aneiio oe?aaee?iaaieth: yecioe/aneea iooaoanoaey n ?eneii aeey
aeecie eee eeoaiay ea?oi/ea, iaania/eaathuay aeinooi a “oceee e?oa”, –
ia?acoeiaua “oiaa?u” nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee. A-o?aoueeo, iienaiiay
ia?ai?eaioaoeey yeiiiieee i?eaiaeeo e niauaieth aeoeaioia a i?aaiii/eyo
nianoaaiieea – io i?aiaeaaeaaoaai ?aiaa i?aaiii/ey ?anii?yaeaiey e
i?aaiii/eth iieueciaaiey, eioi?ia iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea a aeinooia.
Iaeiiaoe, a-/aoaa?ouo, oioy iio?aaeoaeue e iieo/aao aeinooi e
i?eia?aoaaiui oiaa?ai iaiin?aaenoaaiii io i?iecaiaeeoaey, ca nieiie
oaeiai i?iecaiaeeoaey anaaaea noieo eiie, ia?aiia/aeueiue nianoaaiiee
eee nianoaaiiee eaeae. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a Aeae. ?aoeei i?eaiaeeo
ioiioaiey o?ai/aeceiaa, eioi?ua ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iieo/atho ana
aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea. “Eeanne/aneia” i?aai nianoaaiiinoe, oaeei
ia?acii, i?aoa?iaaaao cia/eoaeueioth iiaeeoeeaoeeth e aeaaea
?aaeoeoeeth, e a iieiii iauaia auaeeaaao eeoue iaeii aai “ioaaoaeaiea” –
i?aai eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Ia neo/aeii a iaiaoeeii ia?aaiaea
eieaa iieo/eea iacaaiea “Aeinooi – en/aciiaaiea nianoaaiiinoe” (“Access
– Das Verschwinden des Eigentums”), iineieueeo nianoaaiiinoue ia
iaoa?eaeueiua aeaaa, o.a. nianoaaiiinoue a aa eeanne/aneii iiieiaiee,
noaiiaeony iaaeaeaoaeueiui ia?aiaiaieai e iinoaiaiii noiaeeo ia iao,
en/acaao*(66).

Ethaiiuoii oioy au iauai ieaia ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue iiaeoiae e i?iaeaia
nianoaaiiinoe, eca?aiiue ?e/a?aeii Iaeinii a iiiia?aoee 1999 a.
“Nianoaaiiinoue e naiaiaea”. A?aoiaiou a iieueco eiioeaioeee
anoanoaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe aaoi? ia oieueei
/a?iaao a enoi?ee, ii e caeinoaoao ec aeieiaee e ineoieiaee. Iieo/aaony,
/oi nianoaaiiinoue i?aaeii?aaeaeyao acaeiiioiioaiey aeeaiai nouanoaa e
ie?a. Aoaeue oi /aeiaa/aneee ?aaaiie eee aeeaioiia – ?a/ue eaeao i
oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?aca?aie/aiee, onoaiiaeaiee aeenoaioeee, ieieioi
eioi?ie i?e?aaieaaaony e aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeiiio i?ino?ainoao. Naiaiaea,
a eioa?i?aoaoeee ?. Iaeina, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ie /oi eiia, eae
“aaaeioth a?aiue i?aa nianoaaiiinoe”*(67). Iiiyoey “iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe
ee/iie aeecie”, “oaeiu ia?aienee” e o.i. naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i i?eciaiee
oiai oaeoa, /oi o eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea anoue aai nianoaaiiue ie?,
iaaeaeeiay “oa??eoi?ey”, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a aai “nianoaaiiinoe”.

Aeey oeaeae ianoiyuae ?aaiou iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao
caeeth/eoaeueiay aeaaa eieae “Nianoaaiiinoue a aeaaaeoeaoii noieaoee”, a
eioi?ie aaoi? ia?auaaony e iacaneoaeaiii caauoui oaeoai ec iaoae
enoi?ee. Oae, i?yiua iaeiae noaiiayony ii?iie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie ia
?aiaa XX a. Iai?eia?, a Aoeiao ia iaeiae niio?aee eae ia ioee/eoaeueiia
naienoai oe?aiee, a a aeacao ?eieyi iaeiae neoaeeee naiaai ?iaea
aeaiueth, e iaeaaaeenue eie oieueei iiei?aiiua ia?iaeu e i?i/ea
iaa?aaeaeaia. A n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iia, oae aea eae e a Iiaia a?aiy,
i?yiua iaeiae ioiineeenue “e ?ac?yaeo /?acau/aeiuo ia? aiaiiiai
a?aiaie”. “Enoi?ey, oaeei ia?acii, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi a ia?eiae,
i?inoe?athueeny io eeanne/aneie aioe/iinoe aei aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea,
iinoiyiiia (a ioee/ea io naycaiiiai n /?acau/aeiuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie)
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea n/eoaeinue a caiaaeiii ie?a iacaeiiiui, anee oieueei
?a/ue ia oea ia iaeiaeaiee aeaiueth iiei?aiiuo ia?iaeia; ieaoeoue iaeia
i?aaeoaeyi naiae no?aiu icia/aei ianoe ia naaa ia/aoue nioeeaeueiie
i?eieaeaiiinoe”*(68). Ii aiaeiaee n iaeiaaie ?. Iaein ?anniao?eaaao
aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoue eae iacaeiiioth ia?o, iineieueeo “anyeia
o?aaiaaiea aeaiaa io ainoaea?noaa, /ai au iii ie ii?aaaeuaaeinue, ia
aeaea anoue o?aaiaaiea, i?aaeuyaeyaiia ia aeaiueae naieo nia?aaeaeai, e
a aai oaeiaeaoai?aiee i?aaeoaeuenoai aunooiaao eeoue eae ia?aaeaoi/iia
caaii”*(69).

E a neo/aa n iaeiaaie, e a neo/aa n aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoueth ?a/ue eaeao
ia ia?aie/aiee i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ia ii?aaaeuaaaony
iauanoaaiiuie eee ainoaea?noaaiiuie eioa?anaie. Aii?in caeeth/aaony a
oii, ianeieueei nouanoaaiiue o?ii iaiineony einoeoooo nianoaaiiinoe,
eiaaea nianoaaiieea eeoatho oao eee eiuo i?aaiii/ee. Oaea a eiioea XIX
a. a i?aaa Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia iiyaeythony i?aoeaaeaiou, eiaaea ioeac a
i?aaa iieueciaaiey eee aai ia?aie/aiea ia ?anniao?eaathony eae eeoaiea
nianoaaiiinoe eee aa ecuyoea. A aeaaaeoeaoii noieaoee iiaeiaiay oi/ea
c?aiey ieii/aoaeueii iiaaaeeea. A 1979 a. Aa?oiaiue noae NOA auiineo
?aoaiea, a eioi?ii oeacuaaaony, a oii /enea, /oi “ioeac a
oaeiaeaoai?aiee iaeiiai ec o?aaeeoeeiiiuo i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia
?aaiicia/ai ecuyoeth. Ii e?aeiae ia?a, a neo/aa, eiaaea aeaaeaeaoe
nio?aiyao o naay aanue “ocae” i?aa nianoaaiiinoe, ecaea/aiea ec yoiai
ocea iaeiie “ieoe” ia yaeyaony ecuyoeai, iioiio /oi yaeaiea aeieaeii
?anniao?eaaoueny a aai oeaeieoiiinoe”*(70). Oi, /oi iu iaaethaeaai a
aeiaiai?iii i?aaa, a eiaiii ana aieueoea ia?aie/aiey, eioi?ua
iaeeaaeuaaao ainoaea?noai ia ecaanoiue i?eioeei “naiaiaeu aeiaiai?a”,
eiaao iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea, eae iieaaaao aaoi?, e einoeoooo
nianoaaiiinoe. ?. Iaeina, eae aiieiaaoa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
i?ienoiaeyuaa, anoanoaaiii, ia ono?aeaaao: “I?aaa nianoaaiiinoe niiaa
aeieaeiu caiyoue iiaeiaathuaa ei ianoi ia oeaea oeaiiinoae, a ia
i?eiineoueny a aea?oao iaaeinoeaeeiiio eaeaaeo nioeeaeueiiai ?aaainoaa e
anaiauaai yeiiiie/aneiai aeaaiiieo/ey”*(71).

Aicaea?aeeaaynue io ioeaii/iuo noaeaeaiee, iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue
oaiaeaioeeth oieaa?naeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ay caeeth/aaony a eciaiaiee
niioiioaiey /anoiuo e iauanoaaiiuo (a oii /enea ainoaea?noaaiiuo)
eioa?ania a iieueco iineaaeieo. Nianoaaiiinoue a caiaaeiuo i?aaiauo
nenoaiao icia/aao i?aaeaea anaai /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue, aie?oa eioi?ie
iaaeno?aeaathony ana i?i/ea aeaeu nianoaaiiinoe. Naaiaeiy neooaoeey
eciaieeanue. Oioei iu yoiai eee iao, iu auioaeaeaiu ia?ainiuneeaaoue
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaiiie, “iauae” e /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoueth. Onoiyaoeany e?eoa?ee ?acee/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai e
/anoiiai i?aaa – eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa eae oeaeiai e eioa?anu
ioaeaeueiiai eiaeeaeaea, ia?aaainoai e, niioaaonoaaiii, ?aaainoai
noauaeoia a i?aaiioiioaieyo e ae?. – ia?anoatho ?aaioaoue. Iiaeii,
i?aaaea, ninoaaeoue ia?a/aiue ii?i, eioi?ua ioiinyony eeai e
ainoaea?noaaiiiio, eeai e /anoiiio i?aao, ii oaeie
eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneee iiaeoiae a?yae ee iiaeao i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia
oai?aoe/aneoth iainiiaaiiinoue. Naiaiaea aeiaiai?a e ?aaainoai noauaeoia
ieacuaathony ia i?aeoeea ia aieaa /ai eeethceae. Aeiaiai? noaiiaeony ana
aieaa iaoneiaeai ia aieae noi?ii, a aiaoiei i?eioaeaeaieai ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee, aianoi “?aaainoaa” iu
noaiiaeiny naeaeaoaeyie eee iaiin?aaenoaaiii iauaeoaie “au?aaieaaiey”.
Oaeei ia?acii, anee ainoaea?noai – yoi i?aaeaea anaai aeanoue, oi
iinoaiaiiia auiuaaiea ec a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa iiaeeeiiie naiaiaeu
aieaecuyaeaiey aeieaeii icia/aoue nioeeaeecaoeeth /anoiiai i?aaa,
i?iiecuaaiea aai iaaeaeeiuie aeanoiuie no?oeoo?aie. Iaeiaei oieueei ee i
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe eaeao ?a/ue? Ainoaea?noai oieueei iuoaaony
ieacuaaoue aeaaeaiea ia yeiiiie/aneoth e iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue iauanoaa.
A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eiaao ianoi ano?a/iue i?ioeann “th?eaee/aneie
aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee”, anee ainiieueciaaoueny oa?ieiii E.E.
Iao?aaeeoeeiai, eiaaea oeaio?aeueiay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue
auioaeaeaia ie?eoueny n nouanoaiaaieai iiiaeanoaa naiiii?aaeaeythueony
oeaio?ia. I?aaaea, yoe oeaio?u eiua, /ai eo i?aaenoaaeye E.E.
Iao?aaeeoeeee, – eo ia?acotho ia /anoiua eeoea eee iaeeea
i?aaei?eieiaoaee, a eiiia?/aneea e iauanoaaiiua iauaaeeiaiey (oieaeeiae,
eiioea?iu e aiaeiae/iua i?aaiecaoeee), eioi?ua iaeaaeatho ?aaeueiui
yeiiiie/aneei aanii. Eiuie neiaaie, aeiioneay ioiaeaeanoaeaiea
“ainoaea?noaa” e “aeanoe”, ia neaaeoao i?e yoii ioiaeaeanoaeyoue
eioa?anu ainoaea?noaaiiua e eioa?anu iauanoaaiiua (aeeth/ay
yeiiiie/aneea). A nayce n oaeeie ea?aeeiaeueiuie ia?aiaiaie aeaeaiea ia
“ainoaea?noaaiiia” e “/anoiia” i?aai iioa?yao naie ecia/aeueiue niune,
oae eae iu eeoue ia?aiauaainy ec iaeiie noa?u auoey “aeanoe” a ae?oaoth.
?acee/aiea iaaeaeo ioaee/iui e a?aaeaeaineei i?aaii yaeyaony
i?eioeeieaeueiui (n th?eaeeei-iao/iie oi/ee c?aiey), ii yoi ia icia/aao,
/oi no?aieaiea ii-iiaiio ioaaoeoue ia noa?ue aii?in, ia i?eaaaay e
ciaeiiui ia?acoeai, aucaaii (ii au?aaeaieth E.A. Iie?ianeiai)
“ninoiyieai iao/iie onoaeinoe”, nei?aa, iii aucaaii onoaeinoueth
i?aeoeee. I?e yoii oa?ica iauanoaaiiiio eioa?ano a i?aaa
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe oniao?eaaaony ia oieueei a aiciiaeiinoe
iiaaaeu /anoiuo eioa?ania aaoi?a. A i?ioanneiiaeueiuo th?eaee/aneeo
e?oaao ia?anoaao icaai/aiiinoue iiiiiieecaoeeae noa?u “iauanoaaiiiai
aeinoiyiey”*(72).

Eiuie neiaaie, a ia?eiae iniuneaiey “nioeeaeueiie ooieoeee” /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia?aiin niioaaonoaothueo i?aaiauo iaoaieciia ia
?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea ia aeieaeai i?aiyonoaiaaoue
“nioeeaeueiie ooieoeee” iaania/aiey aeinooia e aeinoeaeaieyi eoeueoo?u e
iaoee.

I?ii?eaoa?iay eiioeaioeey eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe

Aii?in i oii, yaeyaony ee eioi?iaoeey iauaeoii oieueei eneeth/eoaeueiuo
i?aa eee iia aeiioneaao oaeaea ?aaoee?iaaiea a ?aieao einoeoooa
nianoaaiiinoe (o.a. yaeyaony, oioy au e io/anoe, iauaeoii aauiuo i?aa),
inoaaony aeeneonneiiiui. Ioaao ia aeaiiue aii?in cao?aaeaaao aieaa
oe?ieoth i?iaeaio niioiioaiey i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e i?aaa
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea oa?ieia “eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue”
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaii n o?aioeocneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii XVIII a. Aai
iniiaie iineoaeeee anoanoaaiii-i?aaiaua acaeyaeu, aeoeaii
i?iiaaaiaee?oaiua o?aioeocneeie i?inaaoeoaeyie. “A niioaaonoaee n
aeaiiie oai?eae, i?aai nicaeaoaey ethaiai oai?/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa,
aoaeue oi eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea eee ecia?aoaiea, yaeyaony aai
iaiouaieaiui, i?e?iaeiui i?aaii, aicieeaao ec naiie i?e?iaeu oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe “e nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io i?eciaiey” yoiai i?aaa
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth. Aicieeathuaa o oai?oea i?aai ia aeinoeaiooue
?acoeueoao n?iaeie i?aao nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ia iiyaeyaony o eeoea,
o?oaeii eioi?iai nicaeaia iaoa?eaeueiay aauue”*(73). Oaeei ia?acii,
eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue aicieeaao eae aiaeia aauiiai i?aaa n
aaeeinoaaiiui ioee/eai, eioi?ia eanaaony iaeanoe aa i?eiaiaiey. Iaeiaei,
oaea ei aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. noi?ie?iaaeanue aeanoeay iiiiceoeey
ia?aiia/aeueiiio e aini?eiyoiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iiaeoiaeo, eioi?ue
oaia?ue ?anniao?eaaeny eae auioaeaeaiiue eaeaieiae/aneee oaa n e?aeia
iaaaoeaiuie iineaaenoaeyie aeey i?aaiaie oai?ee e i?aeoeee.

Nia?aiaiiia ca?oaaaeiia i?aai, eae i?aaeei, ono?aiyaony io i?yiiai
ioaaoa ia aeaiiue aii?in. Black’s Law Dictionary ii?aaeaeyao
“eioaeeaeooaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue” eae “eaoaai?eth iaiaoa?eaeueiuo
i?aa, eioi?ay caueuaao i?iaeoeou /aeiaa/aneiai eioaeeaeoa, eiathuea
eiiia?/aneoth oeaiiinoue. Aeaiiay eaoaai?ey aeeth/aao a naay, i?aaeaea
anaai, oiaa?iua ciaee, aaoi?neia i?aai e iaoaioiua i?aaa, a oaeaea
i?aaa, naycaiiua n eiiia?/aneie oaeiie, ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth,
aiciauaieai ii?aeueiiai a?aaea e caueoie io iaaeia?iniaanoiie
eiieo?aioeee”. Oi, /oi “eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue” i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie e?aeia oe?ieia iiiyoea, i/aaeaeii e aac ia?auaiey e th?eaee/aneei
neiaa?yi. Ethaiiuoii ae?oaia, a eiaiii, ionoonoaea oeacaiey ia oi, eaeao
ee ?a/ue i i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe eee i eaeii-oi eiii i?aaa, eioi?ia
eiaioaony nianoaaiiinoueth oieueei oneiaii. Naiia i?inoia iauyniaiea
yoiio oaeoo – ionoonoaea i?iaeaiu, o.a. caiaaeiiio th?enoo oaniay
acaeiinaycue iiiyoee “eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue” e
“nianoaaiiinoue” i?aaenoaaeyaony /ai-oi naii niaie ?acoiathueiny,
aeieaeiui, a iioiio aeaiiie i?iaeaia ?aaeei oaeaeyaony aieueoia
aieiaiea. “Eceeoiyy noeeaioeoeeaoeey i?aaa”, eae ioia/aao A.Aeae.
Aa?iai, – iaaeinoaoie, oa?aeoa?iue eiaiii aeey ?onneeo niaaoneiai (e –
aeiaaaei io naay – oaeaea iinoniaaoneiai) ia?eiaea*(74).

A ea/anoaa naycothuaai caaia iaaeaeo o?aaeeoeeiiiui i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe
e i?aaii eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe iau/ii i?eaaaatho e
nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee Aeae. Eieea. A o?aeoaoa “I ainoaea?noaaiiii
i?aaeaiee” eceaaaaony o?oaeiaay oai?ey nianoaaiiinoe. Aa aeaa iniiaiuo
oacena ninoiyo a oii, /oi, ai-ia?auo, cao?a/aiiue o?oae yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui e aeinoaoi/iui iniiaaieai aicieeiiaaiey i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe, a ai-aoi?uo, /oi i?aai nianoaaiiinoe (a ioiioaiee oiai,
/oi iaoiaeeeinue aei yoiai a iauai aeaaeaiee), i?eia?aoaiiia iaeiei, ia
aeieaeii ouaieyoue eee iaiineoue a?aae ae?oaei /eaiai niiauanoaa.
Eniieueciaaiea oeacaiiuo oacenia aeey iainiiaaiey i?aaa
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe eiaao aeaaithth enoi?eth*(75). A naiae
eieaa “I?aai ecia?aoaoaey” (ooiaeaiaioaeueiii o?oaea ii iaoaioiiio
i?aao) A.A. Ieeaiei ?ac?ooaao a?aoiaio “io o?oaea” oeacaieai ia oi, /oi
a iai niaea?aeeony eiae/aneay ioeaea. Ii aai iiaieth, oeacaiiue a?aoiaio
i?aneaaeoao eeoue iaeio oeaeue – cae?aieoue a iaoaioiii i?aaa
iaeeaaoi?iue i?eioeei, e yaeyaony ianinoiyoaeueiui, iineieueeo o?oae
(eae nioeeaeueiay i?e/eia, “aaiaoeea ia?aiai ii?yaeea”) ia niiniaai
“ii?iaeeoue” nianoaaiiinoue (eae ?acoeueoao eeanneoeeaoeee, “noaoenoeeo
aoi?iai ii?yaeea”)*(76).

Aoi?ie a?aoiaio i?ii?eaoa?iie eiioeaioeee eanaaony aaniethoiiai i?aaa
(aaniethoiiai ainiiaenoaa e aaniethoiie caueou), eioi?ia
i?aaeinoaaeyaony eae nianoaaiieeo, oae e aaoi?o (ecia?aoaoaeth). N oi/ee
c?aiey A.A. Ieeaiei, ?acee/ea einoeoooia o?aaeeoeeiiiie e
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe auoaeaao ec ?acee/ey iaycaiiinoae (e
aneaae ca ieie – i?aaiii/ee), a niaeaci i?iaanoe aiaeiaeth naycai a yoii
neo/aa ni niaoaieai iath?eaee/aneiai iiiyoey i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe,
i?enaiaiiinoe n th?eaee/aneei iiiyoeai nianoaaiiinoe. Ii e yoio
eiio?a?aoiaio, noaey ii anaio, iieacaeny aaoi?o iaaeinoaoi/iui:
“…ia?acaeoia th?eaee/aneia iuoeaiea i/aiue /anoi ?oeiaiaenoaoaony oae
iacuaaaiui caeiiii eiino?oeoeeiiiie yeiiiiee”*(77). Oa aea neiaa iu
neuoei e naaiaeiy, aae nionoy. Ii oae ee? ?acaa a?eoaa Ieeaia eee
i?eioeei yeiiiiee iuoeaiey Iaoa e Aaaia?eona auee nicaeaiu aeey oao, o
eiai iaaeinoaao ?annoaei/iuo niiniaiinoae? Nenoaia aeieaeia eciaiyoueny
oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iia e yoiio aioiaa, eiaaea eciaiaiey iac?aee,
o.a. ia i?inoi eiaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue eciaiaiee noaiiaeony “eiooeoeaii
yniie”, a eiaaea iie noaiiaeony iaecaaaeiuie. E eiaaea iiaiaaaaeaiey
iia?aaeatho aioo?aiiea aiciiaeiinoe o?ainoi?iaoeee i?aaiaie nenoaiu,
ia?ooaaony oi, /oi iiaeii auei au iacaaoue “anoanoaaiiui eiina?aaoeciii
i?aaa”.

Ioaeii i?eciaoue, /oi aieueoeinoai ?inneeneeo niaoeeaeenoia, i?e/ai
niaoeeaeenoia aunieiai ?aiaa, ioiinyony e naiie oi?ioee?iaea i?iaeaiu
eae e iaeioi?iio iaaei?acoiaieth. Ia e?oaeii noiea “Eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue: i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea, i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau”, eioi?ue
ninoiyeny 15 iiya?y 2000 a., “iauei ianoii” a aunooieaieyo A.A.
Aeici?oeaaa, A.A. Aaeeiaa, A.I. Eaeyoeia e A.E. Iaeianeiai auei
naoiaaiea ia oi, /oi “eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue” yaeyaony e?aeia
iaoaea/iui oa?ieiii. Iieo/aaony, /oi naiinoiyoaeueioth iaeanoue, aaea
?a/ue eaeao ia eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia eneeth/eoaeueiuo
i?aaao, ioeai/ii aini?eieiatho eae ioaaoaeaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe. A.I. Eaeyoei aeaeeo i?e/eio caaeoaeaeaiey a
ooieoeeiiaeueiii noiaenoaa: “…eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ii naiae nouiinoe
auiieiytho oo aea ooieoeeth, /oi e i?aai nianoaaiiinoe. E eiaiii
ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeecinoue yoeo aeaoo i?aa i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aieueii
eee iaaieueii eo iuoathony naanoe a iaeio a?oiio”*(78). Aaeeinoaaiiui,
eoi icao/ee eioth oi/eo c?aiey, aue A.I. Iaaeia, eioi?ue oeacae ia
nouanoaiaaiea “aaiaoe/aneie nayce i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e i?aaa
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe”*(79). Caiaoei, /oi aiaeiae/iie iiceoeee
(oaea ca ?aieaie oiiiyiooiai e?oaeiai noiea) i?eaea?aeeaathony A.A.
Eiiueia e E.E. Aa/eei.

Inoaiiaeiny ia a?aoiaioao A.A. Aeici?oeaaa, ioe?uoiai i?ioeaieea
i?ii?eaoa?iie eiioeaioeee e iaeiiai ec aaaeoueo niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe (eee “eioaeeaeooaeueiuo i?aa”, eae aa
iacuaae nai aaoi?). Oioy i?aai nianoaaiiinoe e yaeyaony, niaeanii
iiaieth A.A. Aeici?oeaaa, “eaeaaeueiie th?eaee/aneie iniiaie aeey
iia?aoeee n aauueth ia ?uiea”, aeey aaaaeaiey a yeiiiie/aneee iai?io
?acoeueoaoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe iii ia aiaeeony*(80).
A?aoiaio – iaiaoa?eaeueiue oa?aeoa? iauaeoa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
iiiiiieueiia eniieueciaaiea, eae ieoao aaoi?, “ia niioaaonoaoao
iaoo?aeueiui naienoaai iauaeoa”, iaeiaei ?acaa oa?aeoa? iauaeoa eee
niinia caueou (io?aiu) ii?aaeaeytho iaee/ea ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe?
Ia/oi (aoaeue oi iaoa?eaeueiue eee iaiaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo, a oaeaea
iacaaeneii io oiai, eaeao ee ?a/ue i iaoa?eaeueiii eee ae?ooaeueiii,
oeeo?iaii i?ino?ainoaa) iaoiaeeony a nianoaaiiinoe, eiaaea eiathony a
iaee/ee ainiiaenoai (eiio?ieue) i?aaiiaeaaeaoaey, ieieiaeueii (n
eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneie oi/ee c?aiey) ia?aie/aiiia ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa, e caueoa io iinyaaoaeuenoaa anao o?aoueeo eeoe. Ii
aa?iainy e a?aoiaioaoeee A.A. Aeici?oeaaa. Ii?aaeaeaiea, eioi?ia ii
aeaao “eneeth/eoaeueiiio i?aao”, – “aaniethoiia i?aai ia iaiaoa?eaeueiue
iauaeo”, – ioee/aaony, ii aai nianoaaiiiio i?eciaieth, io i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe eeoue “aieaa oe?ieei iauaiii i?aaiii/ee e n?aaenoa
caueou”*(81). Iieo/aaony, /oi anee iu ioeaaeainy io i?ie?onoiaa eiaea
o?eaaeu i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea, oi ie/oi ia iaoaao ?anniao?eaaoue
eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia a
oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/aneii, a a “aaniethoiii” niunea.

A naiae aieaa iicaeiae ?aaioa – “Iiyaeaiea “eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa” eae
iniaie eaoaai?ee” – A.A. Aeici?oeaa auaeaeaaao na?ueaciue oai?aoe/aneee
oacen. E nianoaaiiinoue, e eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa yaeythony /anoueth
aieaa oe?ieie eaoaai?ee aaniethoiuo i?aa*(82). Anee i?aia?acii,
eaeaaeueiie iiaeaeueth, eioi?ay i?eaaea e aicieeiiaaieth eiino?oeoeee
“aaniethoiuo i?aa”, n/eoaoue i?aai nianoaaiiinoe (a aeaiiii neo/aa oaea
eae oeeinionei-i?aaiaia iiiyoea, ionueathuaa e ooiaeaiaioaeueiie
aeeoioiiee ss-Ia-ss), oi i?iaeaia nieiaaony. I?aaaea, ia neaaeothueo
no?aieoeao iia auoiaeeo ia “iiaue aeoie”, iineieueeo ieacuaaaony, /oi ia
ana eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa yaeythony aaniethoiuie. Aaoi? i?eaiaeeo a
i?eia? aaeeiue oiaa?iue ciae aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, nicaeaaoeo
niioaaonoaothuaa aeia?iaieueiia iauaaeeiaiea (oae iacuaaaiua
eieeaeoeaiua ciaee)*(83). Auoa oaea oea ?a/ue ia ia?aie/aiee i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ia i?e yoii i?iaeieaeaao nouanoaiaaoue (o.a.
i?eciaaony oaeiaui aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e noaeaaiie
nenoaiie). I?eaaaeai iieiinoueth “?aciuoeaiey” A.A. Aeici?oeaaa ia
eneeth/eoaeueiii, ii ia aaniethoiii i?aaa: “Aai iiaeii eaaeeoeoee?iaaoue
eae eaaceaaniethoiia, iineieueeo iii cae?aieyao iiiiiieeth, oioy e
ia?aie/aiioth, ii aeinoaoi/ioth aeey ionea iauaeoa a yeiiiie/aneee
iai?io e iicaieythuoth iieueciaaoueny i?aaaie, a oaeaea inouanoaeyoue eo
caueoo n?aaenoaaie, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aiaeiae/iuie eniieuecoaiui
aeey aaniethoiuo i?aa. Oaeei ia?acii, eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai eiaao
iniaia niaea?aeaiea, ioee/athuaa aai io aaniethoiuo i?aa.
Eneeth/eoaeueiinoue ninoieo ia a oii, /oi i?aai i?eiaaeeaaeeo
eneeth/eoaeueii iaeiiio eeoeo, a a oii, /oi iii cae?aieyaony
eneeth/eoaeueii ca eeoeii (eeoeaie), ii?aaeaeaiiui caeiiii, e ii
iniiaaieyi, ei onoaiiaeaiiui”*(84). Anee iionoeoue eciu?aiioth e
caiuneiaaooth caeeth/eoaeueioth oi?ioee?iaeo, oi ana, /oi A.A.
Aeici?oeaa aiai?eo ia eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aaao, iiaeii neacaoue e i i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe. A naiai nia?aiaiiii aeaea iii oaeaea yaeyaony
“eaaceaaniethoiui” (ni anaie ia?a/eneaiiuie aaoi?ii iineaaenoaeyie) e
oaeaea iiaeao i?eiaaeeaaeaoue ia ioaeaeueiiio eeoeo, a eeoeai.

Ioe?uoui i?ioeaieeii i?ii?eaoa?iie eiioeaioeee yaeyaony oaeaea i?ioanni?
th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa IAO E.A. Caiei, a?aoiaioaoeey eioi?iai
iniiaaia ia auaeaeaiee i?aaeiinueie oi?ie?iaaiey aeaiiie eiioeaioeee e
aa ianiioaaonoaey eeanne/aneie o?eaaea i?aa nianoaaiieea. N?aaee
i?aaeiinueie, niinianoaiaaaoeo oi?ie?iaaieth eiioeaioeee i?ii?eaoa?iuo
i?aa ia ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, E.A. Caiei
oeacuaaao oaoiieiae/aneoth, yeiiiie/aneoth, ineoieiae/aneoth,
th?eaee/aneoth e th?eaeeei-oaoie/aneoth. “Oaoiieiae/aneoth i?aaeiinueeo”
aaoi? n/eoaao ioaaonoaaiiie ca ?iaeaeaiea oa?ieia “aeooiaiia
i?iecaiaenoai” (ii aiaeiaee n “iaoa?eaeueiui i?iecaiaenoaii”).
Aiaea/aiea eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia eaeaaeueiua i?iaeoeou oinoaaiiiai
o?oaea a noa?o oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee (“yeiiiie/aneay
i?aaeiinueea”) “oi?ie?iaaee i?aaenoaaeaiea i “eoiea-i?iaeaaea”
?acoeueoaoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe”*(85). Aeaeaa neaaeoao:
“ineoieiae/aneay i?aaeiinueea” caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi “ineoieiae/aneia
aini?eyoea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe eae nayuaiiiai e iai?eeiniiaaiiiai
eiooeoeaii niinianoaiaaei au?aaioea no?aieaiey oai?/aneie eioaeeeaaioeee
eiaoue ia naie i?iecaaaeaiey iiaeaeue i?aaa aiaeiae/iiai
oa?aeoa?a”*(86). Iaeiiaoe, “th?eaee/aneay” e “th?eaeeei-oaoie/aneay”
i?aaeiinueee ionueatho e aeaoi oa?aeoa?enoeeai oaea th?eaee/aneiai
iuoeaiey: ia?aay i?iaiaeeo aiaeiaeth i?aaa ia ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe n i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe ia iniiaaiee eo aaniethoiinoe,
aoi?ay – enoiaey ec “oaeianoaa iaicia/aiey aeaoiy-o?aiy neiaaie
aieueoiai /enea ?acoeueoaoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe”*(87).
I?eaaaeaiiua a?aoiaiou ia yaeythony iiauie*(88), iaeiaei a?yae ee
o?aaeeoeeiiiinoue a?aoiaioaoeee neaaeoao iiaeiaiyoue ooaa?aeaeaieai i aa
iainiiaaiiinoe. Enoi?e/aneea i?aaeiinueee oi?ie?iaaiey i?ii?eaoa?iie
eiioeaioeee ia aace?othony ia i?aae?annoaeeao, eioi?ui i?ioeainoieo
iaaaoeaiay i?aeoeea (aaconiaoiua iiiuoee i?eniiniaeoue aauiua i?aaa e
ianeoaeeaaieth i?aaiioiioaiee a noa?a ?acoeueoaoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe), a naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i anoanoaaiiinoe e eiae/iinoe
iiaeoiaea e ?acoeueoaoai eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aaaaeaiiui a
?uii/iue iai?io, n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe.

Iaeiaei aeaaiui a?aoiaioii E.A. Caieia yaeyaony ianiioaaonoaea
i?ii?eaoa?iie eiioeaioeee o?eaaea i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea – aeaaeaieth,
iieueciaaieth e ?anii?yaeaieth. I?eaiaeeoue aic?aaeaiey i?ioea aeaiiie
iiceoeee ia eiaao niunea, iineieueeo, eae iu oaea eiaee aiciiaeiinoue
iieacaoue, iiiyoea nianoaaiiinoe, ?aaeooee?iaaiiia aei oeacaiiuo
i?aaiii/ee, aeaenoaeoaeueii ie a iaeaeoae ia?a ia ioaa/aao caaea/ai,
eioi?ua noaaeo ia?aae th?enoaie iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aaoee?iaaiey iai?ioa
?acoeueoaoia oai?/aneiai e eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea. A yoii niunea
nnueea aaoi?a ia o?aioeocneiai niaoeeaeenoa ?. Aethia yaeyaony
iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai iai?eiaieiinoe e eneeth/eoaeueiui i?aaai eiaiii
oaeiai, cae?aieaiiiai a A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena, iiieiaiey
nianoaaiiinoe*(89).

Ia naiii aeaea, naiiai ii naaa i?eciaiey i?yiie acaeiinayce iaaeaeo
eeanne/aneei i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe e i?aaii eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe aua iaaeinoaoi/ii. Iaiaoiaeeia eiie?aoecaoeey aeaiiie
iiceoeee. Iiaeii i?iaiaeeoue aiaeiaeth ii nooe, eiaaea iiae
nianoaaiiinoueth (aoaeue oi eeanne/aneay eee eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue) iiieiaaony ia no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiue iaai? i?aaiii/ee, a
iaai? i?aaiii/ee, ecae?aaiue a caaeneiinoe io naienoa iauaeoa e
iaania/eaathuee, eae auei neacaii, ainiiaenoai (eiio?ieue, aeinooi) e
aaniethoioth caueoo, ia?aie/aiiua (aei ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeia)
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth e aiaoieie oaeoi?aie (yeiiiie/aneiai e
oaoiieiae/aneiai ii?yaeea). Ae?oaie, i/aaeaeii iai?eaieaiue iiaeoiae,
eioi?ue aucuaae e aucuaaao iiiai/eneaiiua e ni?aaaaeeeaua ia?aeaiey,
ninoieo a “i?yiie aiaeiaee”, eiaaea ana ia?aaioaiiia a oai?ee e i?aeoeea
aauiiai i?aaa ia?aiineony ia i?aai eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. A.O.
Oa?oaiaae/ iienuaaao neooaoeeth neaaeothuei ia?acii: “?ani?ino?aiyoue
iiiyoea i aauiuo i?aaao ia i?aaa, ia eiathuea naiei iauaeoii aaue,
i?aaenoaaeyaony oai?aoe/anee iaoaeiaiui. Ii?yaeie aicieeiiaaiey,
ia?aoiaea, i?ae?auaiey aauiuo i?aa ?ann/eoai eiaiii ia iaoa?eaeueiia eo
niaea?aeaiea, e iioiio ?ani?ino?aiaiea yoeo i?aaee ia niaa?oaiii eioth
iaeanoue iiaeao nicaeaoue iaaeaeaoaeueiia niaoaiea iiiyoee a oai?ee e
i?aeoeea”*(90). Iaeiiaoe, aiciiaeai e o?aoee, “oia?aiiue” iiaeoiae,
eioi?ue enoiaeeo ec ii?i aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Iineieueeo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a aii?ina niioiioaiey aauiiai i?aaa e
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia i?eaea?aeeaaaony yniie iiceoeee, i?aaenoaaeoaee
aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea noaayo ia?aae niaie caaea/o iaoa-enoieeiaaiey, o.a.
iiaeaaaeaiey oai?aoe/aneie aacu iiae “nu?ie” ii?iaoeaiue iaoa?eae.
O?aoee iiaeoiae, oaeei ia?acii, caneoaeeaaao iaeiaiiaaiey
ii?iaoeaenoneee, a aai i?aaenoaaeoaeai, n ecaanoiuie iaiai?eaie, iiaeii
n/eoaoue E.E. Aa/eei*(91). Nianoaaiii, iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaeoi/eaiai
aiaeeca caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia aucuaaao niiiaiey, a nayce n /ai
ii?iaoeaenoneee iiaeoiae eiaao i?aai ia nouanoaiaaiea. Aai, aiciiaeii,
aaeeinoaaiiui (ii e aanueia iaiaeiaaaeiui) iaaeinoaoeii yaeyaony aei
i?aaeaea nie?auaiiay aeenoaioeey iaaeaeo eiiiaioaoi?ii e eiiiaioe?oaiui
oaenoii (oai eee eiui caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoii). Eceeoiee
“naiieiio?ieue”, naienoaaiiue aeey aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea, eneeth/aao
iao/iia iiaeaee?iaaiea n o/aoii ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia e eniieueciaaieai
?acee/iuo iaoiaeia, o.a. ana oi, /oi oa?aeoa?ecoao “eioaa?e?iaaiioth”,
iao/ioth th?eni?oaeaioeeth.

A caeeth/aiea cao?iiooie oaiu aua ?ac einiainy i?iaeaiu “o?eaaeu
i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea”. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iauaeoia a ethaii neo/aa iiiyoea “aeaaeaiea” ia iiaeao auoue i?e?aaiaii
e aeaaeaieth aauueth eee eiouanoao a niunea eo oece/aneiai iaeaaeaiey:
iaiai iaoa?eaeueiuie iauaeoaie i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi o eaaeaeiai
o/anoieea iaiaia inoaiaony iinea iaai ii iaeiiio iauaeoo, iinea iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae – iiainoyie, eaeayie e o.i. – iauai “iaeaaeaiey” ath ii
e?aeiae ia?a oaeaaeaaaony ca n/ao aeiaaaeaiey e oaea ecaanoiiio
“ciaieth” iiauo naaaeaiee, iieo/aiiuo io aoi?iai o/anoieea
“eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia”. Oai aieaa ?aciuoui ieacuaaaony iiiyoea
“iieueciaaiey”, eioi?ia noaiiaeony i?eiaieiui e ethaiio eeoeo, eioi?iio
iaania/ai aeinooi e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauaeoo, a ia oieueei e
iaeaaeaoaeth i?aa ia oaeie iauaeo. Iaeiiaoe, a?iaea au aieaa e?eoe/iue
aeey eioi?iaoeee eiiiiiaio o?eaaeu – “?anii?yaeaiea” – oaeaea aeieaeai
?ane?uaaoueny eiui (ii n?aaiaieth n “o?aaeeoeeiiiui” iiieiaieai)
ia?acii, eae ii?aaeaeaiea ii?yaeea aeinooia e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauaeoo.
Ioia/aiiua ioee/ey, nianoaaiii, e i?eaaee e iiyaeaieth e ?acaeoeth
niaa?oaiii eiiai aeaea i?aa, iau/ii eiaioaiuo eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoueth.

A nayce n yoei oianoii aua ?ac aa?iooueny e iauaoeeinioneei aii?inai
i?aaiaie oai?ee. O?oaeii?ac?aoeiua i?iaeaiu, n eioi?uie noaeeeaaaony
naaiaeiy i?aai, ia?aaeei naycaiu n i?aia?aciaaieyie a noa?a oaoiieiaee,
aaeaioaoeey e eioi?ui ni noi?iiu a oeaeii eiina?aaoeaiie nenoaiu
i?aaiauo iiiyoee e einoeoooia ieacuaaaony aeey i?aaa iaeaaeei
eniuoaieai. Iaeiei ec ia?niaeoeaiuo iai?aaeaiee, eioi?ia noaaeo ia?aae
niaie caaea/o i?iyniaiey “aoiia?iie” no?oeoo?u eae ?acee/iuo io?aneae
i?aaa, oae e i?aaa a oeaeii, n iineaaeothuei, a ?acoiiuo i?aaeaeao,
eciaiaieai aeaiiie no?oeoo?u yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiay iioieiaey i?aaa
(legal ontology)*(92). Eae ioia/aao iaeei ec i?eciaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia a
iaeanoe “iioieiaee eeaa?i?ino?ainoaa”, i?aiiaeaaaoaeue i?aaa a
Ainoaea?noaaiiii Iueth-Ei?eneii oieaa?neoaoa a Aoooaei Aeyaeae Eiinaee,
i?aaiaua nenoaiu – iaeie ec naiuo ?ac?aaioaiiuo iioieiaee nioeeaeueiiai
ie?a*(93). Aieueoay /anoue caeiiia ii nooe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eaoaai?ecaoeee iauaeoia, a aieueoeinoai aeeneonnee ii i?aaiauo aii?inai
ieacuaaaony nii?ii i eaoaai?eyo. Eiaiii iioiio, /oi i?aaiaua nenoaiu
aeeth/atho oi?ioi iainiiaaiiua e oi?iaeeciaaiiua iioieiaee, iie iiaoo
neoaeeoue aanueia oeaiiui iaoa?eaeii aeey enneaaeiaaiey ni noi?iiu
oeeinioee, nioeeieiaee, ae?oaeo iaoe ia iauanoaa, o.a. oao, /oi
enneaaeotho nioeeaeueioth ?aaeueiinoue e naycaiiua n iath iauaeou. Oae,
iauaeou eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, ii oaaaeaeaieth Ae. Eiinaeea,
oeaeeeii yaeythony i?iaeoeoaie iiceoeaiiai i?aaa. Iaycai ee naiei
nouanoaiaaieai ii?aaeaeaiiue nioeeaeueiue iauaeo i?aao eee eiui
nioeeaeueiui einoeoooai (e i?eia?o, iau/ath), eiaaony aeinoaoi/ii
iniiaaiee i?iaa?eoue “ia i?i/iinoue” oo iioieiaeth, /anoueth eioi?ie
yaeyaony aeaiiue iauaeo. A ea/anoaa i/aaeaeiiai i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe
neo/ae, eiaaea iaeei e oio aea iauaeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
acaeiieneeth/athuei eaoaai?eyi. Yoi icia/aao, /oi eeai iauaeo aue
iaaa?ii eeanneoeoee?iaai, eeai a naiie iioieiaee eiathony na?ueaciua
oiouaiey, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii eni?aaeoue. Eae cayaeyao Ae. Eiinaee: “Iu
n/eoaai, /oi oeeiniou, niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe nioeeaeueiuo iaoe,
aaia?aou, i?ia?aiienou, th?enou, a oaeaea o/aiua e niaoeeaeenou ec
ae?oaeo iaeanoae a neeao inouanoaeoue oeaiioth e iieacioth ?aaioo ii
i?iyniaieth iioieiaee nioeeaeueiiai ie?a. Anee aieueoeinoai i?iaeai,
naycaiiuo n ?aaeueiui ie?ii, i?ienoiaeyo ii i?e/eiai iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a
iioieiaeyo, oi aieueoeinoai nioeeaeueiuo aieaciae iiaoo auoue oaeaea
ecea/aiu /anoe/ii iin?aaenoaii iiae?iaiiai enneaaeiaaiey eaoaai?ee
nioeeaeueiiai ie?a. Oaeiaa oeaeue i?eeeaaeiie iioieiaee”*(94).

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a i?eaaaeai “iiaoth iioieiaeth” i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?oth i?aaeeiaeee aia?eeaineee niaoeeaeeno a iaeanoe
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee Eea?e Oa?*(95). Aeey ia/aea aeaaeei e?aoeia iienaiea
iioieiaee, eiieeoeeoii eniieuecoaiie aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.
Aa iniiaiuie eiiiiiaioaie yaeythony: (1) eaeae (eioi?ua naie ii naaa ia
iaania/aiu ieeaeie caueoie); (2) ooaeiaeanoaaiiua au?aaeaiey eee
i?eeiaeaiey eaeae, aeeth/ay oaenou, oioia?aoee, eiiiuethoa?iua i?ia?aiiu
e i?i/. (caueuathony aaoi?neei i?aaii); (3) ooeeeoa?iia i?eeiaeaiea
eaeae (caueuaaony iaoaioiui i?aaii). A nayce n iienaiiie iioieiaeae
aicieeatho aeaa eaoaai?ee i?iaeai: ai-ia?auo, ?aaoee?oaiua eiiiiiaiou
ia?anaeathony, iaeeaaeuaathony ae?oa ia ae?oaa, ai-aoi?uo, nouanoaotho
eiiiiiaiou (iioaioeeaeueiua iauaeou i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe), eioi?ua aeaiiay iioieiaey ia aeeth/aao a naay a
i?eioeeia. Iu nin?aaeioi/ei naia aieiaiea ia ia?aie eaoaai?ee i?iaeai,
eioi?ay, ii iiaieth E. Oa?a, a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeao auoue iiaeaeaia ia
aeaa aeaea, iaeei ec ieo naycai ni niaoaieai iaaeaeo iaoaioaie e
aaoi?neeie i?aaaie, a aoi?ie – ni niaoaieai iaaeaeo eaeayie e eo
au?aaeaieai.

Iaaieueiia niaoaiea iaaeaeo iaoaioiuie e aaoi?neeie i?aaaie
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaii n i?eoiaeii eioi?iaoeeiiiie y?u, eioi?ay aianoa
n iiauie oaoiieiaeyie i?eianea n niaie oaeaea e iiaua niiniau au?aaeaiey
eee iaieoanoaoeee. Iieacaoaeueii, /oi oaea a 1908 a. i?iecaiaeeoaeth
aaeeeia aeey iaoaie/aneiai ieaieii auei ioeacaii a caueoa aai aaoi?neeo
i?aa ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi eo ia iiaeao i?i/anoue /aeiaa/aneia
nouanoai*(96). E oioy a aeaeueiaeoai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iioei ii iooe
aeeth/aiey a iauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey (eioi?ia
oaeaea ie iaeii /aeiaa/aneia nouanoai aac iiiiue eiiiuethoa?a
“i?i/anoue” ia iiaeao), i?iaeaia inoaaony ia?aoaiiie. Aeaei a oii, /oi
“ooaeiaeanoaaiiia au?aaeaiea” (artistic expression) eee “i?iecaaaeaiea”,
anee ?a/ue eaeao i ?inneeneii aaoi?neii i?aaa, noaiiaeony neiiieie/iui
ethaie caienaiiie eioi?iaoeee, oeaee eniieueciaaiey eioi?ie ia
niaiaaeatho n eino?oeoeeyie ii nai?o iaoeiu eee oi?aaeaieai eaeei-eeai
iaoa?eaeueiui i?ioeannii*(97). ssaeyaony ee eiiiuethoa?iay i?ia?aiia
aaoi?neei i?iecaaaeaieai eee o?aaoao caueou ni noi?iiu iaoaioiiai i?aaa?
Ia naiii aeaea yoi aeaeaei ia o?eaeaeueiue aii?in. I?ia?aiia iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny e eae aaoi?neia i?iecaaaeaiea (eae eioi?iaoeey a
caiene, ia i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie eino?oeoeeth i oii, eae
neiino?oe?iaaoue iaoeio), e eae i?aaeiao ?aaoee?iaaiey iaoaioiiai i?aaa,
iineieueeo i?ia?aiia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaiouaieaioth /anoue
eiiiuethoa?a eae iaoeiu. Anee iiniio?aoue ia enoi?eth i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey i?ia?aii aeey YAI, oi noaiao i/aaeaeiui, /oi ia auai?
aaoi?neiai i?aaa a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, onoaiaaeeaathuaai
i?aaiaie ?aaeei aeey iauaeoia oaeiai ?iaea, iiaeeyee n?aco ianeieueei
oaeoi?ia, a oii /enea e oio oaeo, /oi a eiioea 70-o aa. OO a. iniiaiie
oi?iie io?aiu oaea noaei aaoi?neia i?aai. A oi aea a?aiy nii?u
ioiineoaeueii aaaaeaiey iniaie oi?iu i?aaiaie io?aiu aeey i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey ia i?ae?auathony. Yoi naycaii n iniauie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua ia iiaeao eaii?e?iaaoue i?aai. E.A.
Iiniaa ioia/aao neaaeothuea niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou i?ia?aii aeey YAI:
“Iniiaiie ooieoeeae eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiu yaeyaony oi?aaeaiea YAI, a
oi a?aiy eae eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea neoaeeo aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
aini?eyoey /aeiaaeii. Oaeno i?ia?aiiu aac aiciiaeiinoe aai
eniieueciaaiey niaianoii n YAI ia yaeyaony oiaa?ii, ii iiaeao
i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?an oieueei n iao/iie oi/ee c?aiey aeey oceiai e?oaa
eeoe”*(98).

Aoi?ay ec iaicia/aiiuo i?iaeai, i?iaeaia niaoaiey eaeae e eo au?aaeaiey,
oaeaea canoaaeyao caaeoiaoueny i iiaeeaaeauae iioieiae/aneie no?oeoo?a.
Aeaei a oii, /oi a iniiaaiee ?acee/aiey naieo eaeae e eo au?aaeaiey
eaaeeo oaaaeaeaiiinoue a nouanoaiaaiee ?iaea i?iecaiaeiuo eaeae,
eioi?iio i?aaeoanoaotho eaeae ia?aiia/aeueiua eee i?inoi eaeae.
Iai?eia?, “aiaoiea aeaiiua” eee eioa?oaen eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiu
n/eoathony i?inoi eaeaae, a aio eiae, i?eiaiyaiue aeey nicaeaiey yoeo
aiaoieo oa?aeoa?enoee, n/eoaaony i?iecaiaeiui, o.a. yaeyaony
iaieoanoaoeeae eee au?aaeaieai eaeae. Ii ii/aio au ia ?anniao?eaaoue
aiaoiee aeae i?ia?aiiu, aa aeecaei eae i?iecaiaeiue io aieaa iauae noaiu
iino?iaiey eiiiuethoa?a? I?iaeaia ninoieo a oii, /oi iu eiaai aeaei ia n
?ac e iaanaaaea onoaiiaeaiiui aeaeaieai ia ia caueuaaiue i?aaii i?eaeiae
e aai iineaaeothuaa aiieiuaiea, aeey eioi?iai ?ac?aaioaiu iaoaieciu
caueou, a n iaii?aaeaeaiiie eee naiaiaeiie ea?a?oeae. E. Oa? i?eaiaeeo a
i?eia? nthaeao i oea?a Yaeeia, eioi?ue naaiaeiy ?anniao?eaaaony eae
eaeay, ia iiaeeaaeauay i?aaiaie caueoa. Aeey anao i/aaeaeii, iaeiaei,
/oi e o yoie eaeae aue ia?aiia/aeueiue aaoi?, aeey eioi?iai aai eaeay
(oieeaeueiay) auea au?aaeaieai aieaa iauae eaeae, iai?eia? niioiioaiey
aeaaeaeu aeanoe e /oanoaa nouaea. Oaeei ia?acii, ?a/ue eaeao ia oieueei
ia eciaiaiee niiniaia au?aaeaiey, ii e i oii, /oi iauanoai, a
caaeneiinoe io noaaeee naiaai ?acaeoey, cae?aieyao ca oie eee eiie
eaeaae noaoon ia?ae/iie eee aoi?e/iie e oaeia cae?aieaiea yaeyaony
a?aiaiiui. Eiuie neiaaie, i?eiyoay iioieiaey iaoiaeeony a iainiciaiiie
caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiee, i?ienoiaeyueo a /aeiaa/aneii iauanoaa. Noaoon
“au?aaeaiey” a ioiioaiee eaeae eae ia?aiia/aeueiie aeaiiinoe yaeyaony ia
aaniethoiie, a ioiineoaeueiie aaee/eiie, ooieoeeae nioeeaeueiuo
eiiaaioeee.

Eeth/aaui iiiyoeai a nayce n yoei iiaeao noaoue, ii iiaieth E. Oa?a,
iiiyoea “nianoaaiiinoe”. A i?aaeeaaaaiie ei “iiaie iioieiaee”
nianoaaiiinoue aeieaeia ?anniao?eaaoueny eae ooieoeey o?ao ninoaaeythueo
– eiio?iey, a?aiaie e iaia?aiey*(99). Oaeay no?oeoo?a nianoaaiiinoe
i?eiaieia eae e iaiaoa?eaeueiui (eioaeeaeooaeueiui) iauaeoai, oae e e
iaoa?eaeueiui aauai, ii aeaaiia, /oi “ca neiaee” auiineony aii?in i
niioiioaiee eaeae e aa au?aaeaiey. Ethaie iauaeo a oieaa?noia oece/aneeo
aauae e eaeae eiaao naia ianoi, naith oi/eo ia eii?aeeiaoao eiio?iey,
a?aiaie e iaia?aiey, ioee/aynue io ae?oaeo eeoue eiee/anoaaiii, – ii
iiaeao auoue aaniethoiie nianoaaiiinoueth, anee eiio?ieue iaeneiaeai, e
aio iiaeao auoue ioeacaii a i?eciaiee i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, anee
eiio?ieue iieiinoueth ionoonoaoao. Oaeei ia?acii, caueuaaony ee e a
eaeie noaiaie i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe oio eee eiie iauaeo, caaeneo io oiai,
a eaeie oi/ea nenoaiu eii?aeeiao ii nouanoaoao. Aeaiiay iioieiaey
i?inoa, a iineieueeo iia eneeth/aao eaeath e aa iaieoanoaoeeth, iia
ai?acaei iaiueoa, /ai o?aaeeoeeiiiay iioieiaey, iiaeaa?aeaia aeeyieth
eciaiaiee, aucaaiiuo iiauie oaoiieiaeyie.

A ioiioaiee iaoaioiiai i?aaa “iiaay iioieiaey” oaeaea i?aaeeaaaao naie
iiaeoiae. Iaoaioiia i?aai iia?e?oao enoeiiuie (iao/ii iainiiaaiiuie)
eaeayie, oiaaea eae aaoi?neia i?aai – eaeayie, aeey eioi?uo aac?acee/ii,
enoeiiu iie eee iao. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi a eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee
“ie? iaoaioiuo eaeae” ieacuaaaony aieaa “ianaeaiiui”. Iainiiaaoue
aeaiiue auaiae iiiiaaao i?inoaeoay oi?ioea: ieioiinoue = eaeae/ethaee.
Anee aeey iaoaioia iieacaoaeue ieioiinoe ieacuaaaony aieaa aunieei ii
n?aaiaieth n aaoi?neei i?aaii, oi yoi icia/aao, /oi eiio?ieue iaae
eaeayie caeanue iaiueoa, /ai a “ie?a aaoi?neeo eaeae”. Cia/eo, ioeaea
caeiiiaeaoaey e i?aaii?eiaieoaeae ei?aieony a oii, /oi iie i?iaeieaeatho
aeaaaoue iaoaioiio?aiiui iauaeoai oio aea o?iaaiue caueou, eioi?ue iie
aeaaaee, eiaaea ieioiinoue auea ianiecia?eii iaiueoa. Aianoi yoiai noaeu
aeieaeiu eca?aoue eioth oaeoeeo. A iiiaio iiaea/e cayaee ia iaoaio
iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue niioonoaothuea ianoiyoaeuenoaa e caaeaoue
aii?in neaaeothuaai ieaia: o/eouaay ninoiyiea oaoiieiaee e eiee/anoai
caiyouo a aeaiiie iaeanoe niaoeeaeenoia, neieueei ethaeae iiaee au
i?eeoe e oie aea eaeaa /a?ac 6 eee aieaa ianyoeaa? Anee ieaaeaony, /oi
oaeiauo aieaa 2 eee 3, oi, aiciiaeii, eaeay yaeyaony neeoeii oe?ieie eee
n?ie, ia eioi?ue auaeaaony iaoaio, neeoeii aieueoei*(100). Ae?oaay
i?iaeaia, eioi?ay aicieeaao a nayce n iaoaioiui i?aaii, caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi auaea/a iaoaioia a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa nii?yaeaia n
aeeeoaeueiie e ouaoaeueiie, a cia/eo, yeiiiie/anee aei?iainoiyuae
i?ioeaaeo?ie i?iaa?ee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a aaoi?neii i?aaa oaeiai ?iaea
i?ioeaaeo?a ionoonoaoao aiana – ia?ooaiey auyaeythony ii ia?a eo
iaia?oaeaiey, eieoeeaoeaa eioi?iai, eae i?aaeei, enoiaeeo io
iaeaaeaoaeae niioaaonoaothueo aaoi?neeo i?aa. Ae. Oa? iieaaaao, /oi
i?e/eia noieue i/aaeaeiiai ianiioaaonoaey a niiniaao caueou e?iaony a
oaeoe/aneeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, nouanoaiaaaoeo a oio ia?eiae, eiaaea oaeay
caueoa oieueei oi?ie?iaaeanue: ienueiaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey ecia/aeueii
nouanoaiaaee a aieueoai eiee/anoaa e auee aieaa aeinooiiu, /ai
eioi?iaoeey i iaoaioao. Iiyoiio, n i?aeoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, auei
oeaeaniia?acii aeiionoeoue ia?ooaiea i?aa aaoi?a. Ii oaoiieiae/aneea
aeinoeaeaiey eciaieee neooaoeeth, e eioi?iaoeeth i iaoaioao naaiaeiy
iiaeii iieo/eoue, a oii /enea, eniieuecoy iieneiaua nenoaiu Eioa?iaoa.
Anee i?iaeieaeeoue ?annoaeaeaiea a yoii iai?aaeaiee, oi i?eaeaony
i?eciaoue, /oi aeaenoaothuay nenoaia io?aiu iaoaioia yaeyaony
iaeiyooaeoeaiie, iineieueeo ia niioaaonoaoao nia?aiaiiui oneiaeyi, a
cia/eo, iia ioaeaeaaony a ?aoi?ie?iaaiee.

Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue – nia?aiaiiua oaiaeaioeee

Enoi?ey aaoi?neiai i?aaa aaaeao naie ion/ao n 1624 a., eiaaea aue i?eiyo
Noaooo i iiiiiieeyo. Aoi?ui ii aaaeiinoe niauoeai auei i?eiyoea a 1709
a. Noaoooa ei?ieaau Aiiu. N/eoaaony, /oi a aeaiiuo aeieoiaioao auee
caeiaeaiu iniiaiiieaaathuea i?eioeeiu i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe, aeaenoaothuea e iiiuia. Iaueiiaaiii enoi?eth i?aaa
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ?acthie?otho iin?aaenoaii oeacaiey ia
iineaaeiaaoaeueiia ?anoe?aiea iaeanoe io?aiyaiuo iauaeoia. Io
eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee, i?iiuoeaiiuo ecia?aoaiee e oiaa?iuo ciaeia e
i?ia?aiiai aeey YAI, aacai aeaiiuo e eioi?iaoeeiiiui iauaeoai,
oa?aeoa?iui aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naoae, – oaeia iooue, eioi?ue i?ioea
eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue ca o?e aaea naiae enoi?ee. Oioneaaony
ec aeaeo eiie oaeo – yaiethoeey aeoeaioia, i?ei?eoaoia e eo
th?eaee/aneiai ioi?ieaiey a ?aieao acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aaoi?ii
(ecia?aoaoaeai) e iauanoaii (eiiaaea e iei aeiaaaeytho o?aoueth noi?iio
– “eiaanoi?a”). I?e oaeii ?aeo?na au?eniauaathony oaea eiua oaiaeaioeee.
I?aaeiaoiua iaeanoe e niiniau io?aiu (caueou) eeoue iaoa?ey,
niaea?aeaiea, eioi?ia yaeyaony io?aaeaieai eaeaieiaee a naiii oe?ieii
niunea (cao?aaeaathuae ia oieueei yeiiiieeo, ii e eoeueoo?o a oeaeii).
Oae, aeaaiui iioeaii ecaeaiey Noaoooa ei?ieaau Aiiu iineoaeeei
no?aieaiea onoaiiaeoue niioaaonoaothuoth oeaico?o ia ia/aoiua ecaeaiey e
no?aieaiea niinianoaiaaoue eiaanoe?iaaieth a ia/aoioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue
iooai ia?aie/aiey eiieo?aioeee, o.a. caueoa ioaee/iiai eioa?ana, a ia
i?aaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Iinea caaa?oaiey ia?eiaea oi?ie?iaaiey
i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe onoaiiaeeny, oioy e o?oieee,
ia?eoao, anoanoaaiiue aaeain iaaeaeo eioa?anaie aaoi?ia, eiaanoi?ia e
ioaee/iuie eioa?anaie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy /aoa aania ana aieaa neeiiyaony
a iieueco eiaanoi?ia e aaoi?ia (ecia?aoaoaeae): aaoi?u (ecia?aoaoaee)
iieo/eee a naia ?anii?yaeaiea n?aaenoaa, iicaieythuea onoaiiaeoue
aoeaaeueii oioaeueiue eiio?ieue a ioiioaiee eniieueciaaiey i?iaeoeoia
naiaai eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea, a eiaanoi?u, ni naiae noi?iiu,
iieo/eee caueoo ia?aaia n aaoi?aie (ecia?aoaoaeyie)*(101). I/aaeaeii
oaeaea, /oi aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa (aai iioeiaeueiiai ninoiyiey)
iaaeaeaoaeueii ia oieueei i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea aaoi?a, ii aeaaea
oa?aeoa?iue aeey i?aaeoanoaothuae yiioe aaeain: iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
?acaeoey oaeiai iauanoaa yaeyaony naiaiaeiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eioi?iaoeee.

Nianoaaiii, eino?oiaiou, i?aiyonoaothuea iiiiiieecaoeee i?aa ia
eioaeeaeooaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue, oi?ioi ecaanoiu. Aeinoaoi/ii
aniiiieoue iiiyoea aeia?iniaanoiiai eniieueciaaiey (fair use)*(102).
I?aeoe/anee ethaie caeii ia aaoi?neii i?aaa niaea?aeeo e?eoa?ee e (eee)
ia?a/eneaiea neooaoeee e ianoiyoaeuenoa, eiaaea aani?aiyonoaaiiia
eniieueciaaiea iauaeoia, caueuaiiuo aaoi?neei i?aaii, i?eciaaony
aeiionoeiui e i?aaiia?iui*(103). Oaiaeaioeey noaeaiey noa?u aeaenoaey
aeia?iniaanoiiai eniieueciaaiey eae eneeth/aiey ec i?aaee, eaaaeueiiai
ia?aie/aiey aaoi?neeo i?aa – ia/aeueiue auaiae, e eioi?iio i?eoiaeyo
niaoeeaeenou ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca aeaenoaothuaai iaoeeiiaeueiiai e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.
“A oi a?aiy eae iiiaea niaoeeaeenou ii aaoi?neiio i?aao n/eoatho
eneeth/aiey i?inoie onooieie, i?aaeinoaaeyaiie aaoi?ii ia ii?aaeaeaiiua
eniieueciaaiey, aic?anoaao /enei oao, eoi o?aaoao, /oiau eneeth/aiey
?anniao?eaaeenue eae i?aaiaua ii?iu a naiai i?aaa eee aeaaea, ii
ooaa?aeaeaieth iaeioi?uo, eae i?aaa iieueciaaoaeae”*(104). Iaeia ec
aiciiaeiinoae nei??aeoe?iaaoue neiaeeaoothny neooaoeeth ninoieo a
cae?aieaiee ca eneeth/aieyie oiai eee eiiai noaoona, eioi?ue au
iaania/eaae eo caueoo.

Iaeaieaa aeanoeay i?aaiaay caueoa – yoi i?eciaiea iaycaoaeueiinoe
eneeth/aiee aeey aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee (eiaaea oneiaey aeiaiai?a,
iaoiaeyuea oaeea eneeth/aiey, n/eoathony iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie). Aieaa
iyaeea, oia?aiiua aa?eaiou oaycuaatho caeiiiinoue oiai eee eiiai
eneeth/aiey n iaee/eai ?yaea ianoiyoaeuenoa eee ioaeatho ieii/aoaeueiia
?aoaiea a ?oee aeiaiaa?eaathueony noi?ii. Niioaaonoaothuay i?aaiaay
caueoa, eae auei neacaii, iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaeneo io noaoona, eioi?ue
i?eienuaaaony eneeth/aieth a caaeneiinoe io aai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
iacia/aiey eee oeaeaaiai oa?aeoa?a. Anee iiiuoaoueny eeanneoeoee?iaaoue
i?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiii eneeth/aiey (ecuyoey) ec no?ieiie nenoaiu
aaniethoiie caueou, eioi?ie iieuecothony iauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa, oi iu
iieo/ei neaaeothuea o?e a?oiiu: (1) eneeth/aiey, iaania/eaathuea
niaethaeaiea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo naiaiae; (2) eneeth/aiey, iaania/eaathuea
ioaee/iua eioa?anu; (3) eneeth/aiey, onoaiaaeeaathuea oneiaiua (o.a.
i?iecaiaeiua io aeinoeaiooiai o?iaiy oaoiieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey) ?aiee
i?aaiaiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa. *oi eanaaony ia?aie a?oiiu eneeth/aiee, oi
?a/ue eaeao i oaeeo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo naiaiaeao, eae naiaiaea neiaa,
naiaiaea iunee, i?aai ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue ee/iie aeecie e ae?. Oae,
eniieueciaaiea aaoi?neiai i?iecaaaeaiey a ee/iuo oeaeyo iaiin?aaenoaaiii
cao?aaeaaao i?aai ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue ee/iie aeecie, a eniieueciaaiea
eaeeo-eeai aai /anoae a aeaea niiauaiey a iiainoyo naycaii ni naiaiaeie
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay, enoaoe, aa?aioe?oaony Eiinoeoooeeae ?O
(/.5 no.29). Aoi?ay a?oiia ioaaouaaao eneeth/aiey, eioi?ua aeeeoothony
ainoaea?noaaiiuie eioa?anaie, oaeeie eae aani?aiyonoaaiiia ioi?aaeaiea
noaeaaiie aeanoe eee ?acaeoea ia?aciaaoaeueiie nenoaiu, aeaeeioae,
a?oeaia e o.i., o.a. eiinoeoooeaiuo yeaiaioia eoeueoo?u. E o?aoueae
a?oiia eneeth/aiee ioiinyony eneeth/aiey, eioi?ua iai iaaycuaaao n?aaea
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey niioaaonoaothuaai iauaeoa. N?aaeioi/eai nia?aiaiiuo
oaoiieiaee yaeyaony oeeo?iaay n?aaea, e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea a yoie n?aaea
iauaeoia iiaeaa?aaaony ana aieaa na?ueaciiio oaoiieiae/aneiio
aicaeaenoaeth. Oaoiieiaee ia a neeao eciaieoue naienoaa n?aaeu, caoi
niiniaiu onoaiaaeeaaoue iai?a?aeaaiua (ia aeaiiii yoaia) i?aaeea,
ii?aaeaeythuea “aeeciue” aa iauaeoia. I?aai, iaaei i?eciaoue, i?eaueei
neaaeiaaoue eiaeea iaoa?eaeueiie n?aaeu, aaea ia o?iaia cae?aaiai niunea
iiiyoii, /oi o?aaiaaoue iiaeii, a /aai iaeuecy. A oeeo?iaie n?aaea,
aii?aee nii?ioeaeaieth ni noi?iiu o?aaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaa, o?aaoaony
iinoiyiiue naiieiio?ieue: caeiiiaeaoaeueiia cae?aieaiea ethaiai i?aaeea,
o?aaiaaiey, naieoeee aeieaeii ei??aniiiaee?iaaoue niioaaonoaothuae
oaoiieiae/aneie ?aaeueiinoe (eioi?ay eee iaania/eaaao eo eniieiaiea, eee
eiinoaoe?oao eo ianaiaa?aiaiiinoue).

Anee aea aiai?eoue i iiiuoeao “iiaeia?aoue” oai?aoe/aneee eeth/ e
?aoaieth i?iaeaiu eiieo?aioeee eioa?ania a i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe, oi iaiaoiaeeii oiiiyiooue aeieo?eio eiii?iienna
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe (intellectual property bargain) e
aeieo?eio iauanoaaiiiai aeinoiyiey e aioeiauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe
(commons and anticommons). E anee ia?aay ec ieo ?enoao ea?oeio
aa?iiie/iiai ni/aoaiey ee/iuo (aaoi?neeo) e iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania, oi
aoi?ay iienuaaao i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeioth neooaoeeth e aa ?aciiaeaeiinoe.
“O?aaaaeey iauanoaaiiiai aeinoiyiey” (tragedy of the commons) eiaao
ianoi, eiaaea iiiaeanoai nianoaaiieeia eiatho aeinooi e eaeiio-eeai
?ano?no e ie o eiai ec ieo iao niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaa ia?aie/eoue
aeinooi ae?oaeo. “O?aaaaeey aioeiauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe” (tragedy of
anticommons) icia/aao, iai?ioea, ionoonoaea ?aaeueiiai aeinooia e
?ano?no i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii iaeaaeaiee i?aaii ia?aie/eoue aeinooi e
?ano?no anao inoaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia. Ia?aue neo/ae aiieia i/aaeaeai. A
eeanne/aneii i?eia?a ec noaouee 1968 a. Aa??aoa Oa?aeaia ?a/ue eaeao i
auoiaeyuae ca ?acoiiua i?aaeaeu yenieoaoaoeee ?uaiuo ?ano?nia: ioe?uoue
aeinooi a i?ea?aaeiua ?uaieiaaoeeea ciiu e ionoonoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeiaiai?ia, eioi?ua au ia?aie/eaaee ?acia?u oeiaa, i?eaaee aia/aea e
/?acia?iui aeiaeaieyi a ?uaieiaaoeeee aecian, a a aeaeueiaeoai, i?e
ionoonoaee eaeeo-eeai i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?, – e iieeoe/aneiio
e?eceno*(105). *oi eanaaony “aioeiauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe”, oi caeanue
a ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.
A NOA enneaaeiaaiey a aeaiiie iaeanoe iinyo /anoiue, eiiia?/aneee, a ia
ainoaea?noaaiiue oa?aeoa?. I?eaaoecaoeey aeaiiie noa?u aueeeanue a
aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea /anoiuie eiiiaieyie i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe aeey io?aiu iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey a eoiaa ieacaeenue noaoai “/anoiui i?aaei?eyoeai”, i?e/ai
n?aco a ianeieueeeo niuneao: oeiainiaay iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu /anoiuo
oiiaeia, inouanoaeaiea /anoiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, caueoa iin?aaenoaii
einoeoooa eiiia?/aneie oaeiu eee iin?aaenoaii aeiaiai?ia,
ia?aie/eaathueo eniieueciaaiea niioaaonoaothueo iaoa?eaeia e aeaiiuo.
Aa?iyoiinoue iao/iuo ioe?uoee a aeaiiie noa?a auea au ia ii?yaeie auoa,
anee au iaiaoiaeeiua enneaaeiaaiey ia oi?iiceeenue iaee/eai neeoeii
aieueoiai /enea nianoaaiieeia n “?aniueaiiuie”, o?aaiaioe?iaaiiuie
i?aaiii/eyie*(106). Aaeeinoaaiiia n?aaenoai ecaaaeaoue iienaiiie
“o?aaaaeee” – yoi ana oi aea “aeia?iniaanoiia eniieueciaaiea”, eia/a
aiai?y, cae?aieaiiia a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?aai naiaiaeii eniieueciaaoue
i?iaeoeou eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea, eioi?ua i?eciathony “iauanoaaiiui
aeinoiyieai”.

Ioiaoei aua aeaa nouanoaaiiuo, ia iao acaeyae, oaeoi?a, eioi?ua ia iiaoo
ia i?eieiaoueny ai aieiaiea i?e aiaeeca eioi?iaoeee eae i?aaiaiai
yaeaiey e i?aaiaiai iauaeoa. Iaa iie ioiinyony e “o?eaaeai”, ia
niaiaaeathuei n o?aaeeoeeiiiie (aeey ?inneeneeo th?enoia) e
?anniio?aiiie auoa o?eaaeie i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea. A ia?aii neo/aa
?a/ue eaeao i o?eaaea ninouanoaothueo, ii aiieia naiinoiyoaeueiuo
iauaeoia: eioi?iaoeee eae oaeiaie (information), n?aaenoa aa ia?aaioee
(i?aia?aciaaiey), eioa?i?aoaoeee (interpretation) e n?aaenoa ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee, eiiioieeaoeee (communication). A naiii aeaea, eioi?iaoeey
eae oaeiaay (o.a., aiiaua aiai?y, naaaeaiey) a aaniethoiii aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa ia iiaeao auoue aiaea/aia a nenoaio iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee aac
oiai, /oiau n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa eioa?i?aoaoeee iia ia auea
i?aia?aciaaia a aeinooiioth aeey /aeiaa/aneiai aini?eyoey e iiieiaiey
oi?io (niiauaiey), a oaeaea ia?aaeaia (n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa
eiiioieeaoeee) aeey aini?eyoey aae?anaoo. Oaeay neooaoeey oa?aeoa?ia, e
i?eia?o, aeey eieae, niaea?aeauae eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiua naaaeaiey, ii
eeai iaienaiiie ia ycuea, iaecaanoiii aeey eeoea, iuoathuaainy aa
i?i/anoue, eeai iaoiaeyuaeny a iaaeinooiiii aeey aa i?i/oaiey ianoa
(aeaeeioaea, cae?uoie ia aeieain?i/iue ?aiiio). ?anniio?aiea aii?inia
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia iaaiciiaeii aac
iiae?iaiiai aiaeeca oiai, eaeei eiaiii (n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaa) niiniaii
i?ienoiaeeo aeiaaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee aei eeoea, aeey eioi?iai iia eiaao
cia/eioth aaaeiinoue (eia/a aiai?y, inouanoaeyaony aeinooi e
eioi?iaoeee), e eaeei ia?acii iaania/eaaaony aini?eyoea oaeie
eioi?iaoeee. Iaai? aeaie/iuo, aeanyoe/iuo eee a?aoe/aneeo neiaieia ia
i?aaenoaaeyao nai ii naaa eaeie-eeai nioeeaeueiie (oai aieaa
eiiia?/aneie) oeaiiinoe, anee ionoonoaoao ono?ienoai-eioa?i?aoaoi?
(iai?eia?, eiiiuethoa?), i?aia?acothuaa oaeie iaai? neiaieia a
ecia?aaeaiea ia ye?aia eee ?ania/aoeo ia i?eioa?a. I?eia?ii oi aea naiia
iiaeii neacaoue e i n?aaenoaao aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee, iau/ii (a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo) naiaeeiuo e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui ono?ienoaai
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo (eee eioi?iaoeee a ?a/aaie eee noiaeiuo oi?iao).
Iineieueeo aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe ii ia?aaea/a niiauaiee
(aeaiiuo, eioi?iaoeee), anee iia inouanoaeyaony ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa,
oaea au?aaioai cia/eoaeueiue ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie iannea, o?aaeeoeeiiii
ioiineiue e oae iacuaaaiiio i?aao oaeaeiiioieeaoeee, aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey
aii?inia “nianoaaiii eioi?iaoeeiiiuo” auei au ?acoiii ia?aoeoueny e
niaoeeoeea ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey ono?ienoa eioa?i?aoaoeee
eioi?iaoeee. E niaeaeaieth, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaeea aii?inu /aua anaai
?anniao?eaathony a i?aaiaii aniaeoa eeoue i?eiaieoaeueii e n?aaenoaai
e?eioia?aoe/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey (“caueou”) eioi?iaoeee. E oiio aea
?anniio?aiea yoie eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiie, ceiaiaeiaaiie e eioa?aniaeoae
oai?aoe/aneie i?iaeaiu auoiaeeo ca ?aiee ianoiyuae ?aaiou.

Iaeiiaoe, iaeuecy ia ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue “i?aaeiaoiiai
?anuaieaiey” eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia ia o?e eiiiiiaioa – nianoaaiii
eaeaaeueioth (niaea?aeaoaeueioth) eioi?iaoeeth, oi?io e n?aaenoaa aa
i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea iaoa?eaeueiue iineoaeue oaeie eioi?iaoeee.
Eaaeaeue ec yoeo eiiiiiaioia o?aaeeoeeiiii ?aaoee?oaony niaa?oaiii
?acee/iuie i?aaiauie einoeoooaie e aeaaea io?aneyie, aieaa oiai,
i?eiaieoaeueii e niaea?aeaoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee (eae oaea oeacuaaeinue
auoa) neieueei-ieaoaeue ooi/iythuaai ?aaoee?iaaiey (ca i?aaeaeaie
iiiyoey eiiia?/aneie e ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu, a oaeaea iaoaioiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa) ia nouanoaoao aei neo ii?, ianiio?y ia
iaicia/aiiinoue yoie i?iaeaiu a A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena (auaeaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee eae ioaeaeueiiai iauaeoa a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa). *oi eanaaony
oi?iu (n?aaenoa) i?aaiecaoeee eaeaaeueiie (niaea?aeaoaeueiie)
eioi?iaoeee, oi oae eee eia/a ioiinyueany e iae th?eaee/aneea aii?inu
o?aaoee?iaaiu a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia aaoi?neeo i?aaao e eiuo iauaeoao
eioaeeaeooaeueiie (aeeth/ay i?iiuoeaiioth) nianoaaiiinoe. Iaiaoiaeeii,
iaeiaei, iiiieoue, /oi aaoi?neia i?aai io?aiyao eeoue oi?io, ii ia
niaea?aeaiea eeoa?aoo?iiai i?iecaaaeaiey e ia ioiineony e eaeayi,
ca/anooth iaiiiai aieaa aaaeiui, /ai eca?aiiue aaoi?ii niinia eo
eceiaeaiey. Iaeiiaoe, /oi eanaaony iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae: n ieie ana
ianoieo ai?acaei i?iua, iineieueeo a ea/anoaa oaeiauo neoaeao, eae
i?aaeei, eeanne/aneea “aaue”, “eiouanoai” (eieae, aeieoiaiou,
yeaeo?iiaaieoiua e iioe/aneea n?aaenoaa e o.ae.), ?aaoee?iaaiea eioi?uo
– iin?aaenoaii aauiuo e, a niioaaonoaothueo neo/ayo, iaycaoaeuenoaaiiuo
i?aa – io?aaioaii e iooeeoiaaii iiiaiaaeiaie o?aaeeoeeae. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, iaeeoei yaiue i?iaae a ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia
nianoaaiii “eaeaaeueiie” eioi?iaoeee, eaaaeueiiai (enoaoe, e
aeieo?eiaeueiiai!) ii?aaeaeaiey niaoeeoeee aa ?aaoee?iaaiey, aii?inia aa
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, eniieueciaaiey, ?anii?yaeaiey (ii?aaeaeaiey ii?yaeea
aeinooia e iae) e o.ae.

Iiieii iio?aaeyaiie eioi?iaoeee (aeinooiiie aeey iieueciaaoaey),
nouanoaoao oaeaea eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ie eioi?iaoeeiiiay naoue
iaiaieaaaony n iieueciaaoaeai (eiaeeaeaeii), o.a. eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay
iinooiaao a naoue io eiaeeaeaea, aeeth/ay eioi?iaoeeth i iai, o.a. aai
ia?niiaeueiua aeaiiua. Eiaiii iiyoiio i?aaiaua ii?iu aeieaeiu
ii?aaeaeyoue ia oieueei i?aaeea aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee, ii e i?aaeea aa
eniieueciaaiey. Aii?in i ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo, eioi?iaoeee
ia?niiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a aiiaua – aeinoaoi/ii neiaeai. Ii ia yaeyaony
/ai-oi iiaui eee niaoeeoe/iui eiaiii aeey nia?aiaiiie “eioi?iaoeeiiiie
yiioe”, aaaeue ia?niiaeueiua aeaiiua niae?aeenue iiiai/eneaiiuie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie aaaeiinoaaie e iaainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie
(iaaeeoeeineeie o/?aaeaeaieyie, no?aoiauie eiiiaieyie e o.ae.) ia
i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aeanyoeeaoee. Oaeoe/anee iiaeii aeaeaoue
ii?aaeaeaiioth aiaeiaeth iaaeaeo ioiioaieai eiaeeaeaea e naiei
ia?niiaeueiui aeaiiui e i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe ia i?eiaaeeaaeauaa aio
eiouanoai. I?aeoeea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a aieueoeinoaa
ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai i?eoea e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai
niaethaeaiey i?eioeeia io?aiu ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo, caeeth/athuaainy
eae a iaania/aiee aeinooia ethaiai a?aaeaeaieia e ianneao ia?niiaeueiuo
aeaiiuo e eiie eioi?iaoeee i iai, o?aiyuaeny a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoaiao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, oae e a cai?aoa ia naiaiaeiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo i ae?oaeo eeoeao. Aieaa oiai, caeiiu i naiaiaea
eioi?iaoeee, i eioi?uo aieaa iiae?iaii aoaeao aiai?eoueny a neaaeothuai
?acaeaea, eae ?ac a iniiaiii e iinayuaiu i?ioeaaeo?ai iaania/aiey
aeinooia e oai eee eiui eioi?iaoeeiiiui iaoa?eaeai, o?aiyueiny a i?aaiao
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe niioaaonoaothueo ainoaea?noa.

Aeinoaoi/ii aeeceei e eioi?iaoeee ia?niiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a th?eaee/aneei
einoeoooii yaeyaony nouanoaothuay a aieueoeinoaa i?aaiauo nenoai oae
iacuaaaiay i?aeaane (aiae. privacy) – i?aai ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue
/anoiie aeecie. Iiyoue-oaee iiaeii i?iaanoe i?yiua aiaeiaee iaaeaeo
oeaeaniia?aciinoueth caueou iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?u
ee/iinoe (privacy) e caueou /anoiie (“iaoa?eaeueiie”) nianoaaiiinoe io
iacaeiiiiai aoi?aeaiey (trespassing). A iaieo neo/ayo ?a/ue eaeao i
caueoa “nianoaaiiie”, iainiaeaiiie io i?i/eo noa?u nouanoaiaaiey
ee/iinoe (a?aaeaeaieia, eiaeeaeaea). I?e yoii n oi/ee c?aiey i?aa
ee/iinoe oaea ia oae aaaeii, eaeea eiiiiiaiou yoie noa?u ioiinyony e
iaoa?eaeueiiio eiouanoao, a eaeea – e noauaeoeaiui ia?aaeeaaieyi e
i?i/ei aniaeoai iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iiaeao auoue i?ieeethno?e?iaaii i?eia?aie oiai
iaoa?eaeueiiai, i?aeoe/aneiai oua?aa, eioi?ue i?e/eiyaony aneaaenoaea
iacaeiiiiai aoi?aeaiey a /anoioth noa?o aeecie ee/iinoe e iieo/aiey
aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay eiaao ia?niiaeueiue oa?aeoa?.
Nianoaaiii, e caeanue ie/aai i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai ca iineaaeiaa
aeanyoeeaoea ia i?iecioei – oaeia yaeaiea, eae misrepresentation,
“aaaaeaiea a caaeoaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueii ee/iinoe i?aaiia?ooeoaey”,
ecaanoii noieaoeyie. A oneiaeyo aea iianaianoiiai eniieueciaaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee noaee aiciiaeiuie e “e?aaee eaeaioe/iinoe”
(identity theft), eiaaea ceioiuoeaiieee iieo/atho aeinooi i?aeoe/anee ei
anae ia?niiaeueiie eioi?iaoeee i iieueciaaoaea Eioa?iaoa, iinea /aai io
aai eiaie niaa?oathony naiua ?aciiia?aciua aeaenoaey th?eaee/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a. I?e/ai a ioee/ea, neaaeai, io eniieueciaaiey oe?aaeaiiiai
/oaeiai ianii?oa (n ia?aeeaeeie oioia?aoee), i?aaiia?ooaiey,
nii?yaeaiiua n “e?aaeae eaeaioe/iinoe”, niaa?oathony a n/eoaiiua ieioou
e iiea e?aeia neiaeii ?anneaaeothony.

A eaeaaea i?aaiaua e oaoie/aneea ii?iu, ?aaoee?othuea i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe, i?aai ia aeinooi e eniieueciaaiea eioi?iaoeee, aeieaeiu
niinianoaiaaoue onoaiiaeaieth e ?aaeecaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiie naiaiaeu, n
niaethaeaieai, ?acoiaaony, ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea i/aaeaeiuo ia?aie/aiee.
I?aeoeea, e niaeaeaieth, ia oieueei aeaeaea io eneiiie oeaee, ii e
cae?aieyao iaaaoeaiua oaiaeaioeee. Aeaenoaothuaa eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?aai a
naiuo ?aciuo i?aaiauo nenoaiao ?acaeaaaony ii iooe nieaeaiey
aeinooiiinoe eioi?iaoeee. Oae, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao a naiai no?aieaiee i?eniiniaeoueny e oeeo?iaui
oaoiieiaeyi iaaeaeyao iaeaaeaoaeae aaoi?neeo i?aa ecauoi/ii oe?ieeie
iieiiii/eyie ii eiio?ieth iaae oneiaeyie aeinooia e eo i?iecaaaeaieyi.
Anee ethaia ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey a
oeeo?iaii oi?iaoa ?anniao?eaaaony eae ia?ooaiea aaoi?neeo i?aa, oi
anoanoaaiii, /oi aaoi? iieo/aao eiio?ieue ia oieueei ca ia?aiia/aeueiui
aeinooiii e i?iecaaaeaieth, ii e ca anyeei iineaaeothuei aai
eiie?iaaieai.

Iiyoue-oaee a eaeaaea Eioa?iao aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue aiciiaeiinoue
eaaeaeiio iaoiaeeoue eioi?iaoeeth a niioaaonoaee n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie
o?aaiaaieyie, a /anoiinoe oiaa?u ii eo/oei ec i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia ?uiea
oeaiai. Iaeiaei ?aaeueiay ea?oeia auaeyaeeo niaa?oaiii eia/a. Oae,
nianoaaiieee oiaa?iuo ciaeia i?aneaaeotho ia oieueei oao, eoi
eniieuecoao caueuaiiua ciaee (eee eo eiiiiiaiou) a naieo aeiiaiiuo
eiaiao, ii oaeaea e oao, eoi eniieuecoao niioaaonoaothuea oi?aiaua ciaee
a no?oeoo?a naieo iieneiauo nenoai*(107). Ia i?aeoeea iieo/aaony, /oi
oeaio?aeeciaaiiue nai? n?aaieoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee ii oeaiai oie eee eiie
eaoaai?ee oiaa?ia yaeyaony iacaeiiiui, ii e?aeiae ia?a iiaeiaiiai ?iaea
ia/eiaiey /aua anaai aeiee?othony iin?aaenoaii caoyaeiuo e
aei?iainoiyueo noaeaaiuo ?acae?aoaeuenoa*(108). Iiaeiaiia oieeiaaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i n?aaenoaao eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee aucuaaao
ni?aaaaeeeaua ia?aeaiey, iineieueeo, oioy i?aaa ia oiaa?iua ciaee e
iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae eaacenianoaaiiinoue eo aeaaeaeueoeaa, eo
caueoa e naycaiiue n oaeie caueoie eiio?ieue eniieueciaaiey
o?aaeeoeeiiii ia?aie/eaaeenue neo/ayie, eiaaea iio?aaeoaeue aue aaaaeai
a caaeoaeaeaiea. Eniieueciaaiea oiaa?iiai ciaea n oeaeueth e?eoeee aai
aeaaeaeueoea, niiauaiey aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeee i aa aeaaeaeueoea e
i?i/. ieeiaaea ia ?anniao?eaaeinue eae i?aaiia?ooaiey. Naaiaeiy ia niaio
aeieo?eia caaeoaeaeaiey i?eoea aeieo?eia ineaaeaiey, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ie iacaeiiiui yaeyaony oaeaea e oaeia eniieueciaaiea oiaa?iuo
ciaeia, aneaaenoaea eioi?iai annioeeaoeee iio?aaeoaeae, naycaiiua n
ecaanoiuie oi?aiauie ia?eaie, noaiiayony iaii?aaeaeaiiuie eee
?anieua/aouie*(109). Ia iiaa?eo aieueoay /anoue neo/aaa, iiaeiaaeathueo
iiae “aeieo?eio ineaaeaiey”, iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaia n yeni?anneaiui
eiioaenoii niiauaiey, aaoi? eioi?iai auneacuaaao nianoaaiiia iiaiea i
aeayoaeueiinoe niioaaonoaothuae eiiiaiee*(110). Oaeei ia?acii, eceeoiyy
“iiaea”, eioi?oth onoaiaaeeaaao aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iaae
aeaaeaeueoeaie oiaa?iuo ciaeia, e ieacuaaaony iai?aaeaiiie ia
“ia?aaeaeaiea” io iiae/an aiieia iainiiaaiiie e ni?aaaaeeeaie e?eoeee,
o.a. oaeoe/anee ia aaaaeaiea a caaeoaeaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae i?iecaiaeeiuo
eie oiaa?ia.

Aiaeiae/ioth oaiaeaioeeth iiaeii iaaethaeaoue e a ioiioaiee oaeiai
einoeoooa aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eae “aeia?iniaanoiia eniieueciaaiea” (fair
use). Aai i?eiaiaiea e oeeo?iaie eioi?iaoeee (caueuaiiie aaoi?neei
i?aaii) iaiainiiaaiii ia?aie/eaaaony. A ioiioaiee aeaiiie eaoaai?ee aeae
noaeu, eae i?aaeei, iniiauaatho naia ?aoaiea ia enneaaeiaaiee oaeoa
iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey aeeyiey ia iioaioeeaeueiue ?uiie nauoa aaoi?neiai
i?iecaaaeaiey. Oae, a niioaaonoaee n nouanoaothuei i?aoeaaeaioaie a
aia?eeaineii i?aaa aeey i?eciaiey cia/eoaeueiiai oua?aa ?uieo nauoa
(market harm) aeinoaoi/ii aeaeaiey iaeaaeaoaey i?aaa nicaeaoue ?uiie
aeey niioaaonoaothuaai eniieueciaaiey, eioi?ia o?aaeeoeeiiii
i?eciaaaeinue aeia?iniaanoiui*(111). A nayce n yoei eioa?an
i?aaenoaaeyao oaeaea ?aciethoeey AOI io 15 ethiy 2000 a.*(112) A aeaiiie
?aciethoeee i?eciaaony iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui eneeth/aiea, aeiioneaaiia
aia?eeaineei aaoi?neei i?aaii a ioiioaiee aeaaeaeueoeaa iaaieueoeo
?anoi?aiia, eioi?ui ?ac?aoaeinue eniieueciaaoue aac ia?aie/aiee iocueo,
ia?aaeaaaaioth ii ?aaeei.

Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia eioaeeaeooaeueiua i?iaeoeou n
i?aaii iaia?aie/aiiiai eiio?iey noaei “iauei ianoii”. Enoiaey ec oaeie
eiaeee, /ai no?iaea eiio?ieue, oai aieueoa noeioee?oaony oai?/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, oai auoa eioaeeaeooaeueiay naiaiaea. A oi aea a?aiy a
eiioaenoa i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
nioeeaeueiay e yeiiiie/aneay oeaeaniia?aciinoue aeaiiie iiceoeee, eae
auei iieacaii, iiaeao auoue eaaei inii?aia. Oaaee/aiea eiio?iey iaae
eioi?iaoeeiiiuie i?iaeoeoaie, eo iiiiiieecaoeey ni noi?iiu /anoiuo eeoe
e eiiiaiee a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iiaeao i?eaanoe e nieaeaieth
nioeeaeueiiai aeaaininoiyiey, iineieueeo aoaeao i?aiyonoaiaaoue eae
nicaeaieth iiaie eioi?iaoeee, oae e ioaee/iiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth oaea
eiathuaeny*(113). Eae oeacuaaao Iaiaea Naioyeuenii, iaeei ec aaaeoueo
niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe “oeeo?iaie eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe”:
“Nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue noi?ie?iaaoue iiaoth iieeoeeo a iaeanoe
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ay au i?eieiaea ai aieiaiea
ioaee/ioth noa?o e aeia?iniaanoiia eniieueciaaiea (fair uses). *oiau
auoue oniaoiie, iiaay ioaee/ii i?eaioe?iaaiiay iieeoeea a iaeanoe
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe aeieaeia eiaoue nianoaaiioth iiceoeaioth
i?ia?aiio. Iia ia iiaeao i?inoi i?ioeainoiyoue ethaie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie
eieoeeaoeaa, eioi?oth iiaeaea?aeeaaao aieueoeinoai eiiia?/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee (oioy e yoi, ii anae aeaeeiinoe, ae i?eaeaony aeaeaoue).
Iia aeieaeia auoue iniiaaia ia iiieiaiee oiai, /oi eioi?iaoeey ia
yaeyaony oieueei eee i?aeiouanoaaiii oiaa?ii; iia oaeaea yaeyaony
eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiui ?ano?nii e aeeaaeii a ia?aciaaiea, eoeueoo?o,
ni?aaiiaaiea, eiiiaaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue e aeaiie?aoe/aneee
aeeneo?n. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue aeieaeia iaeoe naia ianoi a
?aieao aieaa oe?ieie eioi?iaoeeiiiie iieeoeee e auoue neoaie, a ia
oicyeiii eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa”*(114).

Oiiieiaaoeeny auoa ?inneeneee Oaaea?aeueiie Caeii ia eioi?iaoeee
iiaeiaiiai ?iaea aii?inu i?aeoe/anee ia cao?aaeaaao, e auei au e?aeia
aeaeaoaeueii, /oiau ?ac?aaio/eee aai iiauo ?aaeaeoeee
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee aeieaeiue o?iaaiue oai?aoe/aneiai iniuneaiey
i?iaeai, eioi?ua iie aa?oony ?aoaoue ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiii o?iaia. A oi
aea a?aiy oeacaiiue Caeii, aii?aee aeooo e aoeaa AE ?O, aaiaeeo aauiia
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu, eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu,
oaoiieiaee e n?aaenoaa eo iaania/aiey. Nianoaaiieeii eioi?iaoeeiiiie
nenoaiu, oaoiieiaee e n?aaenoa eo iaania/aiey i?eciaaony oece/aneia eee
th?eaee/aneia eeoei, ia n?aaenoaa eioi?iai yoe iauaeou i?iecaaaeaiu,
i?eia?aoaiu eee iieo/aiu a ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey, aea?aiey eee eiui
caeiiiui niiniaii. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu iiaoo auoue ainoaea?noaaiiuie
e iaainoaea?noaaiiuie e eae yeaiaio ninoaaa eiouanoaa iaoiaeyony a
nianoaaiiinoe a?aaeaeai, i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, i?aaiia
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeee e iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee, e iie
iiaoo auoue oiaa?ii, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Oeacaiiia iieiaeaiea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
iaaeinoaoi/ii i?i?aaioaiiia oai?aoe/anee. A naiii aeaea, i?e ieacaiee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa (ii iauaio i?aaeeo) ia i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaea/e
(“io/oaeaeaiey”) iaeiaai iaoa?eaeueiiai eiouanoaa, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai
iiaeii aiai?eoue i i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. Iai?ioea, i?e ieacaiee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa i?aaeinoaaeyaony aeinooi e iaeiae iiaie (aeey
iio?aaeoaey, caeac/eea) eioi?iaoeee, a ioiioaiee eioi?ie ia iiaoo
aeaenoaiaaoue eaoaai?ee “iieiie iio?aaeyaiinoe”, “io/oaeaeaiey”,
“aeaaeaiey” e o.ae.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iieiaeaiea i aauiii i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia
eioi?iaoeeth aac niioaaonoaothueo ii?iaoeaiuo ooi/iaiee ia i?aeoeea
i?eaiaeeo e ia?aaioiniiniaiinoe caeiia aiiaua. Iineieueeo e iauaeoai
?aaoee?iaaiey Caeiia ioiineony eeoue aeieoiaioe?iaaiiay eioi?iaoeey, a
aeaeaei ia anyeee eioi?iaoeeiiiue iauaeo iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
aeieoiaio, Caeii ia iaania/eaaao aeieaeiiai o?iaiy i?aaiaie caueou
iauaeoai, ninoaaeythuei nooue i?aaiioiioaiee i?e ieacaiee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa. Iaaiciiaeiinoue ia i?aeoeea ii?aaeaeeoue, eoi aea
yaeyaony caeiiiui “nianoaaiieeii” oie eee eiie eioi?iaoeee (iiiuoee /aai
naie ii naaa auaeyaeyo no?aiiuie), i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ana
oai?aoe/aneea iino?iaiey Caeiia ia eiatho ieeaeiai i?eeeaaeiiai
cia/aiey.

I?e yoii aeaeea?e?iaaiiia a Caeiia “i?aai nianoaaiiinoe” ia
eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu ieeae ia iiaee?aieyaony oai?aoe/aneei
iainiiaaieai; aii?in ia eaeaioeoeeaoeee noauaeoia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia
eioi?iaoeeth (“o/anoieeia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia”) naiaeeony e
o?aaiaaieth eeoeaice?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe ii auaea/a na?oeoeeaoia
yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie iiaeiene: A Caeiia ia eioi?iaoeee ie/aai oaeaea ia
aiai?eony i aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey oaeeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia,
eae naeo (a Eioa?iaoa) eee aeiiaiiia eiy; i?aeoe/anee ie/aai ia neacaii
i caueoa eioi?iaoeee, ?aciauaaiie a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoaiao iauaai
iieueciaaiey. Ai?i/ai, e ec i?eaaaeaiiuo a Caeiia ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoee
niaa?oaiii iai/aaeaeii, iiaeao ee nai Eioa?iao (eee aai eiiiiiaiou)
auoue ioianai e eioi?iaoeeiiiui nenoaiai (eee naoyi) a oa?ieiao yoiai
Caeiia, e o.ae.

*ooue aieaa iiae?iaii oeacaiiue aii?in aoaeao cao?iioo a neaaeothuai
?acaeaea, a eioi?ii ?a/ue iieaeao i iiaii, aua aeaeaei ia inaiaiiii
nia?aiaiiie oai?eae i?aaa yaeaiee – ?aaoee?iaaiee i?aaiioiioaiee a naoe
Eioa?iao. A caeeth/aiea oeaaeai, /oi ia oieueei ?acaeoea Eioa?iaoa
ieacaei nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia iiaeeoeeaoeeth iiaeoiaeia e
?aaoee?iaaieth eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e ia iiyaeaiea iiauo aa
iauaeoia. Oeacaiiua i?ioeannu ia/aeenue caaeieai aei iiyaeaiey Eioa?iaoa
e i?eaaee e oiio, /oi “eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue” ia naiaeeony
eeoue e aaoi?neei e niaaeiui i?aaai (ia eeoa?aoo?iua e eiua
i?iecaaaeaiey) e iauaeoai iaoaioiie io?aiu (aeeth/ay i?iiuoeaiiua
ia?acoeu, iieaciua iiaeaee, ni?oa ?anoaiee e ii?iaeu aeeaioiuo).
“O?aaeeoeeiiiuie” iauaeoaie eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe noaee
oiaa?iua ciaee e ciaee ianeoaeeaaiey, eieeaeoeaiua e na?oeoeeaoeeiiiua
ciaee, iaeiaiiaaiey (iacaaiey) aaia?aoe/aneeo iauaeoia (iano
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia), eiiiuethoa?iua i?ia?aiiu, oiiieiaee
eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai, aacu aeaiiuo, oe?iaiiua iaeiaiiaaiey (e
eiiia?/aneea iaicia/aiey), e aeaaea oaeea “yecioe/aneea” aeaeu, eae
?acoeueoaou aaiii-eiaeaia?iuo enneaaeiaaiee, eeoa?aoo?iua ia?acu, a
oaeaea eiaia e ecia?aaeaiey ecaanoiuo ethaeae. *oi aea iiaiai a
iiieiaiee aii?inia eioi?iaoeee, nianoaaiiinoe e eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe iiyaeeinue a nayce n ?acaeoeai Eioa?iaoa?

Eioa?iao

Anee ia?aa?aoue a oia ia?aoth
aieio

eciaiaiee a i?aaiaie nenoaia,
oi

noaiiaeony ana aieaa e aieaa
yniui,

/oi oiaaea, eiaaea ?a/ue oea
i

iaiaoiaeeiinoe ni?aaeoueny
n

aiciiaeiinoyie e ?eneaie,
naycaiiuie

n Eioa?iaoii, oaeea
eciaiaiey

ninoiyee aiana ia a
i?eniiniaeaiee

i?aaa e iiaui
iniaaiiinoyi.

Eciaiaiey iai?yioth
eanaeenue

aeiaiaoe/aneeo iniia
i?aaiaie

no?oeoo?u e o?aaiaaee
iiaiai

?aaoee?iaaiey oaeaea e a
ioiioaiee

aaciauo iiiyoee nia?aiaiiiai i?aaa.

Ea?e-Oain Eaaea?. Aeeiaieea
Eioa?iaoa

eae aucia noaaeeueiinoe i?aaa*(115)

Eioi?iaoeey a Eioa?iaoa: iaeioi?ua iauea aii?inu

Iiyaeaiea e ao?iia ?acaeoea aeiaaeueiie eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiioieeaoeeiiiie
naoe (Eioa?iaoa) “iaiaaeeei” aieueoia eiee/anoai ia ?aoaiiuo ia
oai?aoe/aneii o?iaia i?iaeai i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey “iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo”
iauaeoia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Aiieia “inycaaiua” e ana iaino?ythuea
aii?inu naoaaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iaeaieaa iaaeyaeii, iaeaieaa “auioeei”
aeaiiino?e?otho, ianeieueei aeaeaei iiaeao caeoe ia?aniio? eaaeoueony
iuia iacuaeaiuie “iinooeaoia” i?aaiaie oai?ee e i?aeoeee e ianeieueei
iai?eau/iuie iiaoo ieacaoueny a aoaeouai ioaaou ia aii?inu, eioi?ua
ia?aae iaie noaaeo ?aaeueiay aeeciue a ?aaeueiii iauanoaa, ana aieaa
i?eia?aoathuai oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa. A oi aea a?aiy,
eae iu iieacaee ia i?eia?a i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, ia?aniio? iaoaieciia
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai iineoue
“?aaiethoeeiiiue” oa?aeoa? – iiaaeeu aiana ia anaaaea icia/atho iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiue niinia ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu, – e no?aoaaey aaeaioaoeee
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia e iiaui oneiaeyi iaeaaeaao aunieei “caianii
i?i/iinoe”, o.a. i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny aeooaeueiie.

Oaia Eioa?iao e i?aai oe?iei aeeneooe?oaony naaiaeiy a ?inneeneii (aea e
a ca?oaaaeiii) th?eaee/aneii niiauanoaa. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
aeanyoee ioaeeeaoeee, a oii /enea eieaeiiai oi?iaoa*(116), e
eiioa?aioeee n aiaeiae/iui iacaaieai. Iiieii i?eeeaaeiuo aniaeoia
“eioa?iao-i?aaa”, eioi?ua a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ninoaaeytho iniiaiie
i?aaeiao aiaeeca, a oiaea ianoaeaeaiey ia?aaeei cao?aaeaathony i?iaeaiu
aieaa iauaai oa?aeoa?a. Ia?acotho ee i?aaiaua ii?iu, naycaiiua n
?aaoee?iaaieai Eioa?iaoa, naiinoiyoaeueioth iaeanoue i?aaa? Ianeieueei
nouanoaaiiuie, i?eioeeieaeueiuie yaeythony eciaiaiey, eioi?ua o?aaoaony
aianoe a i?aaiaoth oai?eth a nayce n iniaaiiinoyie Eioa?iaoa eae iiaie
noa?u ?aaoee?iaaiey? Iaeiiaoe, /oi, nianoaaiii, neaaeoao iiieiaoue iiae
“Eioa?iaoii” aeey oeaeae i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey? Nooue yoeo e ae?oaeo
aii?inia iiaeii naanoe e iaeiiio, e i?eoii ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio, – eaeei
aeieaeii auoue i?aai a aae aunieeo oaoiieiaee, o.a. i?aai
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa?

A “aeaeueiai ca?oaaaeuea”, a no?aiao n aunieei o?iaiai
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee i?e ?anniio?aiee oai?aoe/aneeo aii?inia, eanathueony
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey Eioa?iaoa, /aua anaai eniieuecothony ?acee/iua neiaa e
neiaini/aoaiey n i?enoaaeie “eeaa?-” (cyberlaw, cybernorm, law of
cyberspace)*(117), a th?enou, eioi?ua caieiathony aeaiiie oaiaoeeie,
yaeythony, eae i?aaeei, ia oieueei iiuoiuie i?aeoeeaie, ii e
niaoeeaeenoaie a iaeanoe oeeinioee i?aaa (legal philosophy)*(118).

A enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa ca aicieeiiaaieai e ia?aoiaeii ia ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue ?acaeoey eaeie-eeai iiaie noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe anaaaea
neaaeiaae e i?ioeann au?aaioee (niaeaniaaiey, i?eiyoey) i?aaee
iiaaaeaiey, oa?aeoa?iuo eiaiii aeey oaeie noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeea
i?aaeea ia iaycaoaeueii iineee th?eaee/aneee oa?aeoa? (oi anoue
iaania/eaaeenue ainoaea?noaaiiui i?eioaeaeaieai) eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
ia i?eia?aoaee aai n naiiai ia/aea. I?aaiaiio ?aaoee?iaaieth ca/anooth
i?aaeoanoaiaaee iau/ae, o?aaeeoeee aeaeiaiai iai?ioa, ii?iu ii?aeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a, ei?ii?aoeaiua i?aaeea.

Oaoiieiaee, iaania/eaathuea aeaeaeaiea e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao,
iiaeoaa?aeeee, /oi oaeeie ?aaoee?othueie ii?iaie iiaoo auoue a oii /enea
i?aaeea i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a (oaoie/aneea i?ioieieu
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo e anyeiai ?iaea i?ioeaaeo?u, niaeaniaaiiua e
i?eiaiyaiua i?aaiecaoeeyie, ?aaioathueie a niioaaonoaothuae io?anee).
Oaeea i?aaeea oaoie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a i?eiaiythony ia oieueei aianoa n
niioaaonoaothueie ei th?eaee/aneeie ii?iaie, ii e i/aiue /anoi (a
ionoonoaea ?ac?aaioaiiie ii?iaoeaiie aacu) – e aianoi ieo. I?e/ai a
?anniao?eaaaiie caeanue naoe Eioa?iao i?eiaiaiea
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo ii?i oa?aeoa?ecoaony eneeth/eoaeueii
aunieei, ii/oe aaniethoiui o?iaiai yooaeoeaiinoe.

A naiii aeaea, eniieiaiea th?eaee/aneie ii?iu iaoneiaeaii
iiiai/eneaiiuie oaeoi?aie, a oii /enea noauaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a.
Iai?eia?, niaethaeaiea th?eaee/aneiai cai?aoa iaania/eaaaony, n?aaee
i?i/eo n?aaenoa, aiciiaeiinoueth oaieiaiiai (eee eiiai) i?aneaaeiaaiey e
iaeacaiey. Eaaei aeaeaoue, eae /anoi oaeea cai?aou eee iaoiaeyony, eee
i?yii ia?ooathony, iaace?ay ia aiciiaeiua naieoeee. A neo/aa aea
iaiaaeeaaeauaai niaethaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo ii?i
(i?ioieieia, aeai?eoiia e o.i.) noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeiui aeinoeaeaiea oie
oeaee, ?aaee eioi?ie oaeea ii?iu auee ?ac?aaioaiu. Ieacaiea oneoa nayce
aac niioaaonoaothuae eeoeaicee (a ia?ooaiea caeiia) naii ii naaa iiaeao
e ia iiaea/ue iaaeaaii?eyoiuo iineaaenoaee (aei ia?aiai aeceoa
i?aaenoaaeoaey iaaeci?iiai i?aaia), ii eniieueciaaiea iaiaaeeaaeauaai
iai?oaeiaaiey eee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey i?e iiiuoea naycaoueny n
oceii eioa?iao-i?iaaeaea?a aeaeaao aeaeaaiia niaaeeiaiea iaaiciiaeiui
iacaaeneii io iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey ia yoio n/ao eaeeo-ieaoaeue
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia.

I?eaaaeaiiue i?eia? iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi th?eaee/aneea iaoiaeu
?aaoee?iaaiey ia anaaaea yaeythony ia oieueei aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiuie,
ii aeaaea aieaa yooaeoeaiuie, iioeiaeueiuie aeey i?eiaiaiey. Iaeiaei a
cia/eoaeueiii /enea neo/aaa ionoonoaea ?ac?aaioaiiuo yooaeoeaiuo ii?i
th?eaee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a iiaeao eiaoue iaaaoeaiue, oi?iicyuee yooaeo, a
oii /enea e i?e ?anniio?aiee oao eee eiuo aniaeoia oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ia?anna.

Eioa?iao yaeyaony n?aaieoaeueii iiaui yaeaieai iauanoaaiiie aeecie, e
oiio aea aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathueiny. A oi aea a?aiy i?aai (a oe?ieii
niunea neiaa) – “noaoe/aneee” nioeeaeueiue ?aaoeyoi?. *enei i?aaiauo
aeoia a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie ana aea eiia/ii, e a i?eioeeia eo iaai?
oae eee eia/a ecaanoai aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieiio e?oao eeoe. I?aai anaaaea
“ionoaao” io ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?ia iii i?ecaaii
?aaoee?iaaoue, – aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue, /oi iaoeeiiaeueiua caeiiu e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua niaeaoaiey ia aaoi?neii i?aaa iiyaeeenue eeoue /a?ac
ianeieueei noieaoee iinea ecia?aoaiey eieaiia/aoaiey. Ioe?uoey e
ecia?aoaiey eae i?aeoe/aneea aeinoeaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna
i?ienoiaeyo “aac iaeyaeee” ia oi, nouanoaotho ee oaea i?eiaieiua e iei
eaeea-eeai i?aaiaua ii?iu. Oaeei ia?acii, i?eiyoue aiineaaenoaee
i?aaiaie aeo iiaeao a eo/oai neo/aa niioaaonoaiaaoue eeoue eaeiio-oi
ii?aaeaeaiiiio (a aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie) “n?aco” iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee. Ia neo/aeii, /oi i?aeoe/anee n?aco iinea i?eiyoey ethauo
caeiiia e eiuo i?aaiauo aeoia aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aianaiey a ieo
ooi/iaiee, aeiiieiaiee eee eciaiaiee… “Ea/anoai” i?aaiaie ii?iu
ii?aaeaeyaony ia oieueei oai, ianeieueei oi/ii iia o/eouaaao niaoeeoeeo
?aaoee?oaiiai ath aii?ina e ianeieueei yooaeoeaii iia iiaeao
eniieiyoueny ia i?aeoeea, ii e oai, a oa/aiea eaeiai a?aiaie iia ia
iio?aaoao “iiaea?iecaoeee”.

Aac i?aoaaee/aiey iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi Eioa?iao yaeyaony iaeiei ec
aeaaiuo aeinoeaeaiee “oieiaeiie aieiu” e, eae ieacaeinue aiineaaenoaee,
naiui aiieeoe/iui. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui i?aaeoanoaaiieeii Eioa?iaoa auea
eiiiuethoa?iay naoue Ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA, iauaaeeieaoay a 1969 a.
ianeieueei aia?eeaineeo oieaa?neoaoia e eiiiaiee, auiieiyaoeo aiaiiua
caeacu. Ia?aay naoue iieo/eea ioeoeeaeueiia iacaaiea “APRAnet” (io
iacaaiey aieiaiie i?aaiecaoeee APRA*(119)). Oeaeueth nicaeaiey oaeie
Naoe auei ii?aaeaeaiea iaaeaaeiinoe aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, iai?eia?, a
neo/aa aiaiiuo eiioeeeoia. Ionoonoaea aaeeiiai (oeaio?aeueiiai)
oi?aaeaiey iaania/eaaei aania?aaieioth ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee aeaaea a
oii neo/aa, eiaaea ioaeaeueiue naaiaio Naoe aue i?eaaaeai a iaaiaeiinoue
(iai?eia?, a ?acoeueoaoa ?aeaoii-yaea?iiai iaiaaeaiey). Iineieueeo Naoue
ieacaeanue iniaaiii oaeiaiie aeey iia?aoeaiiai iaiaia ?acoeueoaoaie
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee (aeey /aai, nianoaaiii, iie e eniieueciaaeanue
naieie iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie nicaeaoaeyie), e iae noaee iiaeeeth/aoueny
ae?oaea eiiiuethoa?u, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?acee/iuo oieaa?neoaoia NOA.
Iauai /enoi a?aaeaeaineeo aii?inia, ?aoaaoeony /a?ac yoo Naoue,
iinoiyiii ?in, e Ieienoa?noai iai?iiu NOA ?acaeaeeei Naoue ia aeaa /anoe
(iaeio aeey aiaiiuo oeaeae e iaeio a?aaeaeaineiai iacia/aiey),
niaaeeiaiiua iaaeaeo niaie iaai?ii oaoie/aneeo e i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa,
iacaaiiui “Internet Protocol” (“iaaenaoaaie i?ioieie”)*(120).

Iinoaiaiii e Naoe noaee iiaeeeth/aoueny /anoiua eiiiaiee, iaeioi?ua ec
ieo i?iaeaaaee aiciiaeiinoue aoiaea a Naoue anai aeaeathuei. Eioa?iao
aue i?eaaoece?iaai. I?aaeoaeuenoai NOA ia?anoaei aai noaneaee?iaaoue e
eiio?iee?iaaoue. N ia/aea 90-o aa. Eioa?iao noae eaaeiiia?acii
?ani?ino?aiyoueny ii no?aiai e eiioeiaioai, aeeth/ay ana iiaua naoe e
aacu aeaiiuo. Oaeea naoe i?eia?aoatho aiciiaeiinoue iiaeeeth/aiey e
aieaa e?oiiui naoyi, a e?oiiua naoe eiatho oae iacuaaaiua oi/ee ano?a/e
(meeting point), aaea iie niaaeeiythony ae?oa n ae?oaii.

I?aaeaea /ai iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aeoe e aiaeeco th?eaee/aneeo i?iaeai
Eioa?iaoa, oeaeaniia?acii ia?eniaaoue a iaueo /a?oao oaeoe/aneoth
noi?iio i?aaeiaoa ianoaeaeaiey.

Anee eaeia-eeai i?aaei?eyoea eee /anoiia eeoei aeaeaao, /oiau iii noaei
eeeaioii (iieueciaaoaeai, iiaeien/eeii) Eioa?iaoa, iii ia?auaaony n
i?inueaie i iiaeeeth/aiee e Eioa?iaoo e oae iacuaaaiui i?iaaeaea?ai
(provider), iia?aoi?ai oneoa aeinooia e Naoe. Eiaiii i?iaaeaea? – oi
eeoei, n eioi?ui iieueciaaoaeue Eioa?iaoa iaiin?aaenoaaiii anooiaao a
ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo i?eiaiaiey Naoe. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea iiiieoue, /oi
naia ii naaa eiiiuethoa?iay naoue ieeaeeo oneoa, iiieii iiaeeeth/aiey
ae?oa e ae?oao ?acee/iuo eiiiuethoa?ia, ieacuaaoue ia iiaeao. Ana oneoae
a Eioa?iaoa ieacuaathony ?acee/iuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, ia?aaeei aiiaua ia
eiathueie ioiioaiey e eiiiuethoa?iui oaoiieiaeyi. Iaeioi?ua ec oaeeo
i?aaiecaoeee iieiinoueth niaoeeaeece?othony ia naoaauo oneoaao,
iai?eia?, nicaeaaay e ?aciauay a Eioa?iaoa ?aeeaio ae?oaeo oe?i eee
ioaeeeoy yeaeo?iiiua aa?nee n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Ae?oaea
oe?iu, aaaeouea aeoeaioth eiiia?/aneoth ?aaioo a Eioa?iaoa, oi?ioi
ecaanoiu e a “iaeiiiuethoa?iii” ie?a. Iai?eia?, aaeaeiiiaiee ia oieueei
i?aaeeaaatho iioaioeeaeueiui iannaaee?ai i?e iinauaiee eo naeoa a
Eioa?iaoa ?ac?aaioaoue ia?o?oo eo aaeaiooaoanoaey, ii e n?aco aea
eoieoue aeeao, ii eioi?iio iiaeii ioi?aaeoueny a iieao. Iaeiiaoe,
iiiaeanoai i?aaiecaoeee e oai aieaa /anoiuo eeoe i?aaeinoaaeytho oa eee
eiua oneoae niaa?oaiii aanieaoii, iai?eia?, a ?aeeaiiuo oeaeyo. A oeaeii
iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a Eioa?iaoa oaea aeinooiia (a aieaa eee iaiaa
oe?ieii aeeaiaciia) i?aeoe/anee ethaay oneoaa, eioi?oth iiaeii iieo/eoue
aeenoaioeeiiii, aac iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eiioaeoa n i?iecaiaeeoaeai, –
ni?aai/iay eioi?iaoeey, i?iaiic iiaiaeu, eiinoeueoaoeey th?enoa, caeac e
iieoiea iaaaee ii eaoaeiao, i?iniio? aeaeaioeeueiia e o.ae. I?e yoii
oianoii iaiiiieoue, /oi ana niaaeeiaiey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie
i?ienoiaeyo i?aeoe/anee iaiiaaiii e oieueei ieioia ea/anoai eaiaeia
nayce eee iaaeinoaoi/iay iiuiinoue eiiiuethoa?a iiaoo caaea?aeaoue
i?ioiaeaeaiea ioaaoa aei ianeieueeeo naeoiae.

E eiia/ii, aeaaiia i?aaeiacia/aiea Eioa?iaoa – naycue iaaeaeo ethaeueie,
a ia iaaeaeo niaaeeiythueie eo eiiiuethoa?aie. Naaiaeiy aua iiaeii
ano?aoeoue ?annoaeaeaiey ia iianiinoe, eioi?oth oaeo a naaa aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea yeaeo?iiiie naoe, iianiinoe aiaea/aiey a ie?, aaea iao ianoa
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio e iaiiaoi?eiiio /aeiaa/aneiio ss. Ia iaiaa
oa?iaeathua cao/ao iiaiey ia anioeeaeueiii oa?aeoa?a naoaaiai iauaiey,
iineieueeo aianoa n noauaeoii iaecaaaeii ?ac?ooaaony e oi aaeeinoaaiiia,
/oi aai nicaeaao, a eiaiii nioeeaeueiua nayce, iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey.
Nioeeaeueiinoue, iaeiaei, aeiioneaao ?aciua i?i/oaiey. Anee aa ia
i?eaycuaaoue eneeth/eoaeueii e eaaaeueiui einoeoooai, naieoeeiie?iaaiiui
o?aaeeoeeae, oea?eiaueth eee ainoaea?noaii, a ?anniao?eaaoue ia aieaa
aano?aeoiii o?iaia, eae i?ino?ainoai aiciiaeiuo oi?i
eioa?noauaeoeaiinoe, oi cia/aiea Eioa?iaoa ieacuaaaony ia i?inoi
aaaeiui, ii ia?ainoaiaiiui: nai Eioa?iao a yoii neo/aa iiaeii auei au
ii?aaeaeeoue eae ae?ooaeueiia iiiaeanoai naii?aaoee?othueony
nioeeaeueiuo nenoai.

Iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, /oi “?iiaioe/aneee ia?eiae” ?acaeoey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, naycaiiiai n eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa, caeii/eeny.
Aeeeoaeueiua nii?u th?enoia-oai?aoeeia e niaoeeaeenoia-i?aeoeeia ia oaio
ioaeii ee iai ?aaoee?iaaoue Eioa?iao caaa?oeeenue iauei iiieiaieai oiai
i/aaeaeiiai oaeoa, /oi nai ii naaa Eioa?iao ia iiaeao ie ii?iaeaeaoue
eaeeo-eeai i?aaiauo i?iaeai, ie eae-oi niaeaenoaiaaoue eo ?aoaieth. A oi
aea a?aiy ?acaeoea Naoe aiineo iiiai iiaiai, niaoeeoe/aneiai a ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ethaeueie, iieuecothueieny ath. A naith i/a?aaeue,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oii?yaei/aiey oaeeo ioiioaiee, i?eia?aoathueo ana aieaa
aaaeiue iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, ia iiaeao inoaoueny aac aieiaiey
caeiiiaeaoaey.

Eioa?iao, ianiiiaiii, yaeyaony oaoiieiaeae, oaoie/aneei aeinoeaeaieai,
iaeaa/athuei niiauaiea iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Ii iiaeii ee aai iinoaaeoue a
iaeei ?yae n ?aaeei eee oaeaaeaeaieai? Anee au yoi auei oae, oi
aeaeueiaeoea ?annoaeaeaiey i niaoeeoeea i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
Eioa?iaoa noaee au eeai aanniuneaiiuie, eeai ca?aiaa i?aae?aoaiiuie,
iineieueeo iaiaoiaeeiua ii?iu iiaeii auei au nicaeaaaoue e i?eiaiyoue ii
aiaeiaee. Aeey ia/aea ioiaoei aeaa nouanoaaiiuo ioee/ey. Ia?aia ioee/ea
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi noaaoei i?eau/iuie eioi?iaoeeiiiui oaoiieiaeyi
(oaea oiiiyiooui ?aaeei eee oaeaaeaeaieth), /oiau aueoe ca i?aaeaeu
iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?aieoe, o?aaoaony i?eeiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiua oneeey,
aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaenoaey oaoie/aneiai e i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a (iai?eia?,
eniieueciaaoue ieieicaiiue niooiee iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aauaiey). Aeey
Eioa?iaoa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aeiaaeueiinoue yaeyaony aioo?aiiei e
iaiouaieaiui naienoaii. A neooaoeee n Eioa?iaoii, iai?ioea,
iieueciaaoaeth eee i?iaaeaea?o aeiiieieoaeueiua oneeey iaiaoiaeeiu aeey
oiai, /oiau eieaeeciaaoue, ia?aie/eoue ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee. Aoi?ia
ioee/ea ioiineony oaea e yeiiiie/aneie noa?a. ?a/ue eaeao i oeaiiaie
aeinooiiinoe Eioa?iaoa: noaoue i?iaaeaea?ii iaieaeaony ethaiio
aeaeathuaio ai?acaei aeaoaaea (ianeieueei nioai aeieea?ia NOA), /ai, e
i?eia?o, caaanoe nianoaaiiia ecaeaoaeuenoai eeai ?aaeei- eee
oaeaaauaoaeueioth eiiiaieth.

Aicieeaao, iaeiaei, eiie niaeaci – i?eiaieoue e Eioa?iaoo iiaeaee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, i?eiaiyaiua a ii?neii e einie/aneii
i?aaa. E a ii?neii, e a einie/aneii i?aaa iu noaeeeaaainy n neooaoeeae,
eiaaea eieaeeciaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue a i?aaeaeao eaeiai-eeai
ainoaea?noaa ieacuaaaony eeai o?oaeiiaeinoeaeeiui, eeai i?aeoe/anee
iaaiciiaeiui. Iaeiaei iiiuoea eniieueciaaoue ia?aaioaiiia a ae?oaeo
io?aneyo i?aaa iaoaeeeaaaony ia na?ueaciua i?aiyonoaey, naycaiiua n
iniaaiiinoyie, eioi?ua aeaeatho Eioa?iao ianiiinoaaeiui n oaea
ecaanoiuie oaoiieiaeyie. Eae oaea auei ioia/aii, Eioa?iao ioee/aao
aeinooiiinoue (ieacuaaoue naoaaua oneoae e oai aieaa eniieueciaaoue eo
iiaeao i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeue), /aai iaeuecy neacaoue i ii?neii e
einie/aneii i?aaa, aaea noauaeoiue ninoaa ecia/aeueii e aeinoaoi/ii
no?iai ia?aie/ai. E oiio aea Eioa?iao ieeae ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
“i?aaiecaoeeiiiui aaeeinoaii” (a i?aaiaii iiieiaiee), ie a iaeiie no?aia
ie?a ia nouanoaoao i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u, aunooiathuae a ea/anoaa
aaeeiiee/iiai nianoaaiieea eee aeaaeaeueoea eiiiuethoa?iie naoe n oaeei
iacaaieai*(121). Aeey iau/iiai iieueciaaoaey “i?aaenoaaeoaeai” oiai, /oi
ii iacuaaao “Eioa?iao”, aunooiaao i?iaaeaea?, i?aaeinoaaeythuee aio
eaiae aeinooia. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea niaa?oaaony aiciacaeiay naeaeea n
eniieueciaaieai naoaauo oaoiieiaee (iai?eia?, iiaeienea ia yeaeo?iiiia
NIE), eiio?aaaioii iieueciaaoaey aunooiaao ia i?iaaeaea?, a
i?aaiecaoeey, i?aaeinoaaeythuay oeacaiioth oneoao (ecaeaoaeueneay oe?ia
eee ?aaeaeoeey), iineieueeo e niioaaonoaothuei naeaeeai aiieia i?eiaieiu
aiaeiaee ec i?ioeanna “iaeiiiuethoa?iie” iiaeienee ia ia/aoiua ecaeaiey.
Aeey oe?iu – i?iecaiaeeoaey naoaauo oneoa “i?aaenoaaeoaeai” Eioa?iaoa
yaeythony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua eiiiaiee, niiniaiua ?acianoeoue
i?aaeeaaaaioth i?iecaiaeeoaeai eioi?iaoeeth ia naieo na?aa?ao. Oaeay
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay eiiiaiey (oinoeia-i?iaaeaea?) /anoi niaiaaeaao a
iaeiii eeoea n iia?aoi?ii aeinooia, ii oae auaaao ia anaaaea, e a yoii
neo/aa aeaaeaeaoe na?aa?a iieo/aao aeinooi e Naoe “ia iaueo iniiaaieyo”.
Aeey i?iaaeaea?a “i?aaenoaaeoaeai Eioa?iaoa” aunooiatho iia?aoi?u aieaa
e?oiiuo (“ia?ae/iuo”) naoae, i?aaeinoaaeythuea aio aiciiaeiinoue
niaaeeiaiey n ieie. O eaaeaeie ec oaeeo naoae anoue nianoaaiiue
aeaaeaeaoe, ii, eiia/ii, ii ioaeaeueiinoe ie iaeei ec ieo ana naoe,
“iauaaeeiyaiua Eioa?iaoii”, ie oaoie/anee, ie th?eaee/anee
eiio?iee?iaaoue ia iiaeao. Nouanoaotho, ai?i/ai, eiiia?/aneea e
iaeiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, eiaioaiua a niaieoiiinoe “niiauanoai
Eioa?iao”. Iaeiaei i?aaiecaoeee “niiauanoaa Eioa?iao” ii i/aaeaeiui
i?e/eiai ia iiaoo iacuaaoueny i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey Naoueth (aieaa
iiae?iaii i ieo aoaeao neacaii ieaea). Iie caieiathony a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue niaeaniaaieai oaoie/aneeo noaiaea?oia (iaiaia aeaiiuie,
niaaeeiaiey naoae e o.ae.), a oaeaea ?ani?aaeaeaieai aae?aniiai
i?ino?ainoaa. Naii ii naaa yoi i/aiue aaaeii aeey oaoie/aneiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey Naoe, ii ia ianao ooieoeee, iau/ii oa?aeoa?iuo aeey
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeae. E oiio aea aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee, iaania/eaathueo oaoie/aneea aniaeou ?aaiou Naoe, iineo
yaii o?aina?aie/iue oa?aeoa?, i?aeoe/anee ia ia?anaeaynue n ooieoeeyie
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?aaoee?othueo i?aaiia. Ana auoaneacaiiia iiaeaiaeeo e
auaiaeo, /oi e Eioa?iaoo iaaiciiaeii i?eiaieoue i?eciaee, iau/ii
oa?aeoa?ecothuea th?eaee/aneia eeoei. Eioa?iao ia iaeaaeaao
i?aaiecaoeeiiiui aaeeinoaii, ia eiei?ii?e?iaai ie a iaeiie ec no?ai ie?a
e ia nicaeai eae iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aaiecaoeey. Eioa?iao ia eiaao
nianoaaiiiai iainiaeaiiiai eiouanoaa, oae eae eniieuecoaiua a iai
iaoa?eaeueiua e eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu i?eiaaeeaaeao ia i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe naiui ?aciui noauaeoai (eaiaeu nayce –
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui eiiiaieyi; eiiiuethoa?u, i?iecaiaeyuea niaaeeiaiea
a Naoue, – i?iaaeaea?ai; eiiiuethoa?u iieueciaaoaeae – naiei
iieueciaaoaeyi; aiia?aoiia e i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea ?aaiou
iaaeno?aeueiuo naoae – aeaaeaeueoeai oaeeo naoae). Ia “niiniaai”
Eioa?iao e ianoe eaeea-eeai naiinoiyoaeueiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, oae
eae ca eaaeaeui aicieeathuei i?e ?aaioa a Eioa?iaoa i?aaiioiioaieai
noieo eiie?aoiue i?aainiiniaiue noauaeo. Neaaeai, i?e iiaeeeth/aiee
iieueciaaoaey e Naoe aai eiio?aaaioii aunooiaao i?iaaeaea?, i?e iieoiea
/a?ac Naoue eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a (iai?eia?, aeaeaieannaou) –
niioaaonoaothuay i?aaiecaoeey-i?iaeaaaoe, a i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ieaoaaea
ii naeaeea /a?ac Naoue – niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay ieaoaaeiay nenoaia. Eaaei
caiaoeoue, /oi ai anao aicieeathueo i?aaiioiioaieyo eo iauaeou, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iauai e oa?aeoa? ioaaonoaaiiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaothueo
noauaeoia niaa?oaiii ?acee/iu, i?aeoe/anee “ia ia?anaeathony”.

Ia yaeyaony Eioa?iao e iauaeoii i?aaa (/oi, e niaeaeaieth, ia
o/eouaaeinue a iiiai/eneaiiuo ?inneeneeo caeiiii?iaeoao n iauae
oaiaoeeie “eae iai io?aaoee?iaaoue Eioa?iao”). ?acaa?ai oaea
i?eaiaeeaoeany i?eia?u i?aaiioiioaiee ii iiaiaeo ?aaiou a Eioa?iaoa n
oeaeueth auyaeaiey eo i?aaeiaoiiai iniiaaiey. Iiaeeeth/aiea eiiiuethoa?a
iieueciaaoaey e eieaeueiie naoe i?iaaeaea?a inouanoaeyaony iooai
niaa?oaiey ianeieueeeo th?eaee/anee cia/eiuo aeaenoaee, i?e?iaea eioi?uo
oi?ioi ecaanoia e ia yaeyaony /ai-oi eneeth/eoaeueiui, – i?iaeaaea
i?ia?aiiiiai (i?ia?aiiu auoiaea a Eioa?iao) e aiia?aoiiai iaania/aiey
(iiaeai); a?aiaea eaiaea nayce (iiaeii i?iaanoe aiaeiaeth n i?iaeaaeae
iaoeiiiai a?aiaie ia YAI eee n eniieueciaaieai oaeaoiiiie eeiee i?e
iaaeaeoai?iaeiai ?acaiai?a). Eia/a aiai?y, eniieuecothony aeiaiai?
eoiee-i?iaeaaee, aeiaiai? a?aiaeu, a oaeaea a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie
ii?iu ia io?aia eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia i?aaeinoaaeaiiia i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea (aai, ii iauaio i?aaeeo, iaeuecy ia?aonoaiiaeoue aua ia
iaeei eiiiuethoa? aac ?aaeno?aoeee iiaiai iieueciaaoaey). A neo/aa
iieoiee eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a /a?ac Naoue iiyoue-oaee i?eiaiythony
aeinoaoi/ii oai?aoe/anee i?i?aaioaiiua iiiyoey – aeiaiai?
eoiee-i?iaeaaee, i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia i?iaeaaaaiue oiaa? e aai
ia?aoiae iiaiio nianoaaiieeo e o.ae. Aeaaea a neo/aa ia oieueei naoaaie
eoiee-i?iaeaaee, ii e naoaaie iieaou (a oii /enea n i?eiaiaieai oae
iacuaaaiuo oneiaiuo “yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiaa”, iinoaiaiii ooiaeyueo a
i?ioeia) i?aaeiao e niaoeeoeea ?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee oi?ioi ciaeiiu oioy
au niaoeeaeenoo a iaeanoe aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia e?aaeeoiuie ea?oi/eaie.
Iieo/aaony, /oi Eioa?iao, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie niaieoiiinoue
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai, niaaeeiaiiuo eaiaeaie nayce, ia iiaeao auoue e
i?aaeiaoii ?aaoee?iaaiey. A i?aai, eae ecaanoii, aicaeaenoaoao eeoue ia
iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey (i?aaiioiioaiey), oae eee eia/a naycaiiua n
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoueth. I?aaiaua ioiioaiey aicieeatho
caeanue ia noieueei ii iiaiaeo naiiai Eioa?iaoa eae eiiiuethoa?iie naoe,
neieueei ii iiaiaeo oao iauaeoia, eioi?ua oai eee eiui ia?acii naycaiu n
oaeie naoueth. Naie yoe iauaeou eeai oaea oi?ioi ecaanoiu (oiaa?u,
aunoaaeaiiua ia i?iaeaaeo ii eaoaeiao), eeai iaiaa enneaaeiaaiu n oi/ee
c?aiey th?eaee/aneie iaoee, ii ia i?aaenoaaeytho niaie /aai-oi
i?eioeeieaeueii iaiau/iiai (iai?eia?, oneoae ii ?aciauaieth ?aeeaiu ia
naeoao). Yoi eaaei iauynieii – Eioa?iao eae eiiiuethoa?iay naoue ia
nicaeaao eaeeo-eeai iiauo iaoa?eaeueiuo eee iaiaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia e
oiaa?ia, a eeoue i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoe aeey eo nicaeaiey,
?aciauaiey e ?aaeecaoeee iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie (e iia?aoi?aie
niioaaonoaothueo oneoa). *oi aea eanaaony ioiioaiee, eioi?ua iiyaeythony
ii iiaiaeo Eioa?iaoa eiaiii eae eiiiuethoa?iie naoe (o.a. oaoie/aneeo –
aiia?aoiuo e i?ia?aiiiuo – n?aaenoa niaaeeiaiey ?acee/iuo
eiiiuethoa?ia), oi, ai-ia?auo, iie i?aeoe/anee ia iinyo i?aaiaiai
oa?aeoa?a, a ioiinyony e noa?a oaoie/aneeo noaiaea?oia e niaoeeoeeaoeee.
Ai-aoi?uo, a oao iaiiiaeo neo/ayo, eiaaea oi eee eiia i?aaiaia
?aaoee?iaaiea ana aea i?eiaiyaony, aai i?aaeiaoii noaiiayony iiyoue-oaee
oneoae, noauaeoeaiua i?aaa e iaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou, ie/ai
i?eioeeieaeueii ia ioee/athueany io aiaeiae/iuo i?aaeiaoia
?aaoee?iaaiey, nouanoaiaaaoeo e aei iiyaeaiey naoe Eioa?iao (iai?eia?,
i?aaiecaoeey niooieeiauo e aieieiiii-iioe/aneeo eaiaeia nayce; i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe ia eniieuecoaioth eiiiuethoa?ioth oaoieeo; aeayoaeueiinoue
ieaoaaeiuo nenoai e o.ae.). Ana yoe aii?inu eeai oaea aeaoaeueii
?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu niioaaonoaothueie (e aeinoaoi/ii iiiai/eneaiiuie)
i?aaiauie aeoaie, eeai aeey eo o?aaoee?iaaiey a aoaeouai aeinoaoi/ii
i?eiaieoue iaoiaeu, aiaeiae/iua oaea ii?iaiaaiiui.

Iai?aoeaaaony aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiue auaiae: nai ii naaa Eioa?iao ia
yaeyaony eaeei-eeai iiaui iauaeoii i?aaa, eioi?ue iiaeii auei au
iinoaaeoue a iaeei ?yae, iai?eia?, n einoeoooaie eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa,
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe eee aeaeeeoiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Ia iiaeao auoue
Eioa?iao a no?iaii niunea e iauaeoii a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, iiaeiaiui
eiouanoao, eioi?iaoeee eee i?aaai ia ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe (oioy iiiaea i?aaeiaoiua eiiiiiaiou
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ea?atho ia?iiioth ?ieue a ?aciuo
aniaeoao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey Naoe). Ai?i/ai, yoi ia eneeth/aao
aiciiaeiinoe, /oi a aoaeouai, oai ia iaiaa, ioi?iyony eaeea-oi, i?aaeaea
iaecaanoiua, oaeoi?u nioeeaeueiie aeecie, eioi?ua aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoeth
Eioa?iaoa iio?aaotho niaoeeoe/aneie ?aaeaiaioaoeee a ?aieao ioaeaeueiiai
io?aneaaiai (eee aieaa /anoiiai) ?aaoee?iaaiey (iiaeiaii oiio, eae noi –
aeaanoe eao iacaae auyaeeanue nioeeaeueii cia/eiay i?iaeaia, naycaiiay n
io?aiie i?aa aaoi?ia eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee, /oi e ianoiyuaio
a?aiaie i?eaaei e ia?iiiiio ii?iaoeaiiio ianneao, ioiinyuaiony e
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a “eeanne/aneii” iiieiaiee). Icia/aao ee
yoi, /oi ?acaiai? i eaeie-eeai th?eaee/aneie niaoeeoeea
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey Eioa?iaoa yaeyaony aiiaua aani?aaeiaoiui? Eiia/ii aea,
yoi ia oae. Niaoeeoeea ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa,
aaconeiaii, eiaaony. Iiyaeaiea e ?acaeoea Eioa?iaoa aiineo iiiai
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai a oa?aeoa? acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie e
i?aaiecaoeeyie, naycuaathueieny iaaeaeo niaie ii Naoe, a oaeaea aea/ao
ca niaie aicieeiiaaiea iiauo aeayoaeueiuo noauaeoia – i?iecaiaeeoaeae
(iia?aoi?ia) naoaauo oneoa. TH?eaee/aneay iniaaiiinoue ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
iieueciaaoaeyie Eioa?iaoa e ioiioaiee ii iiaiaeo i?iecaiaeeiuo a Naoe
aeaenoaee caeeth/aaony, ii iaoaio iiaieth, a niaoeeoe/aneii niiniaa
?aaeecaoeee i?aa e iaycaiiinoae eeoe – iieueciaaoaeae Naoe. *oiau
iiynieoue oeacaiioth iuneue, aeey i?eia?a ?anniio?ei n oi/ee c?aiey
i?eiaieiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iau/iue oaeaoiiiue ?acaiai?, a iaueo
(oaoie/aneeo) /a?oao noiaeiue n naainii ?aaiou a Eioa?iaoa. Aeey
niaanaaeieeia, naycaiiuo oaeaoiiiui eaiaeii, ia oae aaaeiu aii?inu i
oii, eoi yaeyaony aeaaeaeueoeai eniieuecoaiie eie oaeaoiiiie naoe eee
eiio i?eiaaeeaaeao oaeaoiiiua aiia?aou. A eiioea eiioeia, anee yoi
iio?aaoaony, eaaeaeue ec niaanaaeieeia iiaeao (ii ieii/aiee ?acaiai?a)
ia?aoeoueny (ii oaeaoiio, ee/ii eee ii ia?aienea) a oaeaoiiioth
i?aaiecaoeeth, eioi?ie ii aiineo aaeaiany/ioth ieaoo. Iaeiaei nicaeaao
ee nai oaeo oaeaoiiiiai ?acaiai?a eaeea-eeai i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe aeey
niaanaaeieeia? ?acoiaaony, iao. Ia eiaaony ieeaeeo ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaee,
eioi?ua au ?aaoee?iaaee ii?yaeie aaaeaiey oaeaoiiiuo ?acaiai?ia, – o.a.
oaeaoiiiue ?acaiai? iauaeoii i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey auoue ia iiaeao!
Iiaeii naeaeaoue eeoue aeaa iaiai?ee. Ai-ia?auo, eiaaony ?yae i?aaee
?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a (ia caieiaoue aeieai eeieth, ia inoaaeyoue
o?oaeo iaiiaaoaiiie e o.ae.). Ii caeanue yoe i?aaeea /aua anaai naycaiu
n oaoie/aneie i?iaeaiie caa?oaeaiiinoe eeiee (e aii?in i eaeiie/iinoe
oaeaoiiiuo ?acaiai?ia /aua anaai nieiaaony aaaaeaieai iia?aiaiiie
iieaou) e eeoue a neo/aa oae iacuaaaiiai oaeaoiiiiai ooeeaainoaa aeaeoo
ca niaie i?eiaiaiea aaeieieno?aoeaiie e eiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe (eioi?ay a
oeaeii iaei ioee/aaony io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ooeeaaineea iinooiee “ia ii
oaeaoiio”). Ai-aoi?uo, a ?yaea i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo auoue ia?aie/aiey ii
niaea?aeaieth eioi?iaoeee, ia?aaeaaaaiie ni neoaeaaiuo oaeaoiiia. Oaeea
ia?aie/aiey (a oaeaea ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea eo niaethaeaiey)
iinyo ocei ia?aie/aiiue, eieaeueiue (aioo?eei?ii?aoeaiue) oa?aeoa?.
Aaeeinoaaiiue neo/ae, eiaaea iiaeii aiai?eoue i niaa?oaiee
niaanaaeieeaie aeaenoaee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia aicieeiiaaiea o ieo i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae, i?ienoiaeeo i?e ianoaeaeaiee eie oneiaee naeaeee n eo
o/anoeai, iai?eia? aeiaiai?a eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Anee ii caeiio ia
o?aaoaony ienueiaiiie oi?iu aeey i?eciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oaeie
naeaeee, iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa oaeaoiiiiai ?acaiai?a
aicieeei i?aaiioiioaiea, caoeene?iaaiiia eae caeeth/aiiay a onoiie oi?ia
naeaeea. A oi aea a?aiy aeaiiia i?aaiioiioaiea aicieeaao ia ec-ca oaeoa
?acaiai?a, a ec-ca oa?aeoa?a ia?aaeaaaaiie niaanaaeieeaie ae?oa ae?oao
eioi?iaoeee. I?eia?ii oaeei aea ia?acii no?iyony acaeiiioiioaiey
iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa n i?iaaeaea?aie, a oaeaea iaaeaeo niaie.
Iaeiaei a neo/aa eiiiuethoa?iie, a ia oaeaoiiiie naoe caeeth/aiea
aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie Eioa?iaoa eiaao iaeioi?oth niaoeeoeeo.
Iineaaeiyy caeeth/aaony a nouanoaaiii aieueoeo oaoie/aneeo aiciiaeiinoyo
niaa?oaoue th?eaee/aneea cia/eiua aeaenoaey ii n?aaiaieth n oaie
aiciiaeiinoyie, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeytho oaeaoii eee oaen; a niiniaa
iai?aaeaiey ioa?ou e aeoeaioa; a /enea aiciiaeiuo aae?anaoia ioa?ou; a
aiciiaeiinoyo ianoaeaeaiey e eciaiaiey oneiaee aeiaiai?a; a niiniaa
oeenaoeee oneiaee aeiaiai?a a eaeie-eeai iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia; a niiniaa
eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a eeoeii, iieo/athuei oneoao (iai?eia?, iiea/eaathuei
aa i?iecaiaeeoaeth)*(122).

Eoae, oaea nae/an iiaeii aiai?eoue i niaoeeoe/aneii niiniaa (ii ia
iniiaaiee!) aicieeiiaaiey i?aaiioiioaiee iaaeaeo oece/aneeie e
th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, naycuaathueieny iaaeaeo niaie iin?aaenoaii
Eioa?iaoa. Yoio niaoeeoe/aneee niinia: a) iaaiciiaeii naanoe e
eaeie-eeai iaeiie ec ecaanoiuo oi?i caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?ia eee
aicieeiiaaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe; a) naycai n eniieueciaaieai
eneeth/eoaeueii neiaeiiai oaoie/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, iicaieythuaai, oai
ia iaiaa, iaoiaeeoueny aac i?eaea/aiey niaoeeaeueiuo iiciaiee aeey aai
i?eiaiaiey; a) i?eaeaeaoaeai naiae iia?aoeaiinoueth e oaeianoaii
i?eiaiaiey (a /anoiinoe, iicaieyao niaeaniauaaoue oneiaey naeaeie e
eniieiyoue eo a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo naeoiae); a) oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie
noaiaiueth aeai?eoiecaoeee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo noauaeoaie; ae) aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue niaa?oaoue th?eaee/anee cia/eiua aeaenoaey, iai?aaeaiiua
ia aae?anaoia e iauaeou, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony ca i?aaeaeaie ia oieueei
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eiio?iey aeaenoaothuaai noauaeoa, ii e noa?u
?ani?ino?aiaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii ianoo
iaoiaeaeaiey, i?e/ai nouanoaaiii aieaa i?inoui niiniaii ii n?aaiaieth n
?aiaa ecaanoiuie.

Eaaeaeay ec oiiiyioouo iniaaiiinoae, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeieaeia auoue
io?aaeaia a oi?ioee?iaeao eiie?aoiuo i?aaiauo ii?i (oaenoao
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia), a oaeaea a i?eiaiyaiie
th?eaee/aneie oaoieea ?aaoee?iaaiey. Iai?eia?, iia?aoeaiinoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia a Eioa?iaoa canoaaeyao ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue ia
oaeie i?eioeei oai?ee i?aaa, eae aeaenoaea ii?iu ai a?aiaie. A
“aiaainoaea?noaaiiinoue” Naoe aucuaaao aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiua i?iaeaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiie th?enaeeeoeee. E?iia oiai, e noauaeou aeayoaeueiinoe a
Eioa?iaoa ii naiaio ninoaao cia/eoaeueii ioee/athony io noauaeoia
ioiioaiee, iau/ii iienuaaaiuo a oa?ieiao i?aaiauo ii?i. Aeey
yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey Naoe ia eiatho ieeaeiai cia/aiey
nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea iieueciaaoaey, aai i?ioanney, iie eee aic?ano,
ie aeaaea aunooiaao ee ii a ee/iii ea/anoaa eee eae i?aaenoaaeoaeue
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. A Eioa?iaoa aaaeii eeoue iaeii: anoue ee o
iieueciaaoaey naoaaie aae?an e iaania/eaaao ee eiioeao?aoeey aai
eiiiuethoa?a naycue n i?iaaeaea?ii aeinooia. Iaaeaeo oai na?ueaciie
i?iaeaiie yaeyaony oi, /oi iieueciaaoaeue Eioa?iaoa iiaeao ia oeacuaaoue
naia oece/aneia eee th?eaee/aneia eiy, a iieueciaaoueny inaaaeiieiii
(nickname) eee aiiaua aeaenoaiaaoue aiiieiii. Ioiaoei, /oi aiiieiiinoue
yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo
?acaeoea naii?aaoee?iaaiey a Naoe*(123). Ono?aiyy ioaeaeueiua
i?aiyonoaey (naycaiiua, e i?eia?o, n ia?aaiui nioeeaeueiui noaoonii),
eioi?ua aicieeatho i?e ee/iii iauaiee, aiiieiiinoue eiaao eae
iieiaeeoaeueiua, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu. Iieueciaaoaeue iieo/aao
oieeaeueiue oain auneacuaaoue naith oi/eo c?aiey aac iaeyaeee ia iiaiea
eieeaeoeaa, niiauanoaa eee ia/aeuenoaa. Oio aea iieueciaaoaeue, iaeiaei,
ia?ooay iauai?eiyoua ii?iu ii?aee, iiaeao oiio?aaeoue oeacaiiia naienoai
ae?ooaeueiiai iauaiey ai a?aae ae?oaei iieueciaaoaeyi. Aeiaieueii /anoi
inoaaony iacaia/aiiie ia?aoiay noi?iia iaaeaee – iniciaiea oiai, /oi
ia?ooaoue i?aaeea niiniaai ethaie, a cia/eo, iaeii e oi aea eeoei iiaeao
ieacaoueny eae a ?iee “i?anooiieea”, oae e a ?iee “aea?oau”. Nianoaaiii,
eiaiii yoi auaa?aiiia iiuoii iaaethaeaiea eaaeeo a iniiaa iniaaiii
no?iaeo (a n?aaiaiee n “ioeaeiiaui” iaoa?eaeueiui ie?ii) o?aaiaaiee e
ii?iai iauaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiui iiyoue-oaee e ethaiio iieueciaaoaeth
Naoe. Oaiaeaioeey nieaeaiey aiiieiiinoe, eioi?ay iaiaoeeanue a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy, eiaao naiae i?e/eiie ?ino naoaaie eiiia?/aneie
aeoeaiinoe, a oaeaea ai?ueao n iacai?ioaiiuie niiauaieyie (niaiii).
Aeaeay noaaeo ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea naiae i?iaeoeoeee /a?ac Eioa?iao,
i?iecaiaeeoaee (oiaa?ia, oneoa) iiaeaa?aaee au naay iaii?aaaeaiii
aieueoiio ?eneo, anee au iieoiaoaeue (iio?aaeoaeue) inoaaaeny aiiieiai.
Oniaoiinoue naoaaiai (eae, ai?i/ai, e o?aaeeoeeiiiiai) aeciana a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue caaeneo io iaee/ey aeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeee i iioaioeeaeueiuo
e ?aaeueiuo iieoiaoaeyo (iio?aaeoaeyo), eioi?ay iicaieyao i?iaiaeeoue
ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey e aeaeaoue iainiiaaiiua i?iaiicu
ioiineoaeueii ninoiyiey ae?ooaeueiiai ?uiea. Naiuie ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie
niiniaaie nai?a eioi?iaoeee ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue yaeythony oae
iacuaaaiua cookies*(124), a oaeaea iiiai/eneaiiua oi?iu, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii caiieieoue i?e i?eia?aoaiee eaeiai-eeai oiaa?a eee i?e
caeaca oneoa.

I?e aiaeeca th?eaee/aneie niaoeeoeee iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n
eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa, iaeuecy caauaaoue e i oii, /oi i?aai eae
naieoeeiie?iaaiiay ainoaea?noaii nenoaia ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaee ia
aaeeinoaaiiue nioeeaeueiue ?aaoeyoi?. Ea?e-Oaeioe Eaaea?, niaoeeaeeno a
iaeanoe “i?aaiaie iaoee” (Rechtswissenschaft), i?ioanni? e aeaeai
Aaiao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa a Aa?iaiee, ionoaeaaao iiceoeeth, niaeanii
eioi?ie “nioeeaeueiua eiiaaioeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia i?inoua oi?iu
eii?aeeiaoeee, ia iaeaaeathuea i?aaiaui oa?aeoa?ii, iie aeieaeiu
?anniao?eaaoueny eae oi?iu niaoeeaeueiiai iaaei?aaiecaoeeiiiiai
ii?iaeaeaiey naycuaathueo ioiioaiee e, oaeei ia?acii, i?eciaaaoueny a
ea/anoaa ii?iaoeaiuo oaiiiaiia”*(125). Eia/a aiai?y, naaiaeiy iiaeii
iaeiicia/ii eiinoaoe?iaaoue ?anoe?aiea iiiyoey “ii?iu” eae a niunea
ioeaca io eiioeaioeee aeanoei (ia o?iaia iniiaiiai caeiia, o.a.
eiinoeoooeee) onoaiiaeaiiuo e ia iaiaa aeanoei ea?a?oece?iaaiiuo
(i?aceaeaio, i?aaeoaeuenoai, ia?eaiaio e o.i.) noauaeoia, a eiiiaoaioeee
eioi?uo iaoiaeeony ii?iioai?/anoai, oae e a niunea i?ioeanna
eaaeoeiaoeee ii?i e naycaiiuo n iei aa?aioee eo niaethaeaiey.
Aeeniiceoeaiinoue, eae i?acthie?oaiia naienoai “iaainoaea?noaaiiuo” eee
“niaoaiiuo” ii?i*(126), iai?a/eaaaony a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eo “ne?uoie
eiia?aoeaiinoueth” – eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua “?aeiiaiaeaoeee” ieacuaathony
/aua anaai ia oieueei eo/oei (iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui), ii e aaeeinoaaiii
i?eaieaiui niiniaii iiaaaeaiey a oie eee eiie noa?a ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee.
Iaeiaei e a yoii aeaeeony, aiciiaeii, aeaaiia i?aeiouanoai
“iaainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a ii?iioai?/anoaa”: iiaeiaiua ii?iu ia
ioaeaeathony a i?ioeaaeo?a i?eciaiey eo iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie, iineieueeo
eo niaethaeaiea inouanoaeyaony aeia?iaieueii, a a?aiy eo “aeecie”
niaiaaeaao n eiyooeoeeaioii eo aeecianiiniaiinoe. Ii?ia neaaeotho aei
oao ii?, iiea iia oniaoii ?aaoee?oao oa eee eiua ioiioaiey, e ia?anoatho
ae neaaeiaaoue, anee yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey aeaeaao ii?io iai?eaiaeiie.

Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea /anoiiai i?aaa (aeeth/ay oi?aiaia i?aai) n
oaaaeeoaeueiinoueth aeieacuaaao ianinoiyoaeueiinoue eee, ii e?aeiae
ia?a, iaaeinoaoi/iinoue oai?ee enoi/ieeia i?aaa, iiea aua
eaaeeoeoee?oaiie eae “iauai?eiyoay”*(127). ?aaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea
aeaiiiai aii?ina enoiaeeo ec iiiaeanoaaiiinoe e i?eioeeieaeueiie
ioe?uoinoe enoi/ieeia i?aaa. Iiaia /anoiia i?aai ia iiaeao no?ieoueny ii
/?acau/aeii oceie noaia, eiaaea ioaee/iia i?eciaiea oiai eee eiiai
ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa aeinoeaaaony eneeth/eoaeueii iin?aaenoaii
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?eciaiey eee a ?acoeueoaoa aai i?iaaaeaiey /a?ac
noaeaaiua i?aaiu (o.a. i?enaiaieai ioeoeeaeueiie i?aaiaie nenoaiie oiai,
/oi i?ae?anii nouanoaoao e ooieoeeiie?oao e aac iaeia?aiey “nauoa”).

A ea/anoaa iiaie ?aciiaeaeiinoe enoi/ieeia i?aaa neaaeoao iniai
auaeaeeoue oae iacuaaaiua niaoaiiua enoi/ieee, eioi?ua yaeythony iaeiei
ec iaeaieaa aeaeeo eino?oiaioia, iicaieythuei iaeoe eiii?iienn iaaeaeo
ainoaea?noaii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ?uieii – n ae?oaie. Iaeaieaa y?eee
i?eia? oaeiai enoi/ieea iu iiaeai iaeoe ai o?aioeocneii i?aaa. Eiathony
a aeaeo iacaaeneiua aaeieieno?aoeaiua aaoi?eoaou (autorite
administrative independante, eee A.A.I.), i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie iiaue
th?eaee/aneee einoeooo, aiaeiae/iiai eioi?iio o?aioeocneia i?aai ia
eiaei*(128).

Ia?eiae, eiaaea o/anoea iaainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo? a i?ioeanna
ii?iioai?/anoaa ?anniao?eaaeinue eae eneeth/aiea ec i?aaee, iiaeoiaeeo e
eiioeo. Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue naia aioiaa onooieoue /anoue naieo
iieiiii/ee /anoiiio naeoi?o, iineieueeo eiiai iooe, o/eouaay nia?aiaiiua
oaoiieiaee e niioaaonoaothuaa ei a?aaeaeaineia e iieeoe/aneia iuoeaiea,
i?inoi ia nouanoaoao*(129). Niaeanii O?ainoa ?eai, “o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiia
a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai” aeeth/aao o?e aeaea noauaeoia: (1) ainoaea?noai,
aeaenoaothuaa ia iniiaaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?aaa; (2) niiauanoai
ainoaea?noa, eioi?ia iiae/eiyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ii?yaeeo; (3)
eiaeeaeaeia, aeaenoaothueo iooai /anoiuo eieoeeaoea, aeeth/ay
“iaainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee”*(130). I aiciiaeiinoyo, eioi?uie
iaeaaeatho e eioi?uie aeoeaii iieuecothony noauaeou /anoiiai i?aaa eae
o/anoieee nia?aiaiiiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai niiauanoaa, Aai?e A. Ia??eoo,
aeaeai TH?eaee/aneiai eieeaaeaea “*eeaai-Eaio”, auneacuaaaony
neaaeothuei ia?acii: “Acaeiiaeaenoaoy ae?oa n ae?oaii, /anoiua noauaeou
onoaiaaeeaatho /anoiua i?aaiioiioaiey, iie onoaiaaeeaatho niaoaiiua
i?aaiioiioaiey, eiaaea acaeiiaeaenoaotho n ainoaea?noaii, e, iaeiiaoe,
iaace?ay ia iaoeeiiaeueiua a?aieoeu, iie eii?aeeie?otho naie ee/iua
/anoiua eioa?anu e ieacuaatho aa?oeeaeueiia aeaaeaiea /a?ac a?oiiu naieo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae (national interest groups), ii?aaeaeyy oaeei ia?acii
iieeoeeo ainoaea?noa”*(131). A ea/anoaa caneoaeeaathuaai aieiaiey
i?eia?a oiiiyiai iaainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee (NGO). Nai oa?iei
“iaainoaea?noaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey” aioae a oiio?aaeaiea a 1945 a., eiaaea
i?e ia?aciaaiee III oae iacuaaaiua iaainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee
iieo/eee eiinoeueoaoeeiiiue noaoon i?e Yeiiiie/aneii e Nioeeaeueiii
Niaaoa (ECOSOC), iaeiii ec iniiaiuo i?aaiia III. O?aaiaaiey,
i?aaeuyaeyaiua IAI a oi a?aiy, auee ieieiaeueiu – iacaaeneiinoue io
ainoaea?noaa, iaeiiia?/aneee e iae?eieiaeueiue oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe.
Neeoeii oe?ieia oieeiaaiea e ionoonoaea caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaiiiai
i?aaiaiai noaoona ii?aaeaeeee ia aeanyoeeaoey iauoth oi/eo c?aiey ia IAI
eae ia “oaoie/aneee oa?iei III”. Naia iiaia ?iaeaeaiea IAI ia?aaeeee a
ia/aea 90-o aa., e ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue aeaaiaea?y naoe Eioa?iao,
o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? eioi?ie i?eian n niaie iiaue acaeyae ia
oieueei ia ie?iaoth yeiiiieeo, ii e ia ie?iaoth iieeoeeo. 1 yiaa?y 1991
a. anooieea a neeo Aa?iiaeneay eiiaaioeey “I i?eciaiee i?aainoauaeoiinoe
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iaainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee”, i?eiyoay ii
eieoeeaoeaa Niaaoa Aa?iiu*(132). Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue i?aeoe/anee any
aeayoaeueiinoue IAI, naycaiiay n iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuie aeeneonneyie e
niaeaneoaeueiuie iia?aoeeyie, inouanoaeyaony a ?aieao aeiaaeueiie
Naoe*(133). I?eiaieoaeueii e ?inneeneie i?aaiaie i?aeoeea ooaa?aeeeinue
iiiyoea “naii?aaoee?oaiay i?aaiecaoeey”, i?eioeeieaeueiui ioee/eai
eioi?ie eae ?ac e yaeyaony aa “iaainoaea?noaaiiinoue”. Ii e aia
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie nenoaiu ii?i i naii?aaoee?oaiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo
(niioaaonoaothuee i?iaeo Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia oaea ?anniao?eaaaony a
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia) nouanoaotho iaoi?iaeueiua (o.a. ia
eiei?ii?e?iaaiiua) iauaaeeiaiey, iiaeiaiua IOENIo (Ioe?uoiio oi?oio
eioa?iao-na?aen-i?iaaeaea?ia), i?eiyoua eioi?ui “I?aaeea iieueciaaiey
naoueth” oaeoe/anee ooaa?aeeeenue ii e?aeiae ia?a a ea/anoaa iau/ay
aeaeiaiai iai?ioa.

Eioa?iao, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eioa?aniaeoee i?eia?
oiai, ianeieueei oaea/ii e yooaeoeaii iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny noieue
neiaeiay oaoie/aneay nenoaia i?aeoe/anee a ionoonoaea oi?iaeueiiai
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

“Aaea anoue iauanoai, – ienae A.O. Oa?oaiaae/, – oai aeieaeiu auoue e
i?aaeea iauaaeeoey, eee nioeeaeueiua ii?iu”*(134). Caeanue iiaeii auei
au oaeaea aniiiieoue E.E. Iao?aaeeoeeiai, eioi?ue aianoi ?acee/aiey
nioeeaeueiuo e i?aaiauo ii?i ?anoe?ee iiiyoea i?aaa, aeeth/ea a iaai
“ana eiia?aoeaii-ao?eaooeaiua ia?aaeeaaiey e ana niioaaonoaothuea
i?iaeoeee aac anyeeo ecuyoee e ia?aie/aiee”*(135). Aaaeii, /oi iiiyoea
nioeeaeueiie ii?iaoeaiinoe aeeth/aao i?aaiaua ii?iu, o.a. naii ii naaa
yaeyaony oe?a. Nioeeaeueiua ii?iu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?aaeienaiey,
o?aaiaaiey, iiaeaeaiey, n eioi?uie naycaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua iaeeaeaiey, a
eiaiii, iaeeaeaiey niioaaonoaothuaai (iauanoaaiii iaeia?yaiiai)
iiaaaeaiey. E nioeeaeueiui ii?iai iau/ii ioiinyo ii?iu i?aaa, ii?aee,
?aeeaeiciua, ei?ii?aoeaiua ii?iu, iau/ae (a oii /enea aeaeiaua
iaueiiaaiey), yoeeao e i?i/. A oi aea a?aiy i?iaeaia oiai, eaeei ia?acii
niioiinyony nioeeaeueiua ii?iu e iaioeoeeaeueiua ii?iu iiaaaeaiey,
i?eiyoua a Naoe, aei ianoiyuaai a?aiy ia iieo/eea iaeiicia/iiai ?aoaiey.

Anee a ioiioaiee eiuo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n i?aaiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai
Eioa?iaoa, iai o?aaiaaeinue ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i iaee/ee eeai
ionoonoaee niaoeeoeee niioaaonoaothueo ioiioaiee e iauaeoia, oi a
ioiioaiee eeaa?ii?i aii?in ia eo niaoeeoeea iio?aaoao io ian
?anniio?aiey ia oieueei i?aaeiaoa ?aaoee?iaaiey, ii oaeaea i?e?iaeu
(i?ienoiaeaeaiey) e ?acaeoey oeacaiiuo ii?i.

Aneaae ca Yei?ee I. Iyeaeaei?*(136) iiae “eeaa?ii?iaie” iu aoaeai
iiieiaoue “iaycaoaeueiua e eniieiaieth iaoi?iaeueiua nioeeaeueiua
noaiaea?ou a eeaa?i?ino?ainoaa”*(137). Oaea auei neacaii, /oi oae
iacuaaaiia ae?ooaeueiia niiauanoai ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eaeiai-oi
iniaiai noauaeoa e ninoieo ec iieueciaaoaeae, o.a. ia?aciaaii a eiia/iii
n/aoa ethaeueie, oaie aea, eioi?ua aoiaeyo a niiauanoaa eee a?oiiu
(neaaeai, i?ioanneiiaeueiua eee ii eioa?anai) a i?eau/iii aeey ian
“nioeeaeueiii i?ino?ainoaa”. A oi aea a?aiy ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
ioiioaiey, neeaaeuaathueany aioo?e oaeiai niiauanoaa e ia?acothuea aai
ea?ean, iieiinoueth eaeaioe/iu o?aaeeoeeiiiui, auei au
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiui. Aiieia i/aaeaeii, /oi iieueciaaoaee a oie eee eiie
ia?a ia?aiinyo iauai?eiyoua nioeeaeueiua ii?iu ia eiiioieeaoeee aioo?e
Naoe. Iaeiaei, – e a yoii caeeth/aaony iaeei ec oeaio?aeueiuo oacenia
iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey Y.I. Iyeaeaei? “I?ienoiaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea ii?i a
eeaa?i?ino?ainoaa: iiaeaee yaiethoeee eeaa?ii?iu”, – ?acaeoea
eeaa?i?ino?ainoaa oei ii iooe io aiiiaaiiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu,
noi?ie?iaaaoaeny ca aai i?aaeaeaie, e eaaceiacaaeneiiio aaoa?iaaiiiio
niiauanoao, eioi?ia neiaeeeinue oaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ae?ooaeueiie
n?aaea*(138).

Anee iu ia?aoeiny e enoieai “naoaaiai” niiauanoaa, oi iaia?oaeei, /oi
aai ia?auie /eaiaie e iaeiia?aiaiii nicaeaoaeyie auee o/aiua (eiaeaia?u,
oeceee, iaoaiaoeee, i?ia?aiienou), o.a. ethaee, i?eiaaeeaaeauea e
caieiooie e a ii?aaeaeaiiii ioiioaiee yeeoa?iie noaeoeueoo?a ?aaeueiiai
(o?aaeeoeeiiiiai) niiauanoaa. Ia yoii ia?aiia/aeueiii yoaia caaeneiinoue
io nioeeaeueiuo ii?i (ii?i iauaiey, i?eiyouo a n?aaea o/aiuo) auea
iaeneiaeueiie. Neooaoeey eciaieeanue, eiaaea Eioa?iao i?aa?aoeeny a
n?aaenoai eiiioieeaoeee aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a*(139). Nenoaia
“eeaa?ii?i” ?anoe?eeanue e noaea aeeth/aoue a naay iiaenenoaiu (eee
a?oiiiaua ii?iu), aini?iecaiaey oaeei ia?acii no?oeoo?o nioeeaeueiuo
ii?i o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iauanoaa. I?e aeeaeaeoai ?anniio?aiee no?oeoo?iia
iiaeiaea ia icia/aao oiaeaeanoaa ia o?iaia naiaioeee. Iineieueeo
Eioa?iao aunooiaao a ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea (ia?yaeo n oaeaoiiii eee
oaenii) a /aeiaa/aneie eiiioieeaoeee, iinoieueeo eaaeaony aiieia
anoanoaaiiui, /oi ?yae eeaa?ii?i i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?yiia
caeinoaiaaiea ec aeeaie eiiioieeaoeee (e i?eia?o, o?aaiaaiea i
nio?aiaiee eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe). N ae?oaie noi?iiu, Naoue
i?aaeinoaaeyao oaeea n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia, yeaeaaeaiou
eioi?uo ionoonoaotho a iaoeeo?iaie n?aaea. A nayce n oeacaiiie
niaoeeoeeie eioa?iao-eiiioieeaoeee cia/eoaeueiay /anoue nioeeaeueiuo
ii?i eeai eeoaaony naiae ooieoeeiiaeueiie cia/eiinoe, eeai ioaeaeaaony a
iiaeeoeeaoeee, /oiau niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi Naoe*(140). I?eaaaeai
?enoiie, eioi?ue iaaeyaeii i?aaenoaaeyao ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee Y.I.
Iyeaeaei?:

Ia ?enoiea iaicia/aiu iaeiia?aiaiii aeaa ooieoeeiiaeueiua caaeneiinoe –
caaeneiinoue eeaa?ii?i io nioeeaeueiuo ii?i (C(S)) e caaeneiinoue
nioeeaeueiuo ii?i io eeaa?ii?i (S(C)). Ia a?aoeea aeaeii, /oi a oi a?aiy
eae caaeneiinoue (inue eii?aeeiao Y) eeaa?ii?i n oa/aieai a?aiaie (inue
eii?aeeiao X) iinoaiaiii nieaeaaony, caaeneiinoue nioeeaeueiuo ii?i n
oie aea nei?inoueth aic?anoaao. A iiiaio a?aiaie t’, oi/ee ?aaiiaaney,
?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeaoiy nenoaiaie noe?aaony*(141). Aaoi? i?aaeiieaaaao,
oaeei ia?acii, /oi ?acaeoea Eioa?iaoa eiaao naie anoanoaaiiue i?aaeae, a
eiaiii eioaa?aoeeth a iauanoaaiioth aeeciue, iiieiaaioth eae
oeaeinoiinoue anao aiciiaeiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe e ioiioaiee,
aeeth/ay “ae?ooaeueiua”. Ia aoaeai, iaeiaei, ioneaoueny a nii?u
ioiineoaeueii aoaeouaai Eioa?iaoa. Ia iao acaeyae, aieaa ia?niaeoeaiui
yaeyaony oacen aaoi?a, eanathueeny nia?aiaiiiai noaoona naoe. I?eieiay
eaeath aaoi?a ia ia?aoiii aeeyiee eeaa?ii?i ia nioeeaeueiua onoaiiaeaiey
aioo?e o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, iu auioaeaeaiu ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue ia
i?aaiaua i?iaeaiu Eioa?iaoa: eo ?aoaiea yaeyaony eieaeueiui (o.a.
caieiooui ia “ae?ooaeueioth” n?aaeo) oieueei ia ia?aue acaeyae, oiaaea
eae a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ooieoeeiiaeueii oniaoiua iiaeaee ieacuaatho
aeeyiea ia i?aainiciaiea a oeaeii, i?eaiinyo a iaai iiaua iiiyoey e
eciaiytho aai eiinoaiou.

Ia?aoeiny oaia?ue e aii?ino i eaaaeecaoeee eeaa?ii?i. I?eiyoea ?aoaiey
ii eeth/aaui aii?inai (a oii /enea oaoie/aneei), naycaiiui n oi?aaeaieai
Eioa?iaoa, inouanoaeyaony ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aeaaiui ia?acii
niaeaneoaeueiui iooai. I?ioanni? i?aaa Oieaa?neoaoa Iaeyie A. Iaeee
O?oieei auaeaeyao /aou?a oi?iu “eiinainona”, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao
eaaeoeiiinoue naoaauo ii?i (i?aaee iiaaaeaiey):

1) ia?aaiai?iue eiinainon (negotiated consensus), eee niaeaniaaiea
iiceoeee, eioi?ia aeinoeaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aaiai?ia anao
caeioa?aniaaiiuo noi?ii. Aeaiiue aeae eiinainona ?acaeaaaony, e i?eia?o,
a ?aieao IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
iauaaeeiaiey enneaaeiaaoaeae, ?ac?aaio/eeia e i?iecaiaeeoaeae naoaauo
i?ioieieia, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca “a?oeoaeoo?o” Eioa?iaoa. Iieo/eaoay
ioeoeeaeueiia i?eciaiea a 1986 a. aeaiiay a?oiia nouanoaoao a oi?ia
naiaiaeiie annioeeaoeee e ioe?uoa aeey anao “caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe”;

2) ?uii/iue eiinainon (market consensus), eee noaiaea?oecaoeey,
aeinoeaaaiay iin?aaenoaii “anoanoaaiiiai (?uii/iiai) ioai?a”. E i?eia?o,
oaoie/aneea noaiaea?ou noaiiayony oaeiauie ia iioiio, /oi eoi-oi
i?iaicaeanee eo oaeiauie, a ii i?e/eia eo ianniaiai eniieueciaaiey.
Iineieueeo iaeie o/anoieee i?ioeanna ii onoaiiaeaieth noaiaea?oia
iieo/atho ecaanoiua i?aeiouanoaa, a ae?oaea, iai?ioea, oa?iyo oauoee
(eiaaea, e i?eia?o, i?iaeaaaaiay eie oaoiieiaey ia niioaaonoaoao iiaui
noaiaea?oai), eiii?iienna eae oaeiaiai iaaeinoaoi/ii. Caeioa?aniaaiiua
noi?iiu aoaeoo o/anoaiaaoue a ia?aaiai?ao e niaeaoaoueny n eo enoiaeii
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee auaiaea, eioi?oth i?eianao n niaie
noaiaea?oecaoeey, ia?aaaneo aiciiaeioth auaiaeo io aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
niiniaia ?aoaiey nii?iiai aii?ina;

3) aeaeaae?iaaiea (delegation), eee aeinoeaeaiea eiinainona iooai
ia?aaea/e iieiiii/ee ia i?eiyoea ?aoaiee aeiaa?aiiiio eeoeo (a?oiia
eeoe). ?a/ue eaeao ia aaoi?eoaoiii enoi/ieea ii?i, ?aoaieyi eioi?iai
eioa?iao-niiauanoai aioiai iiae/eiyoueny aac aeiiieieoaeueiiai
ianoaeaeaiey e e?eoe/aneie ioeaiee. I?eioeeieaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth
“aeaeaae?iaaiey” a ae?ooaeueiii i?ino?ainoaa yaeyaony ionoonoaea
einoaioeee “auai?ia” – iineieueeo aaoi?eoao, iicaieythuee i?eieiaoue
ioaaonoaaiiua ?aoaiey, ieeai ia i?enaaeaaaony, aeiaa?aiiia eeoei
aeaenoaoao, eae i?aaeei, ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa;

4) ianniaay ianoue (mass revenge), eee niiioaiiay ?aaeoeey o/anoieeia
eioa?iao-iauaiey ia yaioth oa?ico, enoiaeyuoth io ia?ooeoaeae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo ii?i iiaaaeaiey a Naoe. Iaeaieaa oeie/iuie
i?iyaeaieyie “ianniaie ianoe” yaeythony ino?aeeci (o.a. “ecaiaiea”
ia?ooeoaeae ec ae?ooaeueiiai niiauanoaa) e “yeaeo?iiiua aoaee” (e
i?eia?o, “email bombings”). Aieaa iyaeay oi?ia naieoeee i?eiaiyaony aeey
i?eioaeaeaiey e niaethaeaieth “naoaaiai yoeeaoa” (“netiquette”).

Ii nooe iiiyoea “naii?aaoee?iaaiey” yaeyaony ienthii?iiii: anee ana
caaeaenoaiaaiiua eeoea niaeaoathony n iaai?ii i?aaee, oi iaiaaeeaaeauaa
iiaaaeaiea, eioi?iio au neaaeiaaei i?ioeainoiyoue, ionoonoaoao. Aeaiiia
iiiyoea noaiiaeony iniuneaiiui, eiaaea i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eaeay-oi
/anoue noauaeoia iiae/eiyaony aeaaeaieth a?oiiu. *oi eanaaony Eioa?iaoa,
oi ii “iniaaiii aini?eei/ea e naii?aaoee?iaaieth, iineieueeo
?aaoee?othuee i?aai /aua anaai iiaeao iia?aoueny ia oaoie/aneea
iaoaieciu i?eioaeaeaiey”*(142). ?acaeoay nenoaia naii?aaoee?iaaiey a
Naoe noaaeo aaaeiue oai?aoe/aneee aii?in i oii, eae n?i/ii o?iaaiue
?acaeoey nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, naycaiiue n nouanoaiaaieai iiaeiaiie
nenoaiu, iio?aaoao ?ac?aaioee e i?eiaiaiey niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. (Neaaeothuei aii?inii, i/aaeaeii, aoaeao, ianeieueei
yooaeoeaiui ieaaeaony oaeia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeey ?acaeoey naiie
oaoie/aneie nenoaiu.) Aua ?ac iiaoi?einy, /oi aei neo ii? ii?iaoeaiia
?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie, iia?aoi?aie e eiuie
o/anoieeaie eioa?iao-ioiioaiee ia iineo eneeth/eoaeueii eee aeaaea
i?aeiouanoaaiii niaoeeoe/anee i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a. Yoi icia/aao, /oi,
iiieii iiiai/eneaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo i?ioieieia,
?aaeaiaioia e noaiaea?oia, a Eioa?iaoa i?eiaiythony ii?iu, ioiinyueany e
iau/ayi (“naoaaui o?aaeeoeeyi”), ei?ii?aoeaiui i?aaeeai, i?eioeeiai
iauanoaaiiiai naiioi?aaeaiey e aeaaea e yoeea (“naoaaiio yoeeaoo”,
netiquette). Oeacaiiiio ianoiyoaeuenoao iiaeii aeaoue iauyniaiea,
naycaiiia n enoi?eae aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey Eioa?iaoa.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue a nayce n ianoaeaeaieai eiioeaioeee Y.I. Iyeaeaei?,
ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo eao Eioa?iao iauaaeeiye n?aaieoaeueii ia?aie/aiiue
e?oa iieueciaaoaeae ec oieaa?neoaoneeo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo oeaio?ia NOA.
Iaaeaeo ieie o?aaeeoeeiiii neeaaeuaaeenue ioiioaiey (?acoiaaony, ia
oieueei i?e iieueciaaiee Naoueth), naienoaaiiua o/anoieeai iao/iuo
aeeneonnee. Oaeea ioiioaiey oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue aunieie noaiaiueth
aeiaa?eoaeueiinoe, oaaaeaieai e iiaieth niaanaaeieea, ii?aaeaeaiiuie
“i?aaeeaie aaaeeeainoe”, a oaeaea eniieueciaaieai oa?ieiieiaee
(“iao/iiai neaiaa”), oi?ioi ecaanoiie o/anoieeai iauaiey, ii iaei
iiiyoiie “ethaeyi ni noi?iiu”. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey Eioa?iaoa noeoeeii
au?aaioaiiua, /anoi ieaaea ia caoeene?iaaiiua i?aaeea “naoaaiai yoeeaoa”
(netiquette) noaee iauai?eiyoui noaiaea?oii iiaaaeaiey e aeey iiauo
iieueciaaoaeae Naoe. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie, eiia/ii, i?aaeea “naoaaiai
yoeeaoa” iiaeii iaeoe a iiae?iaiii eceiaeaiee e n iiyniythueie
eiiiaioa?eyie. Ii aei neo ii? iaaiciiaeai aeaaea ?acaiai? i iaoiaeao eo
i?eioaeeoaeueiiai i?eiaiaiey ii ioiioaieth e ia?ooathuei eo
iieueciaaoaeyi Eioa?iaoa. A eo/oai neo/aa ia eo ia?ooaiey ae?oaea
iieueciaaoaee ia ia?aoyo aieiaiey (eee, iaiai?io, iioetho aiaaiia
caia/aiea), a ooaeoai (e?aeia ?aaeeii) neo/aa ia?ooeoaeue aoaeao
/anoe/ii eeoai aiciiaeiinoe i?iaeieaeaoue iauaiea n ae?oaeie eeeaioaie.
*oiau auei aieaa iiiyoii, i /ai eaeao ?a/ue, i?eaaaeai neaaeothuee
i?eia?. Iaeiie ec naoaauo oneoa yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiue nienie ?annueee,
iicaieythuee iieo/aoue niiauaiey ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa ia ii?aaeaeaiiua
oaiu io ethaiai iieueciaaoaey Eioa?iaoa, “iiaeienaaoaainy” ia
niioaaonoaothuee nienie. Nouanoaotho i?aaeea iieueciaaiey nieneaie, /aua
anaai i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie iaai?u i?ia?aiiiuo eiiaiae e aeai?eoiia,
iaania/eaathueo aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee. Oae eae yoe i?aaeea iinyo /enoi
oaoie/aneee oa?aeoa?, oi eo ianiaethaeaiea aaaeao e oiio, /oi
iai?aaeeueii iaa?aiiay eiiaiaea ia aoaeao eniieiaia e o?aaoaiay
eioi?iaoeey i?inoi ia aoaeao iieo/aia. Ia?yaeo n oaoie/aneeie i?aaeeaie
iieueciaaiey nieneaie ?annueee eiathony e i?aaeea “yoeeaoa”, noiaeiua
aeey anao nieneia. I?aaeea “naoaaiai yoeeaoa” ia ai anai niaiaaeatho n
ii?iaie “iau/iiai” yoeeaoa, eioi?ui iieuecothony, neaaeai, i?e iau/iie
ii/oiaie ia?aienea. Iai?eia?, ia?ooaieai “naoaaiai yoeeaoa” yaeyaony
ninoaaeaiea niiauaiey n eniieueciaaieai oieueei i?iieniuo aoea. Yoi
i?eiyoi n/eoaoue “ieioeie iaia?aie”, aiaeiaii au?aaeaiey a?oainoe,
inei?aeoaeueiinoe. Anoue e iaiaa “yecioe/aneea” i?aaeea, iai?eia?,
cai?ao ia ?annueeo niiauaiee, ia eiathueo ioiioaiey e onoaiiaeaiiie oaia
ianoaeaeaiey, eee ioi?aaeo “ienai ii oeaii/ea” (oeia “ia?aoeeoa yoio
oaeno aeanyoe naiei ciaeiiui”). Ia?ooaiea i?aaee “yoeeaoa” ia aea/ao ca
niaie ioeaca a aeinooia e ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee, ii iiaeao i?eaanoe
e oiio, /oi ia?ooeoaeth aoaeao naeaeaii caia/aiea a aeaea iinueee
niiauaiey, inoaeaeathuaai aai aeaenoaey. I?e/ai iiaeiaiia niiauaiea
iiaeao auoue iineaii ethaui iieueciaaoaeai, n/eoathuei naay
“inei?aeaiiui”, a eo /enei iiaeao aeinoeaiooue nioai e aeaaea ouny/!
Iaeiiaoe, ia?ooeoaeue iiaeao auoue eneeth/ai ec nienea ?annueee, anee
?aoaiea ia yoii i?eiao aaeieieno?aoi? nienea. Iaeiaei eneeth/aiea ec
nienea ?annueee ia icia/aao, /oi ia?ooeoaeue ia niiaeao aiiaue noaoue
o/anoieeii yoiai aea nienea (iai?eia?, iiae eiui eiaiai e aae?anii),
noaoue o/anoieeii ethaiai eiiai nienea eeai i?iaeieaeaoue “ooeeaaineea”
aeaenoaey, eniieuecoy ia nienie ?annueee, a i?inoi yeaeo?iiioth ii/oo.
Anee a aeaenoaeyo ia?ooeoaey “yoeeaoa” iao iniiaaiee i?eciaoue eo
eiiiuethoa?iui i?anooieaieai (e i?eia?o, iiiuoeie aceiia nenoaiu caueou
na?aa?a, n eioi?iai i?ienoiaeeo ?annueea niiauaiee ii nieneo), oi
ieeaeeo eiuo, e?iia auoaia?a/eneaiiuo, ia? i?eioaeaeaiey eee iaeacaiey e
iaio i?eiaieoue iaeuecy. Oai ia iaiaa neo/ae “naoaaiai ooeeaainoaa” (e
niaeaeaieth, eneeth/ay niai) n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeee. Iie oe?iei
ianoaeaeaeenue (e inoaeaeaeenue) a naiie Naoe. A oeaeii aea nenoaio
i?aaee “naoaaiai yoeeaoa” i?aaiia?ii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue ia oieueei eae
ianeiaeioth aeey iiieiaiey, caiiieiaiey e niaethaeaiey, ii e eae
aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaioth aeey onoaiiaeaiey ii?yaeea iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae
a Eioa?iaoa ia iaeiiia?/aneie iniiaa.

I/aaeaeii, eiaiii oio oaeo, /oi aieueoeinoai ioiioaiee, aicieeathueo
iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie Eioa?iaoa, ii-i?aaeiaio ia iinyo eiiia?/aneiai,
aiciacaeiiai oa?aeoa?a, niinianoaoao iiaeaea?aeaieth ioiineoaeueii
aunieie yooaeoeaiinoe oiiiyioouo ii?i e i?aaee iath?eaee/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a. I?e yoii iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi inouanoaeaiea iieueciaaoaeyie
a Naoe ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaenoaee, /anoi i?aaeaeueii oi?iaeeciaaiiuo,
aeai?eoiece?iaaiiuo, i?aeiouanoaaiii ana aea iai?aaeaii ia aicieeiiaaiea
oao eee eiuo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae o ieo naieo eee o naieo
“niaanaaeieeia”. *aua anaai ?a/ue eaeao i niiniaao iieo/aiey
eioi?iaoeee, onoaiiaeaiee ii?yaeea aeinooia e iae. Oaea iaeii yoi
iiae/a?eeaaao nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey aeaenoaee iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa,
iai?eia?, io iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae ii oaeaoiio. ?acaeoea eiiia?/aneeo
ioiioaiee a Eioa?iaoa, aaconeiaii, iio?aaoao aieaa aeaoaeueiie
i?i?aaioee i?aaee, ?aaoee?othueo ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie Naoe,
nae/an iinyueo nei?aa (sui generis) eaaceth?eaee/aneee oa?aeoa?. Eiaiii
oaeei ia?acii iiaeii “a ea/anoaa ?aai/ae aeiioacu” eiaiiaaoue
niaieoiiinoue iuiaoieo i?aaee iiaaaeaiey a Eioa?iaoa. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
iie i?eiaiythony a ionoonoaea eaeiai-eeai iauanaoaaiai i?aaia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai eiio?iey e i?eioaeaeaiey. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iie
?aaoee?otho ii?yaeie niaa?oaiey aeaenoaee, eioi?ua i?e iaee/ee
oa?aeoa?enoeee aiciacaeiinoe iaeiicia/ii i?eiyoi n/eoaoue eiathueie
th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea. I ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaeeao oaoie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a,
eioi?ua ?aaeaiaioe?otho ii?yaeie iauaaeeiaiey ?acee/iuo naoae,
iaiaoiaeeiua noaiaea?ou iai?oaeiaaiey e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey
(“i?ioieieu”), oaea ae?aooea aiai?eeinue auoa. Ec i?i/eo i?aaee
iath?eaee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, eiathueo ioiioaiea e Eioa?iaoo, inoaeinue
inoaiiaeoueny ia ei?ii?aoeaiuo e oi?ioey?iuo ii?iao.

Aioo?eei?ii?aoeaiua ii?iu e i?aaeea i?eia?aoatho aaaeiia cia/aiea a
neo/aa i?eniaaeeiaiey e Eioa?iaoo /a?ac na?aa?u, onoaiiaeaiiua a e?oiiuo
iao/iuo oeaio?ao e i?iiuoeaiiuo eiiiaieyo. Oieaa?neoaou e ei?ii?aoeee,
i?aaeinoaaeythuea naiei nio?oaeieeai (o/aueiny) aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e
Naoe, ai?aaa onoaiaaeeaaoue ethaua i?aaeea e ia?aie/aiey ia aoiae a iaa.
Iiaeiaiua ia?aie/aiey iiaoo iineoue eae /enoi eiee/anoaaiiue (iai?eia?,
a?aiaiiua eeieou ia naainu nayce), oae e ea/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa?
(iai?eia?, ii?yaeie eniieueciaaiey aae?ania yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou,
niaea?aeaueo aeiiaiiia eiy aeaaeaeueoea na?aa?a, eee ia?aie/aiey ii
ia?aaea/a eiioeaeaioeeaeueiuo naaaeaiee). Ei?ii?aoeaiua iieeoeee (a
onoaiiaeaiee oaeeo i?aaee) aeinoaoi/ii ?aciiia?aciu e aua aeaeoo naiaai
iaiauaiey. Eneeth/eoaeueii auno?i ?ani?ino?aiyaony a Eioa?iaoa i?aeoeea
i?eiaiaiey oi?ioey?iuo ii?i. Aeaaiaea?y oaoie/aneei aiciiaeiinoyi oae
iacuaaaiuo n?aaenoa aeia?nayce (aeia?oaenoa) ethaie iieueciaaoaeue Naoe
iiaeao a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie niiaueoue o?aaoaiua naaaeaiey i naaa
e aeaeaoaeueiuo aeey iaai oneiaeyo caeeth/aaiie a Naoe naeaeee n
i?eiaiaieai oi?i (oi?ioey?ia), ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiuo e ?aciauaiiuo a
Naoe aai iioaioeeaeueiui eiio?aaaioii. Caaa?oaiea aaiaea oeacaiiuo
naaaeaiee, nii?iaiaeaeaaiia iaai?ii ii?aaeaeaiiie eiiaiaeu eee iiia?a
e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ee, icia/aao, /oi naeaeea caeeth/aia. Iaeaieaa aeeceay
aiaeiaey iiaeao auoue i?iaaaeaia a ioiioaiee caeacia oiaa?ia ii oaeaoiio
eee ii oaeno, eiaaea iieoiaoaeue oaeoii onoiiai eee ienueiaiiiai
niiauaiey-caeaca aeoeaiooao ioa?oo i?iaeaaoea ia niaea?aeaueony a iae e
ia iiaeeaaeaueo eciaiaieth oneiaeyo. Iaeiaei a Eioa?iaoa e?oa aiciiaeiuo
naeaeie ianiecia?eii aieaa oe?ie. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?eiaiythony aeaaea
ia i?inoi oi?ioey?iua eiio?aeou “i?eniaaeeiaiey”, a eioi?uo iaeia
noi?iia, ii nooe, niaeaoaaony n oneiaeyie, ca?aiaa niiauaiiuie ae aoi?ie
noi?iiie, ii e “oi?ioey?u aeey o?aoueeo eeoe” (/oi iineo ianeieueei
yecioe/iia iacaaiea “i?iaeaaea naoaauo iaaaceiia”). ?ac?aaioaii aieueoia
eiee/anoai eiio?aeoia ni noaiaea?oiuie oneiaeyie, eioi?ua i?aaeeaaathony
aeey i?eiaiaiey a naoaaii ?aaeeia. Eo caiieiaiea i?iecaiaeeony eeai
iaaeie noi?iiaie iaeiia?aiaiii, eeai iaeiie ec noi?ii ca naay e ii
ii?o/aieth ae?oaie noi?iiu – ca iaa. Ii ieii/aiee naaina eioa?aeoeaiiai
iaiaia aeiaiai? n/eoaaony niaeaniaaiiui (caeeth/aiiui), a oe?ia –
?ac?aaio/ee oi?ioey?iiai eiio?aeoa iieo/aao ieaoo ca eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua
oneoae (yoi yaeyaony iaeiei ec noaiaea?oiuo oneiaee). Iiyoue-oaee
i?eiaiaiea oi?ioey?iuo aeiaiai?ia e noaiaea?oiuo oneiaee aei neo ii? ia
aucuaaei aieueoeo nii?ia ec-ca ia?ooaiey eo oneiaee eee iaiaaeeaaeauaai
auiieiaiey (iaeniieiaiey) iaeiie ec noi?ii. Eae i?aaeei, oaeea aeiaiai?u
eiatho n?i/iue oa?aeoa? n iaaieueoeie n?ieaie eniieiaiey, ia naycaiu n
aeaeaeaieai cia/eoaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo noii e, ianiio?y ia eaaeouothny
neiaeiinoue eo niaea?aeaiey (yoi aii?in oaea th?eaee/aneie oaoieee),
ioiinyony e n?aaieoaeueii i?inoui i?aaiioiioaieyi. A?yae ee oaeea
oi?ioey?iua eiio?aeou eiaaea-ieaoaeue niiaoo n/eoaoueny “iieiii?aaiui”
enoi/ieeii i?aaiauo ii?i, ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eo i?eiaiaiea e
niioaaonoaothuei ioiioaieyi aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii. Oaeoe/anee ?a/ue
eaeao oaea ia eioaa?aoeee eioa?iao-oaoiieiaee a aecian-i?ioeannu,
aeeth/ay i?ioeaaeo?u yeaeo?iiiuo caeoiie (oi?aia, eiieo?nia).

Eoae, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie naoaaiai iauaiey a Eioa?iaoa, a oii
/enea e ii iiaiaeo aeaenoaee, eiathueo th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea,
?aaoee?othony iano?oeoo?e?iaaiiui ianneaii ii?iaoeaiuo e eiuo i?aaee,
eioi?ua ia auee onoaiiaeaiu a ii?yaeea, oa?aeoa?iii aeey i?eiyoey
i?aaiauo aeoia, e eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue i?eioaeeoaeueii eniieiaiu n
eniieueciaaieai aiciiaeiinoae ioaee/iie aeanoe. Oai ia iaiaa iaaeinoaoie
nianoaaiii i?aaiauo iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey ia iiaeeye io?eoeaoaeueii ia
no?aieoaeueiia ?acaeoea Naoe a iineaaeiea aiaeu. Yoio oaiiiai aua aoaeao
i?aaeiaoii naiiai aieiaoaeueiiai eco/aiey. A aeeaeaeoai aea aoaeouai
?acaeoea a Naoe ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n eoieae-i?iaeaaeae oiaa?ia e
oneoa, e ei iiaeiaiuo, aaconeiaii, iio?aaoao ?ac?aaioee e i?eiaiaiey
/enoi th?eaee/aneeo niiniaia ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee, caueou eioa?ania
iieueciaaoaeae Naoe (iio?aaeoaeae), i?ana/aiey aiciiaeiinoe
ceioiio?aaeaiee e i?aaiia?ooaiee. *oi eanaaony oaea eiathueony
ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaiauo aeoia, oae eee eia/a cao?aaeaathueo ioiioaiey ii
iiaiaeo Eioa?iaoa, oi eo iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Ai-ia?auo, ie a iaeiie ec no?ai ie?a iao anaiauaiethuaai
(eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai) caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii Eioa?iaoo. Nouanoaothuea
ii?iaoeaiua (iiaecaeiiiua) aeou ?aaoee?otho eaeea-eeai /anoiua aniaeou
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey Naoe (aeayoaeueiinoue iia?aoi?ia aeinooia,
?ani?aaeaeaiea aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa, ai?ueaa ni niaiii e o.i.).

Ai-aoi?uo, ii?iu, eioi?ua iiaeii auei au i?eiaieoue e ioiioaieyi ii
iiaiaeo Eioa?iaoa, “?aca?inaiu” ii caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoai eiuo io?aneae
i?aaa, aeeth/ay caeiiu ia eioaeeaeooaeueiie e i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea ii?iaoeaiue iannea, oneiaii eiaioaiue
“oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui i?aaii”.

A-o?aoueeo, eiaao ianoi iiiaeanoaaiiinoue enoi/ieeia i?aaiauo ii?i,
niaea?aeaueony a iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiauo aeiaiai?ao, iaoeeiiaeueiuo
caeiiao, aeoao i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, noaeaaiuo ?aoaieyo
(i?aoeaaeaioao).

Caaaaeiiia ianiaa?oainoai ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia iaoneiaeeaaao
iayooaeoeaiinoue eo i?eiaiaiey. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe Caeii
NOA i niaethaeaiee i?enoieiinoe a n?aaenoaao nayce (Communications
Decency Act) io 1 oaa?aey 1996 a. Caeii caueuaao (oi/iaa, aeaeaao
iiiuoeo caueoeoue) iiae?inoeia a aic?anoa aei 18 eao io naoaaie
eioi?iaoeee, niaea?aeauae “i?yiua oa?icu”, a oaeaea io eioi?iaoeee,
“ia?ooathuae i?eee/ey”. A ea/anoaa naieoeee Caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao
?acee/iua oaieiaiua iaeacaiey ca ?aciauaiea a eiiiuethoa?iuo naoyo e
eiuo n?aaenoaao nayce oaeiai ?iaea eioi?iaoeee e ecia?aaeaiee, anee e
iei iaania/eaaaony iaia?aie/aiiue aeinooi. N?aco iinea i?eiyoey Caeiia
Eiia?annii iiyaeeenue enooeu, ionoaeaathuea aai ianiioaaonoaea
Eiinoeoooeee. Eo caeioa?aniaaiiinoue auea iaoneiaeaia eiiia?/aneei
ni?inii, eioi?ui iieueciaaeanue “iai?enoieiay” eioi?iaoeey. Ethaiiuoii,
iaeiaei, /oi e a i?aaiauo e?oaao neiaeeeanue iiiiceoeey ioeoeeaeueiie
aeieo?eia. TH?enou i?yii cayaeyee, /oi iineieueeo neea Eioa?iaoa
caeeth/aaony a oaina, iinoieueeo neea naiaiaeu caaeneo io oaina e
eaeioiiee, eioi?ua caueuaao Ia?aay iii?aaea*(143). A ?acoeueoaoa Caeii
i?inouanoaiaae iaiaa iieooi?a eao e 26 ethiy 1997 a. ?aoaieai Aa?oiaiiai
Noaea NOA aue i?eciai iaeiinoeoooeeiiiui. I?eia?ii oaeie aea iaaunieee
yooaeo i?aaii?eiaiaiey eiae caeii n aiaeoeeiciui iacaaieai “Ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa a yiioo oeeo?iaiai ouny/aeaoey (Digital Millenium Copyright Act)”.

Iiieii ia?ooaiey i?aaa ia naiaiaeo neiaa e ia/aoe, caueuaaiiai Ia?aie
iii?aaeie, nouanoaotho, ianiiiaiii, e ae?oaea i?e/eiu, ii eioi?ui
i?eiaiaiea a ioiioaiee Eioa?iaoa cai?auathueo ii?i iaoaeeeaaaony ia
aeanoeia nii?ioeaeaiea. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oiaaea, eiaaea nouanoaotho
n?aaenoaa yooaeoeaiiai eiio?iey (oeeueo?aoeee) eioi?iaoeee
iaiin?aaenoaaiii n eiiiuethoa?a, iiaeeeth/aiiiai e Naoe, o.a. ni noi?iiu
iieueciaaoaey, aeaeaiea onoaiiaeoue iiaeiaiue eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu
aeanoae aucuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua iiaeic?aiey. E eiaaea aeanoe ana /aua
ia/eiatho aiai?eoue i oae iacuaaaiie i?iaeaia eaeioiiee (cacophony
problem) e i iaiaoiaeeiinoe caueoeoue iieueciaaoaey io ecauoea
eioi?iaoeee (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue niaia), o noi?iiiaai iaaethaeaoaey ana
aieaa aicieeaao aii?in ia enoeiiie iiaeiieaea iiaeiaiuo cayaeaiee. Aac
niiiaiey, ia?aoiae n?aaenoa eiio?iey io ainoaea?noaa e aai ioaeaeueiui
a?aaeaeaiai ineaaeyao iiceoeee ainoaea?noaa, a eiaiii yoiai aieueoa
anaai aiyony e ia oioyo aeiionoeoue ioeoeeaeueiua aeanoe a iaeioi?uo
no?aiao. Auaiae iai?aoeaaaony nai niaie: Eioa?iao caueuaao eiaeeaeaea io
aicaeaenoaey iaeiiiai?aaeaiiie eaeaieiaee. Ia ainoaea?noai ?aaoee?oao,
/oi eiaiii iiaeao (e aeieaeai) ociaoue eiaeeaeae, a eiaeeaeae nai
auae?aao oi, /oi, ii aai iiaieth, aeinoieii aieiaiey.

Neaaeoao iaiiiieoue oaeaea, /oi ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue oi?ioi ecaanoiu
niiniau iaoiaea onoaiiaeaiiuo cai?aoia – aeinoaoi/ii ?acianoeoue
“iaaeaeaoaeueioth” eioi?iaoeeth ia na?aa?a ia a NOA, a, e i?eia?o, ia
Aaaaineeo ino?iaao eee eiie oa??eoi?ee aia noa?u oaieiaiie th?enaeeeoeee
NOA. A nayce n auoaneacaiiui oiiiyiai e aua iaeio i?iaeaio: aei neo ii?
i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaoao ?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee ii iiaiaeo Eioa?iaoa ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii (iaaeainoaea?noaaiiii) o?iaia.

Aii?in i ?aaoee?iaaiee Eioa?iaoa a iaoeeiiaeueiii ianooaaa ieacaeny
iniaaiii aieaciaiiui aeey Aa?iaiee, no?aiu, aeanoe e iauanoaaiiinoue
eioi?ie aoeaaeueii iaea?aeeiu eaeaae onoaiiaeaiey a Naoe aeanoeiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey*(144). I?eia?ii a aeaiiii neo/aa iiaeao
neoaeeoue neaiaeaeueiia aeaei “Aaaa?ey i?ioea CompuServe-Germany”. A
iiya?a – aeaeaa?a 1995 a. Oaeeeno Ciiio, aeaaa oeeeaea aia?eeaineie
ei?ii?aoeee CompuServe a Aa?iaiee, auei i?aaeuyaeaii iaaeiaiea –
neaaenoaeai auee iaia?oaeaiu ieiei 300 “iiainoiuo a?oii”, a eioi?uo
?aciauaeanue eioi?iaoeey ii?iia?aoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Oi?aaeaiea
CompuServe i?eiyei niioaaonoaothuea ia?u. Iiainoiua a?oiiu n aeaoneie
ii?iia?aoeae auee iieiinoueth caaeiee?iaaiu. N oao a?oii, eioi?ua
niaea?aeaee “iyaeoth” ii?iia?aoeth, aeiee?iaea auea niyoa, iinea oiai
eae eo /eaiia niaaaeeee i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai aeey caueou aeaoae, /oi
iicaieeei ?iaeeoaeyi naiei aeiee?iaaoue iaaeaeaoaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth.
Ia i?ioei, iaeiaei, e ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa, eae i?aaiu ?anneaaeiaaiey
iaia?oaeeee ia iiainoiuo na?aa?ao CompuServe eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
ioaeeeaoeee n aeanoeei ii?iia?aoe/aneei niaea?aeaieai. A iaa 1998 a.
Ioieoeeiaeueiue noae a. Ithioaia i?eaiai?ee Oaeeena Ciiia e i?iaaoeee
(aeaeo oneiaiiai caeeth/aiey) ia aeaa aiaea e i?enoaeee aio oo?ao a
?acia?a 100 000 ia?ie ca ?ani?ino?aiaiea ii?iia?aoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia. Ii
oaea a iiya?a 1999 a. ?aoaieai aiaeeyoeeiiiie einoaioeee – Caiaeueiiai
noaea – aue auianai ii?aaaeaoaeueiue i?eaiai?. Ia?u, eioi?ua i?aaei?eiye
auaoee oi?aaeythuee aee?aeoi? CompuServe AiaO, auee i?eciaiu
aeinoaoi/iuie (o.a. ii naeaeae ana io iaai caaenyuaa) e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, eneeth/athueie eaeoth-eeai ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

Aeaei “Aaaa?ey i?ioea CompuServe” iieo/eei oe?ieee ?aciiain, iineieueeo
i?eiyoue ii?aaaeaoaeueiue i?eaiai? iiiaaiea nua?ae ?ieue eeth/aaiai
i?aoeaaeaioa aeey aoaeoueo ?aoaiee, eanathueony naoaaie yeiiiieee.
Caaea/a, eioi?ay auea iinoaaeaia ia?aae noaeueyie, auaeyaeaea e?aeia
i?inoie – aei eaeie noaiaie eiiiaiey, i?aaeinoaaeythuay aeinooi e Naoe,
aeieaeia ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaoa?eae, eioi?ue ia oieueei ae ia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo, ii eioi?ue iia aeaaea ia a neeao eiio?iee?iaaoue? Oiaeeee
oii?iua neooe, /oi ia iiaiea noaeae iiaeeyea i?aaeauai?iay eaiiaiey,
eioi?ay aaeanue a oi a?aiy a Aaaa?ee, ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia ea?oo
auea iinoaaeaia ii?aaeaeaiiay eaeaieiaey – ianoiyoaeueiay iio?aaiinoue
oi?i/eoue iiceoeee ethaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa a ?aieao
aeiaaeueiie Naoe. Iaaieueiui caeiaeieeii i?ienoiaeeaoeo aeaaaoia
ieacaeny Oaeeen Ciii, eiaaea aio aiaieee a iaycaiiinoue ouaoaeueii
iooeeueo?iauaaoue iaoa?eaeu iacaeiiiiai niaea?aeaiey, iinooiathuea ec
NOA e aeinoeaathuea iieueciaaoaeae a O?A.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aie/aiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?iaaeaea?ia – oi/ea c?aiey,
eioi?oth ?acaeaeytho naaiaeiy aieueoeinoai th?enoia e eioi?ay iinoaiaiii
iaoiaeeo naia cae?aieaiea a iaoeeiiaeueiii e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii i?aaa. Ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia aeaiiue aii?in ?aaoee?oaony aeaoiy aee?aeoeaaie
Aa?iiaeneiai nithca – Aee?aeoeaie i iaeioi?uo i?aaiauo aniaeoao ieacaiey
oneoa a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa, a /anoiinoe yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaee ia
aioo?aiiai ?uiea (Aee?aeoeaa ia yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaea), i?eiyoie 8 ethiy
2000 a., e Aee?aeoeaie i aa?iiiecaoeee iaeioi?uo aniaeoia aaoi?neiai
i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aa a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa, i?eiyoie 22 iay 2001
a. (Aee?aeoeaa ia eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa).

A i.27 aaiaeiuo caia/aiee Aee?aeoeaa ia eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa
?acuyniyao, /oi i?aaeinoaaeaiea oaoie/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae aeey
ioaee/iiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia n/eoaaony ?ani?ino?aiaieai, inouanoaeyaiui
nianoaaiii i?iaaeaea?ii, oae /oi i?iaaeaea? ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
ia?ooaiey i?aaa ia ioaee/iia eniieiaiea, anee ii i?inoi i?aaeinoaaeyao
oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa. Oa?aeoa?ecoy iauoth “eaeaieiaeth” aeaiiie
Aee?aeoeau, iaiaoeeee th?eno I. Noaoaiaeiia auaeaeyao neaaeothuoth
iiceoeeth: “A ie?a o?aiaiey yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiiuo ?aaioa n ieie anaaaea
icia/aao eo eiie?iaaiea eae oaoie/aneoth iaiaoiaeeiinoue, aeaaea i?e
i?inoii auaiaea i?iecaaaeaiey ia ye?ai. Aio ii/aio Aee?aeoeaa eneeth/aao
a?aiaiiua eiiee, nicaeaaaaiua a oiaea oaoie/aneiai i?ioeanna e ia
eiathuea naiinoiyoaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai cia/aiey, iineieueeo eiia/iie
oeaeueth yoiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony ia?aaea/a eee i?aaiia?iia
eniieueciaaiea”*(145). *oi eanaaony Aee?aeoeau ia yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaea,
oi iu iaciaai eeoue ii?aaeaeyaiua aeaiiui aeieoiaioii oneiaey
inaiaiaeaeaiey io ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Niaeanii no.12, i?inoie eaiae nayce
ia iiaeeaaeeo th?eaee/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, anee ii “(a) ia eieoeee?oao
ia?aaea/o, (b) ia auae?aao iieo/aoaey ia?aaea/e e (n) ia auae?aao eee ia
aeaeieciaiyao eioi?iaoeeth, niaea?aeauothny a ia?aaea/a”*(146). Niune
i?eaaaeaiiuo oneiaee caeeth/aaony a aa?aioee oiai, /oi i?iaaeaea?
eniieiyao /enoi oaoie/aneoth ooieoeeth e ia eiaao ie/aai iauaai n
aeinoaaeyaiui niaea?aeaieai, eiioaioii.

I?ioeaieeai i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey Eioa?iaoa, iaeiaei, aua ?aii
i?acaeiiaaoue iiaaaeo. Nianoaaiii, /ai aieueoa iiuo iaoaea/, iaeiieaiiue
a nayce n iiiuoeie iiae/eieoue ae?ooaeueiia i?ino?ainoai i?aaiaui
ii?iai, oai aieaa i/aaeaeiuie noaiiayony niaoeeoe/aneea naienoaa n?aaeu
e iauaeoia, eioi?ui iai oae oi/aony iaaycaoue nianoaaiiue ii?yaeie.

Ai-ia?auo, iaiaoiaeeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiiia?aoeey (a oii /enea e a
aii?ina aa?iiiecaoeee aeaenoaothueo ii?i). Anee o/eouaaoue aeaei n
Oaeeenii Ciiiii, oi yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eanaaony oaieiaiiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Ieeaeie aeueoa?iaoeau iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio
nio?oaeie/anoao a yoie noa?a aei neo ii? ia iaeaeaii.

Ai-aoi?uo, iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue nio?oaeie/anoai iaaeaeo
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth e oaoiieiae/aneei ?oeiaiaenoaii Eioa?iaoa
(niiauanoaii i?iaaeaea?ia) aieioue aei i?aaeinoaaeaiey iineaaeiei
iieiiii/ee, auoiaeyueo ca i?aaeaeu io?aiu eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe
ia?aaeaaaaiuo aeaiiuo.

A-o?aoueeo, ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeieaeia ecia?youeny n o/aoii i?aaaioeaiuo
ia?, ioaaonoaaiiinoe aoi?iai ii?yaeea, eioi?ay aiceaaaaony oaea
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia iieueciaaoaeae. A eo ?oeao iaoiaeeony eae
yeaiaioa?iia “i?inaauaiea” iieiaeaaee, oae e eniieueciaaiea oeaeaauo
i?ia?aii-aeiee?iaie, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo i?iaaeaea?aie.

I?eaaaeaiiua i?eia?u iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi i/aiue nei?i neeiaia
aicaeaenoaea, enoiaeyuaa “ecaia”, ni noi?iiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeanoae,
ieaaeaony, iyaei aiai?y, iaaeinoaoi/iui, iayooaeoeaiui e aicieeiao
ianoiyoaeueiay iio?aaiinoue ai acaeiiaeaenoaee ia iiiainoi?iiiae iniiaa,
aeeth/ay iaainoaea?noaaiiua naeoi?u yeiiiieee e iaoee.

A ioiioaiee Eioa?iaoa iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui ca?oaaaeiui th?enoai
aeaeyony oaeea iiaeaee ?aaoee?iaaiey, i?e eioi?uo iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay
(ioaee/ii-i?aaiaay) no?oeoo?a ninoaaeyao eeoue iauee ea?ean, a oi a?aiy
eae iniiaioth /anoue “?aaiou” a iaeanoe ii?iioai?/anoaa,
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, i?eioaeaeaiey, a oaeaea, ?acoiaaony, a iaeanoe
i?eiyoey oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee aa?ao ia naay /anoiue naeoi?. Aai?e A.
Ia??eoo aaiaeeo iiiyoea iao?eoeu aeey aea?eaeiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey (matrix
for hybrid regulation), nooue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ioaee/iia
i?aai onoaiaaeeaaao oieueei i?aaeaeu aeey /anoiiai i?aaiii?yaeea*(147).

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeiaiie “aea?eaeiie” noaiu aaoi? i?eaiaeeo
“I?eioeeiu oeoie aaaaie aeey iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe /anoiie aeecie” (Safe
Harbor Privacy Principles) – niaeaoaiea, caeeth/aiiia iaaeaeo NOA e AN a
1999 a.*(148) Noaoon “oeoie aaaaie” iieo/aee eiiiaiee, ioaa/athuea
neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi: (1) i?eniaaeeiaiea e eaeie-eeai i?ia?aiia ii
caueoa iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe /anoiie aeecie, i?iaiaeeiie a /anoiii naeoi?a,
eeai (2) iiae/eiaiea aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee noaoooiiio, ?aaoeyoeaiiio
eee aaeieieno?aoeaiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao NOA, i?aaeinoaaeythuaio
yooaeoeaioth caueoo ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo, eeai, iaeiiaoe, (3) i?yiia
aeeth/aiea i?eioeeiia “oeoie aaaaie” a oneiaey caeeth/aaiuo eiio?aeoia.
A ?anniio?aiiii neo/aa ioaee/iua aeanoe ii?aaeaeytho oieueei aaciaua
ia?aiao?u ?aaoeyoeaiuo o?aaiaaiee e iaania/eaatho i?eiaiaiea
i?eioaeeoaeueiuo naieoeee. A oi aea a?aiy noaiaiue naiaiaeu,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiay eiiiaieyi a niioaaonoaee n Niaeaoaieai, iaiiiai oe?a ii
n?aaiaieth n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ii?iaie, aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii eioi?uo
neoaeeo ainoaea?noai. Ae?oaei i?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue
eioa?iao-ei?ii?aoeey ii ?ani?aaeaeaieth aeiiaiiuo eiai e aae?ania
(ICANN), eioi?ay yaeyaony iaeiiia?/aneie iaainoaea?noaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeeae e a oi aea a?aiy inouanoaeyao eaace?aaoeyoeaiua
iieiiii/ey*(149).

A oaia?ue ia?aoeiny e iaeioi?ui ec i?iaeai i?aeoeee nouanoaiaaiey
Eioa?iaoa, o?aaothueo “aiaoaoaeuenoaa” ni noi?iiu th?enoia, o.a. oao
i?iaeai, iioeiaeueiui ?aoaieai aeey eioi?uo yaeyaony eiaiii i?aaiaia
?aaoee?iaaiea. Ia/iai n oa?ieiieiaee, aaeeiiia?acea e aaeaeaaoiinoue
eioi?ie ninoaaeyao oi ieieiaeueiia o?aaiaaiea, io eioi?iai caaeneo
yooaeoeaiinoue ethaiai i?aaiaiai iaoaiecia.

Eae anaaaea, /oiau ecaaaeaoue ia?aaiaea niaea?aeaoaeueiie aeeneonnee a
iaeanoue noieanoe/aneeo nii?ia i neiaao, a ia i iiiyoeyo, eioi?ua iie
au?aaeatho, neaaeiaaei au aeiaiai?eoueny i aaeeiiia?aciie oa?ieiieiaee.
Iiyaeaiea e ?acaeoea Eioa?iaoa aucaaei e aeecie iiiai/eneaiiua iiiyoey e
oa?ieiu, i?aaeaea iaecaanoiua eee oiio?aaeyaoeany a eiuo cia/aieyo. Iiea
/oi iniiaiui ycueii iauaiey a Naoe yaeyaony aiaeeeneee, ii
“eeiaaenoe/aneay ea?oa” Eioa?iaoa iinoiyiii ?anoeaa/eaaaony iiauie
e?aneaie. Eiia/ii, iieueciaaoaeyi Naoe iaiiiai oaeiaiaa iauaoueny ia
?iaeiii ycuea, i?eaaaay e iiiiue aiaeeeneiai eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea
iaiaoiaeeii iauynieoueny n niaanaaeieeaie-eiino?aioeaie. Iaeiaei
i?aeoe/anee any aeieoiaioaoeey ii Eioa?iaoo, aeeth/ay e oaoie/aneea, e
“yoeeaoiua” i?aaeea, ninoaaeaia ia aiaeeeneii e o?aaoao aaeaeaaoiiai
iiieiaiey e aaeeiiia?aciiai oieeiaaiey anaie iieueciaaoaeyie Naoe.
Iaeioi?ua iiiyoey ieacaeenue niaa?oaiii iiauie e aeey aiaeeeneie
oa?ieiieiaee (aeiiaiiia eiy, “oeeo?iaay iaee/iinoue”, “ia/aeueiay
no?aieoea”, aeia?oaeno e o.ae.). Eo iaeaaei ei??aeoii ia?aaiaeeoue ia
ae?oaea ycuee, iniaaiii anee aiai?eoue i naiii iiioey?iii i?eeiaeaiee
Eioa?iaoa – eioi?iaoeeiiiie Naoe, /uea iacaaiea aeineiaii ia?aaiaeeony n
aiaeeeneiai eae “Anaie?iay iaooeia” (World Wide Web).

Oaia?ue acaeyiai ia i?iaeaio oa?ieiieiaee oaea ia i?eia?a
“?onneiycu/iiai” Eioa?iaoa. Aiineaoeany ia ?anniio?aiea Ainoaea?noaaiiie
Aeoiu caeiiii?iaeou ioiineeenue e ?acee/iui aniaeoai naoaaie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iaeiaei iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei oa?aeoa?iuo aeey
eaaeaeiai ec ieo iniaaiiinoae. Eae yoi ie iieaaeaony iaaa?iyoiui,
i?iaeou caeiiia ecaaaaee oiio?aaeaiey naiiai iiiyoey “Eioa?iao”! Yoi
iiaeii iauynieoue eae iauei “iaaeiaa?eai”, i?iyaeyaoeiny
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e oaeiio iaeiiiiyoiiio aeey
ieo yaeaieth, eae aeiaaeueiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay naoue, oae e
cao?oaeiaieyie, n eioi?uie aaoi?u i?iaeoia noieeioeenue i?e iiiuoea
aeaoue th?eaee/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea yoiio iiiyoeth. A naiii aeaea, anee
“eaii?e?iaaoue” naii iiiyoea “naoue Eioa?iao”, oi i?aaeiao
?aaoee?iaaiey, iai?eia?, caeiiii?iaeoia ia yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaea i?inoi
“iiaenaao a aicaeooa”. Ec oaenoa i?iaeoa niaa?oaiii iaynii, eaeei aea
ia?acii i?iecaiaeeony iaiai yeaeo?iiiuie aeieoiaioaie (e eioi?iio
oaeoe/anee e naiaeeony, ii iiaieth aaoi?ia iaeiiai ec caeiiii?iaeoia,
any yeaeo?iiiay oi?aiaey) – iooai iaiaia aeeneaoeaie n eioi?iaoeeae,
?annueeie niiauaiee ii oaeno eee eaeei-eeai eiui ia?acii. Nnueee ia
iaeea “eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu” oieueei caioouaatho neooaoeeth,
iineieueeo aiyoiiai ii?aaeaeaiey oaeeo nenoai iiyoue-oaee ia aeaaony (a
oi, /oi anoue, i?yii i?ioeai?a/eo aeaenoaothuaio Caeiio ia eioi?iaoeee).
I?e yoii yeaeo?iiiay oi?aiaey ii?aaeaeyaony eae caeeth/aiea naeaeie
iooai iaiaia yeaeo?iiiuie aeieoiaioaie, a yeaeo?iiiue aeieoiaio – eae
eioi?iaoeey, oi?ie?oaiay a nayce n niaa?oaieai naeaeie a noa?a
yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaee. Caieiooue e?oa.

N ii?aaeaeaieyie iiiyoee, i?eiaiythueony a caeiiii?iaeoao, aiiaua
iieo/aeanue no?aiiay neooaoeey. N iaeiie noi?iiu, i/aaeaeii, /oi aeey
oaeiai iiaiai yaeaiey, eae “naoaaua i?aaiioiioaiey”, aeieaeia auoue
?ac?aaioaia nenoaia i?eiaieiuo iiiyoee e eo ii?aaeaeaiee, aaeaeaaoiay
niaoeeoeea iauaeoa ?aaoee?iaaiey. Ii iineieueeo ec-ca ?acee/iuo
niia?aaeaiee nai iauaeo ?aaoee?iaaiey i?aeoe/anee ieaaea i?yii ia
iacuaaeny e ia ii?aaeaeyeny (a eo/oai neo/aa aiai?eeinue i aeiaaeueiuo
eiiiuethoa?iuo naoyo aiiaua, aac iaiaoiaeeiie a oaeeo neo/ayo
th?eaee/aneie aeaoaeecaoeee), oi e aaiaeeiua caeiiii?iaeoaie
ii?aaeaeaiey oa?ieiia oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue iaiaeiicia/iinoueth e
“?aciuoinoueth”. A aaaeue yoi aeaeaei ia i?acaeiue aii?in – io oiai,
ianeieueei oi/ii ii?aaeaeai iauai e niaea?aeaiea iiiyoey, ianeieueei
oaea/ii aua?aia niioaaonoaothuay niaea?aeaieth iiiyoey aai
“th?eaee/aneay oi?ia” (eaaaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea), a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
caaeneo yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai aeoa. Iaeuecy
caauaaoue e i oii, /oi a ?acaeoea ii?i caeiia, eae i?aaeei, i?eieiathony
iiiai/eneaiiua ?acuyniythuea, aeiiieiythuea e ooi/iythuea eo
iiaecaeiiiua aeou (iinoaiiaeaiey, eino?oeoeee, i?eeacu). ?aciiaie aea a
i?eiaiyaiuo eie aaciauo iiiyoeyo i?inoi iaaeiionoei.

A ?acoeueoaoa i/aiue iiiaea ec aaiaeeiuo oa?ieiia eee (a eo/oai neo/aa)
i?inoi oaaoieiae/iu (iai?eia?, “o/anoiee yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaee” = eeoei,
inouanoaeythuaa yeaeo?iiioth oi?aiaeth), eee i?yii i?ioeai?a/ao
oa?ieiieiaee oaea neiaeeaoeony io?aneae ?inneeneiai i?aaa (iai?eia?,
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae). Niaa?oaiii ii-?aciiio, a
i?ioeai?a/ee eae iaaeaeo niaie, oae e n aeaenoaothueie oaaea?aeueiuie
caeiiaie, a caeiiii?iaeoao ii?aaeaeythony iiiyoey eioi?iaoeeiiiay
nenoaia, eioi?iaoeeiiiue iin?aaeiee, eeeaio, yeaeo?iiiue aeieoiaio e
ae?. Iiyaeythony ana iiaua iii?aaee e e oaea aeaenoaothuei caeiiai e
eiaeaenai: Iai?eia?, aianoi yaiiai oiiieiaiey Eioa?iaoa Iaeiaiaue
eiaeaen (e caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou i aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa) oiiieiaao i
ia?anueea aeieoiaioia a yeaeo?iiiie oi?ia “ii oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui
naoyi nayce” (!): Eoae, ei?iona eaaaeueiuo ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoee,
i?eiaiyaiuo a Eioa?iaoa (oacao?ona), iiea /oi iao. Aaconeiaii, eo
au?aaioea iaiaoiaeeia n oeaeueth ecaaaeaiey iaiaeiicia/iinoe oieeiaaiey
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, a eioi?uo iie aoaeoo i?eiaiaiu. Iaieoenue aea aac
niaoeeoe/aneeo aeey Eioa?iaoa oa?ieiia a oaenoao oaeeo aeoia, i/aaeaeii,
ia oaeanony.

Iniaia ianoi a i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee “naoaauo” ioiioaiee caieiatho
eieeeceiiiua aii?inu. Aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa? Eioa?iaoa nicaeaao
cia/eoaeueiua i?iaeaiu a ii?aaeaeaiee oiai, eaeea i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiua
i?aaiu aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoue nii?u ii naycaiiui n Naoueth
i?aaiioiioaieyi e eaeia i?aai iiaeeaaeeo i?eiaiaieth. I?eaaaeai
ianeieueei ianeiaeiuo (e aeinoaoi/ii oeie/iuo) i?eia?ia. I?eiaieoaeueii
e a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui ioiioaieyi – aiieia ?aaeueia iieoiea ii Naoe
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a, neaaeai, yeaeo?iiiie aa?nee eaoaeiaa aeaoaeae
naiieaoa. Oaeiai ?iaea eioi?iaoeey o?aaoaony o?aioeocneie aaeaeiiiaiee.
I?iaeaaoeii aunooiaao oe?ia, eiei?ii?e?iaaiiay a aia?eeaineii ooaoa
Iaaaaea e eniieuecothuay na?aa?, oece/anee iaoiaeyueeny a Aiaeee e
i?eiaaeeaaeauee a?eoaineiio i?iaaeaea?o. ?an/aou i?iecaiaeyony /a?ac
Naoue a yeaeaaeaioiie aia?eeaineei aeieea?ai aaciaee/iie oi?ia
“yeaeo?iiiuo iaee/iuo”, i?ioeanneiaiaue oeaio? eioi?uo (ae?ooaeueiue
aaie) ?aniieiaeai a Aano?aeee e ianeoaeeaaao, a /anoiinoe, oeacaiiue
aiaeeeneee na?aa?. Naeaeea caeeth/aaony a oi?ioey?iie oi?ia,
i?aaeeiaeaiiie oe?iie-i?iaeaaoeii. Nnueee ia i?eiaieiia i?aai ii
eaeie-eeai i?e/eia a oi?ioey?iii eiio?aeoa iao. N?ie eniieiaiey
eiio?aeoa – iaiaaeeaiii ii ieii/aiee ca/eneaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia
n/ao i?iaeaaoea (iau/ii iaeneioi ianeieueei /ania). Niinia eniieiaiey –
i?aaeinoaaeaiea iieoiaoaeth ia?iey aeinooia e aaca aeaiiuo, niaea?aeauae
eneiioth eioi?iaoeeth. Aeaaea iaaieueoia ia?ooaiea iaycaoaeuenoa ethaie
ec noi?ii a aeaiiii neo/aa niiniaii i?eaanoe e aicieeiiaaieth
aeinoaoi/ii iai?inouo aii?inia i iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiinoe e iiaenoaeiinoe
nii?a, i i?eiaiaiee eieeeceiiiuo ii?i e nianoaaiii iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa.
*oi i?e yoii n/eoaoue ianoii niaa?oaieai aeoa (eee ianoii inouanoaeaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe)? N eaeei caeiiii iiaeao auoue iaeaieaa oanii naycaii
i?aaiioiioaiea? Eoi aeieaeai aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa iaaeeaaeauaai
ioaao/eea? I?aaiio?aieoaeueiua i?aaiu eaeiai ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu
niaeaenoaiaaoue i?eioaeeoaeueiiio eniieiaieth noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey, anee
iii ana-oaee auianaii?

I?eiaieoaeueii e oaieiaiiio (e aaeieieno?aoeaiiio) i?aao, ianoaeaeaeanue
neooaoeey n caeiiii eaiaaeneie i?iaeioeee A?eoaineay Eieoiaey,
cai?auathuei aeeoaeyi i?iaeioeee ?aciauaoue a n?aaenoaao nayce e
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee iauyaeaiey ethaiai ?iaea i aeaeaiee acyoue
i?eaiiiai ?aaaiea. ?ani?ino?aiyaony ee th?enaeeeoeey oeacaiiie
i?iaeioeee ia ?aciauaiea oaeeo iauyaeaiee a Eioa?iaoa /a?ac na?aa?u,
?aniieiaeaiiua a ae?oaeo i?iaeioeeyo Eaiaaeu eee ae?oaeo no?aiao ie?a?
I?e yoii noaoooiia e i?aoeaaeaioiia i?aai ae?oaeo i?iaeioeee iiaeiaiuo
cai?aoia ia niaea?aeeo, a iauyaeaiey ia onuiiaeaiee ana aea aeaeaee io
yaiie “iai?enoieiinoe”, eioi?oth aue i?ecaai i?anaeaoue, neaaeai,
auoaoiiiyiooue Caeii NOA “I niaethaeaiee i?enoieiinoe a n?aaenoaao
nayce”. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi Eioa?iao, ia eiay
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo a?aieoe naiaai ?ani?ino?aiaiey, iicaieyao ethaiio
aeeoaeth i?iaeioeee iieo/eoue aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee, ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eioi?ie eaeei-eeai eiui niiniaii i?yii cai?auaaony.

A aaaonoa 1999 a. a NOA aue i?eiyo caeiiii?iaeo, iicaieythuee aeaaa
th?eaee/aneiai aaaeiinoaa ethaiai ooaoa (attorney generals)
i?aneaaeiaaoue ia?ooeoaeae onoaiiaeaiiuo ia?aie/aiee ia i?iaeaaeo
aeeiaiey iacaaeneii io oa??eoi?ee. Eioa?iao a caeiiii?iaeoa aeaaea ia
oiiiyioo, iaeiaei i?aaeiaoii ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeyaony iaaeainoaea?noaaiiay
oi?aiaey aeeiaieai, iiyoiio enee noaee iiyaeyoueny oaeaea e a ioiioaiee
naoaaie oi?aiaee. I?aaenoaaei oaia?ue, /oi aeeno?eauethoi? aeeiaieueiie
i?iaeoeoeee a ssiiiee iiaeaa?aaaony i?aneaaeiaaieyi ca iacaeiiioth
oi?aiaeth a NOA. I?aaiia?ii ee ni noi?iiu aia?eeaineeo aeanoae
aicaoaeeoue aeaei i?ioea iioiaiai i?iaeaaoea aeeiaiey oieueei ia oii
iniiaaiee, /oi ii ?acianoee a Eioa?iaoa aeiiaoithth no?aie/eo, eioi?ay
aeey oiai e auea nicaeaia, /oiau auoue aeinooiiie ethaeyi
(iioaioeeaeueiui iieoiaoaeyi) ni anaai ie?a?

Iiea /oi yniuo ioaaoia ia ana yoe aii?inu iao, oioy ii?aaeaeaiiua
iiaeoiaeu e eo ?aoaieth i?iniao?eaathony. A ?aaeueiinoe oaiaoece?oaiua
eieeeceiiiui i?aaii i?iaeaiiua neooaoeee aanueia ?aciiia?aciu e ia
naiaeyony eeoue e ?ac?aaioea i?aaee i?eiaiaiey eiino?aiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Eieeecee aicieeatho iaaeaeo ii?iaie eae
iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaiauo nenoai, oae e noauaeoia oaaea?aoeaiuo
ainoaea?noa; iaaeaeo aeoaie ?aciiai o?iaiy (caeiiu, ieienoa?neea
eino?oeoeee); iaaeaeo i?aaiaie ?acee/iuo aaoaae aeanoe; iaaeaeo ii?iaie,
i?eiyouie ii iaeiiio e oiio aea aii?ino a ?aciia a?aiy, e o.ae.

Oioy eieeeceiiiia i?aai (conflict of laws) yaeyaony anaai eeoue ae?oaei
iaeiaiiaaieai aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai /anoiiai i?aaa (I*I), aai ii?iu
io?aaeatho ioaee/ii-i?aaiaua ia?aie/aiey, iaeaaaaiua ia ainoaea?noaaiiue
noaa?aieoao*(150). Iniiaaieai iiaeiaiuo ia?aie/aiee neoaeeo iniciaiea
oiai, /oi eiaaea noaa?aieoao ia?anooiaao nianoaaiiua iaoeeiiaeueiua
a?aieoeu, ii oai naiui iinyaaao ia i?a?iaaoeau ae?oaiai noaa?aieoaoa.
Eieeeceiiiua ii?iu a nayce n yoei aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny eae acaeiiia
i?eciaiea i?aa e iau/aaa ?acee/iuo noaa?aiiuo ainoaea?noa, eae
iai?aaeaiiua ia caueoo iniiaiuo ao?eaooia noaa?aiiie aeanoe eaaeaeiai.
Aeaeiee I. O?y/oiai ionoaeaaao oi/eo c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie eo/oei
?aoaieai eieeeceiiiie neooaoeee (eieeecee i?aaiauo ii?i) yaeyaony
ia?aaiai?iue i?ioeann e caeeth/eoaeueiia niaeaoaiea ia
iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii o?iaia. Eiuie neiaaie, iaoaieciu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa yaeythony a aeaiiii neo/aa iioeiaeueiui
n?aaenoaii aeey eciaiaiey ii?iaoeaiiai niaea?aeaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
/anoiiai i?aaa*(151).

Iaiiiiei, /oi o?aaeeoeeiiiua i?eioeeiu e i?aaeea, eanathueany
th?enaeeeoeee, iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaenyo io aaia?aoe/aneie eieaeecaoeee
th?eaee/anee cia/eiuo niauoee (th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia). E oaea a neeo
iaeiiai yoiai oaeoa onoaiiaeaiea th?enaeeeoeee a Eioa?iaoa iaoaeeeaaaony
ia ia?ac?aoeiua, ii e?aeiae ia?a i?e ia?aii iiaeoiaea, i?iaeaiu.
“Eeaa?i?ino?ainoai ei?aiiui ia?acii iiae?uaaao ioiioaiey, nouanoaothuea
iaaeaeo cia/eiuie n i?aaiaie oi/ee c?aiey (iieaeiiauie) oaiiiaiaie e eo
oece/aneei ianoiiieiaeaieai. ?acaeoea aeiaaeueiie eiiiuethoa?iie naoe
?ac?ooaao naycue iaaeaeo aaia?aoe/aneei iieiaeaieai e: (1) aeanoueth
eieaeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii onoaiiaeaieth eiio?iey iaae ii-eaei
iiaaaeaieai; (2) aeeyieai iieaeiiaiai iiaaaeaiey ia eiaeeaeaeia eee
aaue; (3) caeiiiinoueth oneeee noaa?aiiie aeanoe ii ?aaoee?iaaieth
aeiaaeueiuo oaiiiaiia; a oaeaea (4) niiniaiinoueth oece/aneiai
ianoiiieiaeaiey ii?aaeaeyoue, eaeea eiaiii ii?iu neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue.
Naoue, oaeei ia?acii, iieiinoueth ieni?iaa?aaao nenoaio ii?iioai?/anoaa,
iniiaaiioth ia a?aieoeao iaaeaeo oece/aneeie i?ino?ainoaaie, ii e?aeiae
ia?a a ioiioaiee o?aaiaaiey, eanathuaainy oi?aaeaiey eeaa?i?ino?ainoaii
iin?aaenoaii oa??eoi?eaeueii neiino?oe?iaaiiuo ii?i”*(152).

Eioa?iao a?inaao aucia anai o?ai ecaanoiui oi?iai th?enaeeeoeee*(153),
iineieueeo anoaao o?oaeii?ac?aoeiay i?iaeaia n eieaeecaoeeae
th?eaee/anee cia/eiiai iiaaaeaiey. ?aoaao i?iaeaio eee ii e?aeiae ia?a
nieiaao aa ino?ioo ana oi aea naii?aaoee?iaaiea, iineieueeo aai
eniieueciaaiea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia o?aaoao eieaeecaoeee (o.a.
onoaiiaeaiey aaia?aoe/aneiai ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey). E i?eia?o, anee /anoiay
a?oiia i?eieiaao eiaeaen i?aaeeueiiai iiaaaeaiey, oi oaeia niaeaoaiea
neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?aaionoaiaaeeaathuee (i?aaeienuaathuee)
aeo. I?e oneiaee, /oi /eainoai a oaeie a?oiia yaeyaony
o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiui, iaea/aiiue a oi?io i?aaeienaiey, oaeie aeo oaeaea
iineo iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oa?aeoa?. *oi eanaaony noaeaaiie th?enaeeeoeee,
oi i?ioeaaeo?a /anoiiai ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia oaeaea iaueiiaaiii auoiaeeo ca
a?aieoeu eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai ainoaea?noaa. Iieacaoaeueiui i?eia?ii
?aoaiey i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n noaeaaiie th?enaeeeoeeae, yaeyaony nenoaia
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiiia?/aneiai a?aeo?aaea (ICA). Aieaa oiai, /anoiia
?ac?aoaiea nii?ia ia ia?aie/eaaaony a?aeo?aaeai. Iiyaeeenue iiaua
iiaeaee ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia – oaeea eae iaoaieciu aica?aoa ieaoaaea ii
e?aaeeoiui ea?oi/eai (credit card chargeback) eee oneiaiua ieaoaaee e
“/a?iue nienie” niiieoaeueiuo i?iaeaaoeia, eioi?ua i?aaeeaaaao, e
i?eia?o, aia?eeaineay naoue eioa?iao-iaaaceiia EBay*(154). Oe?ieoth
ecaanoiinoue iieo/eea e “Aaeeiay iieeoeea ?anniio?aiey nii?ia ii
aeiiaiiui eiaiai” (UDRP), aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei i?eiaiythuayny ia i?aeoeea.

Iaeiaei anee iu ia?aoeiny e th?enaeeeoeee i?aaii?eiaiaiey, oi neooaoeey
ineiaeiyaony. Eae ni?aaaaeeeai caia/aao Aai?e A. Ia??eoo,
“naii?aaoee?iaaiea aeaenoaoao a oie noaiaie, a eioi?ie aio iicaieyao
aeaenoaiaaoue ainoaea?noai”*(155). Eiuie neiaaie, noaiu
naii?aaoee?iaaiey aeieaeiu auoue naycaiu n ioaee/iui i?aaii: oieueei
oiaaea, eiaaea oaeay naycue nouanoaoao, nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue
iaania/eoue ?aaeueioth caueoo o/anoieeia /anoiuo nii?ia, eioi?ua a
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe ai?aaa ?ann/eouaaoue ia ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao
i?eioaeaeaiey.

Iiaeaaaeai eoiae. ?aoaiea eieeeceiiiuo aii?inia th?enaeeeoeee a
Eioa?iaoa aeaeeony, ai-ia?auo, a iineaaeiaaoaeueiie oieoeeaoeee i?aaiauo
ii?i (oieaa?naeueiua iaaeaeoia?iaeiua niaeaoaiey, iiaeaeueiua e
aaeeiiia?aciua caeiiu a iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo iauaaeeiaieyo oeia
Aa?iiaeneiai nithca e o.ae.). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ioeann yoio
?acaeaaaony aeinoaoi/ii aeoeaii eae a ?aieao niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee III e AN, oae e a iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai “naoaaiai niiauanoaa”. Ai-aoi?uo, o?aaoaony ?ac?aaioea
iiauo aeaeia eieeeceiiiuo i?eaycie, oeacuaathueo ia i?aai no?aiu,
iiaeeaaeauaa i?eiaiaieth e aeaiiiio ioiioaieth. A /anoiinoe, nouanoaotho
i?eaycee e “ianoo niaa?oaiey” i?aaiia?ooaiey eee e “caeiio noaea”,
?ac?aoathuaai nii?. Iau/iui oneiaeai aiaoiaoi?aiauo eiio?aeoia yaeyaony
i?eiaiaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa no?aiu i?iaeaaoea. A Eioa?iaoa
eieeeceiiiua i?eaycee iiaoo, iai?eia?, iniiauaaoueny ia oii, aaea
oece/anee iaoiaeeony (eee ca?aaeno?e?iaai) na?aa? eeoea, ieacuaathuaai
oneoao, eee ca?aaeno?e?iaai (ieaoeo iaeiae) iia?aoi? oneoa aeinooia e
Naoe. Ia neaaeoao oaeaea i?aiaa?aaaoue oaeoi?ii aieaa iauaai oa?aeoa?a –
?acaeoea “naoaauo” eiiioieeaoeee aeaao aeiiieieoaeueiue eiioeuen
i?ioeanno aa?iiiecaoeee, naeeaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaiauo nenoai, oioy
au a /anoe, i?ecaaiiie ?aaoee?iaaoue ioiioaiey a naiie Naoe.

TH.A. Oeoiie?ia, ?inneeneee niaoeeaeeno a iaeanoe eieeeceiiiiai i?aaa,
iieaaaao, /oi “iiaeii aanoe ?a/ue i iiaie ?iee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa,
eioi?ia iuia aunooiaao eae naiaai ?iaea iauee ciaiaiaoaeue aeey
n?aaiaiey e ioeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoa”*(156). Eiuie
neiaaie, anee aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ?ooeiiay ?aaioa eiiia?aoeaenoa
caeeth/aeanue a iienea e iiaeai?ea iaoeeiiaeueiuo ii?i, i?eaiaeiuo aeey
?ac?aoaiey nii?iuo aii?inia, oi aeeth/aiea iauai?eciaiiuo i?eioeeiia e
ii?i iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa (a oaeaea ?aoeoeoee?iaaiiuo aeiaiai?ia) a
no?oeoo?o aioo?aiiaai i?aaa nouanoaaiii iaeaa/aao ?aoaiea eiie?aoiuo
eieeecee.

Anoue neiaeiinoe e a aii?ina eaeaioeoeeaoeee “naoaauo noauaeoia”, a
ioiioaiee eioi?ie iaiaoiaeei aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae.
Aiciiaeiinoue aiiieiiinoe naoaaie aeayoaeueiinoe ?anniao?eaaaony iiiaeie
eae ia/oi iieiaeeoaeueiia, i?ia?anneaiia. Iaeiaei ai ecaaaeaiea
niaa?oaiey i?ioeaii?aaiuo aeaenoaee iaiaoiaeeii /aoei ?aca?aie/eaaoue
neo/ae, eiaaea ?aaioa a Eioa?iaoa iiae inaaaeiieiii (eee aiiieiii)
aeiioneaaony aac ia?aie/aiee, a eiaaea aeieaeia auoue i?yii cai?auaia.
Neaaeai, i?e eniieueciaaiee naoaauo na?aenia ICQ eee eiuo aiaeiae/iuo
i?ia?aii naoaaiai iaeaeaeeiaa iiia?a (eaeaioeoeeaoi?u) aaiiaioia ia
eiatho eaeeo-eeai i?eciaeia, iicaieythueo ii?aaeaeeoue, ec eaeie no?aiu
e eai ioi?aaeaii niiauaiea. (Aaaeue e a “iau/iii”, ianaoaaii iaeaeaeeiaa
ioi?aaeoaeue niiauaiey iia iacaaoue naay eae oaiaeii, a aai aae?anao
ii?aaeaeyeny eeoue ii aaiiaioneiio iiia?o e, ?acoiaaony, ii oaeaoiio eee
aae?ano yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou iaeaeaeeiaiaie eiiiaiee.) Caeanue iao ieeaeeo
i?e/ei o?aaiaaoue iaeiicia/iie eaeaioeoeeaoeee o/anoieeia
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia. A ae?oaeo aea neo/ayo, iai?eia?, iiaeiaaeathueo
iiae aeaenoaea caeiiia i caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae eee i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee
i?aaiia?ooaiee, auyaeaiea enoeiiiai aaoi?a (ioi?aaeoaey, enoi/ieea)
eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui. A?yae ee aoaeao ?acoiii aaiaeeoue
ia?aie/aiey ia naiaiaeo i?enaiaiey eee auai?a naoaauo aae?ania. Iaeiaei
cae?aieoue ii?yaeie, i?e eioi?ii aeinoiaa?iay eioi?iaoeey ia iia?aoi?a
naoaauo oneoa eee i?iaeaaoea yeaeo?iiiiai iaaaceia aeieaeia auoue
ca?aiaa iioaeeeiaaia eee i?aaeinoaaeaia ii iioeae?iaaiiiio o?aaiaaieth
noaeaaiuo i?aaiia, oeaeaniia?acii.

Aanueia aeecei e i?iaeaia auyaeaiey iaaeeaaeauae noi?iiu a
iaycaoaeuenoaa i?eiueaao aii?in ia eaeaioeoeeaoeee eiio?aaaioa (naoaaiai
i?iaeaaoea) i?e caeeth/aiee naoaauo naeaeie. Aeaei a oii, /oi i?e
auoiaea ia iioaioeeaeueiiai eiio?aaaioa a Eioa?iaoa /aua anaai
eniieuecothony naoaaua ia/aeueiua no?aieoeu (homepage), niaaeeiaiiua
iaaeaeo niaie oae iacuaaaiuie aeia?oaenoiauie nnueeaie, iaeaa/athueie
iiene ioaeiie eioi?iaoeee, oiaa?a eee oneoae. Iaeiaei aeaaeaeaoe
“ia/aeueiie no?aieoeu”, eee, oi/iaa, naeoa (site), ia eioi?ii iia
?aciauaia, ia iaycaoaeueii niaiaaeaao a iaeiii eeoea n aa
aaeieieno?aoi?ii (oai, eoi ?aaeueii caieiaaony ia?aaioeie aeaiiuo ia
naeoa e iaania/aieai aai ?aciauaiey a Naoe). Iiae/an n iiiiuueth
“ia/aeueiie no?aieoeu” i?iecaiaeeony oieueei auoiae ia niaa?oaiii eiie
na?aa?, aaea cai?ioaiiay oneoaa iiaeao auoue ?aaeueii ieacaia. Iaeiiaoe,
/aua anaai aeaaeaeueoeu naeoia ia yaeythony aeaaeaeueoeaie eee
aaeieieno?aoi?aie na?aa?ia, ia eioi?uo ?aciauathony eo naeou e aeiiaiiua
eiaia eioi?uo yaeythony /anoueth naoaauo aae?ania oaeeo naeoia. A
?acoeueoaoa auaatho neo/ae, eiaaea iieueciaaoaeue Naoe, ia?aoeaoeeny ca
ieacaieai eaeie-eeai oneoae ia ii?aaeaeaiiue na?aa? (naeo), aeinoiaa?ii
ia eioi?ie?oaony i iieiiii/eyo eeoea, eioi?ue inouanoaeyao n iei iaiai
eioi?iaoeeae a ?aaeeia ?aaeueiiai a?aiaie. Enoaoe aiai?y, oaeie iaiai
iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny e ia /aeiaaeii, a eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiie
(?iaioii). Aneaaenoaea yoiai caeeth/aiioth naeaeeo a i?eioeeia iiaeii
inia?eaaoue ii iniiaaieyi ultra vires. Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey oaeeo
neooaoeee oeaeaniia?acii auei au nicaeaoue iaoaieci aeinoiaa?iie
eaeaioeoeeaoeee noauaeoa i?aaeeaaaaiiai i?aaiioiioaiey (iaaeeaaeauae
noi?iiu iaycaoaeuenoaa), i?e eioi?ii ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeinoiaa?iinoue
aiceaaaeanue au ia eeoei, i?aaeeaaathuaa naoaaoth oneoao. Yoi
cao?aaeaaao eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeioth oaio oaoiieiae/aneeo n?aaenoa oaeie
eaeaioeoeeaoeee, a ?innee naiaeeiie iau/ii eeoue e i?iaeaia
eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie iiaeiene. Ca ?oaaaeii, iaeiaei,
yeaeo?iiiay oeeo?iaay iiaeienue (digital signature) yaeyaony eeoue
iaeiei ec aiciiaeiuo niiniaia eaeaioeoeeaoeee (i?eiaiythony e ?acee/iua
aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa, e aeiiao?e/aneea iaoiaeu, e iiiaia ae?oaia).
Noiaeea i?iaeaiu aicieeatho i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iieiiii/ee niaanaaeieea, n
eioi?ui i?iecaiaeeony iaiai niiauaieyie ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa. Eae oaea
ioia/aeinue auoa, ei?ii?aoeaiua i?aaeea aeinooia nio?oaeieeia e
yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa iiaoo cia/eoaeueii ?acee/aoueny, e ii e?aeiae ia?a a
aoaeouai auea au aeaeaoaeueia oieoeeaoeey (i?aaiaay ?aaeaiaioaoeey) eo
iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo iieiaeaiee. A /anoiinoe, auneacuaaeenue
i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue ii?yaeie i?enaiaiey yeaeo?iiiuo aae?ania
a?aaeaeaiai, n oai /oiau ec naiiai naoaaiai aae?ana (niaieoiiinoe eiaie
iieueciaaoaey e iacaaiey aai i?iaaeaea?a) iiaeii auei i?aeoe/anee
iaeiicia/ii eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue eaaeaeiai iieueciaaoaey*(157).

Caneoaeeaaao oiiieiaiey aua iaeei iaiaeiaaaeiue aniaeo niaoeeoeee
i?aaiioiioaiee, aicieeathueo ii iiaiaeo Eioa?iaoa, – aii?in aeieacuaaiey
oaeoia, eiathueo th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea. I?iecaiaeeiua iieueciaaoaeyie
Naoe iia?aoeee ii aaiaeo aeaiiuo, eo ia?acaiene, eiie?iaaieth e
ia?aaioea, a i?eioeeia iiaeiaiu ninoaaeaieth ienueiaiiuo aeieoiaioia e
eo ?annueea. Iaeiaei a ioee/ea io ienueiaiiuo aeieoiaioia ia aoiaaeiii
iineoaea, eioi?iaoeey, oee?eoee?othuay a Naoe, ia iiaeao auoue oae aea
eaaei i?aaeuyaeaia aeey n/eouaaiey e eco/aiey. Ii e?aeiae ia?a,
o?aaoaony niaoeeaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea (eiiiuethoa?), /oiau oeacaiioth
eioi?iaoeeth iieo/eoue ec Naoe aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aini?eyoey e
iniuneaiey. Aii?in i i?eciaiee aeieacaoaeueiie neeu (a ea/anoaa
ienueiaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa) aeieoiaioia ia iaaieoiuo e aiaeiae/iuo
iineoaeyo iaiaeiicia/ii ?aoaaony a ?aciuo i?aaiauo nenoaiao. ?acaeoea
Eioa?iaoa iiea oieueei oneiaeiyao ?aoaiea i aeiiouaiee oee?eoee?othuae a
Naoe eioi?iaoeee a ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoa, oioy e aeaeaao yoio aii?in
/?acau/aeii aeooaeueiui.

Oae, aii?in i i?eiaiaiee i?aaiaie ii?iu e oaeoo ?aciauaiey a Eioa?iaoa
ii?aaeaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee oanii naycai n i?iaeaiie oeenaoeee
th?eaee/aneeo niauoee (oaeoia) n oeaeueth i?eaeaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie
neeu niioaaonoaothuae eioi?iaoeee (iai?eia?, eiii?iiaoo ia iieeoe/aneeo
e eiuo ecaanoiuo aeayoaeae, neo/ayi ieaaeaoa, ai?ianoaa iauaeoia
aaoi?neiai i?aaa; oaea?neei e niaia?neei aoaeai; oneiaeyi oae iacuaaaiuo
ioaee/iuo ioa?o, iiyaeythueiny ia naeoao yeaeo?iiiuo iaaaceiia). Eae
aeieacaoue, /oi a oeacaiiii i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie (iau/ii iaaeaeo iiiaioii
iiyaeaiey ia naeoa e iiiaioii en/aciiaaiey) ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio aae?ano
auea ?aciauaia ii?aaeaeaiiay eioi?iaoeey? Ia /oi aeieaeai nnueaoueny
iieueciaaoaeue Eioa?iaoa, iioa?iaaoee oauoee aneaaenoaea iaiaaeeaaeauaai
eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa oe?iie – i?iecaiaeeoaeai naoaauo oneoa, anee
aeiaiai? n iae aue caeeth/ai a aeaea iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae /a?ac naeo yoie
oe?iu? Eae aeieacuaathony oneiaey caeeth/aiiie naeaeee (oioy au
iaia?aiey noi?ii), anee oe?ia iiaeao a ethaie iiiaio eciaieoue oneiaey
oi?ioey?iiai eiio?aeoa? (Aaaeue oaeno oi?ioey?iiai eiio?aeoa – eae e
ethaiai eiiai aeieoiaioa! – ia iiiaio iiaea/e enea iiaeao ioee/aoueny io
oaenoa, i?aaeeaaaaoaainy ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a, a onoa?aaoay
eioi?iaoeey, eae i?aaeei, ec Naoe ono?aiyaony.)

?aoaiea iiaeii iaeoe eae o?aaeeoeeiiiuie niiniaaie, niioaaonoaothueie
“ianaoaaui” iaoiaeai ?aaoee?iaaiey, oae e iao?aaeeoeeiiiuie, ia
eniieuecoaiuie iiea a aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. *oi eanaaony
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo niiniaia, oi iaeaieaa i/aaeaeiuie ec ieo yaeythony
i?iaaaeaiea neaaenoaaiiuo yenia?eiaioia a ?aieao oaieiaiiai
?anneaaeiaaiey, n i?eaea/aieai naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee eee caeeth/aiee
yenia?oia e o.i. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiaeii, neaaeai, i?eiyoue o?aaiaaiea
oeene?iaaoue i?iecaiaeeiua a Naoe aeaenoaey a eaeie-eeai iaoa?eaeueiie
oi?ia, /oiau iioii i?aaeuyaeoue caoeene?iaaiioth oaeei ia?acii
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee aeey eco/aiey (iaaaaeii, a aeaea
?ania/aoee ia aoiaaa eee oaeea ia iaaieoiii aeenea). Iaeiaei yoi n
iaecaaaeiinoueth iaoaeeeaaaony ia neiaeiinoue, caeeth/athuothny a
n?aaieoaeueii aieaa eaaeie aiciiaeiinoe niaa?oeoue iiaeaeaeeo
yeaeo?iiiiai aeieoiaioa, aianoe eciaiaiey a iaai “caaeiei /eneii”, /oi
ia ninoaaeo o?oaea aeey eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai i?ia?aiienoa. Eae ?ac a yoeo
oeaeyo auei au oianoii i?eiaiaiea yeaeo?iiiuo oeeo?iauo iiaeienae.
“Aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea yeaeo?iiiie iiaeiene ninoieo a
onoaiiaeaiee oiaeaeanoaa aaoi?a aeieoiaioa n eeoeii, eioi?ia yaeyaony
noauaeoii niioaaonoaothueo i?aaiauo ioiioaiee. I?e yoii
aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiia cia/aiea yeaeo?iiiie iiaeiene yaeyaony oaeaea
i?aaeiinueeie ioianaiey yeaeo?iiiiai aeieoiaioa e ienueiaiiiio, o.a.
ioaa/athuaio o?aaiaaieyi ienueiaiiie oi?iu”*(158). *oi eanaaony
niiinoaaeaiey yeaeo?iiiiai aeieoiaioa n aeieoiaioii ia aoiaaeiii
iineoaea, oi aeey ?innee iii inoaaony aei neo ii? aeooaeueiui,
iineieueeo, eae iieacuaaao ?inneeneay noaeaaiay i?aeoeea, yeaeo?iiiua
aeieoiaiou ia eiatho oaeie aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie neeu, eioi?ay i?eaeaaony
ienueiaiiui aeieoiaioai (eioi?ua i?eciathony oaeoe/anee “aannii?iuie”, a
eo niaea?aeaiea i?aaeiieaaaaony aeinoiaa?iui)*(159). *oi aea eanaaony
i?eiyoiai aua a 2001 a. Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia ia yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie
iiaeiene, oi aai i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea caoyaeaaaony ii i?e/eiai,
eioi?ua aieaa iiae?iaii aoaeoo eceiaeaiu ieaea.

E /eneo iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia iiaeii ioianoe, a /anoiinoe, aaaaeaiea
oae iacuaaaiie iaoee a?aiaie a oaeeu, nea/eaaaiua n eioa?iao-naeoia;
?acee/iua oi?iu oaeinoiaa?aiey niauoee e oaeoia “naoaauie” iioa?eonaie
(niioaaonoaothuea oneoae i?aaeeaaathony oaea e a ?inneeneii Eioa?iaoa);
iaeiiaoe, ia?aiin ?anniio?aiey nii?iuo aii?inia a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
ianoaeaaiua o/?aaeaeaiey (o?aoaeneea noaeu, i?eie?eoaeueiua eiiennee),
naiinoiyoaeueii iaania/eaathuea aeieacaoaeuenoaa ii aeaeo. E
oaoiieiae/aneei ia?ai, a /anoiinoe, iiaeii ioianoe e i?ia?aiiiua
n?aaenoaa, ano?aeaaaiua a iieueciaaoaeueneea i?iaeoeou, – oae,
ei?ii?aoeey Microsoft n 2003 a. eniieuecoao oaoiieiaeth “oeeo?iaiai
oi?aaeaiey i?aaaie” (digital rights management), iicaieythuoth ethaiio
iieueciaaoaeth ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeyoue noaoon e ii?yaeie aeinooia e
nicaeaaaaiiio ei aeieoiaioo (oi/iaa aiai?y, eiiiuethoa?iiio oaeeo).

Iiieii /enoi oaenoiaie eioi?iaoeee a Naoe oee?eoee?oao eioi?iaoeey a
a?aoe/aneie, aoaeei- e aecoaeueiie oi?ia. Oaeay eioi?iaoeey (iai?eia?, a
aeaea “iai?enoieiuo” ecia?aaeaiee) oaeaea iiaeao noaoue i?aaeiaoii
eco/aiey i?e ?aoaiee nii?iuo th?eaee/aneeo aii?inia, oaea a ea/anoaa ia
oieueei ienueiaiiuo, ii e aauanoaaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. Aeaaea
naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey ii iiaiaeo aeaenoaee, niaa?oaaiuo
iieueciaaoaeyie Eioa?iaoa, iiaoo iniiauaaoueny ia ia oii, /oi
naeaeaoaeue ee/ii aeaeae eee neuoae, a ia oii, /oi ii iieo/ae eee
?annueae a aeaea niiauaiee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, iieo/ae aeinooi e oaeie
eioi?iaoeee ia ?acee/iuo naeoao e o.ae. I/aaeaeii, iiaeiaiua aii?inu
aoaeoo eiaoue oanioth naycue n oaieiaii-i?aaiaui i?aneaaeiaaieai
ia?ooaiee a noa?a eiiiuethoa?iie aeayoaeueiinoe e niiniaiu ?aaeeeaeueii
aeiiieieoue e ?anoe?eoue iiaeoiaeu e i?eiyoeth e eco/aieth
aeieacaoaeuenoa eae a oaieiaiii, oae e a a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna.

I?ioeaaeo?u iieo/aiey e iaania/aiey nio?aiiinoe aeieacaoaeuenoa noaee
iaeiei aeaaiuo aii?inia, cao?iioouo a “Eiiaaioeee ii eeaa?i?anooiiinoe”,
iaeia?aiiie Aa?iiaeneei niaaoii 19 naioya?y 1999 a. e anooieaoae a neeo
(iinea aa ?aoeoeeaoeee iaiaoiaeeiui /eneii ainoaea?noa, aeeth/ay
ainoaea?noaa – /eaiu AN) a 2001 a.*(160) I?eaaaeai a ea/anoaa i?eia?a
ianeieueei, ii iaoaio iiaieth, aeaenoaaiiuo ii?i, aaaaeaiiuo
Eiiaaioeeae. Noaouey 16 Eiiaaioeee i?aaeoniao?eaaao, a /anoiinoe,
iaycaiiinoue nio?aiyoue eiiiuethoa?iua aeaiiua, aeeth/ay iioiee aeaiiuo
(traffic data), a iniaaiiinoe anee nouanoaotho iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue,
/oi oaeea aeaiiua iiaoo auoue iioa?yiu eee eciaiaiu. Aeaeaa, a no.17,
neaaeoao ooi/iaiea ioiineoaeueii iauaia “o?aoeea”, eioi?ue aeieaeai
auoue aeinoaoi/iui aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee i?iaaeaea?a oneoa e iooe
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. A no.18 niaea?aeeony o?aaiaaiea e ainoaea?noaai,
iiaeienaaoei Eiiaaioeeth, nicaeaoue niioaaonoaothuea i?aaiaua iaoaieciu
aeey eno?aaiaaiey ia oieueei eioi?iaoeee, iaoiaeyuaeny a nianoaaiiinoe
eeoea eee iiae aai eiio?ieai, ii oaeaea eioi?iaoeee i iieueciaaoaeyo
(“iiaeien/eeao”, subscribers), o.a. i o?aoueeo eeoeao, eioi?ui
i?aaeinoaaeyaony oieueei aeinooi aeey eniieueciaaiey naoaaiai
i?ino?ainoaa. I?e yoii eioi?iaoeey i iieueciaaoaea ioiineony aiana ia e
niaea?aeaieth i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo oaeiio iieueciaaoaeth aeaiiuo, a
aeeth/aao ethaoth eioi?iaoeeth, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie aiciiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue ii/oiaue (oece/aneee) aae?an, oaeaoii, eiae aeinooia e
i?i/ea naaaeaiey, noaaoea aeinooiiuie i?iaaeaea?o i?e caeeth/aiee
aeiaiai?a ia ieacaiea oneoa.

Iiaua iauaeou “naoaaie nianoaaiiinoe”

I?eaaaeaiiue auoa aiaeec iaeioi?uo oai?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai
“eioa?iao-i?aaa” iiaeaiaeeo ian e ?anniio?aieth aua aieaa eioa?aniie
i?iaeaiaoeee – e aii?ino i iiauo iauaeoao i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Yoa
i?iaeaia eiaao e aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea, iineieueeo a nayce n
?acaeoeai Naoe a a?aaeaeaineee (oicyenoaaiiue) iai?io aaiaeyony
niaa?oaiii iiaua, i?aaeaea iaecaanoiua a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iauaeou, i?e
yoii iauaiu niioaaonoaothueo naeaeie ninoaaeytho oaea aeanyoee e nioie
ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia.

Oeacaiiue aii?in, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aua ia iieo/ee naiaai
oai?aoe/aneiai e caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ?aoaiey. Ia?iiiia /enei
anaaiciiaeiuo nioeeaeueiuo naycae, iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eae oaea
ioia/aeinue, aiiaua ia ioaeaeaaony a eaeii-eeai i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee,
e eeoue eiaaea noaiaiue eo ?acaeoey a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee aeinoeaiao
ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy, aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey iaeeo
i?aaeaea iaecaanoiuo ienueiaiiuo i?aaee (i?aaiauo ii?i), /uea
niaethaeaiea iaania/eaaaony ainoaea?noaaiiui i?eioaeaeaieai. Iai?eia?,
iiiaea aiaeu (e aeaaea noieaoey!) iaei eoi caaeoiuaaeny i caueoa oaeiai
iauaeoa eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, eae “iaeiaiiaaiea iano
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?a”. Iaeiaei eae oieueei i?ia?ann n?aaenoa
o?ainii?oa e niiniaia ia?a?aaioee i?iaeoeoia iaania/ee i?aeoe/anee
iaia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey aeinoaaee e o?aiaiey i?iaeoeoia
ieoaiey, i?iecaiaeeoaee oaiiaineiai e eiiueyea ii/oanoaiaaee, /oi eo
aeioiaeu iiaoo nie?aoeoueny aneaaenoaea i?iaeaaee o?aoueeie eeoeaie
noiaeiuo nie?oiuo iaieoeia, i?eaioiaeaiiuo ii oie aea oaoiieiaee, ii
i?ienoiaeyueo ec ae?oaeo ianoiinoae e aeaaea no?ai. Neaaenoaeai oaeie
icaai/aiiinoe noaei, a /anoiinoe, iiyaeaiea “Niaaoneiai ea?enoiai” e
“A?iyineiai a?aiaee”, a a oa?ieiao caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa – onoaiiaeaiea
?aaeeia io?aiu eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia iaeiaiiaaiey iano
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?a. Oae (eee i?eia?ii oae) iiyaeeny iiaue iauaeo
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Iiyaeaiea e ?acaeoea Eioa?iaoa a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea ia?ac?uaii
naycaii n aiaea/aieai iia?aoi?ia e iieueciaaoaeae Naoe a oicyenoaaiiue
iai?io, a oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey. Ia?aiia/aeueii “naoaaay”
oicyenoaaiiay aeoeaiinoue ia?aie/eaaeanue oieueei “iieoieie” oneoa
aeinooia a Eioa?iao, iaeiaei i/aiue auno?i iauaeoaie yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee a Naoe noaee e eiua, ia ioiinyueany eneeth/eoaeueii e noa?a
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, oneoae (eioi?iaoeeiiiua,
oeiainiaua, aeayoaeueiinoue “iieaeiiauo” iaaaceiia) e o.ae. Iaeiiaoe, a
oicyenoaaiiue iai?io auee aiaea/aiu e niaoeeoe/anee “naoaaua” iauaeou,
io aeiiaiiuo aae?ania aei naeoia e ii?oaeia. Oeacaiiua iauaeou, oaeei
ia?acii, noaee i?aaeiaoii eiiia?/aneiai eioa?ana, eioi?ue au?aaeaaony a
ii?aaeaeaiiie iaoa?eaeueiie ioeaiea. Aei neo ii? i?aaiaie ?aaeei
iauaeoia ia iiaeaeaaony iaeiicia/iiio ii?aaeaeaieth.

Aeaeaei ia ana oi, /oi iiaeii ioianoe e iauaeoai iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, e
“aauai”, iiaeao noaoue iauaeoii oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee.
Ioaeaeueiua aeaeu aauae cai?auaiu e i?iaeaaea (“ecuyou ec iai?ioa”), a
ioiioaiee eiuo nouanoaotho ia?aie/aiey iai?ioiniiniaiinoe. A naiii
aeaea, ia iiaeao yaeyoueny i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a eoiee-i?iaeaaee
aoiinoa?iue aicaeoo eee nieia/iue naao, a aeey i?oaeey eee
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa nouanoaotho iniaua i?aaeea oi?aiaee. A oi aea
a?aiy iio?aaiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai iai?ioa aucaaee e aeecie oaeea
iai?ioiniiniaiua iauaeou, ionoonoaothuea a “iau/iie i?e?iaea”, eae
oeaiiua aoiaae, i?i/ea i?aaa eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Iaeiiaoe,
iaeaieaa “i?aaei?eei/eaui” aecianiaiai oaeaaony i?iecaiaeeoue oi?aiaeth
aauaie (iauaeoaie), yaii ia ioiinyuothny e caeiiiui ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi
(aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue “ie?aieaeu” oeia III eee oi?aiaeth caiaeueiuie
o/anoeaie ia Eoia). Oaeei ia?acii, aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, nouanoaotho
eee iao ia?aie/aiey ii iai?ioiniiniaiinoe eaeiai-eeai iauaeoa, ii iiaeao
auoue aiaea/ai a ioiioaiey eoiee-i?iaeaaee. A ?yaea neo/aaa ia?ooaiea
aeaenoaothueo ia?aie/aiee aea/ao ca niaie oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue
(iai?eia?, iacaeiiiue iai?io ia?eioeeia), ii /aua anaai oeacaiiua
ioiioaiey eaaeao aia noa?u eioa?ania caeiiiaeaoaeae.

Iiaeiaiua neooaoeee a noa?a oaeaeiiioieeaoeee oa?aeoa?iu ia oieueei aeey
Eioa?iaoa. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue oae iacuaaaiua oi?ioea (iie aea
“oaeiaiua”, “i?inoua” eee “e?aneaua”) oaeaoiiiua iiia?a oeia 555-55-55
eee 200-00-00. Neaaeai, iia?aoi?u iiaeeueiie nayce “i?iaeatho” iiaeiaiua
iiia?a ii aieaa aunieie oeaia, /ai “i?i/ea”, oioy e?eoa?ee ioianaiey
oaeeo iiia?ia e aieaa aei?iaei ieaaea ia i?iienaiu (ii?aaeaeythony
iia?aoi?ii naiinoiyoaeueii), a nai iauaeo (“oaeianoai oaeaoiiiiai
iiia?a”) ia oiiiyioo ie a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ie a eaeeo-eeai
ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioao io?anee nayce.

I?yiay aiaeiaey n auoaoeacaiiie iaaethaeaaony a iaeanoe naoaauo aae?ania
(aeiiaiiuo eiai), i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie oieeaeueiue eaeaioeoeeaoi?
naoaauo ?ano?nia Eioa?iaoa a aeaea eiiaeiaoeee eaoeineeo aoea e
iaeioi?uo eiuo neiaieia. O eaaeaeiai eiiiuethoa?a anaaaea aeaa aae?ana.
Iaeei ec ieo (/eneiaie aae?an) i?aaeiacia/ai aeey nayce eiiiuethoa?ia
iaaeaeo niaie, ninoieo ec iaai?a ec /aou?ao /enae e i?aeoe/anee ia
i?eiaiyaony iieueciaaoaeyie. Aoi?ie aae?an – oceiaia eiy, ninoiyuaa ec
eiiiiiaioia, oeacuaathueo ia ianoiiieiaeaiea eee oei i?aaiecaoeee,
aeaaeathuae eiiiuethoa?ii, e ec aeiiaiiiai eiaie. Aeiiaiiia eiy aeieaeii
auoue oieeaeueiui e anaaaea i?eiaaeeaaeeo oieueei iaeiiio eeoeo (eee
i?aaiecaoeee). Iai?ioea, ethaia eeoei eee i?aaiecaoeey iiaoo eiaoue
iaeiia?aiaiii ianeieueei ?aciuo aeiiaiiuo eiai.

N oaoiieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey iaicia/aiey oeia www.pepsi.ru ie/ai ia
ioee/athony io www.5un34-t-qwsd.com (eee, enoaoe, niioaaonoaothuaai
IP-aae?ana oeia 98.115.263.220). Ii n oi/ee c?aiey ia?eaoeiaiaie,
eiiia?/aneie, aeey oe?iu n iacaaieai Ford iaiiiai i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa
eniieueciaaoue a ?innee aeiiaiiia eiy www.ford.ru.

I?i?uaii a aii?ina ?aaoee?iaaiey i?aa ia aeiiaiiua eiaia noaei i?eiyoea
eioa?iao-ei?ii?aoeeae ii i?enaiaieth eiai e iiia?ia (ICANN) 24 ieoya?y
1999 a. oaea oiiieiaaoaeny “Aaeeiie iieeoeee ?anniio?aiey nii?ia ii
aeiiaiiui eiaiai” (Uniform Domain Name Resolution Policy). I?aaeea UDRP
auee ?ac?aaioaiu a niioaaonoaee n ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie “Anaie?iie
i?aaiecaoeee eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe” (WIPO) e i?eiyou ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue anaie ?aaeno?aoi?aie a aeiiaiao .com, .net e .org, a
oaeaea iaeioi?uie aaeieieno?aoi?aie iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeiiaiia aa?oiaai
o?iaiy. Iniiaiia aieiaiea “Aaeeiua i?aaeea” oaeaeytho ?aoaieth e?aeia
aeooaeueiie e aieaciaiiie i?iaeaiu “aeiiaiiia eiy – oiaa?iue ciae”.
Iauee iiaeoiae e oeacaiiie i?iaeaia iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae
eiii?iienniue: i?eciaiea eniieueciaaiey a aeiiaiiuo eiaiao oiaa?iuo
ciaeia (eee ciaeia, noiaeiuo aei niaoaiey) a ea/anoaa i?aaiia?ooaiey ia
oieueei o?aaoao iainiiaaiey, ii e iiaeao auoue ioeeiiaii i?e iaee/ee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa*(161).

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iiiuoaeinue ?aoeoue i?iaeaio n aeiiaiiuie
eiaiaie ii-naiaio. Noaouey 4 iiaie ?aaeaeoeee Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia ?O
“I oiaa?iuo ciaeao, ciaeao ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeiaiiaaieyo iano
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia”, anooieaoae a neeo 11 aeaeaa?y 2002 a.,
i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi “ia?ooaieai eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa
i?aaiiaeaaeaoaey (iacaeiiiui eniieueciaaieai oiaa?iiai ciaea) i?eciaaony
eniieueciaaiea aac aai ?ac?aoaiey a a?aaeaeaineii iai?ioa ia oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee oiaa?iiai ciaea eee noiaeiiai n iei aei noaiaie
niaoaiey iaicia/aiey a ioiioaiee oiaa?ia, aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee
eioi?uo oiaa?iue ciae ca?aaeno?e?iaai, eee iaeii?iaeiuo oiaa?ia, a oii
/enea ?aciauaiea oiaa?iiai ciaea eee noiaeiiai n iei aei noaiaie
niaoaiey iaicia/aiey: a naoe Eioa?iao, a /anoiinoe, a aeiiaiiii eiaie e
i?e ae?oaeo niiniaao aae?anaoeee”. “Naiaia?acea” oaeiai ?aoaiey
caeeth/aaony oioy au a oii, /oi iii cae?aieaii ia a ii?iaoeaiii aeoa,
?aaoee?othuei eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee, a a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
oiaa?iuo ciaeao, oioy a ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo AIEN i?yii oeacaii, /oi i?aaiaia
niioiioaiea oiaa?iuo ciaeia e aeiiaiiuo eiai ia aeieaeii ?aaoee?iaaoueny
n iiiiuueth ii?i i oiaa?iuo ciaeao. Ioiaoei, /oi iiaay ?aaeaeoeey no.4
cia/eoaeueii iiieaeaao yeiiiie/aneoth caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a iaeaaeaiee
aeiiaiiui eiaiai a naeoi?a .ru, iineieueeo aianoi ninoycaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna aeaaeaeueoeaa iaeeaeaao iaaeaoniuneaiiay oa?ica eeoeoueny
“nianoaaiiinoe” e iiaeaa?aiooueny oaieiaiiio i?aneaaeiaaieth. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, i?eniaaeeiaiea e “Aaeeiie iieeoeea ?anniio?aiey nii?ia ii
aeiiaiiui eiaiai” oaeaea ia niinianoaoao ?aoaieth neiaeeaoaeny
neooaoeee. Eae oeacuaaao A.N. Eai?aaeae: “Aeaiiua i?aaeea ia iiaoo auoue
i?eiyou a aeiiaia .ru, oae eae iniiaaiiay ia ieo i?ioeaaeo?a eiaao
aaeieieno?aoeaiue oa?aeoa?”*(162). A oi aea a?aiy iiaeii niaeaneoueny n
iiaieai A. Aa?oeaaie, th?enoa ?inIEE?IN i oii, /oi aiciiaeia
ioeoeeaeueiay ioaeeeaoeey ia?aaiaea “Aaeeiie iieeoeee ?anniio?aiey
nii?ia ii aeiiaiiui eiaiai”, ia eioi?oth a yoii neo/aa iiaeii aoaeao
nnueaoueny a noaea eae ia iauai?eciaiiua i?eioeeiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
i?aaa (eee aeaeiaiai iai?ioa).

Eae iieacuaatho i?eaaaeaiiua i?eia?u, aeiiaiiia eiy (a neiaaniie oi?ia)
iiaeao niaiaaeaoue e n niioaaonoaothuei oiaa?iui ciaeii, e n oe?iaiiui
iaeiaiiaaieai. I?e yoii oiaa?iua ciaee e oe?iaiiua iaeiaiiaaiey
yaeythony iauaeoaie eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa. A aio n aeiiaiiuie eiaiaie
(aae?anaie) neooaoeey eiay. Aiaeiae/iie ii?iu caeiia iao (iiea),
noaeaaiay i?aeoeea ia aeaao iaeiicia/iuo auaiaeia (iiae?iaiia eceiaeaiea
?inneeneie i?aeoeee ?anniio?aiey aeiiaiiuo nii?ia i?eaaaeaii a eieaa A.
Na?ai “Eioa?iao e i?aai”). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ioiineoue aeiiaiiia eiy e
iauaeoai eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe iiea iai?aaiia?ii, oioy eiaiii
i oaeii iiaeoiaea ana /aua aiai?yo ioa/anoaaiiua e ca?oaaaeiua
niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe i?aaa.

Ae?oaei iauaeoii “naoaaie nianoaaiiinoe” yaeyaony eioa?iao-naeo (eee, a
ea/anoaa /anoiiai neo/ay, eioa?iao-ii?oae). O eioa?iao-naeoa aeinoaoi/ii
iiiai eaeaioeoeoee?othueo i?eciaeia, aeeth/ay oieeaeueiue aae?an
(ai?i/ai, aiciiaeiu “ca?eaea” naeoia ii eiui aae?anai), iaeiaiiaaiea
(eiy) “aeaaeaeueoea”, eiiaaea – iiia?a ?aaeno?aoeee a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee e o.ae. Eaaeaeue eioa?iao-naeo niaea?aeeo
ii?aaeaeaiiia aeecaeia?neia ?aoaiea, a oaeaea ?aciiia?acioth oaenoiaoth,
a?aoe/aneoth, aoaeeiaecoaeueioth e eioth eioi?iaoeeth. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeue eiiiiiaio eioa?iao-naeoa iiaeao yaeyoueny iauaeoii
i?aaiaie io?aiu (a /anoiinoe, aaoi?neei i?aaii). Ii naeaeee ii iiaiaeo
eioa?iao-naeoia e eiuo naoaauo ?ano?nia inouanoaeythony ia ec-ca oiai,
/oi iieoiaoaeue aeaeaao iieo/eoue io i?iaeaaoea eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa
ia ioaeaeueiua eiiiiiaiou naeoa. Iai?ioea, i?aeoe/anee anaaaea ?a/ue
eaeao eiaiii i naeoa a oeaeii, aeeth/ay aai eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaiieiaiea
(eioi?ia, enoaoe, ie aaoi?neei i?aaii, ie eiuie eneeth/eoaeueiuie
i?aaaie ia io?aiyaony). Iaeeoei iaeee iauaeo, iaeaaeathuee aaconeiaiie
iaoa?eaeueiie e iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoueth, eioi?ue yaeyaony
i?aaeiaoii naeaeie a niaieoiiinoe anao ninoaaeythueo aai eiiiiiaioia.
Iiaeiaii oiio, eae i?iaeaaony aaoiiiaeeue – ia eae iaai? ioaeaeueiuo
aunieiea/anoaaiiuo aeaoaeae (aeaeaaoaeue, ei?ion, eieana e o.ae.), a eae
eo ?aaioiniiniaiay niaieoiiinoue, ?aaeecothuay ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth
(o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa).

Iauaeou “naoaaie nianoaaiiinoe” eiatho neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eioth
oeaiiinoue, oieueei anee n eo iiiiuueth aeinoeaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay
ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue (i?e/ai ia oieueei iaoa?eaeueiay auaiaea, ii e eiay
iauanoaaiiay iieueca). Neaaeai, a?yae ee eiaaea-ieaoaeue aicieeioo nii?u
ii iiaiaeo i?aa ia aeiiaiiia eiy, i?aaenoaaeythuaa neo/aeiue iaai? aoea
e ia niaiaaeathuaa ie n eaeeie iaicia/aieyie e neiaaniuie oiaa?iuie
ciaeaie. Ii n iiiiuueth aeiiaiiiai eiaie, yaeythuaainy aiaeiaii
ecaanoiiai (“?ane?o/aiiiai”) oiaa?iiai ciaea, iieueciaaoaeue Eioa?iaoa
iio?aoeo iaiueoa oneeee aeey iienea eioi?iaoeee i oiaa?a, i?iecaiaeeiii
iiae oaeei ciaeii, e (aiciiaeii) auno?aa i?iecaaaeao iieoieo oaeiai
oiaa?a. Anee aea iiae oeacaiiui aeiiaiiui aae?anii aoaeao ?aciauai naeo
niaa?oaiii eiie oe?iu, oi ooieoeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee eioa?iao-i?iaeaaoea a
aeaiiii neo/aa aoaeao “n io?eoeaoaeueiui ciaeii” e nii?u ca i?aai
iaeaaeaiey niioaaonoaothuei aeiiaiii aoaeoo iaecaaaeiu.

Oi aea naiia iiaeii neacaoue e i?i naeou. Anee naeo ieeaeie
“iauanoaaiiie” (a /anoiinoe, yeiiiie/aneie) ooieoeee ia ianao (iai?eia?,
yaeyynue eeoue n?aaenoaii naiiau?aaeaiey aai aaoi?a), oi a?yae ee ii
aoaeao iauaeoii eoiee-i?iaeaaee n /ueae au oi ie auei noi?iiu. Ai?i/ai,
a yoii iao e ia iiaeao auoue /aai-oi iaiau/iiai – eae oaea ioia/aeinue
auoa, a ia?iiiii aieueoeinoaa i?iyaeaiee nioeeaeueiie aeecie ionoonoaoao
iaoa?eaeueiue yeaiaio e iaiaoiaeeiinoue niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey.

Eae iiaeao iaeoe io?aaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey i?aaiaiai
?aaeeia iauaeoia “naoaaie nianoaaiiinoe” a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa?
I/aaeaeii, iaiaoiaeeii ia/eiaoue n iaeaieaa iaueo i?eioeeiia
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, naycaiiiai n iauaeoaie eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Ana auoaneacaiiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi ?acaeoea
Eioa?iaoa, eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee a oeaeii ioe?uaaao iiaoth
no?aieoeo a oai?aoe/aneii iniuneaiee oaeie ooiaeaiaioaeueiie i?aaiaie
eaoaai?ee, eae nianoaaiiinoue. Io oiai, a eaeii iai?aaeaiee iieaeao
?aoaiea cao?iioouo i?iaeai, caaeneo ia oieueei aoaeouaa Eioa?iaoa, ii e
anaai caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a oeaeii. I/aaeaeii, /oi a
niaoeeoeea einoeoooa naoaaie nianoaaiiinoe aoaeoo ana aieueoa
i?iyaeyoueny /a?ou, naienoaaiiua ia noieueei “o?aaeeoeeiiii-aauiiio”
i?aaenoaaeaieth i i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe (caoeene?iaaiiiio, neaaeai, a AE
?O), neieueei aieaa aeoaeiiiio, ecia/aeueiiio, “aeith?eaee/aneiio”
i?aaenoaaeaieth i nianoaaiiinoe eae naiaia?aciii e yooaeoeaiii
?aaoeyoi?a ioiioaiee “iia – /oaeia”, “naiaiaeiia aeey aeinooia –
ia?aie/aiiia aeey aeinooia” e o.i. Ec yoiai, enoaoe, neaaeoao e oi, /oi
a eiino?oe?iaaiee i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia oaeeo iauaeoia, eae eioa?iao-naeo,
iaaiciiaeii aoaeao iaieoenue eaeei-oi iaeiei caeiiii, iaeiie ii?iie,
iaeiei i?aaeeii. Neeoeii eiiieaeniuie noaiiayony iauaeou ?aaoee?iaaiey,
neeoeii ii-?aciiio iiaoo io?aiyoueny eo ?acee/iua eiiiiiaiou.

Anee iiaeoiaeeoue e i?iaeaia i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey Eioa?iaoa n oi/ee
c?aiey oeeinioee i?aaiaoecia (eee aa i?aaiaiai aa?eaioa –
“th?eaee/aneiai ?aaeecia”), ana, /oi oee?eoee?oao a eioi?iaoeeiiiie,
yeaeo?iiiie Naoe, iiaeiaaeaao iiae eaoaai?eth “eioi?iaoeee”, iineieueeo
ioaa/aao aeaoi iniiaiui e?eoa?eyi – i?ei?eoaoo niaea?aeaiey e
o?ao/eaiiie noaia aeinooi – ?ani?ino?aiaiea – eiio?ieue. Eiuie neiaaie,
anee a eneiiii i?iaeoeoa ian eioa?anoao aai eaeaaeueiia niaea?aeaiea,
anee iieo/aiea aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa i?e?aaieaaaony e iieo/aieth aeinooia e
iaio (eioi?ue, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeaao iai iioaioeeaeueioth
aiciiaeiinoue aeaiiue i?iaeoeo ?ani?ino?aiyoue), oi iu eiaai aeaei n
eioi?iaoeeae (ai?i/ai, inoaaeyy “ca neiaeaie” oiiieiaaoothny i?iaeaio n
aa eioa?i?aoaoeeae, i?aia?aciaaieai a aeinooiioth oi?io). I?aai
nianoaaiiinoe ia eioi?iaoeeth aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea eiaao ianoi
eiio?ieue iaae aa eniieueciaaieai (iaania/aiiue, anoanoaaiii,
niioaaonoaothuae caueoie). I?eiaieoaeueii e oeeo?iaie (oai aieaa
naoaaie) n?aaea iiiyoea “eioi?iaoeey” i?eia?aoaao oieaa?naeueiia
cia/aiea, auoaniyy iauaeou, o?aaeeoeeiiii ioiinyueany e eiui nenoaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. A iaeaieaa e?eoe/aneie neooaoeee ieacuaaaony aaoi?neia
i?aai, eioi?ia ?anoai?yaony a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaieyo*(163). *oi,
ai?i/ai, iaoaeeaeoaeueii, anee aieaa ouaoaeueii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, a eioi?ua aiaea/aiu eaaeaeue ec yeaiaioia
“o?eaaeu”, ?anniio?aiiie a i?aaeuaeouai ?acaeaea. Iaeiaei e caeanue
ei??aeoiia ii?aaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeee iiaeao noaoue eeth/aaui aeey ?aoaiey
aicieeathueo i?iaeai, iineieueeo iicaieyao ia?ainiuneeoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua
acaeyaeu. Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui, ii iaoaio iiaieth, yaeyaony i?eciaiea
iiiyoey “aeinooia” a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai e?eoa?ey eee “iauaai
ciaiaiaoaey” i?e ioneaaeeaaiee ethauo th?eaee/aneeo oaeoia, naycaiiuo n
ia?aoiaeii i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. “I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi niinia aeinooia e i?iecaaaeaieth
aeieaeai noaoue iniiaiui e?eoa?eai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ioaeaeueiuo
aaoi?neeo i?aaiii/ee. Eiaiii a yoii caeeth/aaony eiia/iue niune ethaiai
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey”*(164).

Noa?a i?aaiioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n Eioa?iaoii, ai iiiaii “ia?anaeaaony”
ni noa?ie ?aaoee?iaaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa. ?aciauaiea iauaeoia,
io?aiyaiuo aaoi?neei i?aaii, a eiiiuethoa?iie Naoe (a ia a aoiaaeiii
aeaea) ia iaiyao i?eioeeieaeueiuo iieiaeaiee ia eo io?aia. Ii Eioa?iao
i?aaeinoaaeyao naiua oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey aini?iecaaaeaiey e
?ani?ino?aiaiey oaeeo iauaeoia (oaeoe/anee aaneiio?ieueiiai), e oiio aea
ia?iiiua ianneau eioi?iaoeee oee?eoee?otho a Naoe aac iieaou.
I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi ana iieueciaaoaee Naoe, ?aciauathuea a iae
eioi?iaoeeth, niaea?aeauoth ia?aia/aoee, ecia?aaeaiey e
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua iauaeou eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa, iaycaiu
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iieo/aoue niaeanea eaaaeueiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa ia
aini?iecaaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee. Oaeia, e niaeaeaieth, i?ienoiaeeo aeaeaei
ia anaaaea. Nii?u ii iiaiaeo ia?ooaiee eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa
?anniao?eaathony noaeaie a iauai ii?yaeea, e eo /enei auno?i
oaaee/eaaaony. A nayce n oaoie/aneeie aiciiaeiinoyie Eioa?iaoa
iiyaeeenue oaeaea nouanoaaiii iiaua i?iaeaiu io?aiu eneeth/eoaeueiuo
i?aa. Oae, naiui oaeiaiui e iia?aoeaiui niiniaii iienea ioaeiie
iieueciaaoaeth eioi?iaoeee ia eioa?iao-naeoao yaeythony niaoeeaeueiua
iieneiaua i?ia?aiiu, aaoiiaoe/anee “i?iniao?eaathuea” iiiaeanoai
o?aiyueony ia na?aa?ao aeieoiaioia e ioia?aaeathuea eo (i?aeoe/anee
eiie?othuea) aeey auaiaea ia eiiiuethoa? iieueciaaoaey. Iineieueeo
i?ioeann iienea caieiaao n/eoaiiua aeiee naeoiaeu, iieo/aiea niaeaney ia
eiie?iaaiea aeaaea iaeiie “no?aieoeu” naeoa iaaiciiaeii. Aeey
oai?aoe/aneiai ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu eiie?iaaiey naeoia iaeioi?ua
aia?eeaineea th?enou i?aaeeaaatho eniieueciaaoue eiioeaioeeth
“iiae?acoiaaaaiie eeoeaicee” (implied license), eioi?ie aeaaeaeueoeu
naeoia ?aniieaaatho aneaaenoaea ?aciauaiey a Naoe eo eioi?iaoeee. Anee
aeinooi e oaeie eioi?iaoeee eee oneoaa iaania/eaaaony ca ieaoo, oi
iio?aaeoaeth iiae?iaii niiauathony oneiaey, ia eioi?uo ii iiaeao
ainiieueciaaoueny i?aaeeaaaaiie oneoaie (eee eioi?iaoeeae). Anee aea
eioi?iaoeey eiaao iauaaeinooiiue (aanieaoiue) oa?aeoa?, oi
“iiae?acoiaaaaony”, /oi iieueciaaoaeue ai?aaa eniieueciaaoue aa (a
/anoiinoe, eiie?iaaoue ia naie eiiiuethoa?) eeoue ia oneiaeyo,
eneeth/athueo aa iineaaeothuaa eniieueciaaiea n oeaeueth ecaea/aiey
i?eauee. E?eoa?ee “iaeiiia?/aneiai” eniieueciaaiey niioaaonoaotho iauei
ia/aeai io?aiu eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa e ooi/iythony noaeaaiie i?aeoeeie.

Iaeiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea niioaaonoaoao i?eioeeio fair use, eioi?ue
cae?aieai a ?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eae “eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey aac niaeaney aaoi?a e aac auieaou aaoi?neiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey” (no.19 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao”). Naiui ?ani?ino?aiaiiui i?eia?ii oaeiai eniieueciaaiey
yaeyaony oeeoe?iaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey a ?acoiiuo i?aaeaeao ni nnueeie ia
aaoi?a. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?yiia ia?aianaiea aeaiiiai i?eioeeia
ia ioiioaiey, neeaaeuaathueany a Naoe, a?yae ee aiciiaeii. Eiia/iue
iieueciaaoaeue, iieo/ea io na?aa?a eneiioth eioi?iaoeeth (i?iecaaaeaiea
eee aeinooi e aaca aeaiiuo), eniieuecoao oieueei aa iacia/eoaeueioth
/anoue, neaaeai, ni/eiaiiua eai-oi ianeieueei no?aieoe. Eieaa eae
i?iecaaaeaiea, eae iauaeo aaoi?neiai i?aaa, aiciiaeii, e ia aoaeao
iieueciaaoueny ni?inii a Naoe, iaeiaei ia?aea/aiiua “oeeoaou” iiaoo
iaeaaeaoue ecaanoiie eiiia?/aneie oeaiiinoueth. Iieacaoaeueiui i?eia?ii
iaecaaaeiie o?ainoi?iaoeee i?eioeeia “fair use” iiaoo neoaeeoue i?aaeea
iieueciaaiey yeaeo?iiiuie eieaaie, onoaiiaeaiiua eiiiaieae Adobe eBook
Reader. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo eiiiaiey (i?iaeaaaoe) aeicaieyao naiei
iieueciaaoaeyi iaeiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea eiea (fair-use-type uses),
ii oieueei n ?ac?aoaiey eiiiaiee e oieueei aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae. A
/anoiinoe, iieueciaaoaee iiaoo eiie?iaaoue, acyoue a i?ieao, eee
iaeieaeeoue, eee, iaeiiaoe, ?ania/aoaoue yeaeo?iiiua eieae a oi?iaoa
Adobe eBook, anee ia yoi aeaee naia niaeanea ecaeaoaee. Iieueciaaoaee
oaeaea ai?aaa iieo/eoue aeinooi e “i?eaeiaeo” yeaeo?iiiie eieae, anee
oaeiaay noaea iaaeinooiiie aneaaenoaea “aia?aeaea” iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu
ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a eee aeaoaeoia ia aeanoeii aeenea, ii aeey
yoiai ei iio?aaoaony ia?aoeoueny a ioaeae oaoie/aneie iiaeaea?aeee.
Aaaeii oi, /oi yoe e ae?oaea i?aaa (ia eiie?iaaiea, a?aiaeo, ia?aaiae
aeey neaiuo, eniieueciaaiea iaaieueoie /anoe i?iecaaaeaiey)
i?aaeoniio?aiu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e iiaee au auoue
?aaeeciaaiu aac iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieo/eoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia ?ac?aoaiea,
anee au ?a/ue oea i eieaao ia aoiaaeiii iineoaea, a ia a oeeo?iaii
oi?iaoa. Iieiaeaiea iieueciaaoaey ineiaeiyaony oaeaea e oai, /oi i?e
iiiiue oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa caueou i?iaeaaaoe ieacuaaaony i?aeoe/anee
“ananeeueiui” e iiaeao onoaiaaeeaaoue ia?aie/aiey, nouanoaaiii
noaeathuea i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea caeiiii i?eia?aoaiiie eieae.
Nianoaaiii, oae e iieo/eeinue a neo/aa n Adobe eBook Reader. Iaooiaaoaa
oaieiaiia aeaei i?ioea Ae. Neey?iaa*(165) iieo/eei noieue oe?ieee
iauanoaaiiue ?aciiain (a aai caueoo aunooieee eae iauanoaaiiua
i?aaiecaoeee, oae e aaoi?eoaoiua th?enou) eiaiii iioiio, /oi nicaeaiiay
ei i?ia?aiia Advanced eBook Processor oaeoe/anee ainnoaiaaeeaaea
ouaieaiiua i?aaa iieueciaaoaeae – iicaieyea eiiaa?oe?iaaoue caeiiii
i?eia?aoaiiua yeaeo?iiiua eieae a noaiaea?oiue oi?iao aeieoiaioia Adobe
(.pdf), o.a. aeaeaoue eo aeinooiiuie aeey eiie?iaaiey e ia/aoe.

I/aaeaeii, /oi anee auoai?eaaaeaiiua ?annoaeaeaiey ni?aaaaeeeau, oi
auaiaeu, eioi?ua ec ieo neaaeotho, ia ia?aie/eaathony iiaui
enoieeiaaieai i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Naaiaeiy th?enou
oaea na?ueacii ianoaeaeatho caaea/o ?acaeoey eiiiuethoa?iiai i?aaa
(computer law) eee i?aaa eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, naiinoiyoaeueiie
iaeanoe i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, a oeaio?a eioi?ie iaoiaeyony
eioi?iaoeeiiiua i?aaiioiioaiey. Iaeiaei i?eciaiea e o/ao iniaaiiinoae
oeeo?iaie n?aaeu aua ia icia/aao ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu. Iaeaieaa aeooaeueiua
aii?inu, noiyuea naaiaeiy ia?aae “eiiiuethoa?iui i?aaii”, – yoi aii?inu,
eanathueany noaiaie e niiniaia aiaoaoaeuenoaa a nenoaio ioiioaiee,
neeaaeuaathueony a ?aieao “yeaeo?iiiiai niiauanoaa”. Noaiaiue
aiaoaoaeuenoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaeneo io th?eaee/aneie eaaeeoeeaoeee
niioaaonoaothueo ioiioaiee; niiniau aiaoaoaeuenoaa ai iiiaii
i?aaeii?aaeaeythony naienoaaie naiie n?aaeu. Ii aia/aea i?aao i?aaenoieo
ioaaoeoue ia aii?in aieaa iauaai oa?aeoa?a: eaeiaa ?ieue eioi?iaoeee a
nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?a? *ueei eioa?anai neaaeoao iaania/eoue aieaa
iieioth caueoo: iieueciaaoaeae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, eee i?iaaeaea?ia,
aaoi?ia e eiiiuethoa?iuo iaaiaoia – n ae?oaie? E aeaei ia oieueei a oii,
/oi ?yaeiaie iieueciaaoaeue ieacuaaaony iaeiaiaa caueuaiiui e iiyoiio
o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiiai aieiaiey ni noi?iiu caeiia. I?eioeeieaeueiui a
aeaiiie neooaoeee yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ?acaeoey
nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u noaiiaeony aeinooi e naiaiaeiay iaieioeyoeey
ianneaii iaee/iie eioi?iaoeee. Eiuie neiaaie, /ai aieaa aeinooiia
naoaaay eioi?iaoeey, oai aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey neeaaeuaathony aeey
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (aoaeue oi a noa?a iaoee eee
eneonnoaa). Oae, aaoi? ia iaiaa naiaai /eoaoaey (c?eoaey, neooaoaey)
ieacuaaaony caeioa?aniaaiiui a eniieueciaaiee iaeaieaa naaaeeo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo aeaiiuo, /oi ninoaaeyao iaeio ec anoanoaaiiuo aa?aioee
nio?aiaiey ca iei noaoona niceaeaoaey. Ia iineaaeithth ?ieue a aeaiiii
aii?ina ea?aao yeiiiie/aneay iaoeaeaniia?aciinoue: cao?aou ia eiio?ieue
e i?eioaeaeaiea iiaoo auoue ianiecia?eiu n ianooaaii oao ?acoeueoaoia,
eioi?ua aoaeoo aeinoeaioou.

Nouanoaotho ee iiaeoiaeu e ?aoaieth aicieeathueo a nayce n ?acaeoeai
Eioa?iaoa th?eaee/aneeo i?iaeai, eioi?ua niiniaiu aeaoue
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue ?acoeueoao n oi/ee c?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey oioy au a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa? Aeaeeii, ioaao
aeieaeai auoue aaconeiaii iieiaeeoaeueiui. Ai-ia?auo, iaiaoiaeeii
no?iaia i?iaaaeaiea a aeeciue i?eioeeia ii?iaoeaiie yeiiiiee –
th?eaee/aneia ?aaoee?iaaiea niioaaonoaothueo aii?inia aeieaeii auoue
ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiui, “oi/a/iui”. Eae oieueei iauai ii?iaoeaiuo
n?aaenoa aicaeaenoaey ia “naoaaua” ioiioaiey i?aauoaao ieieiaeueii
iaiaoiaeeioth aaee/eio, yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaoee?iaaiey nieaeaaony
i?aeoe/anee aei ioey (/oi, nianoaaiii, e iaaethaeaaony a eaeie-oi
noaiaie oaea nae/an a aeaea aaconiaoiuo iiiuoie ?inneeneeo
caeiiiaeaoaeae ?ac?aaioaoue e i?eiyoue iaeea “oaaea?aeueiua caeiiu ia
Eioa?iaoa”). Ai-aoi?uo, /oiau i?aaeeueii ioeaieoue “i?aaeae
ieieiaeueiinoe ?aaoee?iaaiey”, auei au aeaeaoaeueii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
i?iaanoe niaea?aeaoaeueiue aiaeec iiaeaeae ?aaoee?iaaiey naoaauo
i?aaiioiioaiee n eniieueciaaieai eino?oiaioa?ey iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia,
eioi?ua auee iaicia/aiu a ianoiyuae ?aaioa. Iaeiiaoe, ia/eiaoue
(i?eiaieoaeueii e eioi?iaoeeiiiui iauaeoai) neaaeiaaei au eae ?ac n
ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeaeia i?eiaiaiey (a oaeaea i?aaeaeia eciaiaiey!)
einoeoooia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa e niaoeeoe/anee
naoaaui ?aaeeyi, aiaeaeaaiui a nenoaio ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey: naeo,
ii?oae, aeiiaoiyy (ia/aeueiay) web-no?aieoea, eioa?aeoeaiua na?aenu,
aeiiaiiua eiaia e eiua n?aaenoaa aae?anaoeee, n?aaenoaa eaeaioeoeeaoeee
(eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee, aooaioeoeeaoeee) noauaeoia naoaauo i?aaiioiioaiee,
aeia?nnueee e o.ae. Ia neo/aeii, /oi i?e aiaeeca nicaeaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiiaeo naoaauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia ioia/athony
/a?ou noiaenoaa eo i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia ia noieueei n “iau/iuie” iauaeoaie
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, neieueei n iauaeoaie iaaeaeaeeiiai
eiouanoaa:

Iicaieei naaa auneacaoue e aua iaeio aeiioaco a ioiioaiee oiai, a eaeii
iai?aaeaiee iaeaieaa aa?iyoii eciaiaiea eiioeaiooaeueiuo iiaeoiaeia e
niioiioaieth iiiyoee “nianoaaiiinoue” e “eioi?iaoeey”. ?a/ue eaeao i
iiiyoee ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue – o.a. i i?eaiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiiai iauaeoa
e auiieiaieth ii?aaeaeaiiuo ooieoeee, i aai niioaaonoaee ii?aaeaeaiiui
iio?aaiinoyi. A eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a ooieoeeiiaeueiinoue oiai eee eiiai
iauaeoa ii?aaeaeyaony aai niiniaiinoueth caiieieoue iaeoth
eioi?iaoeeiiioth eaeoio, “aaeooi”, ii ia oieueei yoei. Aaaeiui yaeyaony
oaeaea niinia, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai aeinoeaaaony iieiaeeoaeueiue
?acoeueoao “oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae”. I/aaeaeii,
iai?eia?, /oi a yiioo ao?iiai ?acaeoey Eioa?iaoa niaieoiiua (o.a.
aeeth/athuea eae iaoa?eaeueiua – oeiainiaua, oae e a?aiaiiua) ?anoiaeu
ia iieo/aiea aeinooia e oie eee eiie eioi?iaoeee nieaeathony iaeaieaa
?aaeeeaeueiui ia?acii. A oi aea a?aiy neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeey
?acee/iuo aeaeia caaea/, ?aoaaiuo n i?eiaiaieai nia?aiaiiuo (e ia
oieueei) eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee iioeiaeueiua eiee/anoaaiiua e
ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee “ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe” iiaoo nouanoaaiii
?acee/aoueny. Iaeaieaa iaaeyaeiui ia?acii yoi iiaeii i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue
oai, /oi aoiaaeiay oi?ia “aeinooia” e eeoa?aoo?iui i?iecaaaeaieyi –
eieae a iaoai iau/iii iiieiaiee – aeey /eoaoaey yaeyaony nouanoaaiii
aieaa oaeiaiie (o.a. aieaa ooieoeeiiaeueiie), /ai yeaeo?iiiay, i?e
eioi?ie eiiiuethoa?iua oaeeu i?aia?acothony a ecia?aaeaiea ia ye?aia
iiieoi?a. Ia neo/aeii, /oi “niaaeiue” i?eia? n aoaeeicaienyie
aeaiiino?e?oao i?ioeaiiieiaeiia – ?ani?ino?aiaiea a Eioa?iaoa e
iineaaeothuaa aini?iecaaaeaiea iocueaeueiuo oaeeia n iiiiuueth
niaoeeaeueii i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey yoiai ii?oaoeaiuo ono?ienoa
ieacaeinue aeey iieueciaaoaeae (neooaoaeae) iaiiiai i?eaeaeaoaeueiaa,
/ai eniieueciaaiea “iau/iie” auoiaie aoaeeioaoieee. ?uiie /ooei
?aaae?oao ia iiaeiaiua oaiaeaioeee, i?aaeeaaay oa eee eiua oaoie/aneea
n?aaenoaa caueou aaoi?neeo i?aa, eioi?ua aeey iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee
a ianoiyuee iiiaio ioee/athony cia/eoaeueii aieueoae noaiaiueth
?ac?aaioaiiinoe, /ai aeey oae iacuaaaiuo yeaeo?iiiuo eiea. E ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi iiiyoea ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe ieeiaaea ia aoaeao noaoe/iui e
“caoeene?iaaiiui” aeey anao aiciiaeiuo neo/aaa ia neieueei-ieaoaeue
aeeeoaeueiue n?ie, iiaeii ana aea n iioeieciii niio?aoue ia ia?niaeoeau
nouanoaiaaiey aoiaaeiuo ia/aoiuo ecaeaiee iacaaeneii io i?ia?anna a
iaeanoe ono?ienoa aeey /oaiey “yeaeo?iiiie eeoa?aoo?u”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iaeiei ec iniiaiiieaaathueo e?eoa?eaa aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey (eee
iiaeeoeeaoeee) ?aaeeia io?aiu noaiao e?eoa?ee (ecia?aiea)
ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe. A ionoonoaea ooieoeeiiaeueiie oeaiiinoe
(iio?aaeoaeueneie noieiinoe) eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauaeoa – neaaeai, naeoa n
ioeeo?iaaiiuie ecia?aaeaieyie a?aoe/aneeo ?aaio ooaeiaeieea-aeeeaoaioa
(ia naiue ?aaeeee neo/ae naiiau?aaeaiey aeaaeaeueoea naeoa) – ia
i?ienoiaeeo aeeth/aiey oaeiai iauaeoa a a?aaeaeaineee (oicyenoaaiiue,
eiiia?/aneee) iai?io. Oai aieaa ia aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoe a ?ac?aaioea
aeey oaeiai iauaeoa eaeeo-eeai i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo n?aaenoa i?aaiaie
io?aiu, oioy, eiay a aeaeo i?eaaaeaiiue i?eia?, iaee/ey iaeeo
aaniethoiuo (“nianoaaiie/aneeo”) i?aa aeaaeaeueoea naeoa ia ?acoeueoaou
aai oai?/aneiai o?oaea io?eoeaoue iaeuecy. Oaeei ia?acii, aeey iauaeoia,
aeeth/aiiuo a a?aaeaeaineee iai?io (ioaa/athueo e?eoa?eth
“ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe”), ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue nouanoaoao ianoiyoaeueiay
iio?aaiinoue a ?aaoee?iaaiee, oa?aeoa?iii aeey eiouanoaa (eiouanoaaiiuo
i?aa).

Ia eneeth/aii, /oi eiaiii ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey eaoaai?ee
ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe aoaeao nicaeaia nenoaia io?aiu iauaeoia “naoaaie
nianoaaiiinoe”, i?e/ai niioaaonoaothuee i?aaiaie ?aaeei iiaeao auoue
aiieia i?eiaiei e aeey eiuo iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, a
/anoiinoe, oaeeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia, eae i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea.
A ianoiyuee iiiaio iauai?eciaiiui yaeyaony oaeo iaaeinoaoi/iie
yooaeoeaiinoe io?aiu iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa a Eioa?iaoa, aeeth/ay
aiciiaeiinoue ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey. Iaeei ec auoiaeia ec nicaeaaoaeny neooaoeee
oe?iu-?ac?aaio/eee aeaeyo a i?aaeinoaaeaiee iieueciaaoaeth ia iaeiaai
“i?ia?aiiiiai iaeaoa” (oeaia eioi?iai iiaeao ninoaaeyoue ianeieueei
aeanyoeia eee aeaaea nioai aeieea?ia e ec eioi?iai ?aaeueii
eniieuecothony eeoue iaiiiai/eneaiiua ioaeaeueiua eiiiiiaiou), a
aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth oaeiai i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy (a?aiaea i?ia?aiiiuo i?eeiaeaiee).
Iai?eia?, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ninoaaeoue oaeno aeaeiaiai ienueia aianoi
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieoiee eeoeaiceiiiiai iaeaoa Microsoft
Office iieueciaaoaeue Naoe niiaeao eniieueciaaoue a oa/aiea
iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey yoiai a?aiaie oaenoiaue ?aaeaeoi?, nea/eaaaiue n
ii?aaeaeaiiiai naeoa. Oaeei ia?acii, aianoi aeinoaoi/ii ia?aiaieoaeueiuo
?aciauo ieaoaaeae ca i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea iiaoo auoue i?iecaaaeaiu (a
neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey oaeie iaiaoiaeeiinoe) n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoea
ieaoaaee ca “a?aiaeo i?eeiaeaiee”. I?e yoii nianoaaiii i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea ia ia?anoaao auoue iauaeoii eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
(eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa), iaeiaei ii?yaeie aai eniieueciaaiey iicaieeo
oaeei ia?acii eneeth/eoue aiciiaeiinoue eiioeeeoia ii iiaiaeo aai
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey a oii aeaea, a eioi?ii oeacaiiua
eiioeeeou iaaethaeathony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Eioi?iaoeey – Nianoaaiiinoue – Eioa?iao:?inneeneay i?aeoeea
?aaoee?iaaiey

Ianiio?y ia oi /oi io?aneue oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oneoa yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathueony, a ?innee aa
caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea “caoeene?iaaeinue” ia o?iaia ia/aea 90-o
aa. Iineaaeiea “iiaaeeu” a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa – i?eiyoea 10 yiaa?y 2002
aiaea Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “Ia yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie iiaeiene” e iiaie
?aaeaeoeee (io 17 ethey 1999 a.) Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “I nayce” –
iieiaeaiea ia eciaieee. Iaaeinoaoee (i?iaaeu, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue,
i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeoia?iaeiui ii?iai e ae?.) a aeaenoaothuai
eioi?iaoeeiiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia oieueei naea?aeeaatho oaiiu ?inoa
niioaaonoaothueo yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, ii e nieaeatho
eiaanoeoeeiiioth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue oeacaiiuo io?aneae.
Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi oacen i iaiaoiaeeiinoe nei?aeoae e nouanoaaiiie
ia?a?aaioee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeee e nayce, eioi?ay au
aeeth/aea a naay eae ?aoi?ie?iaaiea oaea aeaenoaothueo caeiiia, oae e
i?eiyoea iiauo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, iiaeaea?aeeaaaony naaiaeiy
iiiaeie yenia?oaie e th?enoaie, aeey eioi?uo i?iaeaiu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
yaeythony, i?aaeaea anaai, i?aeoe/aneeie i?iaeaiaie.

Ie aeey eiai ia yaeyaony nae?aoii, /oi aeaenoaothuea a ianoiyuee iiiaio
oae iacuaaaiua aaciaua caeiiu a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee ie a
eaeie ia?a ia ioaa/atho nia?aiaiiui ?aaeeyi. I?eiyoua a na?aaeeia 90-o
aa. (a ?ac?aaioaiiua aua ?aiueoa) Oaaea?aeueiua caeiiu “Ia eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?iaoecaoeee e caueoa eioi?iaoeee” (aeaeaa Caeii ia eioi?iaoeee) e
“Ia o/anoee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eioi?iaoeeiiiii iaiaia” n iiiaioa
anooieaiey eo a neeo noaee iauaeoii iainiiaaiiie e?eoeee ni noi?iiu eae
niaoeeaeenoia-i?aeoeeia, oae e th?enoia-oai?aoeeia, ianoieueei
iaeeiciuie e iiae/an aanniuneaiiuie yaeythony onoaiaaeeaaaiua eie
i?aaeea. Aeinoaoi/ii eeoue oiiiyiooue, /oi i?e aieiaoaeueiii i?i/oaiee
aoi?iai Caeiia (“Ia o/anoee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eioi?iaoeeiiiii iaiaia”)
auyaeyaony, /oi eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue Eioa?iaoa, ia?anueathuee naiaio
eieeaaa oaenou oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiia, aeieaeai aeey yoiai iieo/eoue
iaeoth eeoeaiceth… A ?acoeueoaoa iaa yoeo Caeiia oaeoe/anee ia
i?eiaiyeenue n naiiai ia/aea, ia ieo i?aeoe/anee iao nnueie a auianaiiuo
noaeaaiuo ?aoaieyo, a eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao, a na?ueaciuo iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaieyo. Eiua ?inneeneea caeiiu e ii?iaoeaiua aeou, ?aaoee?othuea
eioi?iaoeeiiiua e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua ioiioaiey, oaeaea caneoaeeaatho
ni?aaaaeeeaie e?eoeee.

I?e/ei noieue ieceie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe ?aaiou iaae ?inneeneei
eioa?iao-caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii a noa?a
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee ianeieueei. Aeaaiia, i/aaeaeii, – a ionoonoaee
nenoaiiinoe, eaeie-eeai eii?aeeiaoeee ?aaio a aeaiiie iaeanoe.
Iiiai/eneaiiua aaaeiinoaa (n?aaee eioi?uo ioaeii oiiiyiooue ia oieueei
Ieinayce, ii e Ieiia/aoe, Ieiyeiiii?acaeoey, ONA, iuia oi?acaeiaiiia
OAINE e ae?.), ?acee/iua eiieoaou Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu (a oii /enea ii
eioi?iaoeeiiiie iieeoeea; ii yia?aaoeea, o?ainii?oo e nayce; ii
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao; ii aaieai; ii
aaciianiinoe) anooiatho a i?yioth “eiieo?aioeeth” iaaeaeo niaie.
Ionoonoaoao iauaainoaea?noaaiiue iiaeoiae e aeaiiie i?iaeaia, ia
noi?ioee?iaaia oaaea?aeueiay iieeoeea ii ?acaeoeth e eniieueciaaieth
Eioa?iaoa a ?innee. A niaieoiiinoe yoe oaeoi?u ieacuaatho
aeaci?eaioe?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e /eaiia
niioaaonoaothueo ?aai/eo a?oii, eioi?ua o/anoaotho a ?ac?aaioea oao eee
eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia e aeieoiaioia. Iaeiiaoe, iiea neeoeii neaai
neuoiu aieina oao, eiai i?eiyoi iacuaaoue naoaaie iauanoaaiiinoueth.
?a/ue eaeao i i?aaenoaaeoaeyo iiiaiieeeeiiiiai “niiauanoaa” ?inneeneeo
iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa, iia?aoi?ia oneoa aeinooia e Naoe e nicaeaoaeae
oiai, /oi a iaeoiaea iacuaaaony “eiioaioii”. A aaaeue aac
caeioa?aniaaiiiai ianoaeaeaiey iaueo aeey ?inneeneiai Eioa?iaoa i?iaeai
a iaeneiaeueii oe?ieie aoaeeoi?ee niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeii aiai?eoue i
eaeie-eeai yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiaiey caeiiia, i?eaeoiaiiuo a /ueeo-oi
cae?uouo eaaeiaoao.

Ioiaoei aeaeaa, /oi oai?ey i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ia ia?aie/eaaao
aii?in ia yooaeoeaiinoe aicaeaenoaey i?aaiauo ii?i ia iauanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey oieueei i?aaioai?/anoaii, o.a. ?ac?aaioeie e i?eiyoeai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia. Ia iaiaa aino?aaiaaiiie ieacuaaaony oaeaea
?aaeueii aeaenoaothuay nenoaia i?aaii?eiaiaiey, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue
o?aaoao, a /anoiinoe, aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy i?aainiciaiey
oao eeoe (a?aaeaeai, i?aaiecaoeee), ia ?aaoee?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe
eioi?uo i?aaiaua ii?iu iai?aaeaiu. Iaeiiaoe, ethaay i?eiyoay i?aaiaay
ii?ia ieeiaaea ia “ca?aaioaao”, anee a ioiioaiee aa ia aoaeao ?ac?aaioai
iaoaieci io?aiu i?aaiii?yaeea, onoaiaaeeaaaiiai oaeie ii?iie. Oaeei
ia?acii, aii?in i i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n
eniieueciaaieai naoe Eioa?iao, ia iiaeao naiaeeoueny e i?ioeaaeo?ai
iiaeaioiaee ii?aaeaeaiiiai /enea “oi?ioeo” caeiiia, eioi?ua naie ii naaa
“nieioo” ana aicieeathuea i?iaeaiu.

A oi aea a?aiy auei au ioeaeie n/eoaoue, /oi iuiaoiyy caeiiiaeaoaeueiay
neooaoeey a ?innee iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaia eae iieiia
eaii?e?iaaiea th?eaee/aneeo aii?inia, naycaiiuo n Naoueth. Ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie Eioa?iaoa, iaaeaeo iia?aoi?aie niioaaonoaothueo
oneoa ?aaoee?othony ia oieueei niaoeeaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.
Niioaaonoaothuea ii?iu iiaeii iaeoe a Eiinoeoooeee, AE ?O, a oaeaea a
eiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoao, a /anoiuo ii?iao eioi?uo oiiieiathony eeai
eioi?iaoeeiiiua ioiioaiey, eeai oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua eaiaeu nayce. Eiia
aeaei, /oi eiiaaea oeacaiiua ioiioaiey ianoieueei niaoeeoe/iu, /oi
aeaenoaothuea caeiiu, o/eouaay, /oi ?aaoee?iaaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?u
ia aoiaeeo a e?oa eo iniiaiuo iauaeoia, a oi?ioee?iaeao naieo noaoae
i?inoi ia o/eouaatho yoo niaoeeoeeo. Ai?i/ai, yoi ia yaeyaony /ai-oi
iaiau/iui – i?aai eae ioiineoaeueii “noaoe/iay”, “eiina?aaoeaiay”
nenoaia ?aaoee?iaaiey ?aaeei iiniaaaao ca aeeiaieeie iauanoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue caaea?aeee a ?ac?aaioea aicaeooiiai
i?aaa – ii n?aaiaieth n oaiiaie ia/aeueiiai ?acaeoey aaeaoeee, eee a
oi?ioee?iaaiee i?eioeeiia e i?aaee io?aiu eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe – ii n?aaiaieth n iiyaeaieai iiauo iauaeoia ?aaoee?iaaiey
(eiiiuethoa?iuo i?ia?aii, oiiieiaee iee?inoai) e o.ae.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee:eeanneoeeaoeey ii noa?ai
?aaoee?iaaiey

A “eioi?iaoeeiiiii”, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioiinyuainy e aii?inai
eniieueciaaiey Eioa?iaoa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue eae
ieieioi iyoue iniiaiuo noa? ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Ai-ia?auo, yoi aaciaua ii?iaoeaiua onoaiiaeaiey, niaea?aeaueany a
Eiinoeoooeee ?O, AE ?O, a oaeaea a oiiieiaaoeony Oaaea?aeueiuo caeiiao
“Ia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?iaoecaoeee e caueoa eioi?iaoeee” e “Ia o/anoee a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eioi?iaoeeiiiii iaiaia”.

Ai-aoi?uo, caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou, eanathueany eioi?iaoeee ioe?uoiai
aeinooia. Eiiaaea aa neiiieiii aunooiaao “iauaaeinooiiay” eioi?iaoeey,
eiiaaea – “ianniaay” eioi?iaoeey. Nianoaaiii, a ianoiyuee iiiaio
oeacaiiay noa?a ?aaoee?iaaiey eae ?ac e ia?aie/eaaaony ?inneeneei
Caeiiii “I n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee”, i?eiyoui aua ia caeaoa
“ia?ano?ieee” a 1991 a. A yoii ?aciiieaiiaii e ai iiiaii
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiii Caeiia oaeoe/anee iauaaeeiaiu eae ii?iu,
ioiinyueany e ianniaie eioi?iaoeee aiiaua, oae e ii?iu,
eiie?aoece?othuea niaoeeoeeo aeayoaeueiinoe oaeeo oicyenoaothueo
noauaeoia, eae “n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee”. Auei au, iaeiaei, ia
nianai /anoii iiaeoiaeeoue e aiaeeco aeaiiiai caeiia n iiceoeee aeanoeie
e?eoeee. Aieueoay /anoue aai “neaauo” iano naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai
iaycaiu “enoi?e/aneie neooaoeee”: iaeuecy caauaaoue ia aoiinoa?a
“aeaiie?aoecaoeee”, niioonoaiaaaoae i?eiyoeth caeiia, a oaeaea e i oii,
/oi ii aue i?eiyo aua aei anooieaiey a neeo iiaiai A?aaeaeaineiai
eiaeaena e aei ia/aea “eioa?iao-yiioe”. Ianiio?y ia ?aaoey?ii aiineiua
eciaiaiey, Caeii “I n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee” o?aaoao nei?aeoaai
iaiiaeaiey a iiaie ?aaeaeoeee. Iiaeaioiaea ?acee/iuo iii?aaie, aeeth/ay
ianoaeaeaiea iiauo caeiiii?iaeoia*(166), i?iaiaeeony oaea ianeieueei
iineaaeieo eao. Caeanue aea iaiaoiaeeii oiiiyiooue e i iiiai/eneaiiuo
caeiiii?iaeoao – “I i?aaa ia eioi?iaoeeth”, “Ia eioi?iaoeeiiiie
ioe?uoinoe”, “I aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee i aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia” e o.i. – ianoaeaeaaoeony ia oaaea?aeueiii e ?aaeiiaeueiii
o?iaia.

A-o?aoueeo, a ioaeaeueiue caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aeie aoiaeyo ii?iaoeaiua
aeou, iinayuaiiua eioi?iaoeee cae?uoiai aeinooia, io Caeiia ?O “I
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeia” (1993 a.) aei ?aciiia?aciuo iiaecaeiiiuo aeoia,
eanathueony ia oieueei ainoaea?noaaiiuo, ii e aaieianeeo, iaeiaiauo,
oaiiaeaiiuo e ae?oaeo “oaei”. AE ?O i?aaeoniio?aii i?eiyoea aua aeaoo
caeiiia – i eiiia?/aneie oaeia e i neoaeaaiie oaeia. Ianiio?y ia oi /oi
iiaeiaiiai ?iaea caeiiii?iaeou oaea ?anniao?eaaeenue Ainoaea?noaaiiie
Aeoiie, ie iaeei ec ieo iiea i?eiyo ia aue.

A-/aoaa?ouo, iaiaoiaeeii oiiiyiooue i eiiieaena caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia,
oneiaii aiai?y, “i?eeeaaeiiai” oa?aeoa?a. Nthaea iaiaoiaeeii ioianoe e
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i nayce, e Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “Ia yeaeo?iiiie
oeeo?iaie iiaeiene”, e caeiiii?iaeou “Ia yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaea”, “Ia
yeaeo?iiiii aeieoiaioiiai?ioa” e o.ae.

A-iyouo, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
(eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aaao ia ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia
“eioaeeaeooaeueiuo i?aaao”). Iniiaiui caeiiii a iaeanoe aaoi?neiai i?aaa
a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee yaeyaony Caeii ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao” (1993 a.). N o/aoii eiie?aoecaoeee i?aaeiaoa
?aaoee?iaaiey aeaenoaotho oaeaea i?eiyoua aua a 1992 a. Caeiiu ?O “I
i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii aeey yeaeo?iiiuo au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei e aac
aeaiiuo” e “I i?aaiaie io?aia oiiieiaee eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai”.
Oeacaiiua aeou ?aaoee?otho ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a nayce n nicaeaieai
e eniieueciaaieai iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa: i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee,
eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa, a oaeaea oiiia?aii, eniieiaiey, iinoaiiaie,
ia?aaea/ i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai eee eaaaeueiiai aauaiey (niaaeiua i?aaa).
E iauaeoai aaoi?neiai i?aaa caeiiu ioiinyo oaeea iniiaiiieaaathuea
yeaiaiou eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, eae i?ia?aiia aeey YAI, aaca
aeaiiuo aeey YAI e oiiieiaey eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai.

A noa?a ?aaoee?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiiai eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee aeaenoaoao Iaoeioiue caeii ?O (1992 a.), ?aaoee?othuee
eiouanoaaiiua e ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a nayce n
nicaeaieai, i?aaiaie io?aiie e eniieueciaaieai iauaeoia i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe: ecia?aoaiee, iieaciuo iiaeaeae e i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia.

Ii/aio aea i?aaiia?ai auaiae i iayooaeoeaiinoe aeaenoaothuaai
?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?eiaieoaeueii e i?aaiioiioaieyi,
naycaiiui n eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa? Ia “eiooeoeaiii” o?iaia, ia
o?iaia iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe ?inneeneeo eiiiaiee e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia oeacaiiue auaiae ia aucuaaao niiiaiee – neeoeii
iiiai i?iaaeia a ?aaoee?iaaiee, neeoeii iaiaeiicia/iu i?aaeeiaeaiiua a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii?iaoeaiua i?aaeea. Ii aeaeaoaeueii auei au
iainiiaaoue yoio auaiae e ia o?iaia oai?aoe/aneeo iaiauaiee. Aeey yoiai
iiaeii auei au, ai-ia?auo, i?iecaanoe eiee/anoaaiioth e ea/anoaaiioth
ioeaieo aeaenoaaiiinoe nouanoaothuae a ?innee ii?iaoeaiie aacu,
iniiauaaynue ia iaoiaeieiaee, eceiaeaiiie a ia?aii ?acaeaea ianoiyuaai
enneaaeiaaiey. I/aaeaeii, oaeoth ?aaioo aua i?aaenoieo auiieieoue.
Ai-aoi?uo, oeaeaniia?acii i?iecaanoe n?aaiaiea n ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeeie
ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey niioaaonoaothueo aii?inia.

E caeanue n?aco noaiiaeony aeaeii, ianeieueei “oieeaeueiui” yaeyaony
?inneeneee iiuo ?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.
I?aeoe/anee n ca?oaaaeiuie aiaeiaaie niaiaaeaao eeoue eiiieaen caeiiia
iineaaeiaai, iyoiai aeiea – ia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Eae
?inneeneea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou ii eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe,
oae e niioaaonoaothuea caeiiu aieueoeinoaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai
iniiauaathony ia ?yaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo (anaie?iuo) eiiaaioeee e a
oeaeii ia i?ioeai?a/ao ae?oa ae?oao. “Neaaui caaiii” a ?innee inoaaony
ii?iaoeaiay aaca i?aaii?eiaiaiey oaeeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, ii yoi
ioaeaeueiay i?iaeaia, eioi?ay e oiio aea noaea a iineaaeiaa a?aiy
?aoaoueny aieaa aeoeaii.

*oi eanaaony eiuo aeieia ?inneeneiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, oi eiio?ano n ca?oaaaeiuie aiaeiaaie aeaeai
“iaaii?oaeaiiui acaeyaeii”. ?anniio?ei n aeaiiie oi/ee c?aiey oaea
oiiieiaaoeeny Caeii “Ia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?iaoecaoeee e caueoa
eioi?iaoeee”. Ia/iai n oiai, /oi a yoio caeii aeinoaoi/ii eneonnoaaiii
auee “aoenioou” n?aco o?e ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoa ?aaoee?iaaiey, oeacaiiuo a
aai iacaaiee. Oaea yoi ia nianai oa?aeoa?ii aeey ca?oaaaeiie
caeiiioai?/aneie i?aeoeee. A aaniethoiii aieueoeinoaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai
iao ie/aai iioiaeaai ia ?inneeneee “o?aoaeaaue” Caeii. Ioiaoei e ae?oaea
nouanoaaiiua ianiioaaonoaey. Ai-ia?auo, “iauaoai?aoe/aneea” aii?inu
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?aaa a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai iau/ii
o?aaoee?iaaiu a ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy (a?aaeaeaineeo
eiaeaenao e eo aiaeiaao). A ?inneeneeo aea oneiaeyo iaaiyoiinoue
ii?iaoeaiiai oaenoa Caeiia ia eioi?iaoeee ia oieueei ia niaeanoaony n
iieiaeaieyie A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena, ii e (eae ioia/aeinue auoa)
ca/anooth i?ioeai?a/eo cae?aaiio niuneo. Ai-aoi?uo, ieaaea ca ?oaaaeii
ia nouanoaoao ii?iaoeaiie oeenaoeee i?aaiaiai noaoona oaeeo “iauaeoia”,
eae “eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu” eee “eioi?iaoecaoeey”. E oiio aea naii
iiiyoea “eioi?iaoecaoeey” yaeyaony ianoieueei oneiaiui (a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aanniaea?aeaoaeueiui), /oi aai iaaiciiaeii ia?aaanoe ie
ia iaeei eiino?aiiue ycue. A-o?aoueeo, aii?inu “caueou eioi?iaoeee”
(oi/iaa, “caueou aeaiiuo”) a ca?oaaaeiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoao
?anniao?eaathony eeoue a ninoaaa “i?eeeaaeiiai aeiea” caeiiia eee a
ea/anoaa ?acaeaeia (aeaa, noaoae) eiuo caeiiia – i oaeaeiiioieeaoeeyo, i
ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo e o.ae. A-/aoaa?ouo, a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa no?ai n
?acaeouie eioi?iaoeeiiiuie oaoiieiaeyie oaea aeaaii ?aoai aii?in i
?aca?aie/aiee eioi?iaoeee ia iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea e eioi?iaoeee a
yeaeo?iiiii aeaea, eioi?ay iiaeao e ia i?aaeiieaaaoue “iaoa?eaeueiie”
oeenaoeee. Oeacaiiia ?aca?aie/aiea ieacuaaaony oai aieaa cia/eiui, /oi
i?e aai iaee/ee niiniau ?aaoee?iaaiey (a /anoiinoe, oneiaey ianooieaiey
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e aeaeu naieoeee) ieacuaathony “i?iecaiaeiuie” io
i?aaee, i?iaeeeoiaaiiuo aaciauie oaoiieiaeyie e ii?aaeaeythueo
?ani?ino?aiaiea e iaiai eioi?iaoeeae a Naoe. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
ooiaeaiaioaeueiui iaaeinoaoeii Caeiia “Ia eioi?iaoeee…”, eae oaea
iaiaeiie?aoii ioia/aeinue, yaeyaony oi, /oi aai aeaenoaea i?eiaieoaeueii
e “eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai” ia?aie/eaaaony eeoue aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie
eioi?iaoeeae, oioy i/aaeaeii, /oi a Eioa?iaoa aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai
oee?eoee?othuae eioi?iaoeee ieeae iaeuecy ioianoe e o?aaeeoeeiiiiio
aeieoiaioiiai?ioo. Anee o/anoue i?eaaaeaiiua “iaaei?aaioee”, oi
ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi i?aeoe/aneay oeaiiinoue oeacaiiiai
Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia, ?aaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue aai i?eiaiaiey aeecea e
ioeaaie, a?yae ee auciaao oaeeaeaiea. E niaeaeaieth, “aaciaue” oa?aeoa?
Caeiia “Ia eioi?iaoeee…” i?aaeii?aaeaeee e ianooaa iaaaoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey, eioi?ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia oieueei ia i?aaiioiioaiey,
naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa, ii e ia ?acaeoea a iaoae no?aia
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee a oeaeii.

Ia neo/aeii, /oi i?e ?ac?aaioea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia a noa?a
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee ia ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia (a noauaeoao
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee) aeaeaeenue e aeaeathony iiiuoee eni?aaeoue oioy
au /anoue i/aaeaeiuo iaaeinoaoeia oaaea?aeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A
ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe Caeii “Ia eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nao e
eioi?iaoecaoeee ai?iaea Iineau”, i?eiyoue a ieoya?a 2001 a. Iineieueeo
“?aoi?ie?iaaoue” oaaea?aeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai noauaeou ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ia oiieiiii/aiu, ?a/ue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeao eaeoe eeoue
i eiie?aoecaoeee, ia cao?aaeaathuae nooe iieiaeaiee oaaea?aeueiiai
caeiia. Oae, a Iineianeee caeii n yoie oeaeueth auee aaaaeaiu
aeiiieieoaeueiua ii?aaeaeaiey “eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia”, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai iauai aeaiiiai iiiyoey aue cia/eoaeueii ia?aie/ai. Noaouey 2 Caeiia
a. Iineau ii?aaeaeyao “eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu” eae eioi?iaoeeth
(iacaaeneii io niiniaa aa i?aaenoaaeaiey, o?aiaiey eee i?aaiecaoeee),
niaea?aeauothny a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoaiao e ioiineioth a niioaaonoaee n
ianoiyuei Caeiiii e nianoaaiiinoe ai?iaea Iineau. I?e iiiiue oaeie
niuneiaie “iaieioeyoeee” (iaaei neacaoue, ia aei eiioea i?aaiia?iie) ec
eaaeeoeoee?othueo i?eciaeia eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia auea eneeth/aia eo
“aeieoiaioe?iaaiiinoue”, a a ea/anoaa ioa?aie/eaathuaai i?eciaea
aaaaeaii i?eciaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia nianoaaiiinoueth ai?iaea
Iineau (eae noauaeoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee). Oianoii ioiaoeoue oaeaea,
/oi ii oaenoo aeaiiiai ?aaeiiaeueiiai Caeiia iiiyoea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
ia eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu ia oieueei ia ?ane?uaaaony (oai aieaa /oi yoi
oae eee eia/a oaea iienaii a Oaaea?aeueiii caeiia), ii e ia
eniieuecoaony, a aiai?eony eeoue i “eeoeao, ?aaeecothueo i?aaiii/ey
nianoaaiieea” oeacaiiuo ?ano?nia. Oai naiui /anoue i?iaeai ia
“oaenooaeueiii” o?iaia nieiaaony, ii i?eioeeieaeueiua aii?inu – a
/anoiinoe, i niioiioaiee “nianoaaiiinoe ai?iaea” e “eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
?ano?nia eae iauaeoia i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey” – inoathony ia?aoaiiuie.

Aua iaeiei i?eia?ii “aani?aoeaaeaioiiai” caeiia “aaciaiai o?iaiy”
yaeyaony Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “Ia o/anoee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
eioi?iaoeeiiiii iaiaia” (1996 a.), oeaeueth eioi?iai aeaeea?e?iaaeinue
nicaeaiea “oneiaee aeey yooaeoeaiiai o/anoey ?innee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
eioi?iaoeeiiiii iaiaia a ?aieao aaeeiiai ie?iaiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
i?ino?ainoaa, caueoa eioa?ania ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, noauaeoia
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e ioieoeeiaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee i?e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eioi?iaoeeiiiii iaiaia, caueoa eioa?ania, i?aa e
naiaiae oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe i?e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
eioi?iaoeeiiiii iaiaia”. Ia i?aeoeea niaea?aeaoaeueiue niune yoiai
caeiia naiaeeony e onoaiiaeaieth eeoeaice?iaaiey e iaycaoaeueiie
na?oeoeeaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio eioi?iaoeeiiiiio
iaiaio, iai?eia?, i?e auaica “ainoaea?noaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia”
ec ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e eniieueciaaiee n?aaenoa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia. Aneaaenoaea yaiie aano?aeiinoe iniiaiuo
iieiaeaiee caeiia, eioi?uie cae?aieyaony i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eioi?iaoeee
eae i “aauao”, iaiai eioi?uie iiaeao auoue a ethaie iiiaio “i?ae?auai”,
a oaeaea onoaiaaeeaathony ia?aiaieoaeueiua oneiaey eeoeaice?iaaiey e
na?oeoeeaoeee o/anoieeia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia, caeii a oeaeii
i?aeoe/anee ia i?eiaiyaony. Iaooaoeoaeueiue auaiae caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi a n?aaiaiee n Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii “Ia eioi?iaoeee…”
Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “Ia o/anoee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eioi?iaoeeiiiii
iaiaia” oa?aeoa?ecoaony aua iaiueoae ?aaeueiie cia/eiinoueth a
?aaoee?iaaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia o?iaia “aaciauo” eioi?iaoeeiiiuo caeiiia iaaethaeaaony
neaaeothuay ea?oeia. A ioee/ea io ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai, aaea i?eeeaaeiua
caeiiu i?ae?anii iaoiaeyony aac niioaaonoaothuae “iaaeno?ieee”, a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee anoue n?aco aeaa caeiia, eioi?ua, ii caiuneo
caeiiiaeaoaey, eiatho oieaa?naeueiia i?eiaiaiea a noa?a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
ioiioaiee. Aii?aee naiaio aunieiio “noaoono”, iaeiaei, aeaiiua caeiiu
aieueoae /anoueth ia i?eiaiythony, ia aeatho ioaaoia ia aicieeathuea a
eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a aeooaeueiua aii?inu th?eaee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a e
niaa?oaiii “ia aaeaioe?iaaiu” e ?aaoee?iaaieth i?aaiioiioaiee, naycaiiuo
n eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa.

*oi eanaaony aoi?iai aeiea “eioi?iaoeeiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa” – ia
eioi?iaoeee “ioe?uoiai” oa?aeoa?a, oi e caeanue iaaethaeaaony yaiia
ianiioaaonoaea ?inneeneie i?aeoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio iiuoo
?aaoee?iaaiey. ?inneeneee Caeii i NIE, eae oaea auei neacaii,
iauaaeeiyao a naaa e aii?inu ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, e aii?inu niaoeeoeee
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey “n?aaenoa” ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. “Oi/iuo” aiaeiaia ca
?oaaaeii o iaai i?aeoe/anee iao: aii?inu “ianniaie eioi?iaoeee”,
naiaiaeu neiaa ?aaoee?othony oai ia o?iaia aaciauo eiinoeoooeeiiiuo
i?eioeeiia, a “niaoeeoe/aneia” ?aaoee?iaaiea ?aaeaeoeee aacao e
oaeaaeceiiiuo eaiaeia eae noauaeoia a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa inouanoaeyaony
eeoue a eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo. “Caiacaeuaaiea” n ?aoi?ie?iaaieai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, iaeiaei, aua
iiaeii iauynieoue. Caeii “I NIE” o?aaeeoeeiiii ?anniao?eaaeny eae aa?aio
aeinoeaeaiee aeaiie?aoecaoeee, a iioiio ia iiaeaa?aaeny na?ueaciui
ei??aeoe?iaeai ii i?e/eiai iieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Ii aio iiiaieaoiyy
caaea?aeea n i?eiyoeai caeiiia, iaania/eaathueo i?aai a?aaeaeai ia
aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee (cae?aieaiiia e a Eiinoeoooeee ?O), –
iaeiiauynieia. A aieueoeinoaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai oaea aeoeaii
eniieuecothony eioa?iao-oaoiieiaee aeey ?aciauaiey eioi?iaoeee i
aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e eo acaeiiaeaenoaey n
a?aaeaeaiaie niioaaonoaothueo no?ai, i?e/ai ii?yaeie oaeiai
eniieueciaaiey cae?aieai caeiiiaeaoaeueii. A ?innee aea eeoue a 2003 a.
iiyaeeny i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue i?iaeo Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “Ia iaania/aiee
aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee i aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e
i?aaiia ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey”, eioi?ue oae eee eia/a cao?aaeaaao
niioaaonoaothuea aii?inu. Ca?oaaaeiuie aiaeiaaie iiaeiaiiai ?iaea
caeiiia aunooiatho caeiiu “I naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee”. Iaeiei ec ia?auo,
aua a 60-o aa., o.a. caaeieai aei iiyaeaiey Eioa?iaoa, aue i?eiyo
aia?eeaineee caeii “I naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee” (Freedom of Information
Act)*(167).

A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia eioi?iaoeee “cae?uoiai” oa?aeoa?a (eioi?iaoeee n
ia?aie/aiiui aeinooiii) a ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao a iaeiii ?yaeo n
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiie, a oaeaea ?acee/iuie aeaeaie “i?ioanneiiaeueiuo”
oaei (iai?eia?, aaieianeie eee aaeaieaoneie oaeiaie) ?anniao?eaathony
aii?inu, naycaiiua n eioi?iaoeeae ia?niiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
(ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo). Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea
aii?inia, naycaiiuo n o?aiaieai, eniieueciaaieai e ?ani?ino?aiaieai
ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo, yaeyaony iaeiei ec eeth/aauo iai?aaeaiee a
ca?oaaaeiii eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?aaa. I?aaiaie ?aaeei aeey eioi?iaoeee
ia?niiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a a ?innee (anee ia n/eoaoue ioaeaeueiuo
?acaeaeia i ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo a “iai?ioeeueiuo” caeiiao e eiaeaenao,
i?eiyouo a naiia iineaaeiaa a?aiy) ia onoaiiaeai.

Iaeiiaoe, a ?innee e ca ?oaaaeii, ianiio?y ia eaaeouaany noiaenoai a eo
iacaaieyo (?inneeneee Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “Ia yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie
iiaeiene”, ca?oaaaeiua caeiiu “Ia yeaeo?iiiuo (oeeo?iauo) iiaeienyo” e
o.ae.), ia niaiaaeatho ii i?aaeiaoo e iaoaieciai ?aaoee?iaaiey, oaeaea e
“i?eeeaaeiua” caeiiu a eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a. Aeey aieaa iaaeyaeiie
eeethno?aoeee inoaiiaeiny iiae?iaiaa ia Oaaea?aeueiii caeiia “Ia
yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie iiaeiene”, anooieaoai a neeo n 23 yiaa?y 2002 a.

I?eiaiaiea yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie iiaeiene (YOeI) a a?aaeaeaineii iai?ioa
auei i?aaeoniio?aii oaea AE ?O. Oaeei ia?acii, e aei i?eiyoey
niioaaonoaothuaai oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia eaeeo-eeai caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
cai?aoia aeey eniieueciaaiey YOeI eae a noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey, oae e iaaeaeo “oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie” a i?eioeeia ia
auei. A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen (no.160) i?yii oeacuaae ia oi, /oi ii?yaeie
eniieueciaaiey YOeI iiaeao auoue iaiai?ai a niaeaoaiee noi?ii. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, oaea Eiaeaen oiiieiaao i aiciiaeiinoe i?eiyoey
niioaaonoaothuaai caeiia, nicaeaaay oai naiui eaaaeueiia iniiaaiea aeey
iineaaeothuae caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau. Aeiaaaei, /oi a i?eiyoee
caeiia ia YOeI (eiaiii a oii aeaea, a eioi?ii ii nae/an aeaenoaoao) auee
caeioa?aniaaiu ioaeaeueiua aaaeiinoaa, iacaaiey eioi?uo iau/ii
ne?uaaaony ca yaoaieciii “niaoeneoaeau”. E niaeaeaieth, ?acoeueoao
iieo/eeny iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui: ianiio?y ia oi?iaeueiia anooieaiea
Caeiia a neeo aua a ia/aea 2002 a., ii aei neo ii? oaeoe/anee ia
?aaioaao. Aai “ia?aaioiniiniaiinoue” ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue naycaia
n aaaaeaieai iaii?aaaeaiii aeanoeeo ia?aie/aiee (a oii /enea
oaoiieiae/aneiai ii?yaeea), eioi?ua naeaeaee eniieueciaaiea YOeI ii nooe
aanniuneaiiui.

Eiioeaioeey i?eiyoiai Caeiia aace?oaony ia iiiyoee ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aa?aioee i?aaiia?iinoe eniieueciaaiey YOeI. Eia/a aiai?y, ii n?aaiaieth
n eiuie aiaeiaaie nianoaaiii?o/iie iiaeiene (oaeaea aeiioneaaiuie
a?aaeaeaineei i?aaii), oieueei yeaeo?iiiay oeeo?iaay iiaeienue
iaania/eaaao iaeiicia/iia niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo yeaeo?iiiui aeieoiaioii e
eeoeii, aai iiaeienaaoei. Ae?oaea aeaeu aiaeiaia iiaeiene oaoiieiae/anee
auiieiytho oa aea ooieoeee (i?e/ai aeinoaoi/ii oniaoii, eae
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ?aaeueiay i?aeoeea aaaeaiey iaaeaaieianeeo ?an/aoia,
yeaeo?iiiuo oi?aia ia aaethoiuo ae?aeao e o.ae.). Iaeiaei aeey i?eciaiey
iiaeienuaaaiuo eie yeaeo?iiiuo niiauaiee ?aaiicia/iuie ienueiaiiui
aeieoiaioai o?aaoaony aua eae ieieioi i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia niaeanea noi?ii,
o/anoaothueo a oao eee eiuo i?aaiauo ioiioaieyo. A yoii niunea YOeI
eiaao naiaai ?iaea “aaniethoiue” oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo ia o?aaoao
eaeiai-eeai aeiiieieoaeueiiai aeieacuaaiey eee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
niaeaniaaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy ?aaeecaoeey oaeie eiioeaioeee nouanoaaiii oneiaeiyao
i?ioeaaeo?o eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa YOeI e i?eiaiaiey nianoaaiii
yeaeo?iiii-oeeo?iaie iiaeiene. Ai-ia?auo, ?anniao?eaaaiue Oaaea?aeueiue
caeii i?eciaao a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiie aeey YOeI oieueei
oaoiieiaeth e?eioia?aoe/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey ia aaca aneiiao?e/iuo
eeth/ae iiaeiene. Ai-aoi?uo, i?eiaieoaeueii e n?aaenoaai YOeI
onoaiiaeaii aeanoeia o?aaiaaiea eo na?oeoeeaoeee. Iana?oeoeoee?iaaiiua
n?aaenoaa i?eiaiyoue oaeoe/anee cai?auaaony. A?yae ee iaiaoiaeeii
aaaeaoue, e /aio naiaeeony auiieiaiea o?aaiaaiee iaycaoaeueiie
na?oeoeeaoeee a ?inneeneeo oneiaeyo. Iaeiiaoe, oaeinoiaa?ythuea oeaio?u
(auaeathuea na?oeoeeaou eeth/a iiaeiene) iiaeeaaeao iaycaoaeueiiio
eeoeaice?iaaieth. Iiaeiaiay “ca?aaoee?iaaiiinoue” ioiioaiee ii
eniieueciaaieth YOeI ia i?aeoeea i?eaaea eeoue e oiio, /oi noieiinoue
niioaaonoaothueo oneoa iaeeaeaaony aeinoaoi/ii nouanoaaiiie, e naiia
aeaaiia – iiiiiieueii onoaiaaeeaaaiie. Aaaeue niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi
eae na?oeoeoee?iaaoue n?aaenoaa YOeI, oae e ?ac?aoaoue aeayoaeueiinoue
oaeinoiaa?ythueo oeaio?ia (auaeaaaoue eeoeaicee) aoaeoo iaeie e oa aea
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee, ia?aiia/aeueii yaeyaoeany
iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuie Oaaea?aeueiiio aaaionoao i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie nayce e
eioi?iaoeee, a iinea aai oi?acaeiaiey – Ieienoa?noao nayce. Aea e ia
iiiaea ae?oaea aii?inu, eeoue iaicia/aiiua a Caeiia, ioaaou iiaoo auoue
iieo/aiu eeoue iinea i?eiyoey aeiiieieoaeueiuo aaaeiinoaaiiuo
?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo e ?acuynieoaeueiuo aeoia.

Eiaiii ionuei/iue, ia eiie?aoece?iaaiiue oa?aeoa? iiiaeo ii?i
aeaenoaothuaai Caeiia “Ia YOeI” nouanoaaiii nieaeaao aiciiaeiue
iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo io aai i?eiyoey. Neaaeai, eaeay-oi i?aaiecaoeey
oioaea au noaoue oaeinoiaa?ythuei oeaio?ii e aioiaa ia?aoeoueny ca
iieo/aieai iaiaoiaeeiie aeey yoiai eeoeaicee. *oi aea i?i/oao aa
?oeiaiaeeoaeue a i?eiyoii caeiia? I?aaiecaoeey aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue
iaoa?eaeueiuie e oeiainiauie aiciiaeiinoyie, /oiau ioaa/aoue ia?aae
iieueciaaoaeyie YOeI ca oauoee, iiianaiiua aneaaenoaea auaea/e ei
na?oeoeeaoia n iaaeinoiaa?iie eioi?iaoeeae. A aeaeueoa – ionuei/iay
ii?ia: o?aaiaaiey e oaeei “aiciiaeiinoyi” ii?aaeaeythony I?aaeoaeuenoaii
ii i?aaenoaaeaieth “oiieiiii/aiiiai i?aaia aeanoe”. E iiea
oiieiiii/aiiue i?aai aeanoe (Ieinayce) ia aianao i?aaenoaaeaiea a
I?aaeoaeuenoai, a I?aaeoaeuenoai ia ?anniio?eo aai e ia iaeia?eo, ie
iaeei oaeinoiaa?ythuee oeaio? nicaeai ia aoaeao.

A caeiia anoue e eiua iieiaeaiey, neaai ei??aee?othuea n iauaie?iaie
i?aeoeeie. Oaeoe/anee iaeaaaaony cai?ao ia eniieueciaaiea eiino?aiiuo
na?oeoeeaoia eeth/ae YOeI – a?yae ee ca?oaaaeiua oaeinoiaa?ythuea
oeaio?u aoaeoo na?oeoeoee?iaaoue naie n?aaenoaa YOeI a ?inneeneii
“oiieiiii/aiiii i?aaia”, a ?ac oae, oi eiino?aiiua na?oeoeeaou iiaoo
auoue i?eciaiu a ?innee eeoue “a neo/aa auiieiaiey onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?ioeaaeo? i?eciaiey th?eaee/aneiai cia/aiey
eiino?aiiuo aeieoiaioia”. Ii oaeeo “i?ioeaaeo?” a ioiioaiee yeaeo?iiiuo
aeieoiaioia i?inoi ia nouanoaoao! Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?inneeneea
iieueciaaoaee Eioa?iaoa e eiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai aoaeoo ia ai?aaa
eaeei-eeai caeiiiui ia?acii i?eiaiyoue ca?oaaaeiua YOeI.

A oi?iaeeciaaiiii aeaea oeacaiiia ianoiyoaeuenoai iiaeii eceiaeeoue,
i?eiaiyy iaoiaeieiaeth, i?aaeeiaeaiioth iaie a naiii ia/aea yoie eieae.
I?aaiaua ii?iu, ?aaoee?othuea ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n iai?ioii
yeaeo?iiiuo aeieoiaioia, ia eiatho a ia?aii, “oece/aneii” i?ino?ainoaa
i?aaiauo ii?i ieeaeie “i?eaycee” e oa??eoi?ee ioaeaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa.
Yoi icia/aao, /oi ai aoi?ii, “noauaeoiii” i?aaiaii i?ino?ainoaa iie ia
aeieaeiu ioiineoueny e “eii?aeeiaoai”, oa?aeoa?iui eeoue aeey
aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ionoonoaea ia iiiaio
i?eiyoey Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “Ia YOeI” i?aaiauo ii?i, ii?aaeaeythueo
“i?ioeaaeo?u i?eciaiey th?eaee/aneiai cia/aiey eiino?aiiuo aeieoiaioia”,
oaeoe/anee iaanoeaieaaao, “iaioeyao” aiciiaeiinoe i?aeoe/aneiai
i?eiaiaiey aeaiiiai caeiia.

Ai?i/ai, a Caeiia ia YOeI ia niaea?aeeony eaeeo-eeai ii?i, no?iai
i?aaeienuaathueo i?eiaiyoue YOeI a oao eee eiuo neo/ayo. Iao aeaiaa ia
iieo/aiea na?oeoeeaoa YOeI – iiaeii iineaoue aeieoiaio ii “iau/iie”
ii/oa, a ia ioi?aaeyoue aai a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea. Iao aeaeaiey
naycuaaoueny n iieo/aieai eeoeaicee oaeinoiaa?ythuaai oeaio?a – ieeoi e
ia canoaaeyao eiai-oi ei noaiiaeoueny. Eiia aeaei, /oi ia?aiia/aeueiie
eaeaae i?eiyoey Caeiia auei eae ?ac iaeaa/eoue oneiaey yeaeo?iiiiai
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa a iaoae no?aia, aiaae?eoue a aeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia nia?aiaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee. Yooaeo
io eniieiaiey Caeiia “Ia YOeI” a i?eiyoii aeaea iiaeao auoue ia?aoiue –
ieeoi ia caoi/ao naycuaaoueny ni noieue oeiiioiui e ia?aiaieoaeueiui
aeaeii, eae i?eia?aoaiea na?oeoeeaoa YOeI e auiieiaiea anao o?aaiaaiee e
oaeinoiaa?ythuei oeaio?ai.

A ioee/ea io ?inneeneiai Caeiia, ca ?oaaaeii e aii?inai i?eiaiaiey YOeI
iiaeoiaeyo aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueii, ia aaniethoece?oy yeaeo?iiii-oeeo?iaoth
iiaeienue eae “aiaeia nianoaaiii?o/iie iiaeiene”, a ?anniao?eaay aa
eeoue eae iaeei ec aiciiaeiuo niiniaia eaeaioeoeeaoeee o/anoieeia
i?aaiioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa. Iao a eiino?aiiuo
caeiiao ia YOeI e aeanoeie i?eaycee e oai eee eiui oaoiieiaeyi,
i?ioeaaeo?ai i?iaa?ee e na?oeoeeaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa ca ?oaaaeii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i oeeo?iauo iiaeienyo ?aaioaao, a a ?innee – iao.

“Iai?ioeeueiia” caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia Eioa?iaoa

Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea iniai oiiiyiooue, /oi a iineaaeiaa a?aiy a
i?eieiaaiuo a ?innee caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoao, aeaaea ia ioiinyueony
iai?yioth e eioi?iaoeeiiiui oaoiieiaeyi, iiyaeythony oeaeua noaouee e
?acaeaeu, ?aaoee?othuea eeai ?acee/iua aniaeou eniieueciaaiey Eioa?iaoa,
eeai ioaeaeueiua aii?inu, naycaiiua n i?aaiaui noaoonii eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iauaeoia.

Oae, a ia/aea 2002 a. anooieee a neeo eciaiaiey a no.80 Iaeiaiaiai
eiaeaena ?O, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao ii?yaeie iiaea/e iaeiaiauo
aeaeea?aoeee. A niioaaonoaee n yoeie eciaiaieyie iaeiaiaay aeaeea?aoeey
iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia a iaeiaiaue i?aai eeai ia aoiaaeiii iineoaea,
eeai “a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea”. I?e/ai eae i?aaenoaaeaia iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii
ee/ii eee /a?ac aai i?aaenoaaeoaey, oae e iai?aaeaia a aeaea ii/oiaiai
ioi?aaeaiey n iienueth aeiaeaiey eee (aieiaiea!) ia?aaeaia ii
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui eaiaeai nayce. Inoaaea ca neiaeaie
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue oa?ieia “oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua eaiaeu nayce” (ana aea
eiaeaen Iaeiaiaue, a ia “oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiue”), ana ?aaii iaaei
ioiaoeoue, /oi oeacaiiia eciaiaiea yaeyaony a eaeie-oi noaiaie
?aaiethoeeiiiui aeey iaeiaiauo ioiioaiee. Iaeiaiieaoaeueueee, eiathuea
eiiiuethoa? n iiaeaiii eee auaeaeaiiie eeieae, iiaoo auoue ecaaaeaiu io
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiiai/aniaiai iaeeaeaiey i?eaia o naiaai iaeiaiaiai
einiaeoi?a. (Enoaoe, i?e ia?aaea/a iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee ii
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui eaiaeai nayce aeiai aa i?aaenoaaeaiey aoaeao
n/eoaoueny aeaoa aa ioi?aaee.) Aieaa oiai, iaeiaiaue i?aai ia ai?aaa
ioeacaoue a i?eiyoee iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee e i?e iieo/aiee aa ii
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui eaiaeai nayce iaycai ia?aaeaoue iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo
eaeoaioeeth i i?eaiea a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea. Iineieueeo i/aaeaeii, /oi ii
oaeaa?aoo, oaeaeno eee ii oaeaoiio ia?aaeaoue iaeiaiaoth aeaeea?aoeeth
cao?oaeieoaeueii, iaeaieaa aa?iyoia ia?aaea/a aa a aeaea oaeea a ninoaaa
niiauaiey ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa eee n eniieueciaaieai a oii eee eiii
aeaea web-eioa?oaenia (o.a. eae ?ac eioa?iao-oaoiieiaee). Ai?i/ai, a
oaenoa Caeiia ia ?ane?uaaaony iiiyoea “a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea” (aeeneaoea
oiaea niaea?aeeo eioi?iaoeeth a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea, ii aa ii
“oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiui eaiaeai nayce” ia?aaeaoue iaeuecy). Niaea?aeeony
eeoue o?aaeeoeeiiiay aeey iaoaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ionuei/iay ii?ia:
“ii?yaeie i?aaenoaaeaiey iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea
ii?aaeaeyaony Ieienoa?noaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii iaeiaai e nai?ai”.
Anoue ana iniiaaiey iianaoueny, /oi ?aaeaiaioaoeey ii?yaeea
i?aaenoaaeaiey iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee aoaeao iniiauaaoueny ia ii?iao
oaea ?anniio?aiiiai auoa Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “Ia yeaeo?iiiie oeeo?iaie
iiaeiene”. A yoii neo/aa, eniieueciaaiea “oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo eaiaeia
nayce” aeey ioi?aaee niiauaiee, iiaeienaiiuo YOeI, ieaaeaony ianoieueei
ia?aiaieoaeueiui, /oi iaeiaiieaoaeueueee i?aaeii/ooo nei?aa ioneaeaoue
eeoiee /an a i/a?aaee a iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee eee ainiieueciaaoueny
“iau/iie” ii/oie, /ai o?aoeoue a?aiy ia aei?iainoiyuaa ioi?ieaiea
iiiai/eneaiiuo aoiaa, o?aaoaiuo aeey iieo/aiey YOeI.

Iii?aaeaie io 28 ia?oa 2002 a. a Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “I aooaaeoa?neii
o/aoa” oaeea aea i?aaeea, /oi e aeey iiaea/e iaeiaiauo aeaeea?aoeee,
auee onoaiiaeaiu a ioiioaiee ninoaaeaiey, o?aiaiey e i?aaenoaaeaiey
aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe. E niaeaeaieth, e caeanue iu aeaeei
oaaoieiae/aneia oiiieiaiea i “oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo eaiaeao nayce” e
caaaaei/iia iiiyoea “a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea”, ii noauaeoaie
niioaaonoaothueo ioiioaiee noaiiayony oaea ia oieueei iaeiaiaua, ii e
eiua ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu (iai?eia?, i?aaiu noaoenoeee) e
iaainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee (iai?eia?, nianoaaiieee i?aaei?eyoee,
iai?aaeythueo aooaaeoa?neoth io/aoiinoue). Iineieueeo a oaenoa
oiiiyioouo aeiiieiaiee oaea ia aiai?eony i iaeiai iniaii ii?yaeea
i?aaenoaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe “a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea”, iiaeii
iaaeayoueny, /oi oeacaiiua ii?iu ieaaeoony aieaa aeecianiiniaiuie.

Ia inoaeenue a noi?iia io i?ioeannia i?eiaiaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee e ?ac?aaio/eee Eiaeaena ?O ia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
i?aaiia?ooaieyo, anooieaoaai a neeo 1 ethey 2002 a. I?e aai i?eiyoee
iniaia aieiaiea ni noi?iiu iauanoaaiiinoe auei oaeaeaii nii?ai ia
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia?ooaiey i?aaee aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, ii iaei eoi
ia?aoee aieiaiea ia iaee/ea a aai ninoaaa oeaeiai ?acaeaea ia
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ia?ooaieyo “a iaeanoe nayce e eioi?iaoeee” (ae.13
EiAI). Ia?yaeo n oaeeie “i?eau/iuie” ia?ooaieyie, eae naiiaieueiay
yenieoaoaoeey oceia nayce eee auniei/anoioiuo ono?ienoa e iia?aaeaeaiea
oaeaoiiia-aaoiiaoia, iiyaeeenue e iiaua ninoaau aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
i?aaiia?ooaiee. A /anoiinoe, ?a/ue eaeao i ia?ooaieyo i?aaee caueou
eioi?iaoeee (a oii /enea ia eniieueciaaiee “iana?oeoeoee?iaaiiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, aac e aaieia aeaiiuo” – anee iie iiaeeaaeao
iaycaoaeueiie na?oeoeeaoeee) (no.13.12 EiAI), i iacaeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a yoie iaeanoe (iai?eia?, caiyoea oaeie aeayoaeueiinoueth
aac eeoeaicee) (no.13.13 EiAI) e o.ae. Enoaoe, aaeieieno?aoeaiua oo?aou
i?aaeoniio?aiu aeinoaoi/ii nouanoaaiiua (aei o?eaeoeaoe ieieiaeueiuo
ieeaaeia aeey a?aaeaeai e aei aeaoonio ieieiaeueiuo ieeaaeia aeey
i?aaiecaoeee). Oaeei ia?acii, ieii/aoaeueii “aia caeiia” iinoaaeaiu
?inneeneea ?ac?aaio/eee e ?ani?ino?aieoaee n?aaenoa caueou eioi?iaoeee
(a oii /enea eniieuecoaiuo a Eioa?iaoa), ia eiathuea iaiaoiaeeiuo
eeoeaicee e na?oeoeeaoia. Iiyaeeny e oaeie iiea aua “yecioe/aneee”
ninoaa aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaiia?ooaiey, eae “ecaioiaeaiea e (eee)
?ani?ino?aiaiea ioiinyueony e niaoeeaeueiui n?aaenoaai ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo oaeeia e i?ia?aii ia?aaioee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaenoia, niaea?aeaueo ne?uoua anoaaee, aicaeaenoaothuea
ia iiaeniciaiea ethaeae e (eee) ieacuaathuea a?aaeiia aeeyiea ia eo
caei?iauea” (no.13.15 EiAI). *oi-oi a?iaea “25-ai eaae?a”,
aiiioe?iaaiiiai a ?aeeaiiua eioa?iao-aaiia?u. E caeanue, e niaeaeaieth,
iiiai neiaaniie (e oa?ieiieiae/aneie) “oaeooe” – /oi oaeia, iai?eia?,
“i?ia?aiiu ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaenoia, ioiinyueany e
niaoeeaeueiui n?aaenoaai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee”? Aaaeue eiiiuethoa?iua
i?ia?aiiu e n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee – aeinoaoi/ii ?acee/iua
eaoaai?ee e th?eaee/anee, e oaoiieiae/anee, e iiiyoeeii. Caaaaii, /oi a
ea/anoaa naieoeee ca oaeia ia?ooaiea i?aaeoniao?eaaaony “eiioeneaoeey
i?aaeiaoa aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaiia?ooaiey”. Aua iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue,
eae eiioeneiauaaoue eiiiuethoa? n iana?oeoeoee?iaaiiie aacie aeaiiuo, ii
eae eiioeneiauaaoue “i?ia?aiiu ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaenoia” eee
“ne?uoua anoaaee” – niiaeao i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue oieueei aeaeueiaeoay
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiay i?aeoeea. Iniaia aea aieiaiea oi/aony ia?aoeoue ia
no.13.11 iiaiai EiAI, onoaiaaeeaathuoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea
onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiii ii?yaeea nai?a, o?aiaiey, eniieueciaaiey eee
?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee i a?aaeaeaiao (ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo).
Ianiio?y ia ionoonoaea oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia ia eioi?iaoeee
ia?niiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, aii?in i caueoa ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo
iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iaoa aeinoaoi/ii aeooaeai. I?iaaeaea? (eee
niaoeeaeece?othuaany ia nai?a oaeie eioi?iaoeee i?aaei?eyoea) iiaeao
iieo/eoue aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie iauai ia?niiaeueiie eioi?iaoeee i
iieueciaaoaea Naoe, iniiauaaynue oieueei ia aiaeeca aai aeoeaiinoe – n
eaeiai eiiiuethoa?a ii caoiaeeo a Eioa?iao, oneoaaie eaeiai i?iaaeaea?a
iieuecoaony, a eaeia a?aiy iieuecoaony Naoueth, niaa?oaao ee iieoiee a
naoaauo iaaaceiao e ia eaeea noiiu, naeoaie eaeiai niaea?aeaiey
eioa?anoaony, eaeeie naoaauie aae?anaie iieuecoaony, a eaeii ianaeaiiii
ioieoa aeeaao e o.i.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n EiAI aue i?eiyo aua iaeei eiaeaen, O?oaeiaie, e eae ?ac
oai ia?niiaeueiui aeaiiui iinayuai oeaeue ?acaeae. ?acoiaaony, i?aaeaea
anaai i?eiaieoaeueii e o?oaeiaui i?aaiioiioaieyi. A /anoiinoe,
?aaioiaeaoaee iaycaiu i?e ia?aaioea ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo ?aaioieea
niaethaeaoue ?yae aeanoeeo o?aaiaaiee: inouanoaeyoue oaeoth ia?aaioeo
eneeth/eoaeueii a oeaeyo iaania/aiey niaethaeaiey caeiiia e eiuo
ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaiauo aeoia, niaeaenoaey ?aaioieeai a o?oaeiono?ienoaa,
iao/aiee e i?iaeaeaeaiee ii neoaeaa, iaania/aiey eo ee/iie aaciianiinoe.
E?iia oiai, anee ia?niiaeueiua aeaiiua cai?aoeaathony o eaeie-eeai
o?aoueae noi?iiu, a ia io naiiai ?aaioieea, io iaai aeieaeii auoue
iieo/aii ienueiaiiia niaeanea ia yoi. Anoue e iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo
enoieeiauaaoueny iaiaeiicia/ii. E i?eia?o, “i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee,
cao?aaeaathueo eioa?anu ?aaioieea, ?aaioiaeaoaeue ia eiaao i?aaa
iniiauaaoueny ia ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo ?aaioieea, iieo/aiiuo
eneeth/eoaeueii a ?acoeueoaoa eo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee eee
yeaeo?iiiiai iieo/aiey” (no.86 OE ?O). Eae iiaeii enoieeiaaoue
yeaeo?iiiia iieo/aiea i?eiaieoaeueii, neaaeai, e aaoiaeia?aoee
nio?oaeieea, iai?aaeaiiie ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa? Aaconeiaii, ana yoe
“oa?ieiieiae/aneea oa?ioiaaoinoe” e?aeia iai?eyoiu. Oai ia iaiaa, oaeei
“oi/a/iui” aicaeaenoaeai, aeeth/aieai iaiaoiaeeiuo ooi/iythueo iii?aaie
aeaaea a “iai?ioeeueiia” caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aiciiaeii ono?aiaiea
eiathueony i?iaaeia e “ianoueiaie” ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
aeaenoaothuaai a eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a.

A oi aea a?aiy nenoaiiia iaiiaeaiea ?inneeneie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu,
naycaiiie n eioi?iaoeeiiiuie i?aaiioiioaieyie a oeaeii e eniieueciaaieai
Eioa?iaoa a /anoiinoe, iaaiciiaeii aac ?aoi?ie?iaaiey “i?ioeeueiiai”
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, aeeth/ay ioiaio iaeaieaa iaeeiciuo e iayooaeoeaiuo
aai iieiaeaiee. Oeacaiiia iaiiaeaiea, iaeiaei, i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii
aac oi?ioee?iaaiey e iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee (iaoeeiiaeueiie no?aoaaee) a iaeanoe ?acaeoey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e ?aaoee?iaaiey niioaaonoaothueo iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee.

I?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?aoi?ie?iaaieth?inneeneiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa

Anee ia?aie/eoue e?oa ?anniao?eaaaiuo i?iaeai eeoue aieaa /anoiuie
aii?inaie eniieueciaaiey Eioa?iaoa, oi e iniiaiui i?iaeaiai,
ioaeaeathueiny a nei?aeoai ii?iaoeaiii o?aaoee?iaaiee, ioiinyony:

ii?aaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee no?aiu ii ?acaeoeth e
eniieueciaaieth Eioa?iaoa;

onoaiiaeaiea i?aaiauo iniia eniieueciaaiey Naoe aeey ?aaeecaoeee
eiinoeoooeeiiiuo i?aa a?aaeaeai, nicaeaiey a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa,
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaiia aeanoe;

ooi/iaiea i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia eioi?iaoeee (a oii /enea ianniaie),
aeinooiiie /a?ac Eioa?iao;

iaeaa/aiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, inouanoaeyaiie n
eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa (yeaeo?iiiay oi?aiaey, eioi?iaoeeiiiua oneoae
e o.ae.);

i?aaeioa?auaiea iauanoaaiii iianiuo aeayiee, niaa?oaaiuo a Eioa?iaoa
(aeeth/ay ?ani?ino?aiaiea a?aaeiiiniuo i?ia?aii – ae?onia, a oaeaea
niaia), auyaeaiea e i?eaea/aiea e ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaiia?ooeoaeae;

aaeaioaoeey aeaenoaothueo i?aaee io?aiu aaoi?neeo e eiuo
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia iauaeou eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e
?aciauaieth eo a Naoe;

iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe e onoaiiaeaiea ii?yaeea
eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa e?eioicaueou i?eiaieoaeueii e Eioa?iaoo.

?inneeneeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie i?aaiauo i?iaeai Eioa?iaoa auneacuaaeenue
?acee/iua iiaiey i i?eioeeiao ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai “naoaaiai”
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua iiaeii iaiaueoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:

i?aaeiaoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea i?aaiioiioaiee iaaeaeo iia?aoi?aie e
iieueciaaoaeyie Naoe a oeaeii, a ia iaeiaai aa “?inneeneiai naaiaioa”;

i?ei?eoaoiia aieiaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ?aaoee?iaaieth, oieoeeaoeee
i?aaiauo ii?i, o/anoeth ?innee a ?ac?aaioea e auiieiaiee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo niaeaoaiee;

eniieueciaaiea aiath?eaee/aneeo iaoiaeia ?aaoee?iaaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiiia
/enei i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n Eioa?iaoii, iiaeao e aeieaeii auoue ?aoaii ia
o?iaia i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey “naoaaiai niiauanoaa” iooai
aeai?eoiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee eniieuecoaiuo i?ioeaaeo?;

?acoiiay aeinoaoi/iinoue ?aaoee?iaaiey. Ecauoie ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaee a
eoiaa i?eaiaeeo e iaaiciiaeiinoe eo eniieiaiey ia i?aeoeea;

eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae. Iaeuecy ia?aie/eaaoueny eeoue nicaeaieai
ioiineoaeueii eciee?iaaiiiai, “niaoeeaeueiiai” ianneaa ?aaoee?iaaiey.
Iaeiia?aiaiii n ?ac?aaioeie iiauo i?aaiauo ii?i iaiaoiaeeii aiineoue
eciaiaiey (a ?yaea neo/aaa nouanoaaiiua) a oaea aeaenoaothuaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai n oeaeueth iaania/aiey aai i?yiiai aeaenoaey
i?eiaieoaeueii e Naoe;

aaeeiiia?acea oa?ieiieiaee. Eniieuecoaiua th?eaee/aneea iiiyoey aeieaeiu
ia oieueei auoue ei??aeoiuie n oaoie/aneie (oaoiieiae/aneie) oi/ee
c?aiey, ii e niioaaonoaiaaoue iauai?eiyoie i?aaiaie oa?ieiieiaee.

Enoaoe, ianeieueei caeiiii?iaeoia auee ?ac?aaioaiu e i?aaeeiaeaiu aeey
ianoaeaeaiey a eieoeeaoeaiii ii?yaeea. Oae, aua a 2000 a. niaoeeaeenoaie
Ioe?uoiai oi?oia eioa?iao-na?aen-i?iaaeaea?ia ?innee (IOENIa) aue
iiaeaioiaeai i?iaeo caeiia “I ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeea ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ii ?acaeoeth e eniieueciaaieth Eioa?iaoa”. Ia yaeyynue
noauaeoii caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau, Ioe?uoue oi?oi ia iiaeao
eieoeee?iaaoue ?anniio?aiea eaeiai-eeai caeiiii?iaeoa eia/a, eae
aeaenoaoy /a?ac ioaeaeueiuo aeaiooaoia eee aeaiooaoneea iauaaeeiaiey. E
oiio aea ii ia ca?aaeno?e?iaai aeaaea eae iauanoaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey (eae
oaea ioia/aeinue, aeey iauaaeeiaiey noauaeoia “naoaauo i?aaiioiioaiee”
iiaeiaiua “oi?iaeueiinoe” ia eiatho cia/aiey). Iineieueeo iniiaiua
iieiaeaiey e i?eioeeiu oiiiyiooiai aeieoiaioa auee iiaeaea?aeaiu e eiuie
iauaaeeiaieyie ?inneeneiai eioa?iao-niiauanoaa (Nithcii iia?aoi?ia
Eioa?iaoa, Eiieoaoii eioa?iao-annioeeaoeee aeieoiaioaeueiie
yeaeo?inayce), auei au oianoii oioy au ae?aooea ?anneacaoue ia yoeo
iieiaeaieyo.

Ai-ia?auo, oeaeueth ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a
ioiioaiee naoe Eioa?iao iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeyeanue ainoaea?noaaiiay
iiaeaea?aeea ?acaeoeth Naoe. Aeinooiiua /a?ac Eioa?iao eioi?iaoeeiiiua
?ano?nu, niioaaonoaothuea n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia aeieaeiu
auoue i?eciaiu iaeieie ec eeth/aauo oaeoi?ia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee.

Ai-aoi?uo, i?aaeeaaaeinue inouanoaeyoue ?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee,
naycaiiuo n eniieueciaaieai Eioa?iaoa, ia iniiaa ni/aoaiey i?eioeeiia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e iauanoaaiiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Iaoiaeu
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ia aeieaeiu ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e oaoie/aneea aniaeou ?acaeoey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
Eioa?iaoa, ia cao?aaeaathuea onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii i?aaa e eioa?anu
ee/iinoe, iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa. ?ac?aaaouaaaiua a nayce n yoei
i?aaiaua aeou iiaeeaaeao iaycaoaeueiie i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie yenia?oeca n
o/anoeai i?aaenoaaeoaeae iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee ?inneeneeo
iieueciaaoaeae e iia?aoi?ia oneoa Eioa?iaoa.

A-o?aoueeo, onoaiaaeeaaeinue i?aaeei, niaeanii eioi?iio eniieueciaaiea
Eioa?iaoa a /ueae-eeai aeayoaeueiinoe ia iiaeao neoaeeoue iniiaaieai
aeey i?eiaiaiey aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oeacaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeoniio?aiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. A oi aea a?aiy
eniieueciaaiea Eioa?iaoa ia inaiaiaeaeaao io niaethaeaiey oaea
onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii o?aaiaaiee e o/anoieeai oaeie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A-/aoaa?ouo, onoaiaaeeaaeenue eiie?aoiua i?aaeea aaaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia /a?ac Eioa?iao, a /anoiinoe, ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eioi?iaoeee eiiia?/aneiai eee ?aeeaiiiai oa?aeoa?a aeiioneaeinue au
oieueei i?e niaethaeaiee ioi?aaeoaeyie oaeie eioi?iaoeee o?aaiaaiee i
cai?aoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey iacai?ioaiiie eioi?iaoeee. (Eiaeinue a aeaeo
iinoaaeoue aia caeiia aeaenoaey, iiaeiaiua ?annueea niaia.)

A aieaa oe?ieii niunea ia iniiaaiee eceiaeaiiuo oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeoiaeia
i?aaeeaaaeinue, a /anoiinoe, iieiinoueth ?aoi?ie?iaaoue aeaenoaothuee
Caeii ia eioi?iaoeee e ?acaeaeeoue aai ia o?e iiauo caeiia n
naiinoiyoaeueiuie i?aaeiaoaie ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Ia?aui oaeei aeoii i?aaeiieaaaeenue Iniiau caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ia eioi?iaoeee. Eiaiii a oaeii aeieoiaioa iiaee au auoue
aeaiu ii?aaeaeaiey iniiaiuo iiiyoee, i?eiaiyaiuo a caeiiao, eioi?ua
cao?aaeaatho eioi?iaoeeiiioth noa?o; onoaiiaeaiu iauea i?eioeeiu
?aaoee?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?aaiioiioaiee; ?ane?uoi iiiyoea
eioi?iaoeee eae ioaeaeueiiai iauaeoa a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa e
niaea?aeaoaeueii ?aoai aii?in i nianoaaiiinoe ia eioi?iaoeeiiiua
iauaeou; ii?aaeaeaiu iniiau i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia ?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee
eioi?iaoeee, a oii /enea e ii e?eoa?eth aeinooia e iae (i?aaiaie ?aaeei
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, ianniaie eioi?iaoeee e o.ae.). Iniaia
aieiaiea a oaeii ii?iaoeaiii aeoa iaiaoiaeeii auei au oaeaeeoue e
i?aaiaui iniaaiiinoyi eioi?iaoeee, ?aciauaaiie a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
nenoaiao e ?ani?ino?aiyaiie ii eioi?iaoeeiiiui naoyi, aeeth/ay aii?inu
eaeaioeoeeaoeee ioi?aaeoaeae e iieo/aoaeae oaeie eioi?iaoeee,
ia?aie/aiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey iacai?ioaiiie (eiiia?/aneie) eioi?iaoeee, a
oii /enea ?aeeaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, a oaeaea ooieoeeiie?iaaieth naoaauo NIE.
Ia iaiaa aeooaeueiui, e?iia oiai, yaeyaony cae?aieaiea iniia i?aaiaiai
noaoona oaeeo iiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia, eae eioi?iaoeeiiiua naeou
(ii?oaeu, eioa?iao-no?aieoeu) e aeiiaiiua eiaia. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi noaoon, neaaeai, aeiiaiiuo eiai eae n?aaenoa naoaaie
aae?anaoeee (eaeaioeoeeaoeee) ia iiaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny i?eiaieoaeueii e
iauaeoai eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, yaeythueiny i?aaeiaoii eiiai
(aaoi?neiai e o.i.) caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Aoi?ui ec i?aaeeaaaaoeony caeiiia aeieaeai aue noaoue oaaea?aeueiue
caeii “I ainoaea?noaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nao”. Enoiaey ec oiai,
/oi iiae eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nii iiieiaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay eioi?iaoeey,
oii?yaei/aiiay a ii?aaeaeaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia, a oaeaea n
o/aoii a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a ioiioaiee ii eniieueciaaieth
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia, i?aaeiaoii ?aaoee?iaaiey
oaaea?aeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iiaee au auoue eioi?iaoeeiiiua
?ano?nu, iaoiaeyueany a ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, aeeth/ay
ii?yaeie eo oi?ie?iaaiey (oeiaine?iaaiey), i?aaiii/ey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia eae ?anii?yaeeoaeae eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia; ii?aaeaeaiea
ii?yaeea aeinooia e iei (a oii /enea ia aanieaoiie e aiciacaeiie
iniiaa); iniiau i?aaiaiai noaoona ainoaea?noaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
nenoai; i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe eeoe, o/anoaothueo a oi?ie?iaaiee e
eniieueciaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia. A oeacaiiii
caeiia iiaeeaaeae au ?ane?uoeth eiinoeoooeeiiiue i?eioeei i i?aaa
a?aaeaeai ia eioi?iaoeeth i aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe; aue au i?eaaaeai ia?a/aiue naaaeaiee, iaycaoaeueiuo aeey
iioaeeeiaaiey (?aciauaiey) ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie a iauaaeinooiiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naoyo.

Iaeiiaoe, aua iaeiei caeiiii oaaea?aeueiiai o?iaiy aeieaeai aue noaoue
Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “Ia eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe”, iinayuaiiue ia
noieueei aii?inai “caueou eioi?iaoeee” (iaicia/aiiui a aeaenoaothuai
Caeiia ia eioi?iaoeee), neieueei aii?inai eioi?iaoeeiiiie caueuaiiinoe
a?aaeaeai, oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia (i?aaiecaoeee) e i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

I?e aieaa i?enoaeueiii ciaeiinoaa n oaeeie i?aaeeiaeaieyie ieacuaaaony,
/oi iaeiicia/iuo ioaaoia iie ia aeatho, a o niaoeeaeenoa a nayce n eo
aiaeecii aicieeatho, nei?aa, aeiiieieoaeueiua e o?oaeii?ac?aoeiua
aii?inu. A naiii aeaea, aucuaaao niiiaiea oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiyoey
caeiia “I ainoaea?noaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nao” a ionoonoaea yaiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaiey iiiyoey “eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu” aiiaua.
Aeaeaei ia i/aaeaeiui yaeyaony oaeaea niioiioaiea iaaeaeo oiiiyiooui
caeiiii?iaeoii e caeiiii?iaeoaie i i?aaa ia eioi?iaoeeth e iaania/aiee
aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee i aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia –
aaaeue a iaieo neo/ayo ?a/ue eaeao eiaiii i aeinooia e ainoaea?noaaiiui
eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai, ii iacuaaaiui ii-?aciiio a ?aciuo
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoao. *oi aea eanaaony caeiiii?iaeoa “Ia
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe”, oi aai naiinoiyoaeueiue i?aaeiao
?aaoee?iaaiey aiiaua ia i?iniao?eaaaony, iineieueeo “anaiauaiethuaai”
caeiia ia eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe, aeaoaeueii o/eouaathuaai
aaniethoii ana aniaeou oeacaiiiai i?aaeiaoa ?aaoee?iaaiey, i?eiyoue a
iaic?eiii aoaeouai ana ?aaii ia oaeanony, aea e iniaiai niunea a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii cae?aieaiee i?aaee, ioiinyueony e iaeiiio ec aeaeia
“aaciianiinoe”, i?inoi iao.

I/aaeaeii, ?acoiiaa auei au iinoa?aoueny a ?inneeneie i?aeoeea
?aaoee?iaaiey i?aaiioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n Eioa?iaoii, iaeneiaeueii
aa?aaeii eniieueciaaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iiuo ?aaeaiaioaoeee
niioaaonoaothueo aii?inia, aaeaioe?oy aai e ?inneeneie i?aaiaie
o?aaeeoeee. A /anoiinoe, aaconeiaii iaiaoiaeeiie auea au iieiay
ia?a?aaioea “o?aoaeaaiai” caeiia ia eioi?iaoeee eeai a iai?aaeaiee
i?aia?aciaaiey aai a Iniiau eioi?iaoeeiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee*(168), eeai aai iieiie ioiaiu e eiei?ii?aoeee
ii?i, ioiinyueony e i?aaiaiio noaoono eioi?iaoeee, a AE ?O*(169).

I?eiaieoaeueii e iauaaeinooiiie eioi?iaoeee, e ?aaeecaoeee
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa ia aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee, i?aaenoaaeyaony
oeaeaniia?aciui i?eiyoea ii?iaoeaiiai aeoa, niioaaonoaothuaai
ca?oaaaeiui caeiiai i naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee. Eiia/ii, ia ia?aue acaeyae
aeaaea iacaaiea i?iaeoa Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “I naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee”
iiaeao auoue aini?eiyoi iaiaeiicia/ii n o/aoii aeooaeueiuo ?inneeneeo
iieeoe/aneeo ?aaeee, iaeiaei eiaiii a oaeii caeiiiaeaoaeueiii aeoa iiaee
au auoue iaeiicia/ii e yooaeoeaii o?aaoee?iaaiu eae aii?inu i “i?aaa ia
aeinooi”, oae e iaycaiiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia ?aciauaoue
eioi?iaoeeth i naiae aeayoaeueiinoe (aiaeiae/ii oiio, eae yoi aeaeaaony
ca ?oaaaeii) a naoe Eioa?iao, a ?aaii e aii?inu, o?aaeeoeeiiii ioiineiua
e oae iacuaaaiie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. A yoii neo/aa
“iauaeioi?iaoeeiiiay” i?iaeaiaoeea iiaea au auoue oaeaeaia ec Caeiia i
NIE, eioi?ue i?e yoii, a iieiii niioaaonoaee ni naiei iacaaieai, aue au
iinayuai eiaiii n?aaenoaai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee eae noauaeoai
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aaiioiioaiee n cae?aieaiiie a caeiia niaoeeoeeie
i?aaiaiai noaoona e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Iaeiiaoe, /oi eanaaony
eioi?iaoeee ia?aie/aiiiai aeinooia, oi a ia?aii/a?aaeiii ii?yaeea
oeaeaniia?acii auei au nin?aaeioi/eoueny ia ?ac?aaioea e i?eiyoee
oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia ia eioi?iaoeee ia?niiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
(ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo), eae iaeaieaa aaaeiiai aeey cae?aieaiey i?aa e
eioa?ania a?aaeaeai a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaieyo.

Eiia/ii, i?eaaaeaiiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ia iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
en/a?iuaathuea. Iie eeoue iaicia/atho oio “caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ?oaaae”, n
eioi?iai iaiaoiaeeii ia/aoue ?aoi?ie?iaaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa no?aiu a
eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a, /oi iicaieeo iaeiia?aiaiii aiai?eoue e i
iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n
eniieueciaaieai a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee naoe Eioa?iao.

Caeeth/aiea

I?aaenoaaeaiiia enneaaeiaaiea iaiauaao iiiaieaoiee iiuo niaaoi?ia,
niaoeeaeece?othueony ia enneaaeiaaiee aoiaieoa?iuo aii?inia i?eiaiaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee.

Ianiio?y ia eaaeouothny “ioaea/aiiinoue” oaiu enneaaeiaaiee, iia eiaao
ia?iiiia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiaiii aeey ?innee, aaea iacaaa?oaiiinoue
“eioi?iaoeeiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa” ana aieueoa aoiaeeo a i?ioeai?a/ea
n ao?iui ?inoii eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, n ?acaeoeai naoe Eioa?iao e
i?eeeaaeiuo aniaeoia aa eniieueciaaiey. Ia i/aiue iiiaea i?aeoe/aneea
aii?inu – ia iauaeoao “naoaaie nianoaaiiinoe”, i i?aaiaii noaoona
“aeaaeaeueoeaa” eioa?iao-naeoia e ?aciauaaiie ia ieo eioi?iaoeee, i
niioiioaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie naiaiaeu e eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe, –
/aoeeo e iaeiicia/iuo ioaaoia iiea aua iao ia oieueei a oaenoao
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, ii aeaaea e a iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
?aaioao ?inneeneeo aaoi?ia. A oi aea a?aiy iieo/eoue ei??aeoiua ?aoaiey
yoeo i?iaeai a?yae ee aiciiaeii aac aeoaieiai oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca
aii?inia eiinoeoooeeiiiiai, a?aaeaeaineiai, i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa, aac
ia?auaiey e enoi?ee aicieeiiaaiey i?aaiauo einoeoooia nianoaaiiinoe e
eioi?iaoeee, aac iniuneaiey ca?oaaaeiiai i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa
?aaoee?iaaiey.

Aaoi?u ia i?aaeeaaatho aioiauo e ieii/aoaeueiuo ?aoaiee, iie i?eaeaoatho
/eoaoaey caaeoiaoueny iaae iiiaianiaeoiinoueth e ianooaaiinoueth aii?ina
i?aaiaiai noaoona eioi?iaoeee eae oaeiaie.

ssaeyaony ee eioi?iaoeey iauaeoii i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe? Iiaeao ee iia
auoue iauaeoii i?ioeaii?aaiuo iinyaaoaeuenoa, a cia/eo, eoi e eae
aeieaeai inouanoaeyoue aa io?aio? Eai e ia eaeeo oneiaeyo aeieaeai
onoaiaaeeaaoueny ?aaeei aa nicaeaiey, ?ani?ino?aiaiey, eiie?iaaiey,
caueou? Iiaeao ee eioi?iaoeey ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iauaeo i?aaa aia
caaeneiinoe io iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey, aa niaea?aeauaai? Iiaeii ee
?anniao?eaaoue eioi?iaoeeth eae oiaa??

Iieo/aiea ioaaoia ia ana yoe aii?inu oaea nae/an iiiiaei au niyoue
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ai iiiaeo i?aeoe/aneeo neooaoeeyo, ano?a/athueony i?e
?aaioa n eioi?iaoeeiiiuie iauaeoaie. E oioy oaeea ioaaou iiae?acoiaaatho
oai?aoeei-i?aaiaia enneaaeiaaiea ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, aeey
/anoe ec iinoaaeaiiuo aii?inia iu iinoa?aeenue i?aaeeiaeeoue a ianoiyuae
eieaa iiaeoiaeu aeey iaoiaeaeaiey aa?iuo ?aoaiee.

*oiau iieacaoue ?aaeueiue iauai iiiyoey “nianoaaiiinoe” (eioi?ue, ii
oei?aieaoae a ?inneeneii i?aaa o?aaeeoeee, noaeaaony aei o?eaaeu
i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea), iai i?eoeinue ia?aoeoueny e enoi?ee iiiyoey e
aai oeeinioneei ei?iyi. I?eciaiea nouiinoiuo naycae iaaeaeo
eneeth/eoaeueiuie i?aaaie e i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe iicaieyao naeaeaoue
auaiae i i?aaiia?iinoe i?eiaiaiey einoeoooa nianoaaiiinoe (eiino?oeoeaii
ia?ainiuneaiiiai e iioiio eiathuaai iaei iauaai n cae?aieaiiui a
?inneeneii A?aaeaeaineii eiaeaena i?aaenoaaeaieai i i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
eae iaeiii ec “aauiuo i?aa”) e eioi?iaoeeiiiui iauaeoai. Iiiyoea i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe a aai eeanne/aneii aa?eaioa, ?ac?aaioaiiii aua a yiioo
?eineiai i?aaa, ana /aua noaiiaeony iaeii?eaiaeiui aeey iienaiey
i?ioeannia, ioiinyueony e eiouanoaaiiie noa?a eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa.
Eeanne/aneay oi?ioea “oiaa? – aeaiueae – oiaa?” iai?eiaieia aeey noa?u
iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae. Aoaeo/e ia?aaeaiiie eiio-eeai ia?aiia/aeueiui
iaeaaeaoaeai, eioi?iaoeey ia?anoaao inoaaaoueny ai “aeaaeaiee” iaeiiai
eeoea, aiciiaeiinoue aa eniieueciaaiey e aeaeueiaeoaai ?ani?ino?aiaiey
noaiiaeony aeinooiiie a i?eioeeia eaaeaeiio.

Eiuie neiaaie, “nianoaaiiinoue ia eioi?iaoeeth” a i?eioeeia aiciiaeia
(i?eia?ii /aio iiaeao neoaeeoue eiioeaioeey “eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe” ia ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe), ii iaaei
caaeoiaoueny iaae oai?aoe/anee aacoi?a/iui iiieiaieai yoiai aii?ina e
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aai io?aaeaiey a oaenoa iiauo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia.
?aoi?ie?iaaiea ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe eniieueciaaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue Eioa?iaoa, iiaeao
auoue yooaeoeaiui oieueei i?e oneiaee i?aaeeueiiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai
iiaeoiaea, eioi?ue aua i?aaenoieo au?aaioaoue e yenia?oiiio niiauanoao,
e caeiiiaeaoaeyi.

Eioi?iaoeey iiaeao eiaoue e eiiia?/aneoth oeaiiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iiaeao auoue aiaea/aia a oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey, ii ia eae oiaa?,
“aauue” a “o?aaeeoeeiiiii” iiieiaiee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eioi?iaoeey oaea
“i?iaeaaony”, ii iiae aa “i?iaeaaeae” iiieiaaony ia “eeanne/aneee”
eiouanoaaiiue aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee, a ieacaiea eaeeo-oi
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa, eee iaania/aiea aeinooia e ii?aaeaeaiiie aaca
aeaiiuo, eee (naiue i?inoie i?eia?) i?iaeaaea iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey,
niaea?aeauaai o?aaoaioth eioi?iaoeeth. Iaeeoei ?ac?ua iaaeaeo
oi?iaeueiie noi?iiie naeaeee e aa oaeoe/aneei niaea?aeaieai, i?e/ai a
oneiaeyo aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a th?eaee/aneii
oa?aeoa?a i?aaiioiioaiey.

Iiieii i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e eiuo noiaeiuo n iei “aauiuo” i?aa, i?aaiaay
aeieo?eia e caeiiiaeaoaeueiay i?aeoeea i?eiaiyao einoeooo
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia iaiaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou (aaoi?neia i?aai,
n?aaenoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea). Ii e caeanue
eciee?iaaiiia i?eiaiaiea a eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa
a?yae ee aiciiaeii e yaii iaoeaeaniia?acii. Oioy au iioiio, /oi io?aia
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia iaiaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo (eeoa?aoo?iia
i?iecaaaeaiea, oiaa?iue ciae eee ciae ianeoaeeaaiey) ia?aie/eaaaony
oi?iie iauaeoa, inoaaeyy aac aieiaiey niaea?aeaoaeueioth noi?iio.

Auoiae iiaeao caeeth/aoueny, n?aaee i?i/aai, a ?ac?aaioea oaeeo i?aaiauo
einoeoooia e iaoaieciia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue eae
i?aaeoanoaothuee iiuo eeanne/aneie oeeaeeenoeee, oae e niaoeeoeeo
?aaoee?oaiie noa?u, ai iiiaii ia eiathuoth aiaeiaia a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii
cae?aieaiee niioaaonoaothueo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

I?e yoii i?eoiaeeony o/eouaaoue e oio oaeo, /oi, oioy i?ioeannu
eioi?iaoecaoeee e iinyo aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa?, oaiiu e o?iaaiue, a oaeaea
eiioeaioeee eo ?acaeoey ?acee/athony io no?aiu e no?aia.

Aeaaea noiaeiua i?aaiaua aii?inu ?aaoee?othony ii-?aciiio a ?aieao
?acee/iuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaiauo nenoai. Nianoaaiii, eiaiii
iacaaeneiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaiauo nenoai noaiiaeony naaiaeiy eaiiai
i?aoeiiaaiey i?e ?aoaiee nii?iuo aii?inia a eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a. *ai
aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii ionoaeaathony iaoeeiiaeueiua i?ei?eoaou, oai
iaiueoae ieacuaaaony aa?iyoiinoue yooaeoeaiiai ?aaoeyoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia eioi?iaoeeiiiua ioiioaiey, eioi?ua i?inoi “oneieuecatho”
a neeo naiae o?aina?aie/iinoe. Caeanue iiaeii oeacaoue ia i?iaeaio
th?enaeeeoeee, eioi?ay, aii?aee iaeeaeaieyi, ia oa?yao naiae ino?iou.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaea naaiaeiy iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, /oi
ia?aua oaae ia iooe naeeaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i ?acee/iuo
ainoaea?noa oaea naeaeaiu. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iu eiaai a naiai
?anii?yaeaiee eae iieiaeeoaeueiue, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiue ca?oaaaeiue
iiuo ?aaoee?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?u. I?e yoii ?a/ue eaeao ia
oieueei i caeiiiaeaoaeueiie i?aeoeea ioaeaeueiuo “eioi?iaoeeiiii
?acaeouo” no?ai, ii e i neiaeeaoaeny i?aeoeea ?aaoee?iaaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia. Oaaaeeoaeueiue
i?eia? – eiieaiaioaoeey a iaoeeiiaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai aee?aeoea Aa?iiaeneiai Nithca. Ia neaaeoao oaeaea caauaaoue e ia
iaeeaeaiiuo oai?aoe/aneeo aeeneonneyo ca?oaaaeiuo eieeaa, oaaaeaeaiiuo a
oii, /oi i?aeoe/aneea i?aia?aciaaiey iaiuneeiu aac iao/iiai iniuneaiey
oao aii?inia, eioi?ua aicieeatho o i?aaiaaaeia aneaaenoaea ?acaeoey
iiaaeoeo oaoiieiaee. I?eoiaeeony eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi ?inneeneea
niaoeeaeenou a “eioi?iaoeeiiiii” i?aaa ii aieueoae /anoe eaii?e?otho
ca?oaaaeiue iiuo eee eniieuecotho aai eeoue a iacia/eoaeueiie noaiaie.

A nayce n oai /oi “auoea” eioi?iaoeee a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa – aa
nicaeaiea, ia?aaioea, ?ani?ino?aiaiea, eniieueciaaiea – oanii naycaii (a
aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie iaoneiaeaiii) n ooieoeeiie?iaaieai
Eioa?iaoa, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?aaei?eiyoiai iaie enneaaeiaaiey auea
iinayuaia “naoaaie” nianoaaiiinoe e aieaa iauei i?iaeaiai, ii?iaeaeaiiui
oeeo?iaie n?aaeie.

I?eia? naoe Eioa?iao iieacuaaao, /oi i?ioeann eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey /a?ac aeiaaeueiua naoe aiaiaoeeiiaeai e
“yenoa??eoi?eaeai” ii naiae nooe. Ieeiaaea ia nouanoaiaaei
ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?aieoe, iai?eia?, aeey iaiaia ?acoeueoaoaie iao/iiai e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa (eneonnoaaiii nicaeaaaaoeany i?aiyonoaey ia
ainoaea?noaaiiii o?iaia aeaaii aeieacaee naith aanniuneaiiinoue a yiioo
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee). Nae/an aeinooi e n?aaenoaai iiaeiaiiai
aeiaaeueiiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaiaia aiciiaeai i?aeoe/anee aeey
eaaeaeiai, aia caaeneiinoe io aai iaoeeiiaeueiinoe e oece/aneiai
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, oaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy niauoey a
naoaaii eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?ino?ainoaa i?ienoiaeyo iaeiia?aiaiii
“iianthaeo”. Eioi?iaoeeth iaaiciiaeii “caia?aoue” a iaoeeiiaeueiuo
a?aieoeao, a eniieueciaaiea eioa?iao-oaoiieiaee iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoue
iaiai eioi?iaoeeae a e?ao/aeoaa a?aiy e iacaaeneii io aaia?aoe/aneeo
?annoiyiee. Iiyoiio i/aiue iiiaea ii?iu e i?aaeea, ?aaeaiaioe?othuea
ia?aie/eoaeueiue ii?yaeie eniieueciaaiey oie eee eiie eioi?iaoeee
(iai?eia?, caueuathuea eiioeaeaioeeaeueiua naaaeaiey eee io?aiythuea
aaoi?neea i?aaa), a oneiaeyo Eioa?iaoa i?inoi oa?ytho niune. Ia iioiio,
/oi iie ia?anoatho aeaenoaiaaoue eee iaaiciiaeii i?eioaeeoue e eo
niaethaeaieth iaoiaeaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey, a iioiio, /oi
cao?aou ia oaeie eiio?ieue e oaeia i?eioaeaeaiea iiaoo auoue i?inoi
ianiecia?eiu n ianooaaii oao oeaeae (aiieia ?yaeiauo, iauaeaiiuo ia
o?iaia auoiaiai aini?eyoey), eioi?ua iiaoo auoue aeinoeaioou.

Aea, iaeioi?ua ainoaea?noaa aaaee ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?aie/aiey ia ii?yaeie
aeinooia e ?aaiou a naoe. Iiiaea ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa oioaee au
naeaeaoue ia/oi iiaeiaiia. Ii oi, /oi aiciiaeii a no?aiao n ianaeaieai a
iaeei-aeaa ieeeeiia /aeiaae eee a no?aiao, aaea /enei iiaeeeth/aiiuo e
naoe oceia ia i?aauoaao (iiea) ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia eee nioai, a?yae ee
aeinoeaeeii a eiuo, aieaa “i?iaeaeioouo” a yeiiiie/aneii e
“eioi?iaoeeiiiii” ioiioaiee ainoaea?noaao. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oioaeueiue
eiio?ieue ca i?ienoiaeyuei a Naoe oioy a i?eioeeia e aiciiaeai, ii
i?aeoe/anee eneeth/ai a neeo oaoiieiae/aneeo e oeiainiauo ia?aie/aiee.

Iu aiiaue i?eoiaeei e auaiaeo, /oi i?aaiaua iaoaieciu (iaania/aiiua
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?eioaeaeaieai) a oneiaeyo eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa
i?ae?auatho auoue i?aeiouanoaaiiie oi?iie ?aaoeyoeee nioeeaeueiuo
i?ioeannia. E oiio aea niaa?oaiii iao iaaeiaiinoe, /oiau i?aaiaia
?aaoee?iaaiea “aiaoeaaeinue” a oa iaeanoe aeecie eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iauanoaa, aaea aai i?eiaiaiea auei au iaeiyooaeoeaiui. A
i?aaeoanoaothueo ?acaeaeao eieae iu niaoeeaeueii ia?auaee aieiaiea
/eoaoaey ia oio oaeo, /oi aanueia cia/eoaeueiua naaiaiou “naoaaiai
i?ino?ainoaa” oae eee eia/a oii?yaei/aiu, a oii /enea e ia iniiaaiee
ii?i iai?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a. Iaie auea ioia/aia ii?aaeaeythuay ?ieue,
i?eiaaeeaaeauay a yoii “i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneei” ii?iai e i?aaeeai.
Iiieii yoiai, iinoiyiii ?anoe?ythuaany eioa?iao-niiauanoai au?aaioaei
naie nianoaaiiua “nioeeaeueii-yoie/aneea” i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey a Naoe.
Niaoeeoeea nicaeaiey e i?eiaiaiey oaeeo ii?i eiaao aieueoia
aeenoeeieeie?othuaa, i?aaiecothuaa aicaeaenoaea. Aaniethoiia
aieueoeinoai iieueciaaoaeae naoe neaaeoao ei aac eaeiai-eeai aeanoiiai
aicaeaenoaey ni noi?iiu oiieiiii/aiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo?.

I/aaeaeii, /oi neeaaeuaathueany a ?acoeueoaoa naii?aaoee?iaaiey
“eioi?iaoeeiiiuo niiauanoa” ii?iu e i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey iiaeii
e?eoeeiaaoue eee ?anoaaeeaaoue, ooi/iyoue eee iaiauaoue, iaeiiaoe,
iiaeii i?eaeaoue ei th?eaee/aneoth neeo (iai?eia?, a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea
i?aaiaiai iau/ay i?e ?anniio?aiee nii?iuo neooaoeee), ii auei au
aano?aeii noa?aoueny eo ia ainoaea?noaaiiii o?iaia “ioiaiyoue” eee
caiaiyoue eiuie, ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiuie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie. Oae eae
aeey i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoae oa?aeoa?enoee yaeyaony
yooaeoeaiinoue aicaeaenoaey ia ?aaoee?oaiua iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey,
neaaeoao i?aaeaeueii aieiaoaeueii e iniio?eoaeueii ioeaieaaoue a
eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiaiaiey th?eaee/aneeo
iaoaieciia oi?aaeaiey.

Auoaneacaiiia, eiia/ii, ia icia/aao, /oi ?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iauanoaa “ii ii?aaeaeaieth” ia ioaeaeaaony a i?aaiaii iaania/aiee
oa?aeoa?iuo aeey iaai iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee eeai /oi oaeia
?aaoee?iaaiea aoaeao iniiaaii eneeth/eoaeueii ia iaeeo aeinaea
iaecaanoiuo i?aaiauo i?eioeeiao. Iiiaiia?acea e ?acii?iaeiinoue
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo noauaeoaie, aiaea/aiiuie a oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, aeeeooao iiiaeanoaaiiinoue iiaeoiaeia e
nicaeaieth oao eee eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo iaoaieciia ?aaoee?iaaiey. Iaeioi?ua
i?aaiaua einoeooou e iaoiaeu aeieaeiu auoue aaeaioe?iaaiu e niaoeeoeea
?aaoee?oaiuo ioiioaiee. Iaeioi?ua i?aaiaua yaeaiey, aeaenoaeoaeueii,
oieueei iaicia/athony (iai?eia?, iaeiicia/ii i?ineaaeeaaaony oaeia
iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee a eioi?iaoeeiiiie
noa?a, eae no?aieaiea e “aeiaaeecaoeee”, eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee i?ioeanna
nicaeaiey i?eiaieiiai ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey). Ii e o?aaeeoeeiiiua
i?aaiaua einoeooou, oaeea eae “i?aai nianoaaiiinoe”, ia iioa?ytho naiaai
cia/aiey a oii?yaei/aiee oao eee eiuo i?ioeannia ?acaeoey
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa. Ae?oaia aeaei, /oi i?eiaiyoueny iie aoaeoo
ca/anooth e niaa?oaiii iiaui aeaeai i?aaiioiioaiee, e yoi, aaconeiaii,
aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny iaeioi?ie caaea?aeeie a “inaiaiee”
niioaaonoaothuae th?eaee/aneie oaoieee e eiie?aoiuo iaoaieciia
i?aaii?eiaiaiey. A oi aea a?aiy ioiaoei, /oi noaeaaiay i?aeoeea,
“cae?uaay aeaca” ia oai?aoe/aneea iaaei?acoiaiey, ni?aaeyaony n
aicieeathueie i?iaeaiaie ia?aaeei oniaoiaa, /ai caeiiiaeaoaee, e
aeaaiia, a aieaa e?aoeea n?iee. Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea ?anniio?aiey a
aia?eeaineeo noaeao aeae i caueoa oiaa?iuo ciaeia ia aeiiaiiua eiaia,
iinea ia?aiai aea ?anniio?aiiiai nii?a e nicaeaiiiai i?aoeaaeaioa aeaea
ii niaoeeoe/aneei i?iaeaiai, naycaiiui n eioi?iaoeeiiiuie ioiioaieyie,
ec “yecioe/aneeo” n?aco aea noaiiayony aeey noaeia iauaeaiiuie, e e oiio
aea ia naiuie neiaeiuie aeey ?ac?aoaiey.

Aaoi?u ioaeatho naaa io/ao a i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii oa?aeoa?a auneacaiiuo
caia/aiee e i?aaeeiaeaiee. I/aaeaeii eeoue oi, ianeieueei aeooaeueiie
yaeyaony ouaoaeueiay i?i?aaioea th?eaee/aneeo aniaeoia “eioi?iaoecaoeee”
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, a oaeaea ianeieueei na?ueacii “eioi?iaoeeiiiay
?aaiethoeey” niiniaia iiaeeyoue e ia ?acaeoea iaoaieciia eo
?aaoee?iaaiey.

I?eeiaeaiea

Caeii NOA “I naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee”*(170)

Oeooe 5. Naiae caeiiia NOA, § 552

552. Eioi?iaoeey, iiaeeaaeauay iaeanea; ecaeaaaaiua oaaea?aeueiuie
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie ii?iaoeaiua aeou, i?aaeea,
caeeth/aiey, i?eeacu, aeou, i?ioieieu

(a) Eaaeaeia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiia o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii aeaeaoue
iauaaeinooiiie neaaeothuoth eioi?iaoeeth:

(1) Eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii noi?ioee?iaaoue e ?aaoey?ii
ioaeeeiaaoue a Oaaea?aeueiii ?aaeno?a aeey naaaeaiey iauanoaaiiinoe:

(A) iienaiea no?oeoo?u naiaai aieiaiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee,
a oaeaea onoaiiaeaiiua ianoa, a eioi?uo ianaeaiea iiaeao iieo/eoue io
neoaeaueo (eee nio?oaeieeia, anee ?a/ue eaeao i niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie
neoaeaa) iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth, naeaeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiey eee
cai?inu eee iieo/eoue ?aoaiey;

(A) eceiaeaiea iaueo ii?yaeeia e iaoiaeia, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo
?ani?aaeaeythony e ii?aaeaeythony eo ooieoeee, aeeth/ay nooue e
o?aaiaaiey anao nouanoaothueo oi?iaeueiuo e iaoi?iaeueiuo i?ioeaaeo?;

(A) i?ioeannoaeueiua ii?iu, iienaiey nouanoaothueo oi?i eee naaaeaiey i
ianoao, a eioi?uo oaeea oi?iu iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu, a oaeaea oeacaiey ii
iauaio e niaea?aeaieth anao aeieoiaioia, io/aoia eee caeeth/aiee;

(A) iniiaiua iauai?eiaieiua ii?iu, onoaiiaeaiiua a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, a oaeaea cayaeaiey iauaiieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a eee
iauai?eiaieiua oieeiaaiey, ?ac?aaioaiiua e i?eiyoua aeaiiui
o/?aaeaeaieai, e

(Ae) ethaua aeieoiaiou, aiinyuea eciaiaiey, iii?aaee, eeai ioiaiythuea
/oi-eeai ec auoaia?a/eneaiiiai. Ie i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iaeuecy
o?aaiaaoue io eaeiai au oi ie auei eeoea nnueaoueny ia, ?aaii eae e
eniieueciaaoue i?ioea oaeiai eeoea, eaeea-eeai aeieoiaiou, iiaeeaaeauea
iioaeeeiaaieth a Oaaea?aeueiii ?aaeno?a, ii ia iioaeeeiaaiiua oaeei
ia?acii, ca eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea oaeia eeoei auei
iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii e naiaa?aiaiii i?ieioi?ie?iaaii ia oneiaeyo,
eceiaeaiiuo a oaeii aeieoiaioa. A ianoiyuai ia?aa?aoa iiae iaaeeaaeauae
aeinooiiinoueth iaoa?eaea ii?aaeaeaiiiio eeanno eeoe, eioa?anu eioi?uo
ii cao?aaeaaao, iiae?acoiaaaaony aai ioaeeeaoeey a Oaaea?aeueiii
?aaeno?a, iiieiaaiay eae eiei?ii?aoeey iooai ionueee, ooaa?aeaeaiiay
Aee?aeoi?ii Oaaea?aeueiiai ?aaeno?a.

(2) Eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea, a niioaaonoaee n iioaeeeiaaiiuie i?aaeeaie,
iaycaii i?aaenoaaeoue aeey iciaeiieaiey e eiie?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
iauanoaaiiinoe:

(A) ieii/aoaeueiua ?aoaiey, aeeth/ay niaeaniua e iniaua iiaiey, a oaeaea
i?eeacu, ecaeaaaaiua ii ?anniao?eaaaiui aeaeai;

(A) iieeoe/aneea cayaeaiey e oieeiaaiey, i?eiyoua o/?aaeaeaieai, ii ia
iioaeeeiaaiiua a Oaaea?aeueiii ?aaeno?a;

(A) aaeieieno?aoeaiua ?oeiaiaenoaa e eino?oeoeee aeey ia?niiaea,
cao?aaeaathuea eioa?anu /eaiia iauanoaa;

(A) eiiee anao aeieoiaioia, iacaaeneii io eo oi?iu eee oi?iaoa, eioi?ua
auee auaeaiu ethaiio eeoeo a niioaaonoaee n ia?aa?aoii (3) e eioi?ua, ii
i?e/eia oa?aeoa?a eo niaea?aeaiey, o/?aaeaeaiea ii?aaeaeyao eae oaeea,
eioi?ua noaee eee iiaoo noaoue i?aaeiaoii iineaaeothueo cai?inia a
nouiinoe oao aea aeieoiaioia, e

(Ae) iauee ia?a/aiue aeieoiaioia, ia eioi?ua nnueaaony iiaeia?aa?ao (A);
ca eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea oaeea iaoa?eaeu iaiaaeeaiii
ioaeeeothony e iinooiatho a i?iaeaaeo. Aeey aeieoiaioia, eioi?ua auee
nicaeaiu, ia/eiay n 1 iiya?y 1996 a., a oa/aiea iaeiiai aiaea iinea
oeacaiiie aeaou, eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii naeaeaoue oaeea aeaiiua
aeinooiiuie, a oii /enea iin?aaenoaii eiiiuethoa?iuo oaeaeiiioieeaoeee
eee, anee n?aaenoaa eiiiuethoa?iuo oaeaeiiioieeaoeee a o/?aaeaeaiee ia
auee onoaiiaeaiu, iin?aaenoaii ae?oaeo yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa.
O/?aaeaeaiea ai?aaa ia oeacuaaoue eaeaioeoeoee?othuea naaaeaiey i?e
i?aaeinoaaeaiee eee iioaeeeiaaiee ?aoaiey, iieeoe/aneiai cayaeaiey,
oieeiaaiey, ?oeiaiaenoaa aeey ia?niiaea, eino?oeoeee eee eiiee aeaiiuo,
ia eioi?ua nnueaaony iiaeia?aa?ao (A), ianeieueei yoi iiaeao ieacaoueny
iaiaoiaeeiui aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey iaiainiiaaiiiai ia?ooaiey
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe ee/iie aeecie. Iaeiaei a eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii neo/aa
o?aaoaony i?aaenoaaeoue iiae?iaiia iauyniaiea oaeiai ecuyoey a
ienueiaiiii aeaea, iauai aea oaeiai ecuyoey aeieaeai auoue oeacai a oie
/anoe aeaiiuo, eioi?ay noaea aeinooiiie eee iioaeeeiaaia, ca
eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea aeaiiia ecuyoea iiaei au iaianoe a?aae
eioa?anai, aeey eioi?uo onoaiiaeaia caueoa a iiae?acaeaea (a), a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui yoi ecuyoea auei naeaeaii. Eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea
oaeaea iaycaii aanoe e i?aaenoaaeyoue aeey iciaeiieaiey e eiie?iaaiey
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iauanoaaiiinoe oaeouea eaoaeiae, niaea?aeauea
eioi?iaoeeth, niaeanii eioi?ie iauanoaaiiinoue iiaeao
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue ethaie aeieoiaio, ecaeaiiue, i?eiyoue eee
iaia?iaeiaaiiue iinea 4 ethey 1967 a. e iiaeeaaeauee i?aaeinoaaeaieth
eee iioaeeeiaaieth a niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieyie ianoiyuaai ia?aa?aoa.
Eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii iacaiaaeeeoaeueii ioaeeeiaaoue, ia ?aaea
iaeiiai ?aca a eaa?oae, e ?ani?ino?aiyoue (iooai i?iaeaaee eee eiui
niiniaii) yecaiiey?u eaaeaeiai eaoaeiaa eee i?eeiaeaiee e iaio, ca
eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea iii ii?aaeaeyao i?eeacii, ioaeeeoaiui a
Oaaea?aeueiii ?aaeno?a, oaeoth ioaeeeaoeeth eae iaioaeioth e
iaoeaeaniia?acioth, i?e/ai a yoii neo/aa o/?aaeaeaiea oai ia iaiaa
iaycaii i?aaeinoaaeyoue yecaiiey?u oaeiai ia?a/iy ii cai?ino e ii oeaia,
ia i?aauoathuae iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo cao?ao ia oe?aaee?iaaiea. E 31
aeaeaa?y 1999 a. eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii i?aaeinoaaeoue e
eaoaeiao, ia eioi?ue nnueaaony iiaeia?aa?ao (Ae), aeinooi iin?aaenoaii
eiiiuethoa?iuo oaeaeiiioieeaoeee. O/?aaeaeaiea iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue
ieii/aoaeueiua i?eeacu, ?aoaiey, iieeoe/aneea cayaeaiey, oieeiaaiey,
?oeiaiaenoaa eee eino?oeoeee aeey ia?niiaea, cao?aaeaathuea eioa?anu
/eaiia iauanoaa, a ea/anoaa iainiiaaiey, eniieueciaaoue eo eee
nnueaoueny ia ieo a ea/anoaa i?aoeaaeaioa i?e aeaenoaeyo i?ioea o?aoueae
noi?iiu, oieueei anee:

(i) iie auee aeeth/aiu a eaoaeia e eeai i?aaeinoaaeaiu, eeai
iioaeeeiaaiu, eae i?aaeoniio?aii ianoiyuei ia?aa?aoii; eeai

(ii) oaeay o?aouey noi?iia auea iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii e naiaa?aiaiii
i?ieioi?ie?iaaia ia oneiaeyo, eceiaeaiiuo a oaeeo aeieoiaioao.

(3) (A) A ioiioaiee ethauo aeieoiaioia, ca eneeth/aieai i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo
a niioaaonoaee n ia?aa?aoaie (1) e (2) ianoiyuaai iiae?acaeaea, eaaeaeia
o/?aaeaeaiea, ii ethaiio cai?ino ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo
aeieoiaioia, eioi?ue (i) a aeinoaoi/iie ia?a ii?aaeaeyao oaeea
aeieoiaiou e ninoaaeai a niioaaonoaee n iioaeeeiaaiiuie i?aaeeaie,
ii?aaeaeythueie a?aiy, ianoi, nai?u (anee oaeiaua i?aaeoniio?aiu) e
iiaeeaaeauea auiieiaieth i?ioeaaeo?u, iaycaii iacaiaaeeeoaeueii
i?aaeinoaaeoue oaeea ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou ethaiio eeoeo.

(A) Iaania/eaay a niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei ia?aa?aoii eaeiio-eeai eeoeo
aeinooi e aeieoiaioo, o/?aaeaeaiea i?aaeinoaaeyao yoio aeieoiaio ii
cai?ino oaeiai eeoea a ethaie oi?ia eee oi?iaoa, i?e oneiaee, /oi
o/?aaeaeaiea iiaeao aac o?oaea aini?iecaanoe aeieoiaio a oaeie oi?ia eee
oi?iaoa. Eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii i?eeiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiua oneeey
aeey oiai, /oiau nio?aiyoue naie aeieoiaiou a oi?iao eee oi?iaoao,
eioi?ua iicaieytho eo aini?iecaiaeeoue aeey oeaeae ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea.

(A) A niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei ia?aa?aoii i?e ioaaoa ia cai?in
aeieoiaioia o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii i?eeiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiua oneeey aeey
iienea cai?aoeaaaiuo aeieoiaioia a yeaeo?iiiie oi?ia eee oi?iaoa, ca
eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea oaeea oneeey iiaee au iaianoe oua?a
ooieoeeiie?iaaieth aaoiiaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu o/?aaeaeaiey.

(A) A oeaeyo ianoiyuaai ia?aa?aoa oa?iei “iiene” icia/aao i?iniio?,
a?o/ioth eee aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie, aeieoiaioia o/?aaeaeaiey
aeey oeaeae ii?aaeaeaiey ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey oao aeieoiaioia, eioi?ua
ioaa/atho cai?ino.

(4) (A) (i) A oeaeyo auiieiaiey iieiaeaiee ianoiyuae noaouee, a ioaao ia
ecaauaiea e iieo/aiea e?eoeee e caia/aiee io iauanoaaiiinoe, eaaeaeia
o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii iaia?iaeiaaoue iinoaiiaeaiey, onoaiaaeeaathuea
i?aeneo?aiou nai?ia ca ia?aaioeo cai?inia, niaeanii ianoiyuaio ?acaeaeo,
e onoaiaaeeaathuea i?ioeaaeo?u e oeacaiey ii ii?aaeaeaieth neo/aaa
nieaeaiey noii nai?ia eee inaiaiaeaeaiey io eo oieaou. Oaeie i?aeneo?aio
aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue oeacaieyi, eioi?ua iiaeeaaeao ecaeaieth, iinea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ecaeaiey niioaaonoaothuaai oaaaeiieaiey e iieo/aiey
e?eoeee e caia/aiee io iauanoaaiiinoe, Aee?aeoi?ii neoaeau oi?aaeaiey e
athaeaeaoa, e eioi?ua aeieaeiu niaea?aeaoue i?aeneo?aio oeai, aaeeiue
aeey anao o/?aaeaeaiee.

(ii) Oaeea iinoaiiaeaiey, ecaeaaaaiua o/?aaeaeaieyie, aeieaeiu
i?aaeoniao?eaaoue, /oi:

(I) nai?u aeieaeiu auoue ia?aie/aiu iainiiaaiiuie noaiaea?oiuie
?anoeaieaie ia iiene, oe?aaee?iaaiea e aiaeec aeieoiaioia, anee
cai?aoeaaaiua ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou aoaeoo eniieueciaaoueny a
eiiia?/aneeo oeaeyo;

(II) nai?u aeieaeiu auoue ia?aie/aiu iainiiaaiiuie noaiaea?oiuie
?anoeaieaie ia oe?aaee?iaaiea aeieoiaioia, anee cai?aoeaaaiua
ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou ia i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey eniieueciaaiey a
eiiia?/aneeo oeaeyo e anee cai?in naeaeai ia?aciaaoaeueiui o/?aaeaeaieai
eee iaeiiia?/aneie iao/iie i?aaiecaoeeae a oeaeyo aeaaeaie/aneiai eee
iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey eee i?aaenoaaeoaeai n?aaenoaa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, niaoeeaeece?othuaainy ia inaauaiee iiainoae; e

(III) ii ethaiio cai?ino, ia ii?aaeaeaiiiio a (I) eee (II), nai?u
aeieaeiu auoue ia?aie/aiu iainiiaaiiuie noaiaea?oiuie ?anoeaieaie ia
iiene e oe?aaee?iaaiea aeieoiaioia.

(iii) Aeieoiaiou aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiu aac aceiaiey eaeie-eeai
ieaou eeai ca ieaoo a ?acia?a ieaea nai?ia, ii?aaeaeaiiuo a ioieoa (ii),
anee i?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee neoaeeo eioa?anai iauanoaa, iineieueeo
iia iiaeao aianoe cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a iiieiaiea iauanoaaiiinoueth
aeaenoaee eee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa, e ia neoaeeo a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue eiiia?/aneei eioa?anai cai?aoeaathuaai.

(iv) I?aeneo?aiou oeai aeieaeiu i?aaeoniao?eaaoue eneeth/eoaeueii
aiciauaiea i?yiuo cao?ao ia iiene, oe?aaee?iaaiea e aiaeec. Cao?aou ia
aiaeec iiaoo aeeth/aoue a naay oieueei cao?aou, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
naycaiiua n ia?ae/iui ianeaaeiaaieai aeieoiaioa ia i?aaeiao
ii?aaeaeaiey, iiaeeaaeao ee aeieoiaiou iaeanea niaeanii iieiaeaieyi
ianoiyuae noaouee, a oaeaea ia i?aaeiao nie?uoey ethauo io?uaeia, ia
iiaeeaaeaueo iaeanea niaeanii iieiaeaieyi ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea. Cao?aou
ia aiaeec ia iiaoo aeeth/aoue a naay eaeea au oi ie auei ?anoiaeu,
iiianaiiua a nayce n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?aoaiey eaeeo-eeai th?eaee/aneeo
eee iieeoe/aneeo aii?inia, eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeiooue a i?ioeanna
ia?aaioee cai?ina, niaeanii iieiaeaieyi ianoiyuae noaouee. Niaeanii
iieiaeaieyi ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea ie iaeii o/?aaeaeaiea ia ai?aaa aceiaoue
nai?u:

(I) anee cao?aou ia acuneaiea e ia?aaioeo a ?aai/ai ii?yaeea oaeiai
nai?a i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii iiaoo auoue ?aaiu noiia naiiai nai?a eee
i?aauneoue aa eee

(II) i?e ia?aaioea ethaiai cai?ina, iienaiiiai a ioieoao (ii)(II) eee
(III) aeaiiiai iiaeia?aa?aoa, ca ia?aua aeaa /ana iienea eee ca ia?aua
noi no?aieoe oe?aaee?iaaiey.

(v) Ie iaeii o/?aaeaeaiea ia ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaou
eaeiai au oi ie auei nai?a, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, eiaaea ?aiaa oaea
eiaeenue neo/ae ianaiaa?aiaiiie iieaou nai?ia aeaiiui cai?aoeaathuei eee
anee nai?, ii ii?aaeaeaieth o/?aaeaeaiey, i?aauneo $ 250.

(vi) Ieeaeea iieiaeaiey aeaiiiai ia?aa?aoa ia eiatho i?ei?eoaoa iaae
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie, eiie?aoii onoaiaaeeaathueie o?iaaiue nai?ia
ca ioaeaeueiua oeiu ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia.

(vii) A neo/aa, anee cai?aoeaathuee i?aaei?eieiaao eaeea au oi ie auei
th?eaee/aneea aeaenoaey a ioiioaiee inaiaiaeaeaiey io oieaou nai?ia,
niaeanii iieiaeaieyi ianoiyuae noaouee, noae iaycai ?anniio?aoue aeaei
de novo, i?e/ai iauai ?anniio?aiey aeaea noaeii aoaeao ia?aie/ai
aeieoiaioii, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai o/?aaeaeaiea aeieaeii i?eiyoue
?aoaiea.

(A) A neo/aa iiaea/e aeaeiau ie?oaeiie noae Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia,
?aniieiaeaiiue a oii ie?oaa, aaea enoaoe i?iaeeaaao, eee aaea
?aniieiaeaii ianoi aai iniiaiie ?aaiou, eee a eioi?ii iaoiaeyony
aeieoiaiou o/?aaeaeaiey, eee a ie?oaa Eieoiaey, eiiiaoaioai cai?aoeoue
o/?aaeaeaieth nie?uoea aeieoiaioia o/?aaeaeaiey e ioaeaoue i?eeac i
auaea/a ethauo aeieoiaioia o/?aaeaeaiey, a eioi?uo enooeo auei
iai?aaiia?ii ioeacaii. A oaeii neo/aa noae iaycai ?anniio?aoue aeaei de
novo e eiaao i?aai eco/eoue niaea?aeaiea oaeeo aeieoiaioia o/?aaeaeaiey
ia cae?uoii canaaeaiee n oeaeueth auyniaiey, aeieaeiu ee oaeea
aeieoiaiou eee eo ioaeaeueiua /anoe auoue ooaaiu a niioaaonoaee n
eaeeie-eeai ec inaiaiaeaeaiee, onoaiiaeaiiuo a iiae?acaeaea (a)
ianoiyuae noaouee, a o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii iiae/eieoueny aai ?aoaieth. A
aeiiieiaiea e ethaiio ae?oaiio aii?ino, eioi?ue noae ni/oao
nouanoaaiiui, noae iaycai n/eoaoue nouanoaaiiui aooeaeaaeo*(171)
o/?aaeaeaiey, eanathueeny oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey o/?aaeaeaiey ia
i?aaeiao oaoie/aneie auiieieiinoe o?aaiaaiee ia?aa?aoa (2) (A),
iiae?acaeaea (a), a oaeaea o?aaiaaiee ia?aa?aoa (3) (A), naycaiiuo n
aini?iecaiaeeiinoueth.

(A) Iacaaeneii io ethauo ae?oaeo iieiaeaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ioaao/ee
iaycai i?aaenoaaeoue aic?aaeaiey eee eiui ia?acii ii?ioanoiaaoue ethaoth
aeaeiao, iiaeaiioth a niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieyie ianoiyuaai
iiae?acaeaea, a oa/aiea o?eaeoeaoe aeiae n iiiaioa a?o/aiey ioaao/eeo
ninoycaoaeueiie aoiaae, a eioi?ie eceiaeaia oaeay aeaeiaa, ca
eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea noae, i?e iaee/ee aeinoaoi/iuo
iniiaaiee, oeaaeao ae?oaea n?iee.

(A) Ioiaiai.

(Ae) Noae ai?aaa iaycaoue Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou iieaoeoue niioaaonoaothuea
aiii?a?u iiaa?aiiuo e ae?oaea noaeaaiua ecaea?aeee, iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii
iiianaiiua ii ethaiio aeaeo a niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieyie ianoiyuae
noaouee, eioi?ia enoaoe auea?ae ii nouanoao.

(A) Ai anao neo/ayo, eiaaea noae ecaeaao i?eeac i i?aaeinoaaeaiee eaeeo
au oi ie auei ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia o/?aaeaeaiey, a i?aaeinoaaeaiee
eioi?uo enooeo auei iai?aaiia?ii ioeacaii, e iaycuaaao Niaaeeiaiiua
Ooaou iieaoeoue niioaaonoaothuea aiii?a?u iiaa?aiiuo e ae?oaea noaeaaiua
ecaea?aeee e eiaaea noae aeiiieieoaeueii ecaeaao ienueiaiiia caeeth/aiea
i oii, /oi ianoiyoaeuenoaa nie?uoey eioi?iaoeee iiaeieiatho aii?inu
ioiineoaeueii oiai, yaeyeenue ee aeaenoaey ia?niiaea ii nie?uoeth
eioi?iaoeee ?acoeueoaoii ee/iiai eai?eca eee i?iecaiea, Niaoeeaeueiue
Niaao iaycai iaiaaeeaiii ia/aoue i?iecaiaenoai n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey,
ii?aaaeaiii ee i?eiaiaiea aeenoeeieeia?iuo ia? e neoaeauaio eee
nio?oaeieeo, ianouaio iaiin?aaenoaaiioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nie?uoea
eioi?iaoeee. Niaoeeaeueiue Niaao iinea ?anneaaeiaaiey e ?anniio?aiey
anao i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa i?aaenoaaeyao naie caeeth/aiey e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioaaonoaaiiiio aaeieieno?aoi?o niioaaonoaothuaai
o/?aaeaeaiey, a eiiee caeeth/aiee e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iai?aaeyao neoaeauaio
eee nio?oaeieeo eeai aai i?aaenoaaeoaeth. Ioaaonoaaiiue aaeieieno?aoi?
iaycai i?eiyoue eni?aaeoaeueiua ia?u, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiua Niaoeeaeueiui
Niaaoii.

(AE) A neo/aa iaiiae/eiaiey noaeaaiiio i?eeaco ie?oaeiie noae ai?aaa
iaeacaoue aeiiaiiai nio?oaeieea eee neoaeauaai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee ca iaeniieiaiea noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey.

(5) Eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea eiathuaa aieaa iaeiiai neoaeauaai, iaycaii
aanoe e i?aaenoaaeyoue aeey eco/aiey iauanoaaiiinoueth caiene ii
ieii/aoaeueiie iiceoeee, caiyoie eaaeaeui neoaeauei a eaaeaeii aeaea,
?anniao?eaaaiii o/?aaeaeaieai.

(6) (A) Eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea ii ethaiio cai?ino ia ioeoeeaeueiua
aeieoiaiou a niioaaonoaee n ia?aa?aoaie (1), (2) eee (3) ianoiyuaai
iiae?acaeaea iaycaii

(i) a oa/aiea aeaaaeoeaoe aeiae (ca eneeth/aieai noaaio, aine?anaiee e
ioeoeeaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?acaeieeia) iinea iieo/aiey oaeiai
cai?ina ii?aaeaeeoue, aoaeao ee ii oaeiaeaoai?ai, e iacaiaaeeeoaeueii
oaaaeiieoue iiaeaoaey oaeiai cai?ina i i?eiyoii ?aoaiee e i?e/eiao aai
i?eiyoey, a oaeaea i i?aaa oaeiai eeoea iiaeaoue aeaeiao ?oeiaiaeeoaeth
o/?aaeaeaiey a neo/aa i?eiyoey iaaaoeaiiai ?aoaiey e

(ii) a oa/aiea aeaaaeoeaoe aeiae (ca eneeth/aieai noaaio, aine?anaiee e
ioeoeeaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?acaeieeia) iinea iieo/aiey oaeie
aeaeiau i?eiyoue ?aoaiea ii iae. Anee i?e ?anniio?aiee aeaeiau ioeac a
oaeiaeaoai?aiee cai?ina aoaeao iiaeoaa?aeaeai iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii,
o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii oaaaeiieoue iiaeaoaey oaeiai cai?ina ia oneiaeyo
noaeaaiiai ia?aniio?a oaeiai ?aoaiey a niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieyie
ia?aa?aoa (4) ianoiyuaai iiae?acaeaea.

(A) (i) A eneeth/eoaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, iienaiiuo a ianoiyuai
iiaeia?aa?aoa, i?aaeienuaaaiua eeai ioieoii (i), eeai ioieoii (ii)
iiaeia?aa?aoa (A) n?iee iiaoo auoue i?iaeeaiu iooai iai?aaeaiey
ienueiaiiiai oaaaeiieaiey iiaeaoaeth oaeiai cai?ina, n oeacaieai i?e/ei
i?iaeeaiey e i?aaeiieaaaaiie aeaou auaea/e caeeth/aiey. Ieeaeia
oaaaeiieaiea oaeiai ?iaea ia iiaeao oeacuaaoue ia aeaoo, eioi?ay
onoaiaaeeaaea au n?ie i?iaeeaiey aieaa aeanyoe ?aai/eo aeiae, ca
eneeth/aieai onoaiiaeaiiiai a ioieoa (ii) ianoiyuaai ia?aa?aoa.

(ii) *oi eanaaony cai?ina, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai ienueiaiiia
oaaaeiieaiea, niaeanii ioieoo (i), i?iaeeyao n?iee, onoaiiaeaiiua
ioieoii (i) iiaeia?aa?aoa (A), o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii oaaaeiieoue
iiaeaoaey oaeiai cai?ina i oii, /oi aai cai?in ia iiaeao auoue ia?aaioai
a oa/aiea n?iea, onoaiiaeaiiiai a aeaiiii ioieoa, e aeieaeii
i?aaeinoaaeoue yoiio eeoeo aiciiaeiinoue ia?aie/eoue ?aiee cai?ina oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau ii iia auoue ia?aaioai a i?aaeaeao yoiai n?iea, eee
aiciiaeiinoue niaeaniaaoue n o/?aaeaeaieai eiua n?iee ia?aaioee cai?ina
eee eciaiaiiue cai?in. Ioeac eeoea a ?acoiiuo i?aaeaeao eciaieoue cai?in
eee niaeaniaaoue oaeea eiua n?iee aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoueny eae oneiaea,
ii?aaeaeythuaa, nouanoaotho ee eneeth/eoaeueiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeey
oeaeae, onoaiiaeaiiuo a iiaeia?aa?aoa (A).

(iii) A oii niunea, a eioi?ii oa?iei “eneeth/eoaeueiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa”
oiio?aaeyaony a ianoiyuai iiaeia?aa?aoa, ii iaicia/aao, ii eeoue
ianoieueei, ianeieueei yoi iiaeao ieacaoueny iaiaoiaeeiui aeey aeieaeiie
ia?aaioee eiie?aoiiai cai?ina:

(I) iaiaoiaeeiinoue iienea e nai?a cai?ioaiiuo aeieoiaioia a
?aaeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo e ae?oaeo aaaeiinoaao, iainiaeaiiuo io
eiioi?u, ia?aaaouaathuae cai?in;

(II) iaiaoiaeeiinoue iienea, nai?a e aeieaeiiai eco/aiey cia/eoaeueiiai
iauaia ioaeaeueiuo e ia naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie aeieoiaioia,
cao?aaiaaiiuo a ?aieao iaeiiai cai?ina; eee

(III) iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiinoeueoaoeee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue i?iaaaeaiu
ianeieueei aiciiaeii auno?i, n ae?oaei o/?aaeaeaieai, nouanoaaiii
caeioa?aniaaiiui a i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ii cai?ino, eee iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee
aieaa /anoyie iaeiiai o/?aaeaeaiey, aeey eioi?uo nouanoai aeaea
i?aaenoaaeyao cia/eoaeueiue eioa?an.

(iv) A ioaao ia iieo/aiea e?eoeee e caia/aiee io iauanoaaiiinoe ethaia
o/?aaeaeaiea ai?aaa iaia?iaeiaaoue i?aaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeey
niaieoiiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiuo cai?inia iaeiiai e oiai aea iiaeaoaey
cai?inia eee a?oiiu iiaeaoaeae, aeaenoaothueo niaeaniaaiii, anee
o/?aaeaeaiea iainiiaaiii iieaaaao, /oi oaeea cai?inu a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ninoaaeytho aaeeiue cai?in, eioi?ue, a i?ioeaiii
neo/aa, aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue eneeth/eoaeueiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai,
iienaiiui a ianoiyuai iiaeia?aa?aoa, a oaeaea /oi cai?inu niaea?aeao
i/aaeaeiui ia?acii naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie aii?inu.

(A) (i) Ethaia eeoei, iiaeathuaa cai?in ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeieoiaioia a
ethaia o/?aaeaeaiea a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie ia?aa?aoia (1), (2) eee
(3) ianoiyuaai iiae?acaeaea, n/eoaaony en/a?iaaoei eiathueany o iaai
n?aaenoaa aaeieieno?aoeaiie caueou a ioiioaiee oaeiai cai?ina, anee
o/?aaeaeaiea ieacuaaaony ia a ninoiyiee oeiaeeoueny a n?iee,
i?aaeienuaaaiua yoei ia?aa?aoii. Anee I?aaeoaeuenoai a ninoiyiee
aeieacaoue iaee/ea eneeth/eoaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, a oaeaea
aueacuaaaiia o/?aaeaeaieai aeieaeiia ouaiea a ioaaoiuo aeaenoaeyo ii
cai?ino, noae iiaeao oaea?aeaoue aeaei a naiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
i?aaeinoaaeoue o/?aaeaeaieth aeiiieieoaeueiia a?aiy aeey i?iaaaeaiey
aiaeeca aeieoiaioia. I?e i?eiyoee o/?aaeaeaieai ?aoaiey ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiee cai?ina ia ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou yoe aeieoiaiou
aeieaeiu auoue iacaiaaeeeoaeueii i?aaenoaaeaiu iiaeaoaeth oaeiai
cai?ina. Ethaia oaaaeiieaiea ia ioeaca ii cai?ino ia ioeoeeaeueiua
aeieoiaiou a niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieyie ianoiyuaai iiae?acaeaea
aeieaeii oeacuaaoue eiaia e aeieaeiinoe eee caaiey eaaeaeiai eeoea,
ioaaonoaaiiiai ca ioeac ii oaeiio cai?ino.

(ii) A oeaeyo ianoiyuaai iiaeia?aa?aoa oa?iei “eneeth/eoaeueiua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa” ia aeeth/aao a naay caaea?aeeo, eioi?ay aucaaia
i?iaiice?oaiie caa?oaeaiiinoueth o/?aaeaeaiey cai?inaie, niaeanii
ianoiyuaio ?acaeaeo, ca eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea a
aeayoaeueiinoe o/?aaeaeaiey iaaethaeathony caiaoiua oniaoe e /enei
iaeiieaoeony cai?inia, iaoiaeyueony ia ?anniio?aiee, nie?auaaony.

(iii) Ioeac eeoea a ?acoiiuo i?aaeaeao eciaieoue cai?in eee niaeaniaaoue
eiua n?iee aeey ia?aaioee aeaiiiai cai?ina (eee eciaiaiiiai cai?ina) a
niioaaonoaee n ioieoii (ii) iinea oiai eae o/?aaeaeaieai, a eioi?ia
aeaiiia eeoei iiaeaei cai?in, aio auea i?aaeinoaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue yoi
naeaeaoue, aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoueny eae oneiaea, ii?aaeaeythuaa,
nouanoaotho ee eneeth/eoaeueiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeey oeaeae,
onoaiiaeaiiuo a ianoiyuai iiaeia?aa?aoa.

(A) (i) A ioaao ia iieo/aiea e?eoeee e caia/aiee io iauanoaaiiinoe
ethaia o/?aaeaeaiea ai?aaa iaia?iaeiaaoue i?aaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeey
iiiaieaiaeueiie ia?aaioee cai?inia a caaeneiinoe io iauaia ?aaiou eee
a?aiaie (eee oiai e ae?oaiai iaeiia?aiaiii), o?aaoaiuo aeey ia?aaioee
cai?inia.

(ii) A niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei iiaeia?aa?aoii i?aaeea iiaoo
i?aaeinoaaeoue eeoeo, iiaeaaoaio cai?in, eioi?ue ia iiaeoiaeeo aeey
nei?aeoae iiiaieaiaeueiie ia?aaioee, aiciiaeiinoue ia?aie/eoue ?aiee
cai?ina, /oiau iineaaeiee iiaeoiaeee aeey aieaa auno?ie ia?aaioee.

(iii) Ianoiyuee iiaeia?aa?ao ia aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
cao?aaeaathuee o?aaiaaiea, onoaiiaeaiiia iiaeia?aa?aoii (A), i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iyaeyoue aeieaeiia noa?aiea.

(Ae) (i) A ioaao ia oaaaeiieaiea eee iieo/aiea ioaee/iie e?eoeee ethaia
o/?aaeaeaiea ai?aaa iaia?iaeiaaoue i?aaeea, i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeey
onei?aiiie ia?aaioee cai?inia ia aeieoiaiou:

(I) a neo/ayo, eiaaea eeoei, iiaeaaoaa cai?in ia aeieoiaiou, nnueaaony
ia e?aeithth iaiaoiaeeiinoue, a oaeaea

(II) a ae?oaeo neo/ayo, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony o/?aaeaeaieai.

(ii) Ia i?ioeai?a/a ioieoo (i), i?aaeea, niaeanii ianoiyuaio
iiaeia?aa?aoo, aeieaeiu aa?aioe?iaaoue:

(I) /oi ?aoaiea i oii, i?aaeinoaaeyoue eee iao onei?aiioth ia?aaioeo,
aoaeao i?eiyoi, a eeoei, iiaeaaoaa cai?in, iieo/eo oaaaeiieaiea ia yoii
?aoaiee a 10-aeiaaiue n?ie iinea aeaou iiaea/e cai?ina; e

(II) iaioeiaeiia ?anniio?aiea aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ia?auaiee i i?eiyoee
oaeeo ?aoaiee i i?aaeinoaaeaiee onei?aiiie ia?aaioee.

(iii) O/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii ia?aaioaoue ianoieueei auno?i, ianeieueei yoi
inouanoaeii, ethaie cai?in aeieoiaioia, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai
o/?aaeaeaiea aeaei niaeanea ia onei?aiioth ia?aaioeo a niioaaonoaee n
ianoiyuei iiaeia?aa?aoii. Aeaenoaey o/?aaeaeaiey, io?eoeathuea eee
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea ioeeiiaiea cai?ina ia onei?aiioth ia?aaioeo a
niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei iiaeia?aa?aoii e ionoonoaea ni noi?iiu
o/?aaeaeaiey naiaa?aiaiiiai ioaaoa ia oaeie cai?in aeieaeiu auoue
iiaeaa?aioou noaeaaiiio ia?aniio?o a niioaaonoaee n ia?aa?aoii (4), ca
eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea noaeaaiue ia?aniio? iniiaai ia
aeieoiaioa, iaoiaeyuainy ia ?anniio?aiee o o/?aaeaeaiey ia iiiaio
auianaiey ei niioaaonoaothuaai ?aoaiey.

(iv) Iinea oiai eae o/?aaeaeaiea i?aaeinoaaeei iieiue ioaao ia cai?in,
Oaaea?aeueiue ?aeiiiue noae Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia ia eiaao aieaa
iieiiii/ee ii ia?aniio?o ioeeiiaiey o/?aaeaeaieai onei?aiiie ia?aaioee
cai?ina aeieoiaioia.

(v) Aeey oeaeae ianoiyuaai iiaeia?aa?aoa oa?iei “e?aeiyy
iaiaoiaeeiinoue” icia/aao:

(I) /oi iaaiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue cai?aoeaaaiua aeieoiaiou onei?aiiui
ia?acii a niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei ia?aa?aoii iiaeao noaoue iainiiaaiii
i?aaeiieaaaaiie i?e/eiie iaieioaiie oa?icu aeecie eee oece/aneiio
caei?iaueth eiaeeaeaea; eee

(II) a ioiioaiee cai?ina, iiaeaiiiai eeoeii, iniiaiui caiyoeai eioi?iai
yaeyaony ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiinoue a n?i/iii ii?yaeea
oaaaeiieoue iauanoaaiiinoue i oaeoueo eee cayaeaiiuo aeaenoaeyo
Oaaea?aeueiiai I?aaeoaeuenoaa.

(vi) Oeacaiea ia e?aeithth iaiaoiaeeiinoue ni noi?iiu eeoea, aeaeathuaai
cai?in ia onei?aiioth ia?aaioeo, aeieaeii auoue naeaeaii iin?aaenoaii
cayaeaiey, enoeiiinoue e i?aaeeueiinoue eioi?iai aeaiiia eeoei, enoiaey
ec oiai, /oi aio ecaanoii, e naiaai iiaiey, iiaeoaa?aeaeaao.

(A) Ioeeiiyy cai?in ia aeieoiaiou, /anoe/ii eee a oeaeii, o/?aaeaeaiea
iaycaii i?eeiaeeoue ?acoiiua oneeey aeey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ioeaiee
iauaia ethaiai cai?aoeaaaiiai niaea?aeaiey, a i?aaeinoaaeaiee eioi?iai
ioeacaii, e iaycaii i?aaeinoaaeoue ethaoth ec oaeeo i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo
ioeaiie eeoeo, aeaeathuaio cai?in, ca eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea
oaeay i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ioeaiea iiaea au iaianoe a?aae eioa?anai,
caueuaaiui oneiaeai ia inaiaiaeaeaiee, onoaiiaeaiiui a iiaeioieoa (a), a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui cai?in aue ioeeiiai.

(a) I?aaeea ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea ia i?eiaiythony e iaoa?eaeai:

(1) (A) a ioiioaiee eioi?uo eaeei-eeai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai
a eioa?anao ainoaea?noaaiiie iai?iiu eee aiaoiae iieeoeee niaoeeaeueii
onoaiiaeai nae?aoiue ?aaeei o?aiaiey e

(A) eioi?ua oaeoe/anee e iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii, a niioaaonoaee n oaeei
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai, canae?a/aiu;

(2) eioi?ua ioiinyony eneeth/eoaeueii e i?aaeeai aioo?aiiaai ?anii?yaeea
e oeacaieyi aeey ia?niiaea o/?aaeaeaiey;

(3) eioi?ua niaoeeaeueii inaiaiaeaeaiu caeiiii (ca eneeth/aieai ?acaeaea
552a aeaiiiai oeooea) io iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaeanee, i?e oneiaee, /oi oaeie
caeii

(A) niaea?aeeo o?aaiaaiea i oii, /oiau yoe iaoa?eaeu auee nie?uou io
iauanoaaiiinoe oaeei niiniaii, eioi?ue au eneeth/ae aiciiaeiinoue
i?iecaiea ii aeaiiiio aii?ino, eeai

(A) onoaiaaeeaaao eiie?aoiua e?eoa?ee aeey nie?uoey eee nnueaaony ia
eiie?aoiua aeaeu iaoa?eaeia, iiaeeaaeaueo nie?uoeth;

(4) oi?aiaui nae?aoai e eiiia?/aneie eeai oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee,
iieo/aiiie io eaeiai-eeai eeoea e caueuaiiie i?eaeeaaeae eeai
ia?aie/aieai aeinooia;

(5) iaii?aiaeoiai eee ienueiai, oee?eoee?othuei iaaeaeo o/?aaeaeaieyie
eee a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai o/?aaeaeaiey, ia eioi?ua ii caeiio ia eiaao
i?aaa aeinooia ieeoi, e?iia ae?oaiai o/?aaeaeaiey, iaoiaeyuaainy a
ninoiyiee noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa n aeaiiui o/?aaeaeaieai;

(6) ee/iui aeaeai e iaaeeoeeineei ea?oai e ae?oaei aeieoiaioai
iiaeiaiiai ?iaea, i?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?uo eiaei au ?acoeueoaoii
iai?aaiia?iia ia?ooaiea iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe ee/iie aeecie;

(7) aeieoiaioai eee eioi?iaoeee, nia?aiiie a i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo
oeaeyo, ii eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo i?aaeinoaaeaiea oaeeo
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia eee eioi?iaoeee

(A) ii eiathueiny iainiiaaiiui i?aaeiieiaeaieyi, iiiaoaao i?iaaaeaieth
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo aeaenoaee,

(A) ouaieo i?aai eaeiai-eeai eeoea ia ni?aaaaeeeaia e aani?eno?anoiia
?anniio?aiea aai aeaea a noaea,

(A) ii eiathueiny iainiiaaiiui i?aaeiieiaeaieyi, yaeony iai?aaiia?iui
ia?ooaieai iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe ee/iie aeecie,

(A) ii eiathueiny iainiiaaiiui i?aaeiieiaeaieyi, iicaieeo
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue eiioeaeaioeeaeueiue enoi/iee, aeeth/ay
ainoaea?noaaiiia, ianoiia eee ca?oaaaeiia o/?aaeaeaiea, eee i?aai, eee
eaeia-eeai /anoiia o/?aaeaeaiea, i?aaeinoaaeaoaa eioi?iaoeeth ia
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie iniiaa e, a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aeieoiaiou eee
eioi?iaoeey nia?aiu i?aaiii, i?eiaiythuei ii?iu oaieiaiiai i?aaa a
i?ioeanna oaieiaiiai ?anneaaeiaaiey, eee o/?aaeaeaieai, inouanoaeythuei
caeiiiua ?acaaaeuaaoaeueiua iia?aoeee a eioa?anao ainoaea?noaaiiie
aaciianiinoe, eioi?iaoeeth, i?aaeinoaaeaiioth eiioeaeaioeeaeueiui
enoi/ieeii,

(Ae) ?ane?iao iaoiaeu e i?ioeaaeo?u i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo ?anneaaeiaaiee
eee i?aneaaeiaaiee eee ?ane?iao iauea onoaiiaee i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo
?anneaaeiaaiee eee i?aneaaeiaaiee, anee a ioiioaiee oaeiai ?ane?uoey
eiathony iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi iii iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeoue
aiciiaeiinoue iaoiaea caeiia, eee

(A) ii eiathueiny iainiiaaiiui i?aaeiieiaeaieyi, iinoaaeo iiae oa?ico
aeeciue eee oece/aneoth aaciianiinoue ethaiai eiaeeaeaea;

(8) niaea?aeaueiny a eee ioiinyueiny e aeoai yenia?oecu io/aoai aeey
aioo?aiiaai iieueciaaiey eee io/aoai i ninoiyiee aeae, eioi?ua
iiaeaioiaeaiu o/?aaeaeaieai, ioaa/athuei ca ?aaoee?iaaiea eee iaaeci? ca
oeiainiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie, eee io aai eiaie, eee aeey eniieueciaaiey
oaeei o/?aaeaeaieai; eee

(9) niaea?aeauei aaieiae/aneea e aaioece/aneea aeaiiua e eioi?iaoeeth,
aeeth/ay ea?ou, eiathuea ioiioaiey e neaaaeeiai.

Ethaay /anoue ioeoeeaeueiiai aeieoiaioa, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue a ?acoiiuo
i?aaeaeao auaeaeaia, aeieaeia auoue i?aaeinoaaeaia eeoeo,
cai?aoeaathuaio oaeie aeieoiaio, iinea oaeaeaiey anao /anoae, ia
iiaeeaaeaueo iaeanea niaeanii iieiaeaieyi ianoiyuaai iiae?acaeaea.
Eiee/anoai oaeaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee aeieaeii auoue oeacaii a
i?aaeinoaaeaiiie /anoe aeieoiaioa, ca eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea
oaeia oeacaiea iiaeao iaianoe a?aae eioa?anai, caueuaaiui oneiaeai ia
inaiaiaeaeaiee, onoaiiaeaiiii a ianoiyuai iiae?acaeaea, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ui eioi?iaoeey auea oaeaeaia. Anee yoi oaoie/anee auiieieii,
eiee/anoai oaeaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee aeieaeii auoue oeacaii a oii ianoa
aeieoiaioa, aaea oaeia oaeaeaiea auei i?iecaaaeaii.

(a) (1) Ai anao neo/ayo, eiaaea iiaeaiiue cai?in iiae?acoiaaaao
iieo/aiea i?aaa aeinooia e aeieoiaioai, ii?aaeaeaiiui a iiae?acaeaea
(a)(7)(A), e:

(A) ?anneaaeiaaiea eee i?aneaaeiaaiea i?iaiaeeony a nayce n aiciiaeiui
ia?ooaieai oaieiaiiai i?aaa; e

(A) eiathony iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi

(i) noauaeo oaeiai ?anneaaeiaaiey eee i?aneaaeiaaiey ia iiaeic?aaaao i
aai i?iaaaeaiee e

(ii) ?ane?uoea oaeoa nouanoaiaaiey aeieoiaioia iiaeao iiiaoaoue
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiui aeaenoaeyi, o/?aaeaeaiea ai?aaa, ii oieueei aei oao
ii?, iiea i?iaeieaeatho nouanoaiaaoue oaeea ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
?anniao?eaaoue aeieoiaiou eae ia iiaeiaaeathuea iiae aeaenoaea
ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea.

(2) Ai anao neo/ayo, eiaaea aeaiiua ii inaaaeiieoaeth, eioi?ua o?aiyony
o/?aaeaeaieai, i?eiaiythuei ii?iu oaieiaiiai i?aaa, iiae eiaiai
inaaaeiieoaey eee aai ee/iui eaeaioeoeeaoi?ii, cai?aoeaathony o?aoueei
eeoeii ii eiaie inaaaeiieoaey eee aai ee/iiio eaeaioeoeeaoi?o,
o/?aaeaeaiea iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoue oaeea naaaeaiey eae ia iiaeiaaeathuea
iiae aeaenoaea ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea, ca eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea
eiaaony ioeoeeaeueiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea noaoona inaaaeiieoaey eae
inaaaeiieoaey.

(3) Ai anao neo/ayo, eiaaea iiaeaiiue cai?in iiae?acoiaaaao iieo/aiea
i?aaa aeinooia e aeieoiaioai, eioi?ua aaaeoony Oaaea?aeueiui ath?i
?anneaaeiaaiee e ioiinyony e aiaoiae ?acaaaeea, eee eiio??acaaaeea, eee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio oa??i?ecio, e oaeo nouanoaiaaiey oaeeo aeieoiaioia
yaeyaony cae?uoie eioi?iaoeeae niaeanii iieiaeaieyi iiae?acaeaea (a)(1),
Ath?i ai?aaa, aei oao ii? iiea oaeo nouanoaiaaiey oaeeo aeieoiaioia
i?iaeieaeaao auoue cae?uoie eioi?iaoeeae, ?anniao?eaaoue oaeea
aeieoiaiou eae ia iiaeiaaeathuea iiae aeaenoaea ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea.

(a) Ianoiyuee ?acaeae ia aeaao ?ac?aoaiey ia nie?uoea eioi?iaoeee eee
ia?aie/aiea i?aaa aeinooia iauanoaaiiinoe e aeieoiaioai, ca eneeth/aieai
neo/aaa, eiie?aoii eceiaeaiiuo a ianoiyuai ?acaeaea. Ianoiyuee ?acaeae
ia iiaeao neoaeeoue iniiaaieai aeey nie?uoey eioi?iaoeee io Eiia?anna.

(ae) (1) Ia iicaeiaa oaa?aey eaaeaeiai aiaea eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea
iaycaii i?aaenoaaeoue Aaia?aeueiiio i?ieo?i?o Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia io/ao
ii aeaiiui i?aaeuaeouaai oeiainiaiai aiaea, eioi?ue aeieaeai aeeth/aoue:

(A) eiee/anoai i?eiyouo eaaeaeui o/?aaeaeaieai ?aoaiee ia ioeaca a
oaeiaeaoai?aiee cai?inia ia aeieoiaiou, iiaeaiiuo a oaeea o/?aaeaeaiey a
niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieyie iiae?acaeaea (a), e i?e/eiu i?eiyoey
eaaeaeiai oaeiai ?aoaiey;

(A) (i) eiee/anoai aeaeia, iiaeaiiuo eeoeaie a niioaaonoaee n
iieiaeaieyie iiae?acaeaea (a)(6), ?acoeueoaou ?anniio?aiey oaeeo aeaeia
e i?e/eiu oaeeo ioaaoiuo ia? ii eaaeaeie aiaeeyoeee, eioi?ua eiaee
?acoeueoaoii ioeac a i?aaeinoaaeaiee eioi?iaoeee;

(ii) iieiue nienie anao ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia i i?aaeinoaaeaiee
o/?aaeaeaieth iieiiii/ee ia nie?uoea eioi?iaoeee a niioaaonoaee n
iiae?acaeaeii (a) (3), oeacaiea ia oi, iiaeaea?aeae ee noae ?aoaiea
o/?aaeaeaiey i nie?uoee eioi?iaoeee a niioaaonoaee n eaaeaeui ec yoeo
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, a oaeaea e?aoeia iienaiea niaea?aeaiey ethaie
nie?uoie eioi?iaoeee;

(A) /enei cai?inia ia aeieoiaiou, iaoiaeyueony ia ?anniio?aiee
o/?aaeaeaiey, ia/eiay n 30 naioya?y i?aaeoanoaothuaai aiaea, e n?aaeiaa
eiee/anoai aeiae, ia/eiay n oie aea aeaou, a oa/aiea eioi?uo oaeea
cai?inu iaoiaeeeenue ia ?anniio?aiee o o/?aaeaeaiey;

(A) /enei cai?inia ia aeieoiaiou, iieo/aiiuo o/?aaeaeaieai, e /enei
cai?inia, eioi?ua o/?aaeaeaiea ia?aaioaei;

(Ae) n?aaeiaa eiee/anoai aeiae, eioi?ia iio?aaiaaeinue o/?aaeaeaieth
aeey ia?aaioee ?acee/iuo aeaeia cai?inia;

(A) iauoth noiio nai?ia, nia?aiiuo o/?aaeaeaieai ca ia?aaioeo cai?inia;
e

(AE) /enei nio?oaeieeia o/?aaeaeaiey, caiyouo iieiue ?aai/ee aeaiue,
auaeaeaiiuo aeey ia?aaioee cai?inia ia aeieoiaiou a niioaaonoaee n
ianoiyuei ?acaeaeii, a oaeaea iauoth noiio ?anoiaeia o/?aaeaeaiey ia
ia?aaioeo oaeeo cai?inia.

(2) Eaaeaeia o/?aaeaeaiea iaycaii i?aaeinoaaeoue iauanoaaiiinoe aeinooi
e eaaeaeiio oaeiio io/aoo, a oii /enea iin?aaenoaii eiiiuethoa?iuo
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee eee, anee n?aaenoaa eiiiuethoa?iuo oaeaeiiioieeaoeee
ia auee onoaiiaeaiu o/?aaeaeaieai, iin?aaenoaii eiuo yeaeo?iiiuo
n?aaenoa.

(3) Aaia?aeueiue i?ieo?i? Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia iaycai iaania/eoue e
eaaeaeiio io/aoo, eioi?ue aue naeaeai aeinooiiui n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiuo
n?aaenoa, aeinooi a ethaie acyoie ii ioaeaeueiinoe yeaeo?iiiie oi/ea
aeinooia. Aaia?aeueiue i?ieo?i? Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia aeieaeai oaaaeiieoue
ia iicaeiaa 1 ai?aey oiai aiaea, a eioi?ii aue iioaeeeiaai io/ao,
I?aaenaaeaoaey e noa?aeoaai i?aaenoaaeoaey iaiueoeinoaa Eiieoaoa ii
ainoaea?noaaiiui ?aoi?iai e iaaeci?o iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae, a oaeaea
I?aaenaaeaoaey e noa?aeoaai i?aaenoaaeoaey iaiueoeinoaa Eiieoaoa ii
aeaeai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e TH?eaee/aneiai eiieoaoa Naiaoa i oii, /oi e
oaeei io/aoai eiaaony aeinooi i?e iiiiue yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa.

(4) Aaia?aeueiue i?ieo?i? Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia ii niaeaniaaieth n
Aee?aeoi?ii neoaeau oi?aaeaiey e athaeaeaoa iaycai ?ac?aaioaoue
aee?aeoeau ii io/aoai e eniieiaieth a nayce n io/aoaie, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiu a niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei iiae?acaeaeii e 1
ieoya?y 1997 a., a oaeaea ai?aaa onoaiaaeeaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua
o?aaiaaiey aeey oaeeo io/aoia, eioi?ua, ii iiaieth Aaia?aeueiiai
i?ieo?i?a, iiaoo auoue iieaciuie.

(5) Aaia?aeueiue i?ieo?i? Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia iaycai i?aaenoaaeoue
aaeaaiaeiue io/ao ia iicaeiaa ai?aey eaaeaeiai eaeaiaea?iiai aiaea,
eioi?ue aeieaeai aeeth/aoue a ioiioaiee i?aaeoanoaothuaai eaeaiaea?iiai
aiaea ia?a/aiue aeae, ?anniio?aiiuo, a niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei
?acaeaeii, eneeth/aiey, caaeaenoaiaaiiua a eaaeaeii neo/aa, ?aoaiey,
i?eiyoua ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo, a oaeaea ecaea?aeee, nai?u e oo?aou,
iaeiaeaiiua, niaeanii iiaeia?aa?aoai (Ae), (A) e (AE) iiae?acaeaea (a)
(4). Oaeie io/ao aeieaeai oaeaea aeeth/aoue iienaiea aeaenoaee,
i?aaei?eiyouo Ieienoa?noaii thnoeoeee n oeaeueth iaania/eoue
niaethaeaiea o/?aaeaeaieyie iieiaeaiee ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea.

(a) Aeey oeaeae ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea oa?iei:

(1) “o/?aaeaeaiea”, eae ii ii?aaeaeai a ?acaeaea 551(1) ianoiyuaai
oeooea, aeeth/aao ethaie I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue aeaia?oaiaio, aiaiiue
aeaia?oaiaio, I?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth ei?ii?aoeeth, ei?ii?aoeeth,
eiio?iee?oaioth I?aaeoaeuenoaii, eee eiia o/?aaeaeaiea eniieieoaeueiie
aaoae I?aaeoaeuenoaa (aeeth/ay Aaeieieno?aoeeth I?aceaeaioa), eee ethaia
iacaaeneiia ?aaoeyoeaiia o/?aaeaeaiea; e

(2) “aeieoiaio”, a oaeaea ethaie ae?oaie oa?iei, eniieueciaaiiue a
ianoiyuai ?acaeaea a ioiioaiee eioi?iaoeee, aeeth/aao ethaoth
eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay aoaeao yaeyoueny aeieoiaioii o/?aaeaeaiey n
niaethaeaieai o?aaiaaiee ianoiyuaai ?acaeaea e i?e oneiaee o?aiaiey aa
o/?aaeaeaieai a ethaii oi?iaoa, aeeth/ay yeaeo?iiiue oi?iao.

(ae) Aeaaa ethaiai o/?aaeaeaiey iaycai iiaeaioiaeoue e ii o?aaiaaieth
iaania/eoue ioaee/iue aeinooi e ni?aai/iiio iaoa?eaeo eee ?oeiaiaenoao
ii ia?auaieth n cai?inaie ia aeieoiaiou eee iieo/aieth eioi?iaoeee io
o/?aaeaeaiey n niaethaeaieai inaiaiaeaeaiee, niaeanii iiae?acaeaeo (a),
aeeth/ay:

(1) ia?a/aiue anao iniiaiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai o/?aaeaeaiey;

(2) iienaiea iniiaiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e aeieoiaioa?iuo iieneiauo nenoai,
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo o/?aaeaeaieai; e

(3) ni?aai/iee ii iieo/aieth io o/?aaeaeaiey ioaee/iie eioi?iaoeee
?acee/iuo aeaeia e eaoaai?ee a niioaaonoaee n 44-i oeooeii aeaau 35, a
oaeaea a niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei ?acaeaeii.

A.A. Aieieeaien,

I.A. sseooaa

I?eia/aiey

*(1) Ni.: Eiioeaioeey noaaeeueiinoe caeiia. I., 2000. N.14-16.

*(2) Ni.: Oai aea. N.68; Oeoiie?ia TH.A. Eieeeceiiiia i?aai. I., 2001.
N.34-35.

*(3) Iiae?iaiaa ia yoii ni.: *e/iaaa A.A. Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
nia?aiaiiiai i?aaa, eee Iiaia i?aaiaia iuoeaiea // Aanoiee Iineianeiai
oi-oa. Na?.7. Oeeinioey. 2001. N 2. N.87-95.

*(4) Aeaaea iiaa?oiinoiue acaeyae ia i?iaeaio iieacuaaao, /oi oaeoi?u,
aeeythuea ia auai? ?aoaiey, a?yae ee iiaoo auoue ?anni?oe?iaaiu ia
“i?aanoaaiiua”, “aoiaiiua”, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e “i?ia?anneaiua, ii
aioeaoiaiiua” – n ae?oaie. Oae, eeiie?iaaieth aeeauo i?aaieciia
i?aaeoanoaoao eeiie?iaaiea i?aaiia, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai, ii-aeaeeiiio,
aoaeao ?aaiethoeey – a naiii iieiaeeoaeueiii niunea yoiai neiaa – a
iaeanoe iaaeeoeeiu.

*(5) Shannon C. Collected Papers. N.J.A. Sloane et A.D. Wyner, eds. IEEE
Press, 1993. P.462.

*(6) Ni.: Iaoi?i I. Eaio e ia?ao?aneay oeiea // Iiaua eaeae a oeeinioee.
Na.5. NIa., 1913. N.120.

*(7) N?aaee ?onneeo oeeaeeenoia ia/aea OO a. oaeie oi/ee c?aiey
i?eaea?aeeaaeny A.O. Oa?oaiaae/: “I?aai ?aca?aie/eaaao eioa?anu,
ii?ie?oao ioiioaiey ia ii/aa noaeeeaathueony eioa?ania, e caueoa aai
iioiio e eiaao cia/aiea, /oi iii cae?aieyao ca /aeiaaeii oi, /oi oio
oeaieo n oi/ee c?aiey naieo iio?aaiinoae. Iauaeou i?aaa – yoi aeaaa a
yeiiiie/aneii niunea”. (Oeeo. ii: Oa?oaiaae/ A.O. Iauay oai?ey i?aaa:
O/aaiia iiniaea. I., 1995. O.2. N.186.) Oaeay oi/ea c?aiey iaoiaeeo
naieo noi?iiieeia e naaiaeiy. Iiae?iaiaa ia yoii ni.: Nai/euaa A.E.
Iauaeo a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaiioiioaiey // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa // Iiae ?aae. I.E. A?aaeineiai. I., 1999. N.118,
136.

*(8) A ea/anoaa enoi?e/aneie ni?aaee ioiaoei, /oi iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
i?eciaiea iieo/eea oaeaea oai?ey eioi?iaoeee, ?ac?aaioaiiay niaaoneei
o/aiui A.I. Eieiiai?iaui. Aieaa oiai, a?oeaiua enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee,
/oi iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee Oaiiiia auee noi?ioee?iaaiu Eieiiai?iaui
aua a 1938 a.

*(9) Ni.: Eeea Y.O. Eioiaeeiaieea. Iaiauaiiay yio?iiey e iaayio?iiey.
Oaeeeii, 1998. N.48.

*(10) Shannon C.E. A Mathematical Theory of Communication // The Bell
System Technical Journal. 1948. Vol. 27. P.379.

*(11) Aeia? I. Eeaa?iaoeea e iauanoai. I., 1958.

*(12) Eeea Y.O. Oec. ni/. N.20.

*(13) E i?eia?o, A.I. Eiiaoei, aaoi? eieae “Eioi?iaoeeiiiay
aaciianiinoue ?innee: *aeiaae. Iauanoai. Ainoaea?noai”, i?eoiaeeo e
auaiaeo (eioi?ue ii, enoaoe, auaeaeyao eo?neaii) i oii, /oi “anyeay
iaoa?ey eioi?iaoeeiiia”, “anyeay eioi?iaoeey iaoa?eaeueia”, a iaa ia/aea
iiaeii iacaaoue “aeaoaaeeiie ia?aiiniiaie nouanoaothuae i?e?iaeu e
ie?a”. (Oeeo. ii: Eiiaoei A.I. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue ?innee:
*aeiaae. Iauanoai. Ainoaea?noai. NIa., 2000. N.23). Oaeay, n iicaieaiey
neacaoue, “aeeaeaeoe/aneay ea?a neiaaie”, ai?i/ai, ia oiaeyao
aeinoieinoa oao ?acaeaeia eieae, ia ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey eioi?uo iu
aua aoaeai nnueaoueny.

*(14) Ni.: Shannon C. Collected Papers. N.J.A. Sloane et A.D. Wyner,
eds. IEEEPress, 1993 P. 462.

*(15) Aiae?eea? AE. Neiaiee/aneee iaiai e nia?oue. I., 2000. N.126.

*(16) Eeioa? AE.-O. Ninoiyiea iinoiiaea?ia. NIa., 1998. N.20.

*(17) Eiaiii oaeie iiceoeee i?eaea?aeeaathony O. e Y. Oiooea?u,
nioeeaeueiua iuneeoaee, aaoi?u eiea “O?aouey aieia”, “Aieia e
aioeaieia”, “Neeiaia eciaiaiea” e ae?., iioaeeeiaaiiuo a 80-90-o aa.

*(18) Cohen J. E. Information Rights and Intellectual Freedom // Ethics
and the Internet.A. Vedder, ed. Antwerp: Intersentia, 2001. P.11-32.

*(19) Ii aeaiiiio aii?ino iu ?acaeaeyai oi/eo c?aiey ?.I. Oaeoeiie. Ni.:
Oaeoeia ?.I. Iauaa o/aiea i i?aaiioiioaiee. I., 1974. N.212-214.

*(20) Ni.: No?aeueoeia A.A. Eioi?iaoeey eae iauaiao/iay eaoaai?ey //
Eioi?iaoeey eae iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey a anoanoaaiiuo, oaoie/aneeo e
nioeeaeueiuo iaoeao. I., 2001. N.6, 19.

*(21) A ioiioaiee eioi?iaoeee oaeay aiaeiaey, a caaeneiinoe io
ionoaeaaaiie oi/ee c?aiey, aiciiaeia eae n aauaie, oae e n
eneeth/eoaeueiuie i?aaaie.

*(22) Ni.: Neeianeee E.E. Nianoaaiiinoue a a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa. I.,
2000. N.184.

*(23) ?annoaeaeaiey i “iiiaiia?iinoe” i?aaiaie no?oeoo?u iiaeii
ano?aoeoue oaea a o?oaeao ?onneiai i?aaiaaaea e oeeinioa ia/aea OO a.
I.I. Aeaenaaaa: “Iao ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai, /oi oaiiiaiaeueiay
no?oeoo?a i?aaa i?aaenoaao ia?aae iaie eae iaeioi?ia iiiaiia?acea, eae
aaeeinoai ianeieueeeo ecia?aiee, iiaeiaii aaeeinoao i?ino?ainoaa,
ecia?aiey eioi?iai i?aaenoaaeythony a eiioea eiioeia iaeioi?uie
iniiaiuie aeaiiinoyie, ii?aaeaeythueie aai no?oeoo?o. Ii iiaeiaii yoiio
e i?aai iiaeao eiaoue naith, iniaoth no?oeoo?o, oa?aeoa?ecoaioth naieie
iniauie aeaiiinoyie”. Oeeo. ii: Aeaenaaa I.I. Iniiau oeeinioee i?aaa.
NIa., 1999. N.73. Ni. oaeaea: Aeaenaaa N.N. Iauay oai?ey i?aaa. I.,
1981. N.258-260.

*(24) Iiae?iaiaa ia yoii: Iai?iaeia Ae.A. E aii?ino i i?aaiaie io?aia
eioi?iaoeee // Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue: nia?aiaiiua i?aaiaua
i?iaeaiu: I?iaeaiii-oaiaoe/aneee na. / EAI, EIEII ?AI. I., 1998.
N.81-89.

*(25) Aeici?oeaa A. A. Eioi?iaoeey eae iauaeo eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa //
Aeaei e i?aai. 1996. N 4. N.38.

*(26) Ni.: Aa/eei E.E. Einoeooou eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e
eioi?iaoeey // Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue: nia?aiaiiua i?aaiaua
i?iaeaiu. I?iaeaiii-oaiaoe/aneee nai?iee. EAI, EIEII ?AI. I., 1998.
N.71-74.

*(27) I?e yoii, iaeiaei, neaaeoao auoue inoi?iaeiui n oa?ieiieiae/aneie
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth, auaiaeiie eeoue aaoi?ai yoeo i?ia?aiiiuo
i?iaeoeoia. Oaeea i?iaeoeou iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iie ana aea ia
aoiaeyo a ninoaa “iauanoaaiiiai aeinoiyiey”, iiaoo ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia
eiiia?/aneie iniiaa e io?aiyoueny ii?iaie “iau/iiai” aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

*(28) Oiaiaea? I. Caeao Aa?iiu. I., 1998. O. 2. N.86.

*(29) A ea/anoaa i?eia?a a ioa/anoaaiiie niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a iau/ii
i?eaiaeyo nenoaio i?aaiii/ee nianoaaiieea, ?ac?aaioaiioth aiaee/aieiii
A. Iii?a e ninoiyuoth ec 11 yeaiaioia: 1) i?aai aeaaeaiey, iiieiaaiia
eae eneeth/eoaeueiue oece/aneee eiio?ieue iaae aauueth eee eae i?aai
eneeth/eoaeueiiai aa eniieueciaaiey; 2) i?aai iieueciaaiey eee ee/iiai
eniieueciaaiey aaue, eiaaea iii ia aeeth/aao aeaa iineaaeothueo
i?aaiii/ey; 3) i?aai oi?aaeaiey, o.a. i?aai ?aoaoue, eae e eai iiaeao
auoue eniieueciaaia aauue; 4) i?aai ia aeioiae, o.a. ia oa aeaaa,
eioi?ua aeaao ?aaeecaoeey aeaoo i?aaeuaeoueo iieiiii/ee; 5) i?aai ia
io/oaeaeaiea, iio?aaeaiea, o?aoo ii naiaio oniio?aieth, eciaiaiea eee
oie/oiaeaiea aaue; 6) aa?aioey io yeni?ii?eaoeee, eee i?aai ia
aaciianiinoue; 7) i?aai ia?aaeaaaoue aauue; 8) aann?i/iinoue; 9)
cai?auaiea eniieueciaaoue aauue ai a?aae ae?oaei;10) aiciiaeiinoue
ioia?aiey aaue a oieaoo aeieaa; 11) inoaoi/iue oa?aeoa?, o.a.
nouanoaiaaiea i?aaee, iaania/eaathueo ainnoaiiaeaiea ia?ooaiiiai
i?aaiii/ey.

*(30) Eoeaaei I.E. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu. I., 1997. N.243.

*(31) Aeeaanou 1.2.4.4.

*(32) Eia/a aiai?y, iaeaieaa ecaanoiia ii?aaeaeaiea dominium eae i?aaa
oiio?aaeaiey, iieueciaaiey ieiaeaie e ?anii?yaeaiey “jus utendi,
fruendi, abutendi” ioiineony e XVI a.

*(33) Iooai E., Iieeiae-Aeeiianeay I. ?eineia i?aai. I., 1999.
N.141-142.

*(34) ?eineia /anoiia i?aai // Iiae ?aae. E.A. Iiaeoeeiai e E.N.
Ia?aoa?neiai. I., 1997. N.179.

*(35) Ni.: Roger A. Owners and Neighbours in Roman Law. Oxford, 1972.
P.11.

*(36) Aa?iai A.Aeae. Caiaaeiay o?aaeeoeey i?aaa. I., 1994. N.132-133.

*(37) Ni.: Nie?ei A.I. ?eineay familia e i?aaenoaaeaiey ?eieyi i
nianoaaiiinoe // Auo e aioe/iinoue a enoi?ee. I., 1998.

*(38) Buckland Roman Law and Common Law. 1952. Oeeo. ii: Oeaaeaa?o E.,
Eaooe O. Aaaaeaiea a n?aaieoaeueiia i?aaiaaaeaiea a noa?a /anoiiai
i?aaa. I., 1998. O.1. N.283.

*(39) ?anuaieaiiay nianoaaiiinoue – eiino?oeoeey nianoaaiiinoe,
aeiioneathuay nouanoaiaaiea ianeieueeeo ?acee/iuo oeooeia nianoaaiiinoe
ia iaeii e oi aea eiouanoai. I ?iee aeaiiie eiino?oeoeee a nia?aiaiiii
i?aaa ni.: Eoeaaei I.E. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu. I., 1997. N.250-251.

*(40) Ni.: Aa?iai A. Aeae. Caiaaeiay o?aaeeoeey i?aaa. I., 1994. N.233.

*(41) Eoeaaei I.E. Oeac. ni/. I., 1997. N.250.

*(42) Aaeieueo ?aeiao (1883 – 1917) ia/eiae naia ia?aciaaiea eae th?eno,
iaeiaei aeaeii aai aeecie noaea oeeinioey, a enoi?eth eioi?ie ii aioae
eae oaiiiaiieia e eae iniiaaoaeue oaiiiaiieiaee i?aaa.

*(43) ?aeiao A. Nia?. ni/. I., 2001. N.219.

*(44) Oai aea. N.220.

*(45) Iaiiiiei, /oi ii aeaenoaothuaio AE ?O i?aai nianoaaiiinoe
?anniao?eaaaony eae iaeii ec aauiuo i?aa, oioy e oeaio?aeueiia.

*(46) ?aeiao A. Oeac. ni/. I., 2001. N.220.

*(47) Ni.: Eanne?a? Y. Iiciaiea e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. NIa., 1912.

*(48) Oiaiaea? I. Oeac. ni/. N.85-86.

*(49) Oai aea. N.84-86.

*(50) Aaeia A.A. Aacaeieoiaioa?iua oeaiiua aoiaae. I., 2001. N.15.

*(51) Oai aea. N.19-20.

*(52) Oiaiaea? I. Oeac. ni/. N.85.

*(53) Ni. ii aeaiiie oaia: Litman J. Information Privacy/Information
Property // StanfordL. Rev. N 52. 2000; Deger R. Putting a Price on Our
Internet Identities // RECORDER. June N 14. 1999; Samuelson P. Book
Review: A New Kind of Privacy? Regulating Uses of Personal Data in the
Information Economy // Calif. L. Rev. N 87. 1999; Kang J. Cyberspace
Privacy: A Primer and Proposal // ABA Human Rights Magazine N 26, Winter
1999.

*(54) Yntema H.E. Jurisprudence on Parade, 39 Mich. L. Rev. 1941. P.
1154, 1169.

*(55) Dagan H. The Craft Of Property, California Law Review N 92, 2003.
Oaeno aeinooiai a yeaeo?iiiii aeaea a oi?iaoa PDF ii aae?ano:
http://papers.ssrn.com/paper.taf?abstract_id=404240. – P.46. (Aeaoa
iineaaeiaai iinauaiey 20 .07.03.).

*(56) Vgl. LG Bonn MMR 2000, 109.

*(57) Ia?aa?ao 1004 AAO iinayuai o?aaiaaieth ia ono?aiaiee ia?ooaiee, ia
naycaiiuo n eeoaieai aeaaeaiey.

*(58) Ni.: Ladeur K.-H. Die Dynamik des Internet als Herausforderung der
Stabilitaet des Rechts – “Virtuelles Eigentum”, Copyright,
Lauterkeitsrecht und Grundrechtsbindung im Internet als Exempel //
“Schriften zur rechtswissenschaftlichen Innovationsforschung”, Bd. 5:
Martin Eifert/Wolfgang Hoffmann-Riem (Hrsg.): Innovation und rechtliche
Regulierung. Schluesselbegriffe und Anwendungsbeispiele
rechtswissenschaftlicher Innovationsforschung. Baden-Baden, 2002. Aae?an
yeaeo?iiiiai oaenoa a oi?iaoa PDF:
http://www2.jura.uni-hamburg.de/ceri/download02.PDF – S.7 – 8. (Aeaoa
iineaaeiaai iinauaiey 20.07.03.).

*(59) Ni.: Ladeur K.-H. Op. cit. S.7 – 9. (Aeaoa iineaaeiaai iinauaiey
20.07.03.).

*(60) ?a/ue eaeao i i?aaa nianoaaiieea “?anii?yaeaoueny aauueth ii
naiaio oniio?aieth e ono?aiyoue ethaia aiaoaoaeuenoai”, i?aaeoniio?aiiii
ia?aa?aoii 903 Aa?iaineiai a?aaeaeaineiai oeiaeaiey.

*(61) Nie?ei A.I. Oeac. ni/. N.30-31.

*(62) Ni., iai?eia?: A?aaeaeaineia i?aai. O/aaiee // Iiae ?aae. A.A.
Nooaiiaa. I., 1998. O.1. N.298.

*(63) ?eineia /anoiia i?aai // Iiae ?aae. E.A. Iiaeoeeiai e E.N.
Ia?aoa?neiai. N.148.

*(64) Io?cei Ae.A. Oeaiiua aoiaae – aanoaeaniua aaue. I., 1998. N.70.

*(65) Ni.: oai aea. N.71.

*(66) I?eaaaeai o?e oa?aeoa?iuo i?eia?a ec eieae Aeae. ?aoeeia.
Eiouanoai IBM ninoaaeyao 16,6 ie?ae aeiee., a oi a?aiy eae
iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau Microsoft i?aauoatho oeacaiioth oeeo?o ia 15%. A
aeoeaao ecaanoiie oe?iu Nike aiiaua ionoonoaotho eaeea-eeai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe. Caoi nioie i?aaei?eyoee a no?aiao n aeaoaaie
?aai/ae neeie i?iecaiaeyo oe?iaiioth iaoaue io eiaie Nike. Nianoaaiieee
Mc Donald’s oaeaea aeiaieueii auno?i iniciaee, /oi i?iaeaaea eaeae
i?eiineo ai?acaei aieueoa aeaiaa, /ai i?iaeaaea i?inouo aaiao?aa?ia. Ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aieueoay /anoue oeeeaeia Mc Donald’s i?eiaaeeaaeeo
ethaeyi, caeeth/eaoei n aia?eeaineei eiioea?iii aeiaiai? o?ai/aeceiaa e
aioiaui ieaoeoue aieueoea aeaiueae ca oi, /oiau eniieiyoue aai
i?aaeienaiey.

*(67) Iaein ?. Nianoaaiiinoue e naiaiaea. I., 2000. N.106. Iaiiiiei,
/oi, ca eneeth/aieai nnueie ia nia?aiaiiua ecuneaiey a iaeanoe
ineoieiaee e aeieiaee, aeaiiay iiceoeey ia i?aaenoaaeyaony /ai-oi iiaui.
Oaea Aeae. Eiee ienae i oii, /oi “eaaeaeue /aeiaae iaeaaeaao iaeioi?ie
nianoaaiiinoueth, caeeth/athuaeny a aai nianoaaiiie ee/iinoe, ia
eioi?oth ieeoi, e?iia iaai naiiai, ia eiaao ieeaeeo i?aa”. Oeeo. ii:
Eiee Aeae. I ainoaea?noaaiiii i?aaeaiee // Eiee Aeae. Eca?aiiua
oeeinioneea i?iecaaaeaiey. A 2 o. I., 1960. O.2. N.19.

*(68) Iaein ?. Oeac. ni/. N.308.

*(69) Iaein ?. Oeac. ni/. N.315.

*(70) Oeeo. ii: Iaein ?. Oeac. ni/. N.324.

*(71) Oai aea. N.373.

*(72) Iiiai/eneaiiua aieina ca oi, /oiau i?eciaoue ia?aie/aiea aaoi?neeo
i?aa iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, /oiau ?anniao?eaaoue eneeth/aiey eae i?aaeei,
yaeythony io?aaeaieai ai?ueau “ca i?aaia aeaei”, ca iauanoaaiiua
eioa?anu.

*(73) Na?aaaa A.I. I?aai eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee. I., 1996. N.10.

*(74) Ni.: Aa?iai A.Aeae. Aa?a e caeii: i?eie?aiea i?aaa e ?aeeaee. I.,
1999. N.9.

*(75) A naiae iieaieea ni noi?iiieeaie “i?ii?eaoa?iie eiino?oeoeee” A.A.
Ieeaiei nnueaaony ia neaaeothueo aaoi?ia, eniieueciaaaoeo o?oaeiaoth
oai?eth nianoaaiiinoe Aeae. Eieea: Osterrieth A. Die Geschichte des
Urheberrechts in England. Leipzig, 1895; Limousin. De la propriete
intellectuelle. Paris, 1873; Comettant O. La propriete intellectuelle au
point de vue de la morale et du progres. Paris, 1858. Ec nia?aiaiiuo
enoi/ieeia iaciaai neaaeothuea: Nozick R. Anarchy, State, and Utopia.
NY, 1974; Palmer T. Are Patents and Copyrights Morally Justified?//
Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy. 1990. N 13; Becker L.
Deserving to Own Intellectual Property // Chicago-Kent Law Review. 1993.
N 68; Gordon W. A Property Right in Self-Expression: Equality and
Individualism in the Natural Law of Intellectual Property // Yale Law
Journal. 1993. N 102.

*(76) Eae ieoao A.A. Ieeaiei: “…i?ii?eaoa?iay oai?ey iiyaeeanue a oio
iiiaio, eiaaea aia?aua caaiai?eee ia iaeeaaoi?iii i?eioeeia a iaoaioiii
i?aaa, o.a. eiaaea aia?aua aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeieacaoue, /oi
iaoaioiia i?aai ia anoue ieeinoue, aea?oaiay ei?ieai, a anoue i?aai
ecia?aoaoaey, i?aai noieue aea nayoia, eae i?aai iooea, ioaea,
caaauaoaey, nianoaaiieea e o.ae.” (Ieeaiei A.A. I?aai ecia?aoaoaey. I.,
2001. N.586).

*(77) Oai aea. N.590.

*(78) Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue: i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea, i?iaeaiu
e ia?niaeoeau // Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. 2001. N 4. N.11.

*(79) Oai aea. N.16.

*(80) Ni.: Aeici?oeaa A.A. Iiaay y?a a io?aia eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa //
I?aai e yeiiiieea. 1995. N 15-16. N.29.

*(81) Oai aea. N.30.

*(82) Ni.: Aeici?oeaa A.A. Iiyaeaiea “eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa” eae iniaie
eaoaai?ee // I?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa. I., 2000.
N.291.

*(83) Ni.: Oai aea. N.294-295.

*(84) Oai aea. N.297.

*(85) Caiei E.A. A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee,
naycaiiuo n eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth e eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeeae
oiaa?ia e eo i?iecaiaeeoaeae // A?aaeaeaineia i?aai // Iiae ?aae. A.A.
Nooaiiaa. O.1. N.633.

*(86) Oai aea. N.633.

*(87) Caiei E.A. Oeac. ni/. N.634.

*(88) A /anoiinoe, aeey iainiiaaiey “ineoieiae/aneie i?aaeiinueee” E.A.
Caiei nnueaaony ia eieao N.E. ?aaae/a “Eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa. I?aai ia
oiaa?iua ciaee, i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu, ecia?aoaiey, aaoi?neia i?aai”,
1926.

*(89) A no.544 AE O?aioeee aeaaony neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoeth
nianoaaiiinoe: “Nianoaaiiinoue anoue i?aai iieueciaaoueny e
?anii?yaeaoueny aauaie aaniethoiui ia?acii, n oai /oiau iieueciaaiea ia
yaeyeinue oaeei, eioi?ia cai?auaii caeiiaie eee ?aaeaiaioaie”.

*(90) Oa?oaiaae/ A.O. O/aaiee ?onneiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa. I., 1995.
N.254-255. A.O. Oa?oaiaae/ n/eoae iaeanoue eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa
naiinoiyoaeueiie, ia i?eciaaay aa – aii?aee iiceoeee caeiiiaeaoaey –
iniaui aeaeii i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeaoiy iaeanoyie, ii
aai iiaieth, i?ienoiaeeo ec “?acee/ey iauaeoia”. Ia iao acaeyae, caeanue
eiaao ianoi iaiainiiaaiiay ?aaeoeoeey iiiyoey nianoaaiiinoe e
nianoaaiiinoe ia iaoa?eaeueiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-ii?aaeaeaiiua aaue.
Iiaeii oaeaea i?eaanoe a?aoiaio eaeaieiae/aneiai ii?yaeea, aiaeiae/iue
(ii oi?ia) oiio, eioi?ue i?eaiaeyo i?ioeaieee i?ii?eaoa?iie eiioeaioeee.
A.O. Oa?oaiaae/ auneacuaaaony ia i?ioea ethaiai iiaeaaaeaiey
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa iiae einoeooo nianoaaiiinoe, a oieueei i?ioea
oaeiai, eioi?ue ia o/eouaaao niaoeeoeeo iaiaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia, o.a.
inouanoaeyao i?yiia caeinoaiaaiea.

*(91) Ni.: Aa/eei E.E. Oeac. ni/. N.56 – 81; Aai aea Einoeooou
nianoaaiiinoe e eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?aaa
// Eioi?iaoeeiiiia i?aai (o/aaiee). NIa., 2001. N.381-401.

*(92) Enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe i?aaiaie iioieiaee aaaeoony naaiaeiy ii
naiui ?aciiia?aciui iai?aaeaieyi, aeeth/ay no?oeoo?e?iaaiea yeaeo?iiiuo
i?aaiauo aac aeaiiuo, iiene yienoaiieiae/aneeo iniiaaiee ?acee/iuo
io?aneae i?aaa, a oaeaea aiaeec niaoeeoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee i?aaiaie
ea?oeiu ie?a a oeeo?iaie n?aaea. Naieie iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie
i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey n/eoatho
oaiiiaiieiaa ia/aea XX a. A. ?aeiaoa e oeeinioa-aiaeeoeea na?aaeeiu XX
a. Aeae. Na?ea. ?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea anaai i eieaa A. ?aeiaoa “Ai?ei?iua
iniiaaiey a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa” (1913) e ooiaeaiaioaeueiii o?oaea Aeae.
Na?ea “Eiino?oe?iaaiea nioeeaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe” (1995).

*(93) Ni.: Koepsell D. Introduction to Applied Ontology: the
Philosophical Analyses of Everyday Objects // American Journal of
Economics and Sociology, April 1999. Noieo oiiiyiooue, /oi a 2002 a.,
iniiauaaynue ia iaoa?eaeao naiae aeenna?oaoeee, Ae. Eiinaee auionoee
eieao “The Ontology of Cyberspace: Philosophy, Law, and the Future of
Intellectual Property”, eioi?ay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?iei ianoaeaeaaony a
th?eaee/aneeo e?oaao.

*(94) Koepsell D. Op. cit.

*(95) Ni.: Hare K. Towards an Ontology of Intellectual Property: a
Suggested Reconstruction // American Journal of Economics and Sociology,
April 1999.

*(96) White-Smith Music Publishing Co. v. Apollo Co. (1908).

*(97) Ia neo/aeii AE. Aiae?eea?, i?aaenoaaeoaeue oeeinioee
iinoiiaea?iecia e oe?iei ecaanoiue e?eoee nioeeaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe,
eiinoaoe?oao: “:eneonnoai oaia?ue iianthaeo, iineieueeo a naiii na?aeoea
?aaeueiinoe oaia?ue – eneonnoaaiiinoue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eneonnoai
ia?oai, iioiio /oi ia oieueei oia?ea aai e?eoe/aneay
o?ainoeaiaeaioiinoue, ii e naia ?aaeueiinoue, anaoeaei i?iieoaaoenue
ynoaoeeie naiae nianoaaiiie no?oeoo?iinoe, neeeanue ni naiei ia?acii”
(Aiae?eea? AE. Neiaiee/aneee iaiai e nia?oue. I., 2000. N.154). Eia/a
aiai?y, ia caueoo aaoi?neiai i?aaa naaiaeiy oaeoe/anee iiaeao
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ethaie oae eee eia/a ioi?ieaiiue iauaeo.

*(98) Iiniaa E.A. I?aaiaay io?aia i?ia?aii aeey YAI ca ?oaaaeii //
Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue: nia?aiaiiua i?aaiaua i?iaeaiu. I.,
1998. N.203.

*(99) Ni.: Hare K. Op. cit.

*(100) Ni.: ibid.

*(101) Ia?aue i?eia? eanaaony oae iacuaaaiuo iaaeaaeiuo nenoai (trusted
systems) – nenoai ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee, i?i/ii oaycaiiuo n
oaoiieiae/aneeie n?aaenoaaie aa caueou, eioi?ua iicaieytho aaoi?ai
naiinoiyoaeueii onoaiaaeeaaoue i?aaeea (n?ie, oa?aeoa?, eiee/anoaaiiua
iieacaoaee e o.i.) eniieueciaaiey naieo i?iecaaaeaiee. A /anoiinoe, a
iineaaeieo i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoao eiiiaiee Microsoft niioaaonoaothuay
ooieoeey ?aaeecoaony a “nenoaia oi?aaeaiey oeeo?iauie i?aaaie”,
iicaieythuae aaoi?o oaeea ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeyoue ii?yaeie aai
eniieueciaaiey ae?oaeie eeoeaie. Aoi?ie i?eia? iu caeinoaoai ec
Aa?iiaeneie aee?aeoeau 1996 a. i i?aaiaie io?aia aac aeaiiuo: a ea/anoaa
aaeeinoaaiiiai e?eoa?ey i?aaeinoaaeaiey io?aiu caeanue oiiieiaaony
iaiaoiaeeiinoue nouanoaaiiuo eiee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo eiaanoeoeee a
iieo/aiea, i?iaa?eo eee i?aaenoaaeaiea niaea?aeaiey aacu aeaiiuo.

*(102) A aaoi?neii i?aaa iiae “aeia?iniaanoiui eniieueciaaieai”
iiieiaaony eniieueciaaiea io?aiyaiiai ?acoeueoaoa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe aac niaeaney aaoi?a e aac auieaou aaoi?neiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Ie/oi ia iaoaao eaaaeeciaaoue aeaiiia iiiyoea oaeaea e
a eiuo iaeanoyo i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

*(103) Ni.: no.18 – 25 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao”; United States Code § 107.

*(104) Aethnieuea N., Ioeuea E., Atheaeai I. Aaoi?neia i?aai e aeinooi e
eioi?iaoeee a oeeo?iaie n?aaea // Atheeaoaiue THIANEI. 2001. O. XXXV. N
2.

*(105) Ni.: Hardin G. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science 162, 1968. P.
1243-1245.

*(106) Ni.: Heller M.A. The Dynamic Analytics of Property Law//
Contemporary Legal Scolarship. Vol. 2. N 1. January 2001. P.9-11.

*(107) Brookfield Communications, Inc. v. West Coast Entertainment
Corp., 174 F.3d 1036 (9th Cir. 1999). A noaeaaiii ?aoaiee, i?eiyoii ii
aeaiiiio aeaeo, aiai?eeinue, /oi eniieueciaaiea oiaa?iiai ciaea
eiieo?aioa a iieneiaii iaoaiecia ia?ooaao i?aaa ia oiaa?iue ciae,
iineieueeo neoaeeo i?eaea/aieth aieiaiey ni noi?iiu iio?aaeoaey.

*(108) Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu iaeiei ec iaooiaaoeo aeae ii ?anniao?eaaaiiio
aii?ino auei aeaei eBay, Inc. v. Bidders’ Edge, 100 F. Supp. 2d 1058
(N.D. Cal. 2000).

*(109) Ni.: Cohen Julie E. Information Rights and Intellectual Freedom
// Ethics and the Internet. Anton Vedder, ed. Antwerp: Intersentia,
2001. P.11-32.

*(110) Ni.: Dreyfuss R. C. Expressive Genericity: Trademarks as Language
in the Pepsi Generation // Notre Dame Law Review. 1990. Vol. 65.
P.400-403, 412-417. Litman J. Breakfast with Batman: The Public Interest
in the Advertising Age // Yale Law Journal 108 (1999). P. 1726 – 1733.

*(111) Princeton University Press, Inc. v. Michigan Document Services,
Inc., 99 F.3d 1381 (6th Cir. 1996) (en banc); American Geophysical Union
v. Texaco, Inc., 60 F.3d 913 (2d Cir. 1994).

*(112) Report of the Panel, United States – Section 110(5) of the US
Copyright Act, WT/DS160/R, 15 June 2000.

*(113) A iiya?a 2001 a. th?eaee/aneee oaeoeueoao Duke University a NOA
i?iaae eiioa?aioeeth, iinayuaiioth aii?inai niioiioaiey i?aa
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e eioa?ania ioaee/iie noa?u. Iiae?iaiaa
ia yoii ni.: Boyle J. Forward: the Opposite of Property? // Law and
Contemporary Problems. 2003. Vol. 66. N 1 – 2.

*(114) Samuelson P. Mapping the Digital Public Domain: Threats and
Opportunities // 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. P. 170 – 171.

*(115) Ladeur K.-H. Die Dynamik des Internet als Herausforderung der
Stabilitaet des Rechts – “Virtuelles Eigentum”, Copyright,
Lauterkeitsrecht und Grundrechtsbindung im Internet als Exempel //
Schriften zur rechtswissenschaftlichen Innovationsforschung, Bd. 5:
Martin Eifert, Wolfgang Hoffmann-Riem (Hrsg.): Innovation und rechtliche
Regulierung. Schluesselbegriffe und Anwendungsbeispiele
rechtswissenschaftlicher Innovationsforschung. Baden-Baden, 2002. Aae?an
yeaeo?iiiiai oaenoa a oi?iaoa PDF:
http://www2.jura.uni-hamburg.de/ceri/download02.PDF – S.2.

*(116) Ec iineaaeieo ioaeeeaoeee ia yoo oaio neaaeoao iniai ioiaoeoue
eieao: Na?ai A.A. Eioa?iao e i?aai. I., 2003.

*(117) Oa?ieiii “eeaa?i?ino?ainoai” iu iaycaiu Oeeueyio Aeaniio, eioi?ue
a naiai ?iiaia “Neuromancer” (1984) iaicia/ee yoei neiaii “ie?
eiiiuethoa?ia e iauanoai, eioi?ia aie?oa ieo ia?acoaony”. Aeaenoaea
?iiaia i?ienoiaeeo a aoaeouai, eiaaea ethaee iaoee niinia iiaeeeth/aoue
eiiiuethoa?u iaiin?aaenoaaiii e naiae ia?aiie nenoaia e iooaoanoaiaaoue
ii ae?ooaeueiiio ie?o, i?aeoe/anee ioi?aaiiiio io aeaenoaeoaeueiiai, eee
oece/aneiai ie?a. A naiai eioa?aueth 1994 a. (a nayce n auoiaeii a naao
i/a?aaeiiai ?iiaia “Ae?ooaeueiue naao”) O. Aeanii ii?aaeaeyao
“eeaa?i?ino?ainoai” eae iaoaoi?o, eioi?ay aecoaeece?oao ana, /oi a iaoae
aeecie naycaii n oeeo?iauie oaoiieiaeyie, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n
Eioa?iaoii. Eiuie neiaaie, ae?ooaeueiue ie? nouanoaoao aia
aaia?aoe/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa, a oa?iei “eeaa?i?ino?ainoai” iicaieyao
aiai?eoue i iai eae anee au ii aue iaeiae oa??eoi?eae.

*(118) Aeenoeeieeia, ooaa?aeeaoayny a caiaaeiuo no?aiao e NOA iiae
iacaaieai “oeeinioey i?aaa”, aieaa anaai niioaaonoaoao iaoae “oai?ee
i?aaa”. Aa iniiaiui ioee/eai (e iaeiia?aiaiii i/aaeaeiui i?aeiouanoaii)
yaeyaony i?enoaeueiue eioa?an e i?aeoe/aneei i?iaeaiai. Eiuie neiaaie,
niaoeeaeenou a oeeinioee i?aaa caiyou ia noieueei “io?aiie” onoiyaoeony
aeiai, neieueei oai?aoe/aneei iniuneaieai i?iaeai, aeooaeueiuo aeey
th?eaee/aneie i?aeoeee.

*(119) Aaaionoai ia?aaeiauo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?iaeoia (Advanced
Research Projects Agency) auei iniiaaii a 1958 a. Aeaia?oaiaioii
Ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA a ioaao ia caione Niaaoneei Nithcii ia?aiai
einie/aneiai niooieea. Ii caiuneo naieo nicaeaoaeae, Aaaionoai aeieaeii
auei ioaa/aoue ca ia?aaeiaua iiceoeee NOA a iaeanoe aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee.

*(120) Nai oa?iei “Eioa?iao” aia?aua iiyaeyaony a ioaeeeaoeeyo a 1973 a.
eae nie?auaiea io Interconnected Networks – (i?e)niaaeeiaiiua naoe.

*(121) No?iai aiai?y, a NOA eiiiaiey n iacaaieai “Internet” ii e?aeiae
ia?a auea. Iia ieacuaaea eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae a Naoe, ii ia aieaa
oiai. Ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e oi?aaeaieth Naoueth iia ia eiaea. Ia
yaeyeinue “aeaaeaeueoeai” Eioa?iaoa e oaaea?aeueiia I?aaeoaeuenoai NOA,
i?ae?aoeaoaa noaneaee?iaaiea ioaeaeueiuo (“iaaeno?aeueiuo”) naoae ia
oa??eoi?ee NOA. Ia eiaao oaea ioiioaiey e Eioa?iaoo e Ieienoa?noai
iai?iiu NOA, aeaaeathuaa nianoaaiiie (canae?a/aiiie)
eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiiuethoa?iie naoueth. Nii?u ii iiaiaeo oiai, eoi ai?aaa
caieiaoueny “?ani?aaeaeaieai” aae?aniiai (aeiiaiiiai) i?ino?ainoaa
Eioa?iaoa, iiea i?iaeieaeathony. A ianoiyuee iiiaio yoei caieiaaony
/anoiay ei?ii?aoeey ii aeiiaiiui eiaiai (ICANN) ii aeiaiai?o n
Ieienoa?noaii oi?aiaee NOA.

*(122) Iaoeeiiaeueiia i?aai ?acee/iuo no?ai (i?aaeaea anaai ?acaeouo,
o.a. oaeeo, aeey eioi?uo oeacaiiua i?iaeaiu yaeythony aeooaeueiuie n
yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey) a aeaiiie noa?a iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee
iaoiaeeony oieueei a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey. Iiieii oaeoi?a
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe ia o?iaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
neooaoeeth aua aieaa oneiaeiytho i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n ii?aaeaeaieai
iiaeeaaeauaai i?eiaiaieth i?aaa, – oio oaeo, /oi iiaeaaeythuaa
aieueoeinoai naeaeie (ia iaycaoaeueii aiciacaeiuo) a naoe Eioa?iao
inouanoaeyaony iaaeaeo eeoeaie, oece/anee iaoiaeyueieny (eeai
th?eaee/anee eiei?ii?e?iaaiiuie) a ?aciuo no?aiao.

*(123) Iaiiiiei, /oi n aiiieiiinoueth iu noaeeeaaainy ia oieueei i?e
ianoaeaeaiee “aiiieiie”, ii e i?e nioeeieiae/aneeo ii?inao eee ia
auai?ao. Eiuie neiaaie, aiiieiiinoue a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa
ooaa?aeeeanue eae yooaeoeaiue (e ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaiiue) eino?oiaio,
iaeaa/athuee eiiioieeaoeeth. Ni.: Levmore S. The Anonymity Tool // U.
PA. L. Rev. N 144, 1996. P. 2191, 2193.

*(124) Cookie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaaieueoie iauai eioi?iaoeee i
na?aa?a, eioi?ay o?aieony ia eiiiuethoa?a iieueciaaoaey e ia?aaeaaony
na?aa?o n eaaeaeui cai?inii eae /anoue HTTP-caaieiaea. Iineieueeo
ia?yaeo n eioi?iaoeeae i na?aa?a (naiai i?yiii iacia/aiee) cookies iiaoo
niaea?aeaoue oaeaea ?acee/iua aeaiiua i iieueciaaoaea (iai?eia?,
oeacaiiua i?e nicaeaiee ae?ooaeueiie ei?ceiu iieoiaoaey), eo aeoeaii
eniieuecotho eiiia?/aneea no?oeoo?u aeey nai?a eioi?iaoeee i naieo
eeeaioao.

*(125) Ladeur K.-H. The Theory of Autopoiesis As an Approach to a Better
Understanding of Postmodern Law. San Domenico, 1999. P. 19.

*(126) ?a/ue eaeao i ii?iao, eioi?ua, oioy e i?eieiathony
iaainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie, iieo/atho a aeaeueiaeoai i?eciaiea ni
noi?iiu ioaee/iuo aeanoae.

*(127) I/aaeaeiia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo eco/aaiie a oai?ee nenoaiie
enoi/ieeia i?aaa e enoi/ieeaie i?aaa, eniieuecoaiuie ia i?aeoeea, iiaeii
iaaethaeaoue a ?inneeneii i?aaa. ?a/ue eaeao, iai?eia?, i iinoaiiaeaieyo
Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea, eioi?ua auioaeaeai ia oieueei i?eieiaoue e
naaaeaieth, ii e eniieueciaaoue ethaie i?aeoeeothuee th?eno, ii eioi?ua
aei neo ii? ia i?eciathony oai?eae a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea i?aaa.

*(128) Ia?aia oiiieiaiea A.A.I. ano?a/aaony a no.8 Caeiia io 6 oaa?aey
1978 a. ia aaoiiaoe/aneie ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee, eaoaeiaao e naycaiiuo n
ieie i?aaao. Iiieii i?i/aai, aeaiiui Caeiiii o/?aaeaeaaony
Iaoeeiiaeueiay eiienney ii eioi?iaoeea e i?aaai, eioi?ie i?enaaeaaaony
noaoon “iacaaeneiiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aaoi?eoaoa”. Ca ia?acaoe auee
acyou aiaeinaeniineea, i?aaeaea anaai aia?eeaineea, “aaaionoaa”, eioi?ua
inouanoaeytho ?aaoee?iaaiea a ?acee/iuo naeoi?ao iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iu
eiaai, oaeei ia?acii, aua iaeei i?eia? i?ioeanna aeiaaeecaoeee i?aaa.

*(129) A ?inneeneeo ?aaeeyo yoi i?iyaeyaony a no?aieaiee “niyoue
aaeieieno?aoeaiua aa?uea?u” e ?acaeaaoue nenoaio “naii?aaoee?oaiuo
i?aaiecaoeee”.

*(130) Ni.: Rigaux F. Transnational Civil Society // International Law:
Achievements and Prospects. Mohammed Bedjaoui, ed., 1991. P. 12. I ?iee
/anoiuo noauaeoia a o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiii i?aaiaii i?ioeanna ni. oaeaea:
Koh H.H. Transnational Legal Process // Neb. L. Rev. N75, 1996. P. 181,
183 – 85.

*(131) Perritt H. The Internet Is Changing the Public International
Legal System // KY L. Rev. N 88, 2000. Oaeno noaouee aeinooiai ii
aae?ano: http://www.kentlaw.edu/cyberlaw/perrittnetchg.html. (Aeaoa
iineaaeiaai iinauaiey – 20.07.03.).

*(132) A no.1 Eiiaaioeee ii?aaeaeaiu iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey aeey i?eciaiey
i?aainoauaeoiinoe IAI: i?aneaaeiaaiea iaeiiia?/aneeo oeaeae, eiathueo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia cia/aiea; ?aaeno?aoeey ia iniiaaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iaeiie ec Aeiaiaa?eaathueony Noi?ii; aeayoaeueiinoue
ia oa??eoi?ee ia iaiaa aeaoo ainoaea?noa, aoiaeyueo a NA.

*(133) A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia IAI iiaeii i?eaanoe Anaie?iue niaao oea?eaae
(WCC) eee Iaaeaeoia?iaeioth annioeeaoeeth iauanoaaiiiai o?ainii?oa
(UITP). Noaoon IAI eiatho iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee, naycaiiua n aeaeaeaieai
“A?eiien”, a oaeaea i?aaiecaoeee, eiathuea naiae oeaeueth caueoo
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa.

*(134) Oa?oaiaae/ A.O. Iauay oai?ey i?aaa. I., 1995. O. 1. N.133.

*(135) Iao?aaeeoeeee E.E. Oai?ey i?aaa e ainoaea?noaa. NIa., 2000. N.86.
Eaeay i oii, /oi ethaee (iieueciaaoaee, anee ?a/ue eaeao ia Eioa?iaoa)
nicaeatho e eniieiytho ii?iu oaeaea e ca i?aaeaeaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee,
onoaiiaeaiiie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, ia yaeyaony i?eaeiaeueiie. Iiaecia
iiaeoiaea E.E. Iao?aaeeoeeiai a aeaiiii aii?ina caeeth/aaony a iiieiaiee
i?aaa (eee, ii nianoaaiiiio au?aaeaieth aaoi?a, “eiooeoeaii-i?aaiaie
niaanoe”) eae ia?aii?e/eiu ethaiai ii?iioai?/anoaa. Neaaeoao, iaeiaei,
i?eciaoue, /oi eiioeaioeey E.E. Iao?aaeeoeeiai, oioy e inoaaony
iai?aacieaeaiiie a ?yaeo ineoieiae/aneeo oai?ee i?aaa, i?aeoe/anee ia
eiaao iineaaeiaaoaeae.

*(136) April Mara Major – ecaanoiue a NOA niaoeeaeeno a iaeanoe
“oeeo?iaiai i?aaa”, aaeaieao e /eai enneaaeiaaoaeueneie a?oiiu ii
eco/aieth Eioa?iaoa Oaaea?aeueiie eiiennee ii oi?aiaea (FTC).

*(137) Major A.M. Norm Origin and Development in Cyberspace: Models of
Cybernorm Evolution // Washington University Law Quaterley. 2000. Vol.
78:59. P.70.

*(138) Ni.: Major A.M. Op. cit. P.76.

*(139) Naiae iiioey?iinoueth Eioa?iao iaycai caioneii a ia/aea 90-o aa.
oae iacuaaaiie Anaie?iie iaooeiu (World Wide Web), eioi?ay i?aaeinoaaeea
a ?anii?yaeaiea iieueciaaoaeae aiciiaeiinoue iienea eioi?iaoeee n
iiiiuueth aeia?nnueie (hyperlinks) e oaeiaiue a?aoe/aneee eioa?oaen (GUI
eee Grafical User Interface). N yoiai iiiaioa eiiioieeaoeey /a?ac Naoue
noaea i?inoie e aeinooiiie, o.a. aieueoa ia o?aaiaaea niaoeeaeueiuo
ciaiee eee iaaueia.

*(140) Ooieoeey au?aaeaiey eeoea (oeuaee, e?iie/iie eee i?eaaoeeaie,
ia/aee eee ii?eoeaiey) i?e ?acaiai?a aiieia i/aaeaeia, iaeiaei a Naoe
i?iyaeaiea yiioeee cao?oaeiaii ia?aie/aieyie, eioi?ua iaeeaaeuaaao
niinia iauaiey a oi?ia iaiaia ienueiaiiuie niiauaieyie. Naoaaia
niiauanoai iaoei naie auoiae ec neooaoeee. E i?eia?o, a ia?aienea ii
e-mail, a oaeaea a ae?oaeo eiiioieeaoeeyo a eeaa?i?ino?ainoaa (oaeeo eae
a?oiiu iiainoae eee ii-eaei eiioa?aioeee) naiaai ?iaea iau/aai noae
iiae/a?eiooi ?acaiai?iue noeeue, ?aaeecoaiue iin?aaenoaii
“yiioeeiiaeueiuo neiaieia” (emoticons). A ea/anoaa ae?oaiai i?eia?a
iiaeii i?eaanoe eniieueciaaiea inaaaeiieiia. Naiuie iau/iuie i?e/eiaie,
ii eioi?ui aaoi? i?aaeii/eoaao aunooiaoue iiae auiuoeaiiui eiaiai,
yaeythony aeaeaiea ecaaaeaoue i?aaeacyoiai iiaiey ni noi?iiu /eoaoaeae
eee aiciiaeiie eaeaioeoeeaoeee ni noi?iiu aeeceeo e ae?ocae. Naoaaua
aaoi?u iiaoo i?aneaaeiaaoue oa aea oeaee, iaeiaei a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
?a/ue eaeao i niaa?oaiii eiie i?e/eia – auiuoeaiiia eiy yaeyaony
i?eiyoui e iaeeaeaaiui iiaaaeaieai a i?aaeaeao ae?ooaeueiiai
i?ino?ainoaa.

*(141) Ni.: Major A.M. Op. cit. P. 90.

*(142) Engel Ch. The Role of Law in the Governance of the Internet //
Max-Planck-Projektgruppe “Recht der Gemeinschaftsgueter”. Bonn, N 13,
2002. P.4.

*(143) Ia?aay iii?aaea (First Amendment) e Eiinoeoooeee NOA, i?eiyoay a
1791 a. e aeaenoaeoaeueiay naaiaeiy ie/ooue ia iaiaa, /ai noieaoea
iacaae, aeaneo a oii /enea, /oi Eiia?ann ia aeieaeai ecaeaaaoue ie
iaeiiai caeiia, ia?aie/eaathuaai naiaiaeo neiaa e ia/aoe. Caeii i
i?enoieiinoe a oaeaeiiioieeaoeeyo aue i?eciai ia niioaaonoaothuei Ia?aie
iii?aaea e oae e ia anooiee a neeo.

*(144) Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie Oaaea?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai Aa?iaiee
n/eoaao naiae iaycaiiinoueth aanoe ia?a/ie “iacaeiiiuo” naeoia, eioi?ua
eeai niaea?aeao ii?iia?aoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth, eeai i?iiaaaiaee?otho
ianeeea, eeai, iaeiiaoe, eioi?ie?otho i iaiiaoeenoneeo i?aaiecaoeeyo e
eo aeayoaeueiinoe.

*(145) Noaoaiaeiia I. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue eioa?iao-i?iaaeaea?ia ca
ia?ooaiea aaoi?neiai i?aaa ii iaiaoeeiio e aa?iiaeneiio i?aao //
Atheeaoaiue ii aaoi?neiio i?aao. 2001. O. XXXV. N 2.

*(146) I?inoua eaiaeu nayce, niaeanii Aee?aeoeaa, “ninoiyo a ia?aaea/a
ii eiiioieeaoeeiiiie naoe eioi?iaoeee, i?aaeinoaaeyaiie iieo/aoaeai
oneoa, eee a i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeinooia e eiiioieeaoeeiiiie naoe”. Eia/a
aiai?y, yoi i?iaaeaea?u oneoa a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa.

*(147) Ni.: Perritt H. The Internet is Changing the Public International
Legal System // KY L. Rev. N 88. 2000. Oaeno noaouee aeinooiai ii
aae?ano: http://www.kentlaw.edu/cyberlaw/perrittnetchg.html (Aeaoa
iineaaeiaai iinauaiey – 20.07.03.).

*(148) I?e/eiie iiyaeaiey iiaeiaiiai niaeaoaiey iineoaeeei
ianiioaaonoaea aia?eeaineeo noaiaea?oia caueou ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo
noaiaea?oai, i?eiaiyaiui a Aa?iia, a i?aaeiaoii niaeaoaiey noaee oneiaey
iieo/aiey aia?eeaineeie eiiiaieyie ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuo i /anoiuo
eeoeao, i?iaeeaathueo a Aa?iia.

*(149) A 1999 a. iaaeaeo Ieienoa?noaii oi?aiaee NOA e ICANN aue
iiaeienai iaii?aiaeoi, i?aaeiaoii eioi?iai yaeyeanue ia?aaea/a
oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie aeiiaiiuo eiai (DNS) “/anoiiio naeoi?o”, eee eia/a –
“i?eaaoecaoeey” nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey aeiiaiiuie eiaiaie n oeaeueth
“iiauneoue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue e niinianoaiaaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio
o/anoeth a aa oi?aaeaiee”. Oaeno iaii?aiaeoia aeinooiai ii aae?ano:
http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/domainname/icann-memorandum.htm. (Aeaoa
iineaaeiaai iinauaiey – 20.07.03.).

*(150) Ioiaoei, /oi aiciaiiaeaoayny a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey iao/iay
aeeneonney ioiineoaeueii aeaeaiey ethaie i?aaiaie nenoaiu ia ioaee/iia e
/anoiia i?aai, aaaaeaiiiai aua Oeueieaiii (Aeeaanou 1.1.1.2.),
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaiaeiicia/iinoe eeanne/aneiai ?aoaiey aeaiiiai
aii?ina. I?aiaeaaeathuay iiceoeey nia?aiaiiuo th?enoia caeeth/aaony a
naeeaeaiee ioaee/iiai e /anoiiai i?aaa, i?iaanoe aeanoeea a?aieoeu
iaaeaeo eioi?uie noaiiaeony ana o?oaeiaa. Oae aea eae /anoiay noa?a
o?aaoao ioaee/iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey (oioy au aeey oiai, /oiau iiauneoue
yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aiauo iia?aoeee iooai aa?aioee noaaeeueiinoe i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe e i?eiaiaiey naieoeee i?e aeaeeeoiie eee aeiaiai?iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe), ioaee/iay noa?a a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee ia
iiaeao ia o/eouaaoue aeeiaieeo /anoiuo eioa?ania. Ni.: Farber D.A.,
Frickey Ph. P. In the Shadow of the Legislature: the Common Law in the
Age of the New Public Law // Mich. L. Rev. N 89. 1991. ?.875, 886.

*(151) Ni.: Trachtman Joel P. Conflict of Laws and Accuracy in the
Allocation of Government Responsibility // Vand. J. Transnat’l Law N 26.
1994. P.990-991.

*(152) Johnson D.R., Post D. Law and Borders – The Rise of Law in
Cyberspace // Stan. L. Rev. 1996. N 48. ?. 1370.

*(153) I?aaeienuaaaiay th?enaeeeoeey (jurisdiction to prescribe)
icia/aao iieiiii/ea ainoaea?noaa i?aaeienaoue i?eiaiaiea naiaai
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?aaa e ii?aaeaeaiiui eeoeai e i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao. I?aaeienuaaaiay th?enaeeeoeey annioeee?oaony i?aaeaea
anaai n iiiyoeai “auai?a i?aaa” (“choice of law”). Noaeaaiay
th?enaeeeoeey (jurisdiction to adjudicate) icia/aao iieiiii/ea
ainoaea?noaa ?ani?ino?aiyoue ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeoe e i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao aeaenoaea iaoeeiiaeueiie noaeaaiie nenoaiu, aoaeue oi
a?aaeaeaineia, aaeieieno?aoeaiia eee oaieiaiia i?iecaiaenoai. Aeaiiue
aeae th?enaeeeoeee niioaaonoaoao ?ani?ino?aiaiiiio iiiyoeth “auai?a
noaea” (“choice of forum”). Iaeiiaoe, eniieieoaeueiay th?enaeeeoeey
(jurisdiction to enforce) eanaaony iieiiii/ey ainoaea?noaa i?eioaeaeaoue
e niaethaeaieth caeiiia eee iaeacuaaoue ca eo ianiaethaeaiea eae
iin?aaenoaii eniieieoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e n i?eiaiaieai
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ia?, iieeoeee e eiuo aianoaeaaiuo n?aaenoa
inouanoaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

*(154) Ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao NOA aica?ao ieaoaaea ii e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ea
?ani?ino?aiyaony oieueei ia iio?aaeoaeae e ia aeaenoaoao a ioiioaiee
naeaeie ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa. Aieueoeinoai nenoai ii ianeoaeeaaieth
e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae niaoeeaeueii aeey noa?u yeaeo?iiiie oi?aiaee i?eiyee
i?aaeea ii caueoa iio?aaeoaey iooai aica?aoa ieaoaaea, eioi?ue
aa?aioe?oaony aia caaeneiinoe io ianoa iaoiaeaeaiey eeeaioa. A ioee/ea
io NOA, aaea io yieoaioia e?aaeeoiuo ea?oi/ae o?aaotho i?aaeinoaaeaiey
oaeie oneoae, a Aa?iia niioaaonoaothuea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i?aaeienaiey
ionoonoaotho. Iaeiaei oneoaa ii aica?aoo ieaoaaea e caeanue iieo/eea
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e yaeyaony oeiiaui oneiaeai i?e caeeth/aiee
niaeaoaiee ia ianeoaeeaaiea e?aaeeoiuo e aeaaaoiauo ea?oi/ae. I?e/eia
iiioey?iinoe aeaiiiai iaoaiecia caeeth/aaony a aai aeaoaaecia, i?inoioa
e auno?ioa eniieueciaaiey. O iio?aaeoaey ioiaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
iienea aaeaieaoa eee iin?aaeieea aeey ?ac?aoaiey nii?a. Iinea iieo/aiey
iany/iiai io/aoa ii e?aaeeoiie ea?oi/ea aio iaiaoiaeeii oieueei
iicaiieoue eee iaienaoue yieoaioo e ii?ioanoiaaoue ieaoaae. Ana
inoaeueiua aii?inu aoaeoo ?aoaoueny oaea iaaeaeo yieoaioii e i?iaeaaoeii
aac o/anoey iio?aaeoaey e i?eoii aanieaoii, o.a. iio?aaeoaeue ia oieaoeo
ieeaeeo iioeei ca o?aaoee?iaaiea nii?a. Iaycaiiinoue aeieacuaaoue naith
aeia?iniaanoiinoue (iaaeeaaeauaa eniieiaiea aeiaiai?a) aiceaaaaony ia
i?iaeaaoea, eioi?ue a neo/aa aeiiaiinoe ?eneoao iiianoue a “/a?iue
nienie”.

*(155) Perritt H. Op. cit.

*(156) Oeoiie?ia TH.A. Eieeeceiiiia i?aai. I., 2001. N.333 – 334.

*(157) Caiaoei, /oi a iaeioi?uo no?aiao – “ieiia?ii” auea A?aaioeia aua
a eiioea 1990-o aa. – i?aai aeinooia e yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa ioianaii e
ooiaeaiaioaeueiui i?aaai /aeiaaea!

*(158) Aa?oeiei A.I. Yeaeo?iiiue aeieoiaio: i?aaiaay oi?ia e
aeieacaoaeuenoai a noaea. I., 2000. N.125.

*(159) Oai aea. N.120-122.

*(160) ?aoaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?ac?aaioaoue “i?aaiaie eino?oiaio,
eiathuee iaycaoaeueioth neeo” ii aii?inai iaoa?eaeueiiai oaieiaiiai
i?aaa, iaoaiecia i?eioaeaeaiey e i?iaeaia th?enaeeeoeee a noa?a
eiiiuethoa?iuo i?anooieaiee auei i?eiyoi a 1997 a. ia canaaeaiee
Yenia?oiie eiiennee ii i?anooieaieyi a eeaa?i?ino?ainoaa (Committee of
Experts on Crimes in Cyber-Space) i?e Aa?iiaeneii Niaaoa. Oaeei ia?acii,
Eiiaaioeey yaeeanue ?acoeueoaoii ii/oe /aou?aoeaoiae ?aaiou, a eioi?ie
i?eieiaee o/anoea ia oieueei yenia?ou AN, ii e niaoeeaeenou ec NOA,
Eaiaaeu, ssiiiee, o.a. no?ai, ia yaeythueony /eaiaie AN.

*(161) A ea/anoaa “ianoiyoaeuenoa”, neoaeaueo aeieacaoaeuenoaii caeiiiuo
i?aa ia aeiiaiiia eiy, i.N no.4 “Aaeeiuo i?aaee” onoaiaaeeaaao, a
/anoiinoe, iaeiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea eiaie (aac iaia?aiey aaanoe a
caaeoaeaeaiea iio?aaeoaeae ioiineoaeueii niioaaonoaothuaai oiaa?iiai
ciaea), a oaeaea eniieueciaaiea eee i?eaioiaeaiey e eniieueciaaieth
eiaie aeey ieacaiey oneoa eee i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia (o.a. ionoonoaea
iaia?aiey eniieueciaaoue aeiiaiiia eiy aeey iineaaeothuae
ia?ai?iaeaaee).

*(162) Eai?aaeae A.N. Io?aia aaoi?neeo e eiuo eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia
iauaeou eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, ?aciauaiiua a naoe Eioa?iao //
I?aaiaua aniaeou eniieueciaaiey eioa?iao-oaoiieiaee. Iiae ?aae. A.N.
Eai?aaeae, Ae.A. Aieiaa?iaa. I., 2002. N.50.

*(163) N?aaee th?enoia Aiaeee e NOA ana aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/aao o?aeoiaea aaoi?a eae “i?iecaiaeeoaey eioi?iaoeee”.

*(164) Eaeyoei A.I. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue (Eneeth/eoaeueiua
i?aaa). I., 2000. N.83.

*(165) ?a/ue eaeao i aeaea Adobe vs Elcomsoft, aoiaeyuai a ia?aoth
aeanyoeo aeae, eioi?ua iiaeaa?aee eniuoaieth ii?iu Digital Millennium
Copyright Act (DMCA), eanathueany naieoeee i?ioea aaaaeaiey a
caaeoaeaeaiea (anti-circumvention provisions). *oi eanaaony Ae.
Neey?iaa, oi ii noae ia?aui, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai a niioaaonoaee n oai
aea DMCA auei aicaoaeaeaii oaieiaiia aeaei. Aeieo?ee Neey?ia, 27-eaoiee
i?ia?aiieno, ?aaioaaoee ia ?inneeneoth eiiiaieth “Yeeiinioo”, aue
a?anoiaai a Ean-Aaaana 16 ethey 2001 a. e aieioue aei 13 aeaeaa?y 2001
a. – eiaaea aue auianai ii?aaaeaoaeueiue i?eaiai? – iaoiaeeeny a
aia?eeaineie oth?ueia. Noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai a ioiioaiee
?aaioiaeaoaey, “Yeeiinioo”, i?iaeieaeaeinue aua a oa/aiea aiaea, iaeiaei
17 aeaeaa?y 2002 a. eiiiaiey oaeaea auea i?eciaia iaaeiiaiie.

*(166) Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a oeaio?a ianoaeaeaiey iaoiaeyony o?e
iniiaiuo i?iaeoa – caeiiii?iaeo Eiaeono?eaeueiiai Eiieoaoa, a oaeaea
caeiiii?iaeou I.E. Eiaaeaiei e I.A. Oaaeioiaa. Caiaoei, /oi iniaaiii
iaaaoeaioth ?aaeoeeth ni noi?iiu iauanoaaiiinoe aucaae caeiiii?iaeo
Eiaeono?eaeueiiai Eiieoaoa, eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?aaeinoaaeaiea ii
nooe iaia?aie/aiiuo i?aa “aeaaeaeueoeai” NIE, iaeiia?aiaiii ouaieyy
i?aaa aeaaiiai ?aaeaeoi?a e nianoaaiii ?aaeaeoeee. I?ioea i?eiyoey
iiaiai caeiia i NIE aunooieee oaeea aaoi?eoaoiua i?aaiecaoeee, eae Nithc
aeo?iaeenoia ?innee, Oiiae caueou aeaniinoe, Einoeooo i?iaeai
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?aaa e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea. Eo iiceoeey naiaeeony e
oiio, /oi iuia aeaenoaothuee Caeii iaiaoiaeeii ?aoi?ie?iaaoue, ii aai ie
a eiai neo/aa ia neaaeoao caiaiyoue ia iiaue, a iniiaaiee eioi?iai
caeiaeaia eiay eaeaieiaey, ia aiieia ioaa/athuay o?aaiaaieyi aeaniinoe e
aeaiie?aoecaoeee.

*(167) A NOA Caeii “I naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee” aue i?eiyo a 1966 a., a a
1996 a. a iaai auee aianaiu aeiiieiaiey – oae iacuaaaiua “yeaeo?iiiua
iii?aaee”, eioi?ua niaea?aeaee ?acuyniaiey ioiineoaeueii i?aaiecaoeee
iienea e oaeiaeaoai?aiey cai?ina ii aeieoiaioai a yeaeo?iiiii oi?iaoa.
Aaeeeia?eoaiey i?eiyea aiaeiae/iue caeii oieueei a 2000 a., oioy aai
ianoaeaeaiea aeeeeinue ianeieueei eao, ia/eiay n 1997 a., eiaaea
i?aaeoaeuenoai iioaeeeiaaei aeieoiaio iiae iacaaieai “Aaoa i?aai ciaoue”
(Your Right to Know). Caeii “I naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee” Aaeeeia?eoaiee, a
ioee/ea io aia?eeaineiai, oa?aeoa?ecoao aeaoaeueiay i?i?aaioaiiinoue ia
o?iaia niaoeeaeueiuo ?acaeaeia i?aeoe/anee anao cia/eiuo aii?inia, a
/anoiinoe – i i?aaa ia eioi?iaoeeth, ia eioi?iaoeee n ia?aie/aiiui
aeinooiii, i i?ioeaaeo?a iiaea/e aeaeia a auoanoiyuea i?aaiu e noaeaaiuo
aiaeeyoeee e i?i/. Ionthaea e ?acieoea a iauaia: oiaaea eae aia?eeaineee
caeii neaaeoao i?eioeeio “ieieiaeecia”, aiaeeeneee – ian/eouaaao ieiei
100 no?aieoe, o.a. ii/oe a 10 ?ac i?aauoaao aai ii ?acia?o. Oaeno Caeiia
NOA “I naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee” a aeaenoaothuae ?aaeaeoeee iiaeii iaeoe a
I?eeiaeaiee e ianoiyuae eieaa.

*(168) Ni.: Ii?icia A.A., Oeeaoiaa E.A. Aii?inu eiaeeoeeaoeee
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa // I?iaeaiu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a
noa?a eioi?iaoecaoeee. Oacenu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. I.,
2003.

*(169) Aeaoiy “eiieo?e?othueie” i?iaeoaie 4-e /anoe A?aaeaeaineiai
eiaeaena ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue yaeythony: i?iaeo Oeaio?a /anoiiai i?aaa
e i?iaeo A.I. Na?aaaaa – A.ss. Eiiena?iaa (?ac?aaioaiiue ia iniiaa
?aeiiaiaeaoeee eaoaae?u a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa, aicaeaaeyaiie
i?ioanni?ii A.I. Na?aaaaui, e aianaiiue a Ainoaea?noaaiioth Aeoio ii
eieoeeaoeaa aeaiooaoa A.ss. Eiienna?iaa a aeaeaa?a 2000 a., a a
oniaa?oainoaiaaiiii aeaea – a oaa?aea 2001 a.). Oaenou i?iaeoia iiaeii
iaeoe ii neaaeothuei yeaeo?iiiui aae?anai:
http://privlaw.h1.ru/gk4txt.html (i?iaeo Oeaio?a /anoiiai i?aaa) e
http://www.law.copyright.ru/lawprojects/index.html (i?iaeo A.I. Na?aaaaa
– A.ss. Eiiena?iaa).

*(170) Oaeno caeiia (i?eaaaeai) ii ninoiyieth ia 1 aeaeaa?y 2003 a.
Ia?aaiae ia?aiia/aeueiiai (aei aianaiey iineaaeothueo iii?aaie) oaenoa
caeiia, auiieiaiiue ii caeaco ENAeE e iioaeeeiaaiiue a niaoeauionea
atheeaoaiy “Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e i?aeoeea NIE” (N 3 ca 1966 a.), a
ianoiyuae ioaeeeaoeee caiiai io?aaeaeoe?iaai. Caeii NOA “I naiaiaea
eioi?iaoeee” aue aaaaeai a aeaenoaea Iauei caeiiii N 89-554 io 6
naioya?y 1966 a., a iineaaeiea e iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiua iii?aaee a iaai
auee aianaiu Iauei caeiiii N 104-231 io 2 naioya?y 1996 a., eioi?ue
iieo/ee oneiaiia iacaaiea “Yeae?iiiua iii?aaee 1996 a. e Caeiio i
naiaiaea eioi?iaoeee” (Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments
of 1966).

*(171) Aooeaeaaeo (affidevit) – ienueiaiiia iieacaiea, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiia
i?enyaie.

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