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Адвокатура, общество и государство (1864-1914) том первый. 1997 (учебник)

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E.A. Aannai

AAeAIEAOO?A, IAUANOAI
E AINOAeA?NOAI
(1864-1914)

ENOI?Ess
?ONNEIE

AAeAIEAOO?U

oii

IA?AUE

TH?ENOUe
IINEAA
19 9 7

IO NINOAAEOAEss

Ia auei, iaaa?iia, ca aanue ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey ?inneeneie aaeaiea-
oo?u aieaa a?aiaeeiciiai e cia/eiiai aeey iaa naiie yaiunea, /ai iaia?aiea
nicaeaoue o?oae, iinayuaiiue enoi?ee aicieeiiaaiey, ?acaeoey e aeayoaeue-
iinoe aaeaieaoo?u a ?innee. Eaeay yoa iaiaeiie?aoii aicieeaea a n?aaea
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo oaea /a?ac ianeieueei eao iinea o/?aaeaeaiey aaeai-
eaoo?u Noaeaaiuie Onoaaaie 1864 aiaea. Oae, a eiioea ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia
i?ioeiai aaea n.-iaoa?ao?aneei Niaaoii i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ianoae-
aeaeny aii?in i nicaeaiee Enoi?ee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia eae caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai
iaiyoieea , Iaia?aiea yoi ia aueei ?aaeeciaaii.

Eiia/ii, nouanoaiaaee ?aaiou, a eioi?uo a oie eee eiie noaiaie in-
aauaeenue ?acee/iua aniaeou aicieeiiaaiey, ?acaeoey e aeayoaeueiinoe aae-
aieaoo?u a ?innee . Iaeiaei iaiaoiaeeii auei nicaeaiea ananoi?iiiaai en-
neaaeiaaiey ii enoi?ee aaeaieaoo?u.

Aii?in yoio iiaeieiaeny aiiaue e aiiaue. A /anoiinoe, a ieoya?a 1911 aiaea
/eai iineianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ss. E. Eeneoeui i?aaeei-
aeee o/?aaeeoue o?e i?aiee ca eo/oea enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe enoi?ee ?onneie
aaeaieaoo?u. Iaeiaei aeaiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea ia i?eiyee, iineieueeo ecaeaiea
ianeieueeeo ?aaio ?acee/iuo aaoi?ia, oioy e auei au iieaciui, ii ia
?aoaei aeaaiie caaea/e – nicaeaiey eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey ia aeaiioth
oaio. Iaiaoiaeeia auea eiinieeaeaoeey iiiaeo nee, iauaaeeiaiiuo aaeeiui
caiuneii.

E aio ?acoeueoaoii aieueoie iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie ?aaiou, i?iaaaeaiiie iin-
eianeei e iao?ia?aaeneei Niaaoaie i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a 1912-
1914 aa., noaea i?ia?aiia ecaeaiey . I?i-
a?aiia yoa auea iaeia?aia anaie Niaaoaie i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eioi?ua,
a naith i/a?aaeue, ecuyaeee aioiaiinoue i?eiyoue o/anoea a ?anoiaeao ia ecaeaiea
yoiai o?oaea. Auea oaeaea o/?aaeaeaia eiienney ii ecaeaieth ?aaiou. A ei-
ienneth aioee i?aaenoaaeoaee iao?ia?aaeneiai, iineianeiai, eacaineiai,
oa?ueeianeiai, iaeanneiai, iiai/a?eanneiai e iineiai Niaaoia i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo. *eaiaie eiiennee auee I.A. Aa?aiooai, I.I. Aeiaaa?,

Ni.: Io/ao Nia. Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1890 a. N. 10.

Ni, iai?eia?, A?naiueaa E.E. Caiaoee i ?onneie aaeaieaoo?a. Nia., 1875. Ai?iaeei Ae.I.
Enoi?e/aneee i/a?e ?onneie aaeaieaoo?u Nia., 1915; Aeiaaa? I. I/a?ee ia aaeaieaoo?a. Nia.. 1902;
Aanueeianeee UeA. I?aaiecaoeey aaeaieaoo?u. Nia., 1893; Iaeae/neee I.A. N.-Iaoa?ao?aneay i?e-
nyaeiay aaeaieaoo?a. Nia.. 1889; Noiyiia. Enoi?ey aaeaieaoo?u. Oa?ueeia. 1869 e ae?.

Naieo Iaoa?ao?a noae eiaiiaaoueny Iao?ia?aaeii oieueei n 1914 aiaea (aei 1924 a.). Caeanue e
aeaeaa,aaee ?a/ue eaeao i a?aiaie aei 1914 aiaea. eiaaony a aeaeo Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a.

I.I. Ea?aa/aaneee, E.E. A?naiueaa, Ae.I. Aeia?ioioia e ae?oaea ecaanoiua
aaeaieaou. I?aaenaaeaoaeai eiiennee eca?aee A.A. Eaiaeea?a.

Caiunae aue aienoeio a?aiaeeiciui. I?ia?aiia ecaeaiey aeeth/aea nea-
aeothuea ?acaeaeu enneaaeiaaiey:

1. Enoi?ey aaeaieaoo?u a ?innee aei noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu.

2. Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia a nayce n ?aoi?iaie 60-o aiaeia.

3. Aaeaieaoo?a ii Noaeaaiui Onoaaai 1864 a. N?aaiaiea n aa?iiaeneie
aaeaieaoo?ie.

4. Iineaaeothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aaeaieaoo?a. I?iaeou Io?aaueaa-
neie eiiennee. I?iaeou iineaaeiaai a?aiaie.

5. Aaaaeaiea a aeaenoaea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia.

6. Ia?aua i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua. Ia?aciaaiea ia?auo Niaaoia.
Iauay enoi?ey ?onneie aaeaieaoo?u. Iauee iaci?: 1866-1870,
1870-1881. Ainueieaeanyoua aiaeu: 1881-1891; 1891-1905, iinea
1905 aiaea. Nia?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea. Eoiae.

7. Noaoenoeea ?inoa aaeaieaoo?u. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii noieeoeai, aoaa?i-
neei e oacaeiui ai?iaeai e ianoa/eai. Aaeaieaoo?a ii noaeaaiui ie?oaai
ii ia?a eo oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

8. Enoi?ey iaueo nia?aiee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Eo i?aaiecaoeey
e eiiiaoaioeey.

9. Enoi?ey Niaaoia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo.

10. Ee/iua ninoaau Niaaoia.

11. I?aaiecaoeey Niaaoia. Eiiennee i?e Niaaoao. I?aaeea aioo?aiiaai
?anii?yaeea. Iaeacu. Aeenoeeieeia?iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue /eaiia Niaaoia.

12. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue Niaaoia. Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e ea-
ieoaeu Niaaoia, nineiaiua nai?u, iaaeieiee, ai?ueaa n ieie, io/aoiinoue,
eiio?ieue. Eaioeaey?ee, eo ninoaau. Ninoaaeaiea e ecaeaiea io/aoia, eo ni-
aea?aeaiea. Iiiauaiey Niaaoia. Aeaeeioaee.

13. Noaeaaiay aeayoaeueiinoue Niaaoia. Noaoenoeea aeaeaeaiey aeenoeeiee-
ia?iuo aeae e iaeaaaaiuo acuneaiee. Ii?yaeie ?anniio?aiey aeenoeeieeia?-
iuo aeae. Iiaenoaeiinoue ii ianoo niaa?oaiey aeenoeeieeia?iiai i?inooiea.

14. Iauee iaci? i?aaee iiaaaeaiey, auoaeathueo ec i?aeoeee Niaaoia.

15. Aii?inu, eioa?aniaaaoea nineiaea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo: aaeaieao-
neay oaeia, niaianoeoaeuenoai, aaaeaiea iai?aauo aeae, ioeac io caueou e ae?.

16. Aaeieieno?aoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue Niaaoia: i?eai a nineiaea, iacia-
/aiea /eaiia nineiaey aeey , neiaii , eae aiai?ee AAe. Nianiae/ i oieueei /oi aicieeoae i?e-
nyaeiie aaeaieaoo?a. O ian anoue enoi?ey. O ian auea aaeaieaoo?a, aeyaey ia

eioi?oth e o/anue o eioi?ie, iu niiaeai nicaeaoue iiaia nineiaea aaeaieaoia,
aeinoieiia naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia.

Iao, yoi ia iiiuoee eaeaaeecaoeee aaeaieaoo?u.
(Iuneue ia yoii iiaeao aicieeiooue, iiaeaeoe, eeoue o oiai, eoi ia ciaao
aa enoi?ee e i?iaeai.)

Iao a yoii e no?aieaiey ioaa?aiooue ana, /oi naycaii n aaeaieaoo?ie
niaaoneiai ia?eiaea: iinooieoue oae – cia/eo iiaoi?eoue ioeaeo, niaa?-
oaiioth oaie, eoi oaea iaeiaaeaeu i?a?aae i?aainoaaiiinoue. Aea, aaeaieaoo?a
iinea 1917 a. auea ae?oaie. Ii e iia o?aaoao ia iaiueoaai aieiaiey e
ouaoaeueiiai eco/aiey… E iia caneoaeeaaao naiae .

E aua ia iaeiii. Iiaeii iacuaaoue eaeea oaiaeii i?e/eiu iauaeoeaiiai
e noauaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a, iiiaoaaoea i?iaeieaeeoue yoi aanueia aaaeiia
aeey aaeaieaoo?u ia/eiaiea, i/aaeaeii iaeii – o?oaea, iiaeiaiiai yoiio, o
nia?aiaiiie ?inneeneie aaeaieaoo?u iao. Iaaeaainy, /oi yoi aeaei aoaeouaai.
Oi/aony aa?eoue, /oi iuiaoiaa nineiaea aaeaieaoia i?iaeieaeeo oo ?aaioo,
eioi?ay ii caiuneo naieo oai?oeia aeieaeia auea noaoue .

N. Aaa?eeia, aaeaieao

1. AeI NOAeAAIIE ?AOI?IU

1. AeI?AOI?IAIIAss AAeAIEAOO?A

Eiaaea o?aioeocneia o/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea, 2 naioya?y 1790 aiaea, ?a-
oeei oie/oiaeeoue nineiaioth i?aaiecaoeeth aaeaieaoo?u, auaeathueany /eaiu
nineiaey o?aaiaaee i?e ianoaeaeaiee yoiai i?iaeoa, /oiau e naiia iacaaiea
auei oi?acaeiaii. .

Noieue aea ?aoeoaeueii ?onneay aaeaieaoo?a io?aeaaony io anyeiai nia-
oaiey n aei?aoi?iaiiuie oiaeaoayie e no?yi/eie. . Oi/ii oae aea e A.Ae. Nianiae/ a ?a/e naiae ia i?iuaeueiii
iaaaea a /anoue E.E. A?naiueaaa, aiai?y ia oi?i/aiee
aaeaieaoia, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, caiaoee: Iiiiei, eae
iaeiaaeaeu iieiaeie iaa?-nae?aoa?ue, iie?aynue ia caauooth e ieeiaaea ia i?e-
iaiyaoothny noaoueth Naiaea Caeiiia, ioeacaeny ne?aieoue enoeiii iai?a-
aeeueiia iinoaiiaeaiea, aeaaii?eyonoaiaaaoaa ethaeyi, caieiaaoei i/aiue
aeaeiia iieiaeaiea a aunoai iauanoaa, – e n eaeei ooiii, n eaeei aiaaii
ano?aoeee naiiaiua noa?eee oaeia iaiau/aeiia aea?ciiaaiea! Iiiiei, eae
?yaie iaoae ni ciaoiui eiaiai iiaeaaae iaoaio oiaa?euo aeey aeieeaaea
i?enoonoaeth naia ienueiaiiia ii?aaaeaiea, ?aeiiaiaeoynue, /oi ii ieeinoe
oea?neie ii – nui aa?neie, e eae ieeaeeie aeiaiaeaie iaeuecy auei i?a-
aeioa?aoeoue i?eno?anoiiai ?aoaiey. I?aae iaie iaaieueii
anoatho ainiiieiaiey – iaeii aiciooeoaeueiaa ae?oaiai. Eaeea ioee, eaeea
oa?caiey i?i/oanoaiaaea aeooa, niciaaay aanneeea iiii/ue enoeia, iaaic-
iiaeiinoue i?iaanoe i?aaaeo neaicue ioou e naoe oiaaeaoiaai oi?iaeueiiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa! Oai, aieco, noa?ue e?th/eiaaae-neaaeiaaoaeue nioao oaeue-
oeaoth iniiao, ii anai aiaoiei i?aaeeai caeiia, aeey aoaeouaai noaeaaiiai
i?eaiai?a; caoai, a oacaeiie einoaioeee, i?e ei?unoiii o/anoee eee i?e
niaa?oaiiii, ia iaiaa i?anooiiii aaco/anoee auai?iuo aeai?yi noaeae,
acyoi/iee nae?aoa?ue no?yiaao ec aeaea e iiaeneacuaaao ei aac-
ia?acioth ia ii oi?ia, a ii nouanoao ?aciethoeeth; aio, iaeiiaoe, iinea
iiiaieaoiae eiiaaea i?iaiei/ee, aeaei a oaieiaiie iaeaoa, aaea aeaeao aai oa
aea o/anoue. Ii oai, a yoii aeai?yineii noaea aunoae einoaioeee, neaeyo,
iieiaeei, oaea i?aaiaaaeu, oiaea. aaaeue, aeai?yia, ii ii iacia/aieth . , eiia/ii, eae yoi /eieeinue i?aaeaea, ii oaea ?oeiai-
aeeoueny ia noaiao, a aa?aony ca iiaeeeiiia aeaei; ii ouaoii /eoaao aai io
aeinee aei aeinee, aniao?eaaaony a ii/a?e, aeii?aoeaaao ianoie/eai aoiaao,
euao eaeiai-ieaoaeue aeeaiai oeacaiey a aeeaii /aeiaa/aneii niunea, iiae-
aa?aiooii aai noaeo: iie/eo aoiaaa, – aacaeooii-ia?oaaiii ioeoeeaeueiia

eceiaeaiea iieacaiee i?anooiieea. Iaaei au aai aeii?ineoue, iaaei au aai
aeaeaoue, iaaei au aieoe ai ana oaeoe/aneea e ineoe/aneea iiae?iaiinoe ni-
aa?oaiiiai i?anooieaiey. Iaaei au! Ii noa?ue noae ia aeaaae ia yoi ie
i?aaa, ie aiciiaeiinoe; ii th?eaee/aneea aeaiiua, o?aaoaiua oiaaeaoiei
caeiiii, ana iaeeoei, aacoei?eciaiiua ii oi?ia, – e eae au ie aiieyea
aioo?aiiyy niaanoue, ie/aai ia inoaaony, eae nioai?eoue noae e… iai?aaaeo!>

Oae ienae E.N. Aenaeia a 1884 a., eiaaea ?ac?ineanue aaeoaoeey i?ioea
iiauo noaeia. Ii e caaeieai aei eo aaaaeaiey, a aeo?iaea Niaaoa Eiiennee
ninoaaeaiey caeiiia io 6 oaa?aey 1820 a., oaea auea ioia/aia iaecaaaeiinoue
cea e?aieaiiai naiaie. .

Ii iiea neaeae i?i/ii, auei i/aaeaeii, /oi /anoiiio e
aeaaiiaaeaaeiiio oiaeaoath aeaeaoue ia/aai. Iuoaoueny iiii/ue enoeia i?iaeoueny
neaicue ioou oi?iaeecia auei au aeiieeoionoaii, e caaea/a no?yi/aai, oi?-
iaeueiia o/anoea eioi?iai naiaeeeinue e ?oeii?eeeaaenoao e ninoaaeaieth
aoiaa, iiaea caeeth/aoueny oieueei a no?aieaiee caiooaoue aeaei, caoaiieoue
aai, eee a aicaeaenoaee caeoeeniuie n?aaenoaaie ia anaiiaouoth eaioeaey?eth.
Oieueei aeey yoiai e no?yi/aio e ia?auaeenue, e oieueei n oaeie oi/ee c?aiey
ioeaieaaeenue aai niiniaiinoe e ciaiey.

.

N oaeeie no?yi/eie eiieo?e?iaaee /eiiaieee, eioi?ui, eae auoa
oeacaii, cai?auaeinue aunooiaoue iiaa?aiiuie oieueei a oao ianoao, aaea iie
neoaeao. Oiiiyiooue oaea aeo?iae Eiiennee ninoaaeaiey caeiiia n/eoaao
oaeoth ?ieue /eiiaieeia iaecaaaeiie. .

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iaoa ia iaiaiuaaei naay ioiineoaeueii aeaenoaeoaeue-
iiai iieiaeaiey no?yi/anoaa. Oae, iai?eia?, Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiue
14 aeaeaa?y 1797 a. aeieeaae I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, caeeth/athuee ii-
iuoeo o?aaoee?iaaoue i?aaicanooiie/anoai aeey Eeoianeie aoaa?iee, eii-
noaoe?oao, /oi ethaee, a noaeao ii aeaeai oiaeyuea, ceioiio?aaeytho ai cei
ciaiea caeiiia e i?aa oaiioieo, aianoi oiai, /oiau iiiiaaoue oyaeoueiny
a iieo/aiee, a noaeai a ioaeaiee ni?aaaaeeeainoe, iae/aua oiiiaeatho oieueei
yaaaeu, ?ani?e, nni?u e auaatho i?e/eiie a?aaeaeu e ?aci?aiey oaieeee.
*oiau ai?ioueny n yoei yaeaieai, aeieeaae iiaeieiaao nineiaiue e eioua-
noaaiiue oeaic aaeaieaoia. Aaeaieao aeieaeai auoue aeai?yieiii e eiaoue naie
aea?aaie a aeaiiii iiaaoa eee, ii iaiueoae ia?a, a Eeoianeie aoaa?iee.
Ii caeiiiaeaoaeue yaii ia aa?eo, /oiau oaeia iaeaai?iaeaiea ninoaaa i?i-
ecaaei caiaoiia aeeyiea. Iiyoiio oeac ii-i?aaeiaio n/eoaaony n aiciiae-
iinoueth eciaiu naiaio aa?eoaeth, iiaeaiai?a ia/aoue oyaeao n oai, /oiau ii
auea?ae aa e aeae aio iaeioi?oth /anoue i?eauoea. Aeieeaae i?aaeoniao?eaaao
oiio?aaeaiea aani?e/eiiuo ?oaaoaeuenoa ii aae?ano i?ioeaiie noi?iiu.
Iaei oiai, a /enea i?e/ei, aeaeoueo ca niaith io?aoaiea io no?yi/anoaa,
oiiieiaaony, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, e oaeay: e o.i. Aio eaeea i?aa?aoaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeue n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui i?aaeoniio?aoue, aio eaeia i?aaenoaaeaiea
eiaaony o iaai i i?aanoaaiiii ia?aca eeoe, caieiaaoeony noaeioiaeaeaieai.

Eiienney ii ninoaaeaieth caeiiia 1820 a., i eioi?ie oaea ia ?ac oii-
ieiaeinue, oae oa?aeoa?ecoao no?yi/eo: .

Yoi iieiaeaiea, ioeoeeaeueii eiinoaoe?iaaiiia, inoaaaeinue iaeciaiiui
aei naiiai eiioea aei?aoi?iaiiiai ia?eiaea.
;?, iaienaaoaai *e/eeiao ciaiaieooth aoiaao

.

E eiioeo aei?aoi?iaiiiai ia?eiaea ioiinyony e ainiiieiaiey I.A. Iioaoeea, eioi?ue aeaeeo
oiaeaoaaa ia o?e a?oiiu. E ia?aie ioiinyony /eiiaieee, ninoiyaoea ia neoaeaa, i?aaeaea anaai, eiia/ii,
/eiiaieee noaeaaiuo iano – nae?aoa?e, noieiia/aeueieee, iiauo/eee. Iu aeaeaee auoa. /oi caeii
cai?auae ei aunooiaoue iiaa?aiiuie eeoue a oao ianoao, aaea iie ninoiyee ia neoaeaa. Ii e yoi ne?ii-
iia ia?aie/aiea, ii oaa?aieth aaoi?a ainiiieiaiee, naiaiaeii iaoiaeeeinue. Aniiieiay aeaoo oaeeo ii-
aa?aiiuo, eioi?ua iaaeaeo niaith eiieo?e?iaaee, nae?aoa?y iaeaou e noieiia/aeueieea iecoaai noaea,
I.A. Iioaoei caia/aao: . Aoi?ay a?oiia i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aaeaieaoia, caieiaaoeony
eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeaieai noaeaaiuo aeae, ninoaaeyeanue, aeaaiui ia?acii, ec ionoaaiuo /eiiaieeia, e
/aua oaeeo, eioi?ua auoee a ionoaaeo . , e eiaaea i?eoaaeoee
ioaa/ae, aiai?ee: … e eac a eieao caeiiia, ni?aaeyeny e aeaaae iaaeeaaeauee niaao.
A.AI niaaou auee i?eaeiaeueiu – a ieo io?aaeaeinue ana oi, /oi aeaeaeinue a oi a?aiy a eiinenoi?ee.
Eae ii, oae e aai aeeaeaeoea nio?oaeieee ii eiinenoi?ee aiai?eee, iai?eia?, /oi a?aei?acaiaeiua
aeaea eioa?ana ii niaea?aeaieth ia i?aaenoaaeytho, eai ninoiyo ec aeaoo ?iaeia: iaeie – n iaoeie nae-
aeaoaeyie, ae?oaea – n aaoeie, oae /oi eo e eco/aoue ia/aai. Ae?oaie oei aue auaoee no?yi/ee ea-
caiiuo aeae. Yoiio no?yi/aio i?eoiaeeeinue i?enoonoaiaaoue a ?acee/iuo ianoao i?e oi?aao ia eiaiey,
auoue iiaeao, iiyoiio ii niaoeeaeece?iaaeny e aae ia aac oniaoa aeaea i iai?aaeeueiuo iienyo e i?i-
aeaaeao eiaiee e ii acuneaieyi nio?aiiie eaciu e /anoiuo eeoe. Ii aeaaiay aai niaoeeaeueiinoue auei
, aio n ioioie ieaoeee yoi ionooiiia>, aeaau ii ia aicauoae oeaiu ia eiaiea e ia iaoae
eoieoue aai iiaeaoaaea,. O?aouey a?oiia ia iiaeaeaaony iauaio iienaieth, – yoi i?inoi ?aciioa?noiay
oieia, oaeay nianue iieiaeaiee, caaiee e ninoiyiee, /oi iouneaoue iauea /a?ou, aeaoue iauoth oa?aeoa-
?enoeeo ?aoeoaeueii iaaiciiaeii. . Ooo auee aeai?yia, i?iaeeaoeany iiiaueee, ?aci?eaoeany eoioeu,
auee i?eeac/eee, eioi?ua i?aaeaea aaee aeaea naieo oicyaa; ooo auee ionoaaiua aiaiiua, aeaaea ne-
aeaeueoeu eaaaeia e ieaiuo eaaie, iuee oio?-ioeoea?u, oi?aaeythuea eiaieyie, aeiiaie e o.ae.. anao

oaeaea aani?a?uaiiai oi?aaeiaiey a ?acae?aoaeuenoaa nii?ia iaaeaeo ioeoi-
ueeaie, eo neoaeeoaeyie e iiaa?aiiuie. A aeaau e a i?i/eo aoaa?ieyo,
aaea ieoaeiay i?iaeaaea ioaeaaony ia ioeoi, a iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo iinooiaoii
auei aaeeiiia?acii e neea Oeaca 1753 aiaea aaaonoa 24 auiieiyeanue a oi/-
iinoe, oi iineaoue Oeacu e a oa aoaa?ineea i?aaeaiey>.

Oaeei ia?acii, ai anao neo/ayo, eioi?ua I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao
i?eaiaeeo, aii?in i niaianoeoaeuenoaa no?yi/anoaa n ainoaea?noaaiiie neoae-
aie ?ac?aoaeny io?eoeaoaeueii. Oai ia iaiaa ii aicieeae niiaa e niiaa, e
a oiiiyiooii neo/aa ii aeaeiaa Eoieia, aeaaoai iiaiae aeey anao i?eaaaeaiiuo
i?aoeaaeaioia, I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao, aiiaue ioaaoea io?eoeaoaeueii, . Ionthaea e aiciee caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aii?in,
ia?aaeaiiue aeey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey a Eiienneth ninoaaeaiey
caeiiia. Eiienney oe?iei ?acaeaeioea ?aiee naiae caaea/e. Iia iaoea,
/oi , i?e-
oiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi yoi cei i?aaie/aneia e /oi aeey ono?aiaiey aai iaia-
oiaeeii aaanoe einoeooo no?yi/anoaa. . . A yoii iineaaeiai ioiioaiee Aeaoa?eia II ieaca-\anue
niaa?oaiii i?aaa, e Eiia?aoi? Ieeieae 1 n oaeie aea oaa?aiiinoueth aiai?ee
eiycth Aieeoeuio, ionoaeaaaoaio iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaaaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u: . Eae aeoaiei e aacaiaeeyoeeiiii Eiia?aoi? aue oaaaeaeai a iaioae-
iinoe o ian aaeaieaoo?u, iiaeii noaeeoue ii neaaeothuaio i?eia?o. O Iooeeia,
a aai Enoi?ee ioaa/aaneiai aoioa, eiaaony iuia oaeia i?eia/aiea: . I?eia/aiea yoi, naeaeaoaeuenoaoth-
uaa i aeoaieie aaeoi/eainoe e i?iieoeaoaeueiinoe aaieaeueiiai iiyoa, auei
au/a?eiooi oeaico?ie, ai aeaaa eioi?ie, eae ecaanoii, noiye a aeaiiii neo/aa
nai Eiia?aoi?. Iuneue i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaeaieaoo?u i?eciaaaeanue aaconeiaii
a?aaeiie e iianiie, e Eiia?aoi? ia oioneae neo/ay enei?aiyoue aa, aaea au ii
n iae ie ano?a/aeny.

Iaiaoiaeeii iaiai?eoueny, /oi oaeia i?aaeoaaaeaeaiea i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u
ioithaeue ia ninoaaeyao eaeie-eeai iaoeeiiaeueiie eee aiiaua niaoeeoe/aneie
iniaaiiinoe. Iii ano?a/aaony aanueia ia?aaeei e i?e naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, ii iai?aiaiii i?e iaeiii oneiaee – i?e ionoonoaee i?ei-
oeeia caeiiiinoe e ainiiaenoaa i?iecaiea. Oae, iai?eia?, o/?aaeeoaeueiia
nia?aiea ai O?aioeee, i /ai oaea oiiieiaeinue auoa, iinoaiiaeei oie/-
oiaeeoue nineiaioth i?aaiecaoeeth aaeaieaoo?u, a Iaiieaii 1 ii iiaiaeo i?aae-
noaaeaiiiai aio i?iaeoa i?aaiecaoeee aaeaieaoo?u iaienae: . Oi/ii oae aea ai a?aiaia aoi?ie ?anoaa?aoeee auee ethaee, eioi?ua
a?iiei e?e/aee, /oi aaeaieao, caueuathuee iieeoe/aneiai i?anooiieea,
aeaeaaony niiauieeii a i?anooieaiee .
Iai?anii iiyoiio iiia?oe e aeanoeoaee a iauyniaiea naiaai i?aae-

Aanueeianeee 1-..A.. Oeac. ni/., n. 320 – I?ei. aao.
Oai aea. n. 123. – I?ei. aao.
Eioaeoeeee E.A.. O?aioeocneay aaeaieaoo?a. ?onneia Neiai. 1834. n. 7.8.- I?ei. aao.

oaaaeaeaiey i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u nnueathony ia iieeoe/aneoth ?ieue, eaeoth
iia ea?aao e ea?aea, iniaaiii ai O?aioeee. Ie?aai, Ia?aoo e ?iaaniuea?o,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo neoaeeea aeey Eiia?aoi?a Ieeieay iniiaaieai i?aae-
oaaaeaeaiey i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u , iiaeii i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue ciaiaieouo ca-
ueoieeia Ethaeiaeea XVI e Ia?ee Aiooaiaou, Iaeuena?aa, aea Naca,
Oiai-Aeaeaaa?aea e ae?., ec eieo iaeei neiaeee aieiao ia yoaoioa, a ae?oaea
nianeenue aaanoaii. . Neiaa yoe, aeuoauea oaeie iai?eie?eiie iaiaaenoueth e aaeai-
eaoo?a, aeeeoiaae oio naiue ?iaaniuea?, i?ec?ae eioi?iai iooae Ieeieay 1
e eioi?ue noieue iaiaeeaeaiii nioaeny n Eiia?aoi?ii a naiae iaiaaenoe
e aaeaieaoo?a.

Oaeei ia?acii – e y?eee i?aaenoaaeoaeue aaniethoecia e no?anoiua aeayoaee
?aaiethoeee iaeeiaeiai a?aaeaeaaii, e i?eoii ii iaeiei e oai aea iioeaai, io-
iineeenue e aaeaieaoo?a. Ia iioiio aiana, /oi, eae iauyniyea Aeaoa?eia II,
aaeaieaoo?a caueuaao oi ni?aaaaeeeaia, oi iani?aaaaeeeaia, a, iai?ioea, eiaiii
iioiio e iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iia iaono?aoeii eniieiyao naie aunieee aeiea.
Iiiyoii iiyoiio, /oi /ai iaiueoa a no?aia caeiiiinoe, /ai aacoaea?aeiaa
ainiiaenoaoao i?iecaie, oai a?aaeaeaaiaa e iaoa?ieiaa aeieaeia ioiineoueny aeanoue
e aaeaieaoo?a. A ionthaea e iieeoe/aneay ie?anea, eioi?ith oa?aeoa?ecoaony
i?ioanney aaeaieaoa e eioi?ay iiae/an i?eia?aoaao aanueia y?eea iooaiee. Ioaeii
oaa?aei iiiieoue: ia i?ioanney aaeaieaoa naia ii naaa, a oaeia eee eiia ioiioaiea
e iae aeanoe i?eaeaao i?ioannee oi aieaa, oi iaiaa y?eee iieeoe/aneee iooaiie,
ii?ith canoeeathuee naiia nouanoai i?ioannee. Eniieiyy naie i?ioannei-
iaeueiue aeiea, ionoaeaay neeo caeiia e i?ioanooy i?ioea anyeeo ia iaai ii-
nyaaoaeuenoa, aaeaieao oai naiui aunooiaao i?ioea i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iineieueeo
iii naii ianaaeaeaao i?iecaie, e i?e oaeeo oneiaeyo ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie
aeayoaeueiinoue aaeaieaoa iaecaaaeii i?eia?aoaao
oa?aeoa?.

Aaeaa ee iiyoiio ioaeii iiynieoue, /oi ioia/aiiia ioiioaiea e aaeai-
eaoo?a auei aiieia iiiyoii e iineaaeiaaoaeueii, e /oi ia iooe e ei?aiiie
noaeaaiie ?aoi?ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaaaeaiey o ian aa?iiaeneie aaeaieaoo?u
aeieaeia auea neoaeeoue naiui na?ueaciui i?aiyonoaeai.

Ec ieo, iaeiaei, oieueei ?iaaniuea? aue aaeaieaoii. – I?ei. aao.

A iaoae -eeoa?aoo?a yoa iuneue iaoea naaa au?aaeaiea o I.I. Aeiaaa?a. . Aeiaaa? I \1. I/a?ee ia aaeaieaoo?a. Nia.. 1902, n. 6. – I?ei. aao.

E eiioeo iyoeaeanyouo aiaeia, iaeiaei, iinea e?uineiai ?aca?iia, iuneue
i noaeaaiie ?aoi?ia ieii/aoaeueii nic?aea, e iaioeiaeiinoue iineaaeiae i?e-
ia?aea oa?aeoa? iaoiieeiie iaaeyaeiinoe. Ii oneiaeyi a?aiaie, ?aoi?ia
aeieaeia auea niaa?oeoueny a iai?aaeaiee aaaaeaiey ninoycaoaeueiiai ia/aea,
eae iniiaiiai ?aaoeyoi?a i?ioeanna. Oiaaea ainiiaenoaiaaei oaaaeaeaiea, /oi
.
Ii . Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaiecaoeey nineiaey aaeaiea-
oo?u noaiiaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueeie iaioeiaeiie ?aoi?iu. Io-
nthaea, eae oaea caia/aii auoa, aicieeaea iianiinoue aeey noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu
aiiaua. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, oae eae niciaiea iaioeiaeiinoe ?aoi?iu
ana aieaa iac?aaaei a iauanoaa e yoiio a?aiaie, aii?in ia aaeaieaoo?a
iaaieueii noae nin?aaeioi/eaaoue ia naaa iauanoaaiiia aieiaiea. , – neieueei iu ciaai, noua-
noaoao o ian iaeaiia i?aaeoaaaeaeaiea> . . Ia anyeea eaaeu e n ?aciuo noi?ii aeo?iaeu
noa?aeenue ?annayoue i?aaenoaaeaiea, aoaeoi au aaeaieaoo?a iiaeao ninoaaeyoue
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue oieueei i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai no?iy. Aeaaea aua a 1863 a., o.a.
iinea iaia?iaeiaaiey iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee ?aoi?iu, ?aoeaoeo aii?in i
aaaaeaiee aaeaieaoo?u a iieiaeeoaeueiii niunea, i?io. Eenoyeianeee a naiae
ianoiyoaeueiie noaouea ia aaeaieaoo?a ai O?aioeee, Aiaeee e Aa?iaiee ai?y/i
ii?iaa?aaao iiaiea, aoaeoi aaaaeaiea aaeaieaoia – . , – aoaeoi aae-
aieaou ea?aee cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a iieeoe/aneeo niooao>.

, 1866,
? 1.- I?ei. aao.
Naiae Caia/aiee, n. 3. – I?ei. oo.
. 1857, IX, ei. 1. – I?ei. aao.
Oai aea. 1858. 8, ei 2. n 385. – I?ei. iao.

ai)\ Ii ana yoe yaeaiey n eo iineaaenoaeyie i?eiaaeeaaeao eneeth/eoaeueii
iniiii\ no?ith niauoee, enoaeathueo ec iieeoe/aneie aeecie ia?iaeia. Ia-
niiaaaaeeeai. iaaeia?iniaanoii ia?aianoe eo a noa?o iaueiiaaiiie oaeouae
a?aaeaeaineie ia?iaeiie aeecie, i?aaeaeaeaoue eo n?aaee iauaeaiiuo acaeiiuo
ioiioaiee ethaeae e iianaoueny iaeeiaeiauo iineaaenoaee io niaa?oaiii ?ac-
ee/iuo yaeaiee iioiio oieueei, /oi aeayoaee aoaeoo iineoue iacaaiey aieiia,
o/aiuo eee aaeaieaoia>.

Caaaaay aeaeaei aia?aae, ethaiiuoii ooo aea ioiaoeoue, /oi, nionoy 30 e
40 eao. eiaaea iu i?eia?aee oaea nianoaaiiue iiuo, aii?in yoio iaeciaiii
inoaaaeny ana a oii aea iieiaeaiee. Oae, iai?eia?, ia ?ac oaea oeeoe?iaaiiay
eieaa A..A. Aanueeianeiai iiyaeeanue a naaoa a 1893 a., ii aaoi? n oai aea
ona?aeeai, n eaeei a 1863 a. yoi aeaeae iaecaanoiue aaoi? A.Ae., oaa?ye,
/oi iianaiey Aeaoa?eiu II e Ieeieay 1 auee iainiiaaoaeueiu, /oi ia aae-
aieaou auee aeiiaieeaie ?aaiethoeee 1789 a. e /oi aaeaieaoo?a . A aua aeanyoue eao nionoy, iaeaioia
ia?aoiaea e iiaiio iieeoe/aneiio no?ith, iiyaeeinue Aua. ooa. 8 ethiy 1905 a.
iiaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa, n aaciaaeaaeiie caiicaeaeinoueth aeieacu-
aaaoaa, /oi e a naiiaea?aeaaiii ainoaea?noaa caeii aeieaeai nio?aiyoue iay-
caoaeueioth neeo. Oai naiui yoio ioeoeeaeueiue aeieoiaio eiinoaoe?oao, /oi
aei oiai neea caeiia ia i?eciaaaeanue, e /oi ionoaeaaoue aa, caueuaoue i?aai
e no?aieoueny inouanoaeyoue caeii cia/eei anooiaoue a eieeeceth n aeanoueth
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eaeaaaoue yoie aeayoaeueiinoe iieeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Aeey aieueoae yniinoe ethaiiuoii niiinoaaeoue ioia/aiiia ioiioaiea
ioeoeeaeueiuo e?oaia e aaeaieaoo?a, n oaie ia?eiaoeyie, eioi?ua i?eoeinue
ia?aaeeoue noaeo i?enyaeiuo. Niiinoaaeaiea yoi iaia?oaeeaaao ecoieoaeueiue
n ia?aiai acaeyaea ia?aeeaeeci. Ei a?aiaie ?ac?aaioee noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu
i?ioea einoeoooa noaea i?enyaeiuo nouanoaiaaei oaeia aea ii nouanoao e
noieue aea neeueiia i?aaeoaaaeaeaiea, eae e i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u. Eae niiauaao
A?, Aeaeaioeaa , ianoaeaeaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiui Niaaoii a 1857 a. i?iaeoa
noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu ia/aeinue n /oaiey Auni/aeoaai iiaaeaiey, eiei ain-
i?auaeinue eanaoueny aii?inia i noaea i?enyaeiuo e aaeaieaoo?a. E oi/ii

A.A. Aanueeianeee. Oeac. ni/., /. 1, n. 320. – I?ei. aao.

Oaeo yoio eaoaai?e/anee iiaeoaa?aeaeai iia A.N. Ca?oaeiui ni neia iooea aai (Ca?oaeii-
T N.E. – I?ei. nino.). – I?ei. aao. Ca?oaeiue Na?aae Eaaiiae/ (1821-1887) – auaeath-
ueeny ?onneee o/aiue-th?eno, niaoeeaeeno ii a?aaeaeaineiio i?aao e i?ioeanno. N 1869 aiaea – naiaoi?.
O/anoaiaae a iiaeaioiaea e?anoueyineie (1861) ?aoi?iu. Iaeei ec nicaeaoaeae Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, aaeei-
noaaiiue, ii iiaieth A.O. Eiie, eoi aue . (Ni. Eiie A.O. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee. I., 1969. O. 8.
106.) (I?ei. nino.).

33

3 1335

oae aea, eae i?io. Eenoyeianeee ii ioiioaieth e aaeaieaoo?a, naiaoi? Aooe-
eianeee ninoaaeye caienee, a eioi?uo noa?aeny aeieacaoue, /oi noae i?enyaeiuo
aiciiaeai e iaiaoiaeei ia oieueei i?e i?aaenoaaeoaeueiii no?ia, /oi ii iieacai
e niaianoei e n naiiaea?aeaaiui ?aaeeiii, oae eae yoi anoue einoeooo th?e-
aee/aneee, a ia iieeoe/aneee. Oi/ii oae aea e caeanue nii? yoio ia i?ae?auaeny
a oa/aiea anaai iieoaaea aeaenoaey Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, iniaaiii aea no?anoii
ii ?acai?aeny ai a?aiy ?aaio eiiennee I.A. Io?aaueaaa. Oi/ii oae aea e
caeanue ia anyeea aannii?iua aeiaiaeu, /oi noae i?enyaeiuo anoue einoeooo /enoi
th?eaee/aneee, i?ioeaieee e a?aae yoiai einoeoooa ioaa/aee nnueeaie ia
aannii?iua oaeou, naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaaoea, /oi o ian e aeayoaeueiinoue noaea i?e-
nyaeiuo i?eia?aoaao i?ioeaii?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue oa?aeoa?.

3. AAeAIEAOU E IAUANOAAIIIA IIAIEA

Eoae, io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea aei?aoi?iaiiuo aeanoae e aaeaieaoo?a
aiieia iiiyoii. Iiiyoii e oi, /oi oiio?aaeyeenue any/aneea oneeey, /oiau
?annayoue ainiiaenoaiaaaoaa i?aaeoaaaeaeaiea. I?eoiaeeony, iaeiaei, eiinoa-
oe?iaaoue, /oi yoe oneeey ai?acaei y?/a aeenoaee aeia?uie iaia?aieyie,
iaaeaee naiae niaea?aeaoaeueiinoueth. Iaano?a/o iieeoe/aneiio i?aaeoaaaeaea-
ieth i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u oei iaiiieiaiea aa i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaea/. ?ieue
e cia/aiea aaeaieaoo?u ?eniaaeenue oiaaea aanueia niooii. Oae, iai?eia?, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, auneacuaaeinue iiaiea, /oi .
A n ae?oaie, ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi . Oaeea caiaoiua ienaoaee
oiai a?aiaie, eae I. Oea/aa, ioia/ay iiyaeaoeeny ia?aaiae aeaoo eiea Ieo-
oa?iaea?a, aeieacuaaee, /oi i?e ninoycaoaeueiii i?ioeanna ei?ii?aoeey aae-
aieaoia ia oieueei iaiaoiaeeia e iaecaaaeia, ii e ?acoiia. Oai ia iaiaa,
yoio einoeooo, ii oaaaeaeaieth aaoi?a, anoue eeoue iaiaoiaeeiia cei, e cei,
i?aaeaea anaai, iioiio, /oi iiae oa?icie eneeth/aiey ec eanou (ana a?aiy
aaoi? aianoi nineiaey e?iie/anee aiai?eo i eanoa) aaeaieao aeieaeai aoaeao
aanoe anyeia aeaei.

Ii naiui oa?aeoa?iui, oi/iaa neacaoue, ciaiaiaoaeueiui ia?acoeii
iiaeao neoaeeoue noaouey I. N-aa a . Aeiioneay aaeai-

oeo?o a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna, eai oai , aaoi? iaoiaeeo, /oi . Oieueei iaeia ec aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noi?ii
iiaeao eiaoue aeia?iniaanoiiai aaeaieaoa. No?iaay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue o?a-
aiaaea au i?aaeaiey oaieiaiiio noaeo aaeaieaoa iai?aaie noi?iiu, a neo/aa

iioa?e ath oyaeau, ca aaci?aanoaaiiia e oiuoeaiiia iieooaiea ia?ooeoue
i?aai, i?eiaaeeaaeauaa ni?aaaaeeeaie noi?iia. Eae niaeaneoue oaeia o?aai-
aaiea no?iaie e aaniethoiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe n iaycaiiinoueth, iaeaaaaiie
naiei ainoaea?noaii ia aaeaieaoia, ei aea iinoaaeaiiuo, ia?ooaoue yoo ni?a-
aaaeeeainoue a iieiaeia anao neo/aaa, caaa?yaiuo eo caueoa?>

I?eaiaey aua e ae?oaea aic?aaeaiey i?ioea aaaaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u, aaoi?
iiieiaao, iaeiaei, /oi i?e ionoonoaee aaeaieaoo?u ia?acoaony ionoia ianoi,
eioi?ia /ai-ieaoaeue aeieaeii auoue caiieiaii. *ai iiaeii aai caiieieoue,
aaoi? ia ciaao, ii ii iieaaaao, /oi

Yoa noaouey ?aceinoueth e i?yiieeiaeiinoueth naieo noaeaeaiee e oiaaea
oaea, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?aacioea ia?o oa?ieiiai. ?aaeaeoeey niaaaeeea aa i?e-
ia/aieai, a eioi?ii cayaeyao i naiai . Neieueei ?ac, iaeiaei, a aeaeueiaeoai i?eaeaony iai ano?a-
/aoueny n yoeie iuneyie, eioi?ua ia oieueei ia ?annaeaaeenue, ii iaoiaeeee
naaa au?aaeaiea aeaaea a ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioao. Ai anyeii neo/aa, i?e
naiai iiyaeaiee noaouey I. N-aa i?iecaaea neeueiia aia/aoeaiea, e ?aaeaeoeey
au?aceea oaa?aiiinoue, /oi .
I?aaaea, aic?aaeaiey ia iinuiaeenue, ii iaeii aic?aaeaiea noaouey N-aa au-
caaea, e aic?aaeaiea ianoieueei aeanoyuaa ii oi?ia e en/a?iuaathuaa ii
nouanoao, /oi e nae/an e iaio ie/aai ia inoaaaeinue au i?eaaaeoue. Aic-
?aaeaiea oiaea auei iaia/aoaii a . Aaoi?o yoie ca-
ia/aoaeueiie noaouee eacaeinue, ii aai neiaai, /oi nii?u iiaoo oaia?ue eanaoueny
eeoue /anoiinoae, eai ioaa?aaoue i?eioeeieaeueii cia/aiea aaeaieaoo?u cia/eo
i?inoi eaii?e?iaaoue ?acoeueoaou iiuoa anao ia?iaeia.

, 1864, ? 2. – I?ei. aao.
, 1859, 3, ei. 2. – I?ei aao.

?onneee Aanoiee> 1859. n. 6,7. – I?ei. aao.

eece?iaaoue nia?aiaiiue a?aaeaeaineee iai?io, a aiaeec onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi
yoiio iai?ioo niioaaonoaoao ainiiaenoaothuee aacaea ninoycaoaeueiue i?i-
oeann, eioi?ue, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaaiciiaeai aac i?aaieciaaiiie aaeaieaoo?u.
Ii ia a yoii oieueei niune e ainoaea?noaaiiia cia/aiea aeaiiiai einoeoooa.
Oieueei i?e iiiiue aaeaieaoia noaeaaiia ninoycaiea iiaeao aeinoeaiooue iie-
iiou e aeeainoe, a yoa iieiioa e aeeainoue iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oiai, /oiau
noaeuey iia iaic?aoue aeaei ni anao noi?ii, i?iieeiooue a naioth nouiinoue aai
e ninoaaeoue naaa oaa?aeia oaaaeaeaiea: iia oieueei iiaeao i?aaeio?aieoue noaeueth
io iaeiinoi?iiiinoe acaeyaea, noieue a?aaeiie aeey i?aaeeueiinoe ?aoaiey…
Anyeia aeaei /aeiaa/aneia, eae au ie auei ii ia/aeo naiaio ?acoiii e
aeooiaii, iiaeao i?aa?aoeoueny a iaoaie/aneee o?oae, anee /aeiaae aeiionoeo
oneeeoueny a naaa ?aaiiaeooeth, yoiio anoanoaaiiiio a?aao anyeie aeooiaiie
aeecie, a aaea iao aeooa, oai ennye enoi/iee aeecie, oi?ia inoaeanue aac
niaea?aeaiey, /oanoai aeieaa nouanoaoao oieueei ii eiaie, e aeaei iunee e
?acoia aioiai i?aa?aoeoueny a aeaei aanniuneaiiie i?eau/ee. Aeaei i?aai-
noaeey iiaeaa?aeaii oie aea iianiinoe. Ii eiaaea ia?aae noaeii iineuoeony
aeeaay ?a/ue aaeaieaoa, ciaeiiiai n eneonnoaii eceiaeaiey, eiaaea i?eoii
ia?aae noaeii e o/anoaothueie a iai aoaeoo ia caoai?aiiua aeaa?e oaeiie
i?enoonoaaiiie eaia?u, a iauanoai, i?eieiathuaa aeeaia o/anoea ai anai,
/oi i?ienoiaeeo ia noaea, oiaaea i?ioeann iieo/eo aeae aeaenoaeoaeueiie, aeeaie
e ?acoiiie ai?ueau. Oiaaea ?aaeeee noaeuey a ninoiyiee aoaeao inoaoueny ia-
aieiaoaeueiui e ?aaiiaeooiui. A oaeii oieueei aeaea, o.a. i?e o/anoee aae-
aieaoia e i?e ioe?uoii canaaeaiee, noae naeaeaaony eo/oath oeieith aeey
ia?aciaaiey noaeae e aaeaieaoia. Anee noae ia anoue iaoaie/aneia aeaei, aeey
eiaai aeinoaoi/ii ?ooeiu, anee ia ana ?aaii, eoi au ie noaeee, oi aeey i?aaiai
noaea iaiaoiaeeii ia?aciaaiea oeaeiai nineiaey noaeae, n?aaee eiaai o?aieeenue
au e iai?aiaiiia /oanoai noaeaeneiai aeieaa e oaa?aeinoue noaeaaiie aeieo?eiu,
aeathuae onoie/eainoue ?aoaieyi, a oaeia nineiaea ia iiaeao e ia?aciaaoueny
aac niaeaenoaey aaeaieaoia… Ai?ueaa neaaiai n neeueiui, aaaeiiai n aiaaoui,
caaenyuaai n oai, io eiai ii ii ?aciui ioiioaieyi caaeneo, anaaaea e
aacaea auea cao?oaeieoaeueia e iiania. A eiuo neo/ayo oaeay ai?ueaa auea
au ?aoeoaeueii iaaiciiaeia aac iiiiue aaeaieaoa. Aaeaieao, anee ii, eae
e neaaeoao, iaoiaeeony a iieiaeaiee iacaaeneiii ie io i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
eeoe, ie io noaeae, e nai ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e ioeoeeaeueiiio ninoaao noaea,
anee, iaaeaynue ia i?aanoaaiioth neeo aeaea, eioi?ia caueuaao, ii iiaeao
aianoa n oai iia?aoueny ia i?aanoaaiioth neeo oeaeie ei?ii?aoeee, e eioi?ie
i?eiaaeeaaeeo, e ia niciaiea iauanoaa, i?enoonoaothuaai i?e ai?ueaa, aae-
aieao – e i?eaaaei, iaeei oieueei aaeaieao, – a ninoiyiee niaei ?aoeoueny
ia ninoycaiea n ee/iui eioa?anii iaoa?eaeueiie neeu e aunoaaeoue i?ioea

36

“a i?oaeea neeu aeooiaiie. Ia?aae aaeaieaoii iiaeao onouaeeoueny e a?oaia
ianeeea, oioy iii ia ia?aoeei au aieiaiey ia ?iaeea aic?aaeaiey /aeiaaea,
aei?iai iii i?eaueei ii/eoaoue ie/oiaeiui e caaenyuei… Aaeaieaoii
iaeaao auoue ia anyeee, eoi aeinoaoi/ii i?eaioiaeai e yoiio caaieth… Ni-
neiaea aaeaieaoia, oae aea eae e nineiaea noaeae, oiaaea oieueei iiaeao en-
iieieoue naia iacia/aiea e oaeiaeaoai?eoue naiae oeaee, eiaaea aoaeao nineiaeai
a naiii naaa caeeth/aiiui, noiyuei aicea noaeaaiie aeanoe, ii ia caaenyuei
io iaa. Caeiiiaeaoaeue ia aeieaeai caauaaoue, /oi anoue nineiaey, aeey eioi?uo
oieueei /anoue e oaaaeaeaiey iiaoo neoaeeoue iaaeaaeiui ?oeiaiaenoaii e inii-
aaieai ii?yaeea, aeey eioi?uo aeaaeu/anoai iaoa?eaeueiie neeu e aaconeia-
iiai i?eeaca auei au aeaaeueii. Aeey anooieaiey a oaeia nineiaea aeieaeiu
auoue onoaiiaeaiu oi?iaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, ii eae nei?i nineiaea i?aaie-
ciaaeinue, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeinoaaeoue aio naiaiaeioth, iacaaeneioth aeayoaeue-

iinoue>

e”

Noaouey yoa, e nae/an ii?aaeathuay y?einoueth, io/aoeeainoueth, a aeaa-
iia – aunieie i?eioeeieaeueiinoueth naieo noaeaeaiee, i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?o
eeoea, nua?aaoaai aiineaaenoaee aanueia caiaoioth ?ieue a enoi?ee ?innee.
Iia iaienaia E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaaui, eioi?ue neoaeee oiaaea ii Ieien-
oa?noao THnoeoeee. Ii, iaeiaei, ia aue i?eaeaoai e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
o/anoeth a ?aaioao ii i?aia?aciaaieth noaeaaiie /anoe, a eeoue aeaaae naie
iocuau ia au?aaaouaaaiua i?iaeou .

Eoae, n iaeiie noi?iiu N-a n aai oaa?aiiinoueth, /oi a eaaeaeii i?ioeanna
aaeaieao iaeiiai ec oyaeoueony iinooiaao aan/anoii; n ae?oaie, E. Iiaaaei-
iinoeaa n aai ooaa?aeaeaieai, /oi aac aaeaieaoo?u iao i?aainoaeey. Oaeiau
yoe e?aeiea aaoe, ii?aaeaeythuea aiieeooaeo eieaaaiee ai acaeyaeao ia ?ieue
e caaea/e aaeaieaoo?u. Ia ioaeii aeieacuaaoue, /oi aiieeooaea yoa neeoeii
aaeeea. Ii oai aaaeiaa eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi eae iia ii?aaeaeeeanue n?aco
i?e aaaaeaiee ?aoi?iu, oae e inoaeanue iaeciaiiie aei iaoeo aeiae. A yoii
ia ?ac i?eaeaony oaaaeaeaoueny i?e aeaeueiaeoai eceiaeaiee. Caeanue aea neaaeoao
n aeoaieei aieiaieai inoaiiaeoueny ia i?eaaaeaiiie noaouea E. Iiaaaeiiin-
oeaaa e ioaeaoue naaa io/ao a oii, eae auniei iiaeieiaeny o?iaaiue iunee
eo/oeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae oiaaeaoiae ath?ie?aoee e eaeeie /enouie eaeaaeaie
iie auee iaeooaaeaiu.

:in-

Ii neiaai A.N. Ca?oaeiiai, o iaai eiaaony ioiinyuaany i?eaeeceoaeueii e oiio a?aiaie ienue-
ii E.I, Iiaaaeiiinoeaaa e A.E. Ca?oaeiiio. Ioaa/ay ia aii?in N.E. Ca?oaeiiai, ii/aio ii a caia-
/aieyo naieo ia i?ai?iaiaeaeaaiua e iaio i?iaeou i?iyaeyao oaeoth no?anoiinoue. E.I Iiaaaeiiinoeaa
iiyniyao, /oi a i?iaeoao ii ia aeaeeo niioaaonoaey iio?aaiinoyi no?aiu, /oi a ieo neacuaaaony iau/iia
i?aiaa?aaeaiea ath?ie?aoee e enoeiiui ioaeaeai ia?iaea, e /oi ii, Iiaaaeiiinoeaa. oai ?aoeoaeueiaa
i?ioea oiai i?ioanooao, /ai neeueiaa iianaaony, /oi yoa ath?ie?aoe/aneay oeia a?iceo e aai cani-
naoue. – I?ei aao.

37

i) ?AC?AAIOEA E AAAAeAIEA
I?AAEE IA AAeAIEAOO?A

aeiiae/aeeUeIUA I?IAEOU ?AOI?IU

auei oiiiyiooi, /oi aua a 1857 a. ianoaeaeaiea a Ainoaea?-
Aueiiea O ianaiiuo aoi?ui ioaeaeaieai Nianoaaiiie Aai Aaee/a-
iiii N niiaiuo iieiaeaiee ia/aeinue n /oaiey Auni/aeoaai ii-
noaa eaioeaini?auaeinue eanaoueny, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, aii?ina ia aaeaiea-
aaeaiey, ei yoiio, ioiinyueany e oiio a?aiaie i?iaeou any/anee
?a. Niioo eiii?iienn iaaeaeo ioa?auaieai e aaeaieaoo?a e iaoiiee-
noa?aeenue I ninoycaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Aio /oi iu /eoaai, iai?e-
iuie ?aa”.aaeueiie caienea e i?iaeoo onoaaa a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?ie-

ia?,ai
caiaenoaa- ?eciaee iaiaoiaeeiui niaa?oaiii ono?aieoue Eaioeaey?eth

.
oiaeaiiuo iauynieoaeueiay caienea iieaaaao, /oi o ian ia oieueei

\-\i iae aaeaieaoia, ii iai ia neaaeoao e no?aieoueny e yoiio.
iao iaaeaaeAe” a?youe ec AEAeO, eae iiaeao auoue a?aaeii, aeaaea iianii aeey

.

Yoe aeaeeea oeo?inieaoaiey i?iaeoia II Ioaeaeaiey Nianoaaiiie eai-
ae?ee ano?a/aee naioth oie/oiaeathuoth e?eoeeo. A eiathuainy o iaiy
yecaiiey?a niaea?-
aeeony ?oeiieniay caienea eiycy Ae.Iaieaineiai, oiaea neoaeeaoaai ii Ie-
ienoa?noao THnoeoeee, eioi?ue, iiaeaa?aay i?iaeo ianoiyoaeueiiio aiaeeco,
a /anoe, eanathuaeny aaeaieaoo?u, ia inoaaeyao io iaai eaiiy ia eaiia.
. , – ioaeaao naay e aeinoiyiea
naia ia aea?oao aaciaeacaiiiio i?iecaieo iiaa?aiiiai.

Oaeea aiiethuea aaccaeiiey niaa?oathony iiae io?aiith neo ?ieiauo
neia.

Iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ieeaeieei naiei i?ac?aieai nineiaea iiaa?ai-
iuo, e aei oao ii?, iiea i?aaeoaeuenoai ia aeano naio nineiaeth i?aaeeueiie
e caeiiiie i?aaiecaoeee, aei oao ii? ie iaeei /anoiue e oaaaeathuee naay
/aeiaae ia anooieo a iaai.

Eaeeo aea ciaiaiee aeieaeii iaeeaeaoue, /oiau oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi o ian
anoue ethaee n aeinoaoi/iuie th?eaee/aneeie iiciaieyie aeey ia?aciaaiey ni-
neiaey aaeaieaoia?

Eoaea aea aeaaathony nioie iieiaeuo ethaeae, aaeaaiaeii auioneaaiuo ec
th?eaee/aneeo oaeoeueoaoia oieaa?neoaoia e O/eeeua I?aaiaaaeaiey? Aieue-
oay /anoue ec ieo ioioii ia?aoeeanue au e caiyoeyi aaeaieaoia, aaeaee au
caaiea yoi aioei a ninoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e iieo/eei au
caeiiioth i?aaiecaoeeth. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, eiaaea eaeao ?a/ue ia oiaiueoaiee
/eiiaieeia, a iniaaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeyaony e?aeiyy iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaoue
enoiae aeayoaeueiinoe iieiaeuo th?enoia ia ae?oaii iii?eua. Eae aea ia ii-
aeoiaoue ia yoii na?ueacii, ia nia?aoue naaaeaiee, a ooaa?aeaeaoue oae iieiaee-
oaeueii, /oi o ian iao niiniaiuo th?enoia? Iiaeao auoue, a ia?aia a?aiy e
aoaeao a ieo iaaeinoaoie (a /ai, ai?i/ai, iu niiiaaaainy), ii aaaeue e iaaeeeia
aeey iio?aaiinoe ?innee iaei, ec yoiai ia neaaeoao, /oiau iiaeii auei
n/eoaoue ia?aciaaiea nineiaey a?a/ae iaaiciiaeiui e aeicaieyoue eaaeaeiio,
ia aeieacaaoaio iiciaiee naieo a iaaeeoeeia, ea/eoue, ia iianaynue ieeaeie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe… >

Caienea eiycy Iaieaineiai ethaiiuoia ia noieueei ii naiaio niaea?-
aeaieth, neieueei ii anaio oiio, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuaio, eaeie ai?y/ee eioa?an
i?eaeaeaea e naaa noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia. N oi/ee c?aiey niaea?aeaiey, ai?acaei
aaaeiaa ioaao ia yoo caieneo. Ioaao yoio i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeiiio ec oai?oeia
aoaeoueo Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, eo aeiaeanoiiio ?uoea?th N. E. Ca?oaeiiio. A
ioaaoa ii, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaao, aunooiaao y?eei
i?aaenoaaeoaeai ioeoeeaeueiiai iiii?ooiecia e niaei aa?ao ia naay oyaeaeoth
caaea/o ionoaeaaoue ioeoeeaeueiua i?iaeou io iaiaaeie iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.
Naiay iaia?a ioaaoa ianoieueei oa?aeoa?ia, a ee/iinoue aaoi?a ianoieueei
caia/aoaeueia e iiioey?ia, /oi auei au ioeaeie ia i?eaanoe aai aic?aaeaiee
aai iiaeeeiiuie neiaaie.

(!). . Auneacaaoenue n oaeie eaoaai?e/iinoueth. Ainoaea?no-
aaiiue Niaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ionthaea i?eoiaeeo e iunee ia ia?aciaaiee
Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. (). Ie-
/aai iauaai, eiia/ii, yoio Niaao ia eiaao ni naieie eiino?aiiuie i?i-
ia?acaie, ii ninoieo iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii oacaeiiai no?yi/aai eee ao-
aa?ineiai i?ieo?i?a. Aai ooieoeee naiaeyony e ,
eioi?ua ooaa?aeaeathony a aeieaeiinoe noaeii, e e iacia/aieth iiaa?aiiuo
aeey aaaeaiey aeae eeoe, iieuecothueony i?aaii aaaeiinoe. Ii o/?aaeaeaieai
Niaaoa aeaeaaony eae au oaa aia?aae ii iooe aaaaeaiey o ian /aai-oi iiaiai,
aianoi ?ani?ino?aiaiey einoeoooa i?enyaeiuo no?yi/eo, ieii/aoaeueii aeen-
e?aaeeoe?iaaiiiai e yoiio iiiaioo. Ia oio aea n/ao iaiaoiaeeiinoe eaeie-
ieaoaeue, oioy au aiaoiae iiaeciu ioaeii ioianoe caiaio iaeiaiiaaiey
i?enyaeiuo no?yi/eo i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie, /oi aeieaeii auei oneeeoue
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i aaaaeaiee .

Acaeyae ia yoi i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, eae ia /eiiaieea noaeaaiiai
aaaeiinoaa, e ia ioi?aaeaiea iaycaiiinoae aaeaieaoa, eae ia ninoiyiea a
aeieaeiinoe, anoanoaaiii i?eaae e aii?ino ia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aaeaieaoo?ie
e ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iiaa?aiiue ia ninoieo ia
neoaeaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa e iioiio ia iiaeao iieueciaaoueny i?aeiouanoaaie,
ni neoaeaie nii?yaeaiiuie. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, /oiau i?eaea/ue ethaeae
ia?aciaaiiuo e eniieiaieth iaycaiiinoae iiaa?aiiuo, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaei-
noaaeoue ei eaeea-eeai i?aaa. Ionthaea i?aaeei – i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua,
oioy e ia n/eoathony a aeaenoaeoaeueiie neoaeaa, ia iieo/atho aeaeiaaiuey io
eaciu e ia eiatho i?aaa ie ia iaineth, ie ia i?iecaiaenoai a /eiu e iaa?aaeu
i?aeaiaie, ii iieuecothony anaie i?i/eie i?aeiouanoaaie neoaeau. Eaeea,
iaeiaei, yoe – iaecaanoii. Aaeeinoaaiiia i?a-
eiouanoai, eae oeacuaaaony a caia/aieyo ia i?iaeo, caeeth/aaony a i?aaa
neoaeauaai, naeaeaa aeiea, ia ieaoeoue aai, eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ia ?acii
oieaoeoue aai, ia iiaeaa?aaynue ca iaoieaoo a?anoo e oth?aiiiio caeeth/aieth.

I/aaeaeii, iao, – e oai ia iaiaa i?aae-
iieiaeaiea, auneacaiiia i?iaeoii a?aoa Aeoaeiaa i i?aaeinoaaeaiee aaeai-
eaoo?a i?aeiouanoa ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau oae e ia?aoiaeeei iineaaei-
aaoaeueii ec iaeiiai i?iaeoa a ae?oaie aieioue aei iineaaeiaai.

Aaeeinoaaiiue na?ueaciue, aeaeiaie aii?in, iinoaaeaiiue Niaaeeiaiiu-
Aeaia?oaiaioaie i?e ianoaeaeaiee ia?aiai i?iaeoa, eanaeny iaycaoaeue-
inoe o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u a i?ioeanna.
ei\aeii ee auoue iai?aiaiii ii?o/aaii i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui eee aea
iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaii e naiei oyaeoueiny? I?iaeo a?aoa Aeoaeiaa
aiiaua ia onoaiaaeeaae ieeaeeo ia?aie/aiee e ia oieueei ia onoaiaaeeaae
iaycaoaeueiiai o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u a i?ioeanna, ii e i?aaeinoaaeye auae?aoue
aeey oiaeaeaiey ii aeaeo ia?yaeo n i?enyaeiuie no?yi/eie e iiaa?aiiuo ec
/anoiuo eeoe. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao iinoaaee yoio aiiaue naiinoiyoaeueii, e aiieia iiiyoii, ii/aio ii auioaeaeai
aue oae naeaeaoue. Eae oaea ecaanoii, ioeacaaoenue io i?eioeeieaeueiuo ni-
ia?aaeaiee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaaaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u, i?iaeo a?aoa Aeoaeiaa
iioeae?oao naia i?aaeeiaeaiea /enoi i?aeoe/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie i?i-
oeannoaeueiuo oaeianoa. Iiaa?aiiua eiatho ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa a oao ai?iaeao,
aaea iaoiaeeony noae, a iioiio ana n?iee iiaoo auoue anoanoaaiii oei?i/aiu:
iiaa?aiiua inaaaeiieaiu a caeiiao, a iioiio iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aiaiyoue
onoaau iannie iaeeeo oi?iaeueiinoae. Ii ionthaea i?yiie ia?aoiae e iay-
caoaeueiinoe o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u a i?ioeanna. Eai anee i?ioeann aoaeao ?an-
n/eoai ia aaaeaiea aeae iiaa?aiiuie e aoaeao eaii?e?iaaoue aaaeaiea aeae na-
ieie oyaeoueieny, iaiiuoiuie e iainaaaeiieaiiuie a caeiiao e oi?-
iaeueiinoyo, oi ?aoi?ia, i/aaeaeii, i?eaaaeao ia e oeo/oaieth, a e oooaeoaieth
iieiaeaiey. Iiyoiio, ia aeaeay aaiaeeoue iaycaoaeueiinoue, Ainoaea?noaaiiue
Niaao noa?aaony ineaaeoue neeo i?eaaaeaiiuo a iauynieoaeueiie caienea ni-
ia?aaeaiee, eioi?uie a?ao Aeoaeia iuoaeny i?ee?uoue ionoonoaea i?eioee-
ieaeueiuo aeiaiaeia.

?annoaeaeaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa a yoie /anoe aanueia ethaiiuoiu.
.
A n ae?oaie, ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi . Oaeea caiaoiua ienaoaee
oiai a?aiaie, eae I, Oea/aa, ioia/ay iiyaeaoeeny ia?aaiae aeaoo eiea Ieo-
oa?iaea?a, aeieacuaaee, /oi i?e ninoycaoaeueiii i?ioeanna ei?ii?aoeey aae-
aieaoia ia oieueei iaiaoiaeeia e iaecaaaeia, ii e ?acoiia. Oai ia iaiaa,
yoio einoeooo, ii oaaaeaeaieth aaoi?a, anoue eeoue iaiaoiaeeiia cei, e cei,
i?aaeaea anaai, iioiio, /oi iiae oa?icie eneeth/aiey ec eanou (ana a?aiy
aaoi? aianoi nineiaey e?iie/anee aiai?eo i eanoa) aaeaieao aeieaeai aoaeao
aanoe anyeia aeaei.

Ii naiui oa?aeoa?iui, oi/iaa neacaoue, ciaiaiaoaeueiui ia?acoeii
iiaeao neoaeeoue noaouey I. N-aa a . Aeiioneay aaeai-

aoo?o a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna, eai oai , aaoi? iaoiaeeo, /oi . Oieueei iaeia ec aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noi?ii
iiaeao eiaoue aeia?iniaanoiiai aaeaieaoa. No?iaay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue o?a-
aiaaea au i?aaeaiey oaieiaiiio noaeo aaeaieaoa iai?aaie noi?iiu, a neo/aa
iioa?e ath oyaeau, ca aaci?aanoaaiiia e oiuoeaiiia iieooaiea ia?ooeoue
i?aai, i?eiaaeeaaeauaa ni?aaaaeeeaie noi?iia. Eae niaeaneoue oaeia o?aai-
aaiea no?iaie e aaniethoiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe n iaycaiiinoueth, iaeaaaaiie
naiei ainoaea?noaii ia aaeaieaoia, ei aea iinoaaeaiiuo, ia?ooaoue yoo ni?a-
aaaeeeainoue a iieiaeia anao neo/aaa, caaa?yaiuo eo caueoa?>

I?eaiaey aua e ae?oaea aic?aaeaiey i?ioea aaaaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u, aaoi?
iiieiaao, iaeiaei, /oi i?e ionoonoaee aaeaieaoo?u ia?acoaony ionoia ianoi,
eioi?ia /ai-ieaoaeue aeieaeii auoue caiieiaii. *ai iiaeii aai caiieieoue,
aaoi? ia ciaao, ii ii iieaaaao, /oi

Yoa noaouey ?aceinoueth e i?yiieeiaeiinoueth naieo noaeaeaiee e oiaaea
oaea, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?aacioea ia?o oa?ieiiai. ?aaeaeoeey niaaaeeea aa i?e-
ia/aieai, a eioi?ii cayaeyao i naiai . Neieueei ?ac, iaeiaei, a aeaeueiaeoai i?eaeaony iai ano?a-
/aoueny n yoeie iuneyie, eioi?ua ia oieueei ia ?annaeaaeenue, ii iaoiaeeee
naaa au?aaeaiea aeaaea a ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioao. Ai anyeii neo/aa, i?e
naiai iiyaeaiee noaouey I. N-aa i?iecaaea neeueiia aia/aoeaiea, e ?aaeaeoeey
au?aceea oaa?aiiinoue, /oi .
I?aaaea, aic?aaeaiey ia iinuiaeenue, ii iaeii aic?aaeaiea noaouey N-aa au-
caaea, e aic?aaeaiea ianoieueei aeanoyuaa ii oi?ia e en/a?iuaathuaa ii
nouanoao, /oi e nae/an e iaio ie/aai ia inoaaaeinue au i?eaaaeoue. Aic-
?aaeaiea oiaea auei iaia/aoaii a . Aaoi?o yoie ca-
ia/aoaeueiie noaouee eacaeinue, ii aai neiaai, /oi nii?u iiaoo oaia?ue eanaoueny
eeoue /anoiinoae, eai ioaa?aaoue i?eioeeieaeueii cia/aiea aaeaieaoo?u cia/eo
i?inoi eaii?e?iaaoue ?acoeueoaou iiuoa anao ia?iaeia.

, 1864, ? 2. – I?ei. aao.
18)9, n. 6.7. – I?ei. aao.

eece?iaaoue nia?aiaiiue a?aaeaeaineee iai?io, a aiaeec onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi
yoiio iai?ioo niioaaonoaoao ainiiaenoaothuee aacaea ninoycaoaeueiue i?i-
oeann, eioi?ue, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaaiciiaeai aac i?aaieciaaiiie aaeaieaoo?u.
Ii ia a yoii oieueei niune e ainoaea?noaaiiia cia/aiea aeaiiiai einoeoooa.
Oieueei i?e iiiiue aaeaieaoia noaeaaiia ninoycaiea iiaeao aeinoeaiooue iie-
iiou e aeeainoe, a yoa iieiioa e aeeainoue iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oiai, /oiau
noaeuey iia iaic?aoue aeaei ni anao noi?ii, i?iieeiooue a naioth nouiinoue aai
e ninoaaeoue naaa oaa?aeia oaaaeaeaiea: iia oieueei iiaeao i?aaeio?aieoue noaeueth
io iaeiinoi?iiiinoe acaeyaea, noieue a?aaeiie aeey i?aaeeueiinoe ?aoaiey…
Anyeia aeaei /aeiaa/aneia, eae au ie auei ii ia/aeo naiaio ?acoiii e
aeooiaii, iiaeao i?aa?aoeoueny a iaoaie/aneee o?oae, anee /aeiaae aeiionoeo
oneeeoueny a naaa ?aaiiaeooeth, yoiio anoanoaaiiiio a?aao anyeie aeooiaiie
aeecie, a aaea iao aeooa, oai ennye enoi/iee aeecie, oi?ia inoaeanue aac
niaea?aeaiey, /oanoai aeieaa nouanoaoao oieueei ii eiaie, e aeaei iunee e
?acoia aioiai i?aa?aoeoueny a aeaei aanniuneaiiie i?eau/ee. Aeaei i?aai-
noaeey iiaeaa?aeaii oie aea iianiinoe. Ii eiaaea ia?aae noaeii iineuoeony
aeeaay ?a/ue aaeaieaoa, ciaeiiiai n eneonnoaii eceiaeaiey, eiaaea i?eoii
ia?aae noaeii e o/anoaothueie a iai aoaeoo ia caoai?aiiua aeaa?e oaeiie
i?enoonoaaiiie eaia?u, a iauanoai, i?eieiathuaa aeeaia o/anoea ai anai,
/oi i?ienoiaeeo ia noaea, oiaaea i?ioeann iieo/eo aeae aeaenoaeoaeueiie, aeeaie
e ?acoiiie ai?ueau. Oiaaea ?aaeeee noaeuey a ninoiyiee aoaeao inoaoueny ia-
aieiaoaeueiui e ?aaiiaeooiui. A oaeii oieueei aeaea, o.a. i?e o/anoee aae-
aieaoia e i?e ioe?uoii canaaeaiee, noae naeaeaaony eo/oath oeieith aeey
ia?aciaaiey noaeae e aaeaieaoia. Anee noae ia anoue iaoaie/aneia aeaei, aeey
eiaai aeinoaoi/ii ?ooeiu, anee ia ana ?aaii, eoi au ie noaeee, oi aeey i?aaiai
noaea iaiaoiaeeii ia?aciaaiea oeaeiai nineiaey noaeae, n?aaee eiaai o?aieeenue
au e iai?aiaiiia /oanoai noaeaeneiai aeieaa e oaa?aeinoue noaeaaiie aeieo?eiu,
aeathuae onoie/eainoue ?aoaieyi, a oaeia nineiaea ia iiaeao e ia?aciaaoueny
aac niaeaenoaey aaeaieaoia… Ai?ueaa neaaiai n neeueiui, aaaeiiai n aiaaoui,
caaenyuaai n oai, io eiai ii ii ?aciui ioiioaieyi caaeneo, anaaaea e
aacaea auea cao?oaeieoaeueia e iiania. A eiuo neo/ayo oaeay ai?ueaa auea
au ?aoeoaeueii iaaiciiaeia aac iiiiue aaeaieaoa. Aaeaieao, anee ii, eae
e neaaeoao, iaoiaeeony a iieiaeaiee iacaaeneiii ie io i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
eeoe, ie io noaeae, e nai ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e ioeoeeaeueiiio ninoaao noaea,
anee, iaaeaynue ia i?aanoaaiioth neeo aeaea, eioi?ia caueuaao, ii iiaeao
aianoa n oai iia?aoueny ia i?aanoaaiioth neeo oeaeie ei?ii?aoeee, e eioi?ie
i?eiaaeeaaeeo, e ia niciaiea iauanoaa, i?enoonoaothuaai i?e ai?ueaa, aae-
aieao – e i?eaaaei, iaeei oieueei aaeaieao, – a ninoiyiee niaei ?aoeoueny
ia ninoycaiea n ee/iui eioa?anii iaoa?eaeueiie neeu e aunoaaeoue i?ioea

a i?oaeea neeu aeooiaiie. Ia?aae aaeaieaoii iiaeao onouaeeoueny e a?oaia
ianeeea, oioy iii ia ia?aoeei au aieiaiey ia ?iaeea aic?aaeaiey /aeiaaea,

eioi?iai iii i?eaueei ii/eoaoue ie/oiaeiui e caaenyuei… Aaeaieaoii
iiaeao auoue ia anyeee, eoi aeinoaoi/ii i?eaioiaeai e yoiio caaieth… Ni-
neiaea aaeaieaoia, oae aea eae e nineiaea noaeae, oiaaea oieueei iiaeao en-
iieieoue naia iacia/aiea e oaeiaeaoai?eoue naiae oeaee, eiaaea aoaeao nineiaeai
a naiii naaa caeeth/aiiui, noiyuei aicea noaeaaiie aeanoe, ii ia caaenyuei
io iaa. Caeiiiaeaoaeue ia aeieaeai caauaaoue, /oi anoue nineiaey, aeey eioi?uo
oieueei /anoue e oaaaeaeaiey iiaoo neoaeeoue iaaeaaeiui ?oeiaiaenoaii e inii-
aaieai ii?yaeea, aeey eioi?uo aeaaeu/anoai iaoa?eaeueiie neeu e aaconeia-
iiai i?eeaca auei au aeaaeueii. Aeey anooieaiey a oaeia nineiaea aeieaeiu
auoue onoaiiaeaiu oi?iaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, ii eae nei?i nineiaea i?aaie-
ciaaeinue, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeinoaaeoue aio naiaiaeioth, iacaaeneioth aeayoaeue-
iinoue>.

Noaouey yoa, e nae/an ii?aaeathuay y?einoueth, io/aoeeainoueth, a aeaa-
iia – aunieie i?eioeeieaeueiinoueth naieo noaeaeaiee, i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?o
eeoea, nua?aaoaai aiineaaenoaee aanueia caiaoioth ?ieue a enoi?ee ?innee.
Iia iaienaia E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaaui, eioi?ue neoaeee oiaaea ii Ieien-
oa?noao THnoeoeee. Ii, iaeiaei, ia aue i?eaeaoai e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
o/anoeth a ?aaioao ii i?aia?aciaaieth noaeaaiie /anoe, a eeoue aeaaae naie
iocuau ia au?aaaouaaaiua i?iaeou .

Eoae, n iaeiie noi?iiu N-a n aai oaa?aiiinoueth, /oi a eaaeaeii i?ioeanna
aaeaieao iaeiiai ec oyaeoueony iinooiaao aan/anoii; n ae?oaie, E. Iiaaaei-
iinoeaa n aai ooaa?aeaeaieai, /oi aac aaeaieaoo?u iao i?aainoaeey. Oaeiau
yoe e?aeiea aaoe, ii?aaeaeythuea aiieeooaeo eieaaaiee ai acaeyaeao ia ?ieue
e caaea/e aaeaieaoo?u. Ia ioaeii aeieacuaaoue, /oi aiieeooaea yoa neeoeii
aaeeea. Ii oai aaaeiaa eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi eae iia ii?aaeaeeeanue n?aco
i?e aaaaeaiee ?aoi?iu, oae e inoaeanue iaeciaiiie aei iaoeo aeiae. A yoii
ia ?ac i?eaeaony oaaaeaeaoueny i?e aeaeueiaeoai eceiaeaiee. Caeanue aea neaaeoao
n aeoaieei aieiaieai inoaiiaeoueny ia i?eaaaeaiiie noaouea E. Iiaaaeiiin-
oeaaa e ioaeaoue naaa io/ao a oii, eae auniei iiaeieiaeny o?iaaiue iunee
eo/oeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae oiaaeaoiae ath?ie?aoee e eaeeie /enouie eaeaaeaie
iie auee iaeooaaeaiu.

Ii neiaai A.N. Ca?oaeiiai. o iaai eiaaony ioiinyuaany i?eaeeceoaeueii e oiio a?aiaie ienue-
ii E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaaa e N.E. Ca?oaeiiio. Ioaa/ay ia aii?in N.E. Ca?oaeiiai, ii/aio ii a caia-
/aieyo naieo ia i?ai?iaiaeaeaaiua e iaio i?iaeou i?iyaeyao oaeoth no?anoiinoue. E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaa
iiyniyao, /oi a i?iaeoao ii ia aeaeeo niioaaonoaey iio?aaiinoyi no?aiu, /oi a ieo neacuaaaony iau/iia
i?aiaa?aaeaiea ath?ie?aoee e enoeiiui ioaeaeai ia?iaea, e /oi ii, Iiaaaeiiinoeia, oai ?aoeoaeueiaa
i?ioea yoiai i?ioanooao, /ai neeueiaa iianaaony, /oi yoa ath?ie?aoe/aneay oeia a?iceo e aai cani-
naoue. – I?ei aao.

II. ?AC?AAIOEA E AAAAeAIEA
I?AAEE IA AAeAIEAOO?A

4. IA?AIIA*AEUeIUA I?IAEOU ?AOI?IU

Auoa oaea auei oiiiyiooi, /oi aua a 1857 a. ianoaeaeaiea a Ainoaea?-
noaaiiii Niaaoa aianaiiuo aoi?ui ioaeaeaieai Nianoaaiiie Aai Aaee/a-
noaa eaioeaey?ee iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee ia/aeinue n /oaiey Auni/aeoaai ii-
aaeaiey, eiei aini?auaeinue eanaoueny, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, aii?ina ia aaeaiea-
oo?a. Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio, ioiinyueany e oiio a?aiaie i?iaeou any/anee
noa?aeenue iaeoe eiii?iienn iaaeaeo ioa?auaieai e aaeaieaoo?a e iaoiiee-
iuie o?aaiaaieyie ninoycaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Aio /oi iu /eoaai, iai?e-
ia?, a iauynieoaeueiie caienea e i?iaeoo onoaaa a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?ie-
caiaenoaa.

.

Ii iaei yoiai: iauynieoaeueiay caienea iieaaaao, /oi o ian ia oieueei
iao iaaeaaeaeu eiaoue aaeaieaoia, ii iai ia neaaeoao e no?aieoueny e yoiio.

.

Yoe aeaeeea oeo?inieaoaiey i?iaeoia II Ioaeaeaiey Nianoaaiiie eai-
oeaey?ee ano?a/aee naioth oie/oiaeathuoth e?eoeeo. A eiathuainy o iaiy
yecaiiey?a niaea?-
aeeony ?oeiieniay caienea eiycy Ae.Iaieaineiai, oiaea neoaeeaoaai ii Ie-
ienoa?noao THnoeoeee, eioi?ue, iiaeaa?aay i?iaeo ianoiyoaeueiiio aiaeeco,
a /anoe, eanathuaeny aaeaieaoo?u, ia inoaaeyao io iaai eaiiy ia eaiia.
. , – ioaeaao naay e aeinoiyiea
naia ia aea?oao aaciaeacaiiiio i?iecaieo iiaa?aiiiai.

Aaeea aiiethuea aaccaeiiey niaa?oathony iiae io?aiith neo ?ieiauo
neia.

Iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ieeaeieei naiei i?ac?aieai nineiaea iiaa?ai-
iuo, e aei oao ii?, iiea i?aaeoaeuenoai ia aeano naio nineiaeth i?aaeeueiie
e caeiiiie i?aaiecaoeee, aei oao ii? ie iaeei /anoiue e oaaaeathuee naay
/aeiaae ia anooieo a iaai.

Eaeeo aea ciaiaiee aeieaeii iaeeaeaoue, /oiau oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi o ian
anoue ethaee n aeinoaoi/iuie th?eaee/aneeie iiciaieyie aeey ia?aciaaiey ni-
neiaey aaeaieaoia?

Eoaea aea aeaaathony nioie iieiaeuo ethaeae, aaeaaiaeii auioneaaiuo ec
th?eaee/aneeo oaeoeueoaoia oieaa?neoaoia e O/eeeua I?aaiaaaeaiey? Aieue-
oay /anoue ec ieo ioioii ia?aoeeanue au e caiyoeyi aaeaieaoia, aaeaee au
caaiea yoi aioei a ninoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e iieo/eei au
caeiiioth i?aaiecaoeeth. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, eiaaea eaeao ?a/ue ia oiaiueoaiee
/eiiaieeia, a iniaaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeyaony e?aeiyy iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaoue
enoiae aeayoaeueiinoe iieiaeuo th?enoia ia ae?oaii iii?eua. Eae aea ia ii-
aeoiaoue ia yoii na?ueacii, ia nia?aoue naaaeaiee, a ooaa?aeaeaoue oae iieiaee-
oaeueii, /oi o ian iao niiniaiuo th?enoia? Iiaeao auoue, a ia?aia a?aiy e
aoaeao a ieo iaaeinoaoie (a /ai, ai?i/ai, iu niiiaaaainy), ii aaaeue e iaaeeeia
aeey iio?aaiinoe ?innee iaei, ec yoiai ia neaaeoao, /oiau iiaeii auei
n/eoaoue ia?aciaaiea nineiaey a?a/ae iaaiciiaeiui e aeicaieyoue eaaeaeiio,
ia aeieacaaoaio iiciaiee naieo a iaaeeoeeia, ea/eoue, ia iianaynue ieeaeie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe… >

Caienea eiycy Iaieaineiai ethaiiuoia ia noieueei ii naiaio niaea?-
aeaieth, neieueei ii anaio oiio, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuaio, eaeie ai?y/ee eioa?an
i?eaeaeaea e naaa noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia. N oi/ee c?aiey niaea?aeaiey, ai?acaei
aaaeiaa ioaao ia yoo caieneo. Ioaao yoio i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeiiio ec oai?oeia
aoaeoueo Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, eo aeiaeanoiiio ?uoea?th N. E. Ca?oaeiiio. A
ioaaoa ii, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaao, aunooiaao y?eei
i?aaenoaaeoaeai ioeoeeaeueiiai iiii?ooiecia e niaei aa?ao ia naay oyaeaeoth
caaea/o ionoaeaaoue ioeoeeaeueiua i?iaeou io iaiaaeie iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.
Naiay iaia?a ioaaoa ianoieueei oa?aeoa?ia, a ee/iinoue aaoi?a ianoieueei
caia/aoaeueia e iiioey?ia, /oi auei au ioeaeie ia i?eaanoe aai aic?aaeaiee
aai iiaeeeiiuie neiaaie.

.

O?oaeii iiaa?eoue, /oiau aaoi?ii yoiai oaa?oeeaiai, iiii?ooienoe/an-
eiai ?annoaeaeaiey aue N.E. Ca?oaeiue, eiy eioi?iai naycaii a iaoai
i?aaenoaaeaiee n naiie caia/aoaeueiie ?onneie ?aoi?iie. Ii oai oeaiiaa
nae/an aeey ian yoe no?iee, eai iie ynii inaauatho oio aaneiia/ii aeeeiiue
iooue, eioi?ue i?eoeinue i?ieoe aeanoe, /oiau aeia?aoueny, iaeiiaoe, aei No-
aeaaiuo Onoaaia.

I?eaaaeaiiia ?annoaeaeaiea N.E. Ca?oaeiiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaao i?aaeeueiinoue
auneacaiiie auoa iunee, /oi iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaaaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u noiyea
aeiiieieoaeueiui i?aiyonoaeai ia iooe i?iaaaeaiey noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu.
N. E. Ca?oaeiue iianaeny, /oi iinoaiiaea aii?ina ia aaeaieaoo?a a?iceo
ion?i/eie inouanoaeaiey eaeie au oi ie auei ?aoi?iu i?aainoaeey, e,
/oiau iieo/eoue /oi-eeai, aioia aue oaeiaieuenoaiaaoueny naiui iaeui.
Ioeaea N.E. Ca?oaeiiai a oii, /oi ii ia ioeaiee neeu oiaaeaoiaai iaua-
noaaiiiai iano?iaiey. Onooiaoue i?eoeinue a?aoo Aeoaeiao, eioi?ue e aioae

ni anaiiaeaeaiiaeoei aeieeaaeii i iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaiecaoeee o ian aaeai-
eaoo?u, e yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea iieo/eei iaeia?aiea. .

?acoeueoaoii yoiai Auni/aeoaai iiaaeaiey e aue ia?aue , iiiauaiiue a IV oii Aeaea i i?a-
ia?aciaaiee noaeaaiie /anoe. I?iaeo ninoieo ec II noaoae e, aini?iecaiaey
a nouiinoe iieiaeaiea i i?enyaeiuo no?yi/eo i?e eiiia?/aneeo noaeao,
ie/aai iauaai ia eiaao n i?eaaaeaiiui auoa i?iaeoii Eiiennee ninoaa-
eaiey caeiiia. Nouanoaaiiia ioee/ea io caeiia 1832 a. caeeth/aaony a oii,

Yoa auienea iaeaeaia a eiiie a aoiaaao N.E. Ca?oaeiiai e ethaacii niiauaia iai A.N. Ca-
?oaeiui. – I?ei. aaii

oi a eiiia?/aneeo noaeao, ii iauaio i?aaeeo, iiaa?aiiuie iiaoo auoue
oieueei i?enyaeiua no?yi/ea. – a i?iaeo ioeacuaaaony io iiiiiieee e
iaaeinoaaeyao anyeiio, .
Aeaeoaia aaaeiia ioee/ea io caeiia 1832 a. e aaeeinoaaiiia noiaenoai n oii-
oeoo-ui i?iaeoii caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi oaea a yoii ia?aii i?iaeoa ia
i?enyaeiuo no?yi/eo aiceaaaeanue iaycaiiinoue i?iecaiaeeoue aacaiciacaeii
aeaea ethaeae, i?aaenoaaeaoeo iaaeeaaeauaa naeaeaoaeuenoai i aaaeiinoe>.

Ii ai?acaei eioa?aniaa naiiai i?iaeoa iauynieoaeueiay caienea e iaio,
eioi?ay noaaeo ana oi/ee iaae e aanueia ?aeueaoii ia?eniauaaao oo ia-
noaiiaeo, a eioi?ie nicaeaaaeinue o ian nineiaea aaeaieaoia. A i?ioeaiii-
eiaeiinoue iauanoaaiiiio iiaieth, eioi?ia a?iiei o?aaiaaei, /oiau eeann
aaeaieaoia ia?aciaaeny ec niaa?oaiii iiauo enoi/ieeia, iauynieoaeueiay
caienea ianoie/eai aeaeaao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ie/aai iiaiai i?iaeo ia aaiaeeo,
e caaioeeai iiyoiio aeaeaao oeacaiea, /oi , oae neacaoue (!), yeaiaio ioe-
oeeaeueiuo iiaa?aiiuo>. Caaea/a aaoi?ia caienee caeeth/aaony ia a oii,
/oiau iiaee?aieoue e auynieoue oa iniiaaiey, ia eieo nineiaea aaeaieaoo?u
iiaeao i?aaeeueii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue, a /oiau ii?aaaeaoue oaeie oaa e ?acu-
yniyoue no?aoe. Ionthaea nnueea ia I?onneth. O?eae?eo II ?aoee aaeaieaoia
ioiaieoue, n/eoay eo aeiiaieeaie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe a?aaeaeaineeo i?i-
oeannia e ia?iiiuo i?ienoaeathueo ionthaea aeey oyaeoueony oauoeia e ec-
aea?aeae. Ii yoe
ieacaeenue iaoaea/iuie. .
Aeaeaa caienea oaeinoiaa?yao, /oi , e iinea yoiai .
Caienea anoanoaaiii ia iiaeic?aaaao, /oi ana caaenaee ia io

43

oiai, neieue aa?ai aue acaeyae O?eae?eoa II ia aaue, a yaeeenue ?acoeueoaoii
ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaiu noaeiono?ienoaa, a naith i/a?aaeue io?aaeaaoae ii?a-
aeaeaiiia ainoaea?noaaiiia ie?inica?oeaiea. Ii ana aea, oioy e i/aiue ?iaei,
caienea iiaeoiaeeo e oiio aa?iiio iooe, ia eioi?ue oae a?iiei caae
E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaa. Iaeiaei anooieoue ia yoio iooue iia ia ?aoaaony e aianoi
oiai oaycaao a oeia iaeeeo i?aeoe/aneeo niia?aaeaiee. I?enyaeiua no?yi/ea
iaiaoiaeeiu, oae eae , eai anyeea auoiaeu ioaeii iinueueeaoue naiei oy-
aeoueiny, ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa eieo iiaeao auoue e aanueia ioaeaeaiii. , a onoaaa aeieaeii auoue , eai
oyaeoueany iaueiiaaiii iaciaeiiu n oi?iaeueiinoyie. A anaai aieaa
ioaeiu oi?ioea, n iniiaaoaeueiuie th?eaee/aneeie iiciaieyie, no?yi/ea
aeey iaaeeaaeauaai oi/iiai e iieiiai iiyniaiey aeaea, eai eia/a i?eoiaeeony
oyaeoueiny aeicaieeoue iiaeaaaoue aaneiia/iia /enei aoiaa, eioi?ua, iaeiaei,
ia oieueei ia ?acuyniytho, ii ana aieueoa caioouaatho aeaei.

Aio e ana! Ieeaeeo ae?oaeo niia?aaeaiee ia i?eaiaeeony. A anee yoi
oae, oi, i/aaeaeii, any ?aoi?ia ia aeieaeia auoiaeeoue ec i?aaeaeia iaia/aiiie
ocei i?aeoe/aneie iio?aaiinoe. . Eiia/ii, iao: ai O?aioeee, eae anai ecaanoii,
aaeaieaou ia?acotho ioaeaeueiia nineiaea, . . Ii a ae?oaeo caieyo, iai?e-
ia?, a iaeioi?uo /anoyo Aa?iaiee, a Aieeaiaeee, a Iueaiiioa, a Iaaiiea,
a A?aoeee, iao aeaaeueiiai aeaeaiey ia iiaa?aiiuo (aoi-
ea8) e aaeaieaoia. Iineaaeiea eniieiytho e iaycaiiinoe ia?auo;
. Oaeia noaeio-
no?ienoai oaea ieeaeeie iianiinoyie ia oa?iaeaao. Ii ia anyeee neo/ae –
aa?aaeaiiai e Aia aa?aaeao – ioaeii i?eiyoue e aeaeueiaeoea ia?u. Iai

e acyoue a i?eia? (/oi ) ii?yaeie, nouanoaothuee
a iaoeo noaeao eiiia?/aneeo, i?e eieo oaea onoaiiaeaiu i?enyaeiua no?yi-

ia iieiaeeoue a iniiao iieiaeaiea ia ono?ienoaa noaeaaiuo iano a Oea?noaa
Iieueneii, a a iiii naienoai e iieiaeaiea caueoieeia eee aaeaieaoia ii/oe
niaa?oaiii iaeeiaeiau n iieiaeaieai /eiiaieeia noaeaaiiai aaaeiinoaa>.
Aua oa?aeoa?iaa, /oi n oaeie aea i?yiieeiaeiinoueth ?aoai aii?in i ia-
iaaiee. .

Yoa iauynieoaeueiay caienea caneoaeeaaao naiiai na?ueaciiai aieiaiey,
aa ioaeii oi?ioi caiiiieoue. Iia iaaeyaeii iieacuaaao, oaeia aeoaieia
i?aaie/aneia iaaeiaa?ea e aaeaieaoo?a ieoaea oiaaea ath?ie?aoey e n eaeie
iianeie iia i?enooiaea e i?aaiecaoeee yoiai einoeoooa. Eacaeinue au, /oi
oiiiyiooia auoa Auni/aeoaa iiaaeaiea, eeeaeaee?oy cai?auaiea iiaeie-
iaoue aii?in ia aaeaieaoo?a, i?aaeoniao?eaaei aaaaeaiea a ioi?aaeaiea i?a-
ainoaeey yeaiaioa iiaiai, aei oiai iaauaaeiai o ian. Eia/a a?aoo Aeoaeiao
iaca/ai auei au eni?aoeaaoue niaoeeaeueiia Auni/aeoaa iiaaeaiea ia ni-
noaaeaiea i?iaeoa. Ii, i?enooiea e ninoaaeaieth i?iaeoa, a?ao Aeoaeia ia
iia io?aoeoueny io caei?aiaeiai iaaeiaa?ey e n?aco ioeacaeny io anyeie
iunee i eaeeo au oi ie auei iiaoanoaao, ia caaua e i oii, /oi naiia
iaeiaiiaaiea aaeaieao ia aeieaeii auoue o ian aeiiouaii.

Anaie naieie ei?iyie caienea yoa aeoaiei ooiaeeo a i?ioeia. E an-
oanoaaiii iiyoiio, /oi iaaeaeo i?iaeoe?oaiuie ath iiauie noaeaaiuie /e-
iiaieeaie e i?aaeeiaeaieai E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaaa nicaeaoue naiioi?aaeyth-
uaany nineiaea eaaeeo i?iianoue, /a?ac eioi?oth ia?aeeiooue iino iaeuecy.

E niaeaeaieth, iaeiaei, a aeaeueiaeoai yoio ia?aue i?iaeo ia aue io-
aa?aioo. Iai?ioea, eiaiii ii e aue iieiaeai a iniiaaiea iineaaeothuaai
ianoaeaeaiey e, eae au aeaeaei ie ionoiyei ieii/aoaeueiia iieiaeaiea i i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo io ia?auo i?aaeiieiaeaiee, iii, eae aoaeao aeaeii ieaea,
i?aainoaaiii ?acaeeinue ec i?iaeoa a?aoa Aeoaeiaa.

A 1859 a., ia aeaoo canaaeaieyo 27 ia?oa e 24 ai?aey, i?iaeo a?aoa
Ueeoaeiaa iiaeaa?aioo aue ianoaeaeaieth a Ainoaea?noaaiiii Niaaoa, a Ni-
aaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioao – a?aaeaeaineii e caeiiia, Ainoaea?noaaiiue
iaao aiieia niaeaneeny n iiaieai II Ioaeaeaiey i oii, /oi . I?aaeinoaaeaiea aaeaieaoo?a naiioi?aaeaiey anoue ?acoeueoao

o. X. – I?ei. aao.

(!). . Auneacaaoenue n oaeie eaoaai?e/iinoueth. Ainoaea?no-
aaiiue Niaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ionthaea i?eoiaeeo e iunee ia ia?aciaaiee
Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. (). Ie-
/aai iauaai, eiia/ii, yoio Niaao ia eiaao ni naieie eiino?aiiuie i?i-
ia?acaie, ii ninoieo iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii oacaeiiai no?yi/aai eee ao-
aa?ineiai i?ieo?i?a. Aai ooieoeee naiaeyony e ,
eioi?ua ooaa?aeaeathony a aeieaeiinoe noaeii, e e iacia/aieth iiaa?aiiuo
aeey aaaeaiey aeae eeoe, iieuecothueony i?aaii aaaeiinoe. Ii o/?aaeaeaieai
Niaaoa aeaeaaony eae au oaa aia?aae ii iooe aaaaeaiey o ian /aai-oi iiaiai,
aianoi ?ani?ino?aiaiey einoeoooa i?enyaeiuo no?yi/eo, ieii/aoaeueii aeen-
e?aaeeoe?iaaiiiai e yoiio iiiaioo. Ia oio aea n/ao iaiaoiaeeiinoe eaeie-
ieaoaeue, oioy au aiaoiae iiaeciu ioaeii ioianoe caiaio iaeiaiiaaiey
i?enyaeiuo no?yi/eo i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie, /oi aeieaeii auei oneeeoue
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i aaaaeaiee .

Acaeyae ia yoi i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, eae ia /eiiaieea noaeaaiiai
aaaeiinoaa, e ia ioi?aaeaiea iaycaiiinoae aaeaieaoa, eae ia ninoiyiea a
aeieaeiinoe, anoanoaaiii i?eaae e aii?ino ia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aaeaieaoo?ie
e ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iiaa?aiiue ia ninoieo ia
neoaeaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa e iioiio ia iiaeao iieueciaaoueny i?aeiouanoaaie,
ni neoaeaie nii?yaeaiiuie. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, /oiau i?eaea/ue ethaeae
ia?aciaaiiuo e eniieiaieth iaycaiiinoae iiaa?aiiuo, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaei-
noaaeoue ei eaeea-eeai i?aaa. Ionthaea i?aaeei – i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua,
oioy e ia n/eoathony a aeaenoaeoaeueiie neoaeaa, ia iieo/atho aeaeiaaiuey io
eaciu e ia eiatho i?aaa ie ia iaineth, ie ia i?iecaiaenoai a /eiu e iaa?aaeu
i?aeaiaie, ii iieuecothony anaie i?i/eie i?aeiouanoaaie neoaeau. Eaeea,
iaeiaei, yoe – iaecaanoii. Aaeeinoaaiiia i?a-
eiouanoai, eae oeacuaaaony a caia/aieyo ia i?iaeo, caeeth/aaony a i?aaa
neoaeauaai, naeaeaa aeiea, ia ieaoeoue aai, eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ia ?acii
oieaoeoue aai, ia iiaeaa?aaynue ca iaoieaoo a?anoo e oth?aiiiio caeeth/aieth.

I/aaeaeii, iao, – e oai ia iaiaa i?aae-
iieiaeaiea, auneacaiiia i?iaeoii a?aoa Aeoaeiaa i i?aaeinoaaeaiee aaeai-
eaoo?a i?aeiouanoa ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau oae e ia?aoiaeeei iineaaei-
aaoaeueii ec iaeiiai i?iaeoa a ae?oaie aieioue aei iineaaeiaai.

A einoaaiiue na?ueaciue, aeaeiaie aii?in, iinoaaeaiiue Niaaeeiaiiu-
/ia?-aaiaioaie i?e ianoaeaeaiee ia?aiai i?iaeoa, eanaeny iaycaoaeue-
oe o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u a i?ioeanna.
aeii ee auoue iai?aiaiii ii?o/aaii i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui eee aea
aeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaii e naiei oyaeoueiny? I?iaeo a?aoa Aeoaeiaa
u oea onoaiaaeeaae ieeaeeo ia?aie/aiee e ia oieueei ia onoaiaaeeaae
aycaoaeueiiai o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u a i?ioeanna, ii e i?aaeinoaaeye auae?aoue
ey oiaeaeaiey ii aeaeo ia?yaeo n i?enyaeiuie no?yi/eie e iiaa?aiiuo ec
/anoiuo eeoe. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao iinoaaee yoio aiiaue naiinoiyoaeueii, e aiieia iiiyoii, ii/aio ii auioaeaeai
aue oae naeaeaoue. Eae oaea ecaanoii, ioeacaaoenue io i?eioeeieaeueiuo ni-
ia?aaeaiee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaaaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u, i?iaeo a?aoa Aeoaeiaa
iioeae?oao naia i?aaeeiaeaiea /enoi i?aeoe/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie i?i-
oeannoaeueiuo oaeianoa. Iiaa?aiiua eiatho ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa a oao ai?iaeao,
aaea iaoiaeeony noae, a iioiio ana n?iee iiaoo auoue anoanoaaiii oei?i/aiu:
iiaa?aiiua inaaaeiieaiu a caeiiao, a iioiio iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aiaiyoue
onoaau iannie iaeeeo oi?iaeueiinoae. Ii ionthaea i?yiie ia?aoiae e iay-
caoaeueiinoe o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u a i?ioeanna. Eai anee i?ioeann aoaeao ?an-
n/eoai ia aaaeaiea aeae iiaa?aiiuie e aoaeao eaii?e?iaaoue aaaeaiea aeae na-
ieie oyaeoueieny, iaiiuoiuie e iainaaaeiieaiiuie a caeiiao e oi?-
iaeueiinoyo, oi ?aoi?ia, i/aaeaeii, i?eaaaeao ia e oeo/oaieth, a e oooaeoaieth
iieiaeaiey. Iiyoiio, ia aeaeay aaiaeeoue iaycaoaeueiinoue, Ainoaea?noaaiiue
Niaao noa?aaony ineaaeoue neeo i?eaaaeaiiuo a iauynieoaeueiie caienea ni-
ia?aaeaiee, eioi?uie a?ao Aeoaeia iuoaeny i?ee?uoue ionoonoaea i?eioee-
ieaeueiuo aeiaiaeia.

?annoaeaeaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa a yoie /anoe aanueia ethaiiuoiu.
.

I/aaeaeii, anee au Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao aeaeae aeieacaoue i?aeoe/an-
eoth iaioaeiinoue aaeaieaoo?u, oi aio ia i?eoeinue au eneaoue ae?oaea aeiaiaeu,
eai, eae oaea caia/aii, iie ?acaeaatho eiaiii oa iniiaaiey, eioi?ua au-
noaaeaiu i?iaeoii a?aoa Aeoaeiaa. Ii i?aeoe/aneea aeiaiaeu oai e oaeiaiu,
/oi eo iiaeii iiaeae?aoue, eae ea?ou, ianoue e ianoe, e a ?aciuo ni/aoaieyo
oiio?aaeyoue aeaaea aeey i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo oeaeae. Iiyoiio a?ao Aeoaeia ain-
iieueciaaeny eie aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa iieaciinoe aaeaieaoo?u, Ainoaea?no-
aaiiiio aea Niaaoo iie neoaeao aeieacaoaeuenoaii i?ioea iaycaoaeueiinoe
o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u a i?ioeanna.

Ieii/aoaeueiia oi?aeanoai yoiai eniuoaiiiai ath?ie?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi, enoiuea ana aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?ioea iaycaoaeueiinoe
aaeaieaoo?u, Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao eii/aao oai, /oi onoaiaaeeaaao ia/aei
aaeaieaoneie iiiiiieee, a ioee/ea io ia?aiai i?iaeoa. A naiii aeaea, eae
oaea oiiieiaeinue, i?iaeo a?aoa Aeoaeiaa ?aoeoaeueii ieeaeeo ia?aie/aiee
a auai?a iiaa?aiiiai ia aeiioneaao, a i?iaeo Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa
iinoaiiaeyao, /oi oyaeoueany . On-
oaiaaeeaay aaeaieaoneoth iiiiiieeth, i?iaeo aianoa n oai aiceaaaao ia i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e iaycaiiinoue aanoe ii?o/aaiia aio aeaei. Ia ioeaca
io i?aaeuyaeaiey a noae o?aaiaaiee oyaeoueony i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue aeie-
aeai niiaueoue Niaaoo e, anee Niaao ia iaoiaeeo aiciiaeiui ii?o/eoue aa-
aeaiea aeaea ae?oaiio iiaa?aiiiio, ii i?aaeinoaaeyao oyaeouaiony eca?aoue
naaa iiaa?aiiiai ec /enea eeoe, ia i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e nineiaeth.

Aii?in i iiiiiieee e iaycaoaeueiii o/anoee aaeaieaoo?u ieacaeny naiui
aiaaui ioieoii i?iaeoa, aucaae iaeaieaa iaeeaeaiiua nii?u a eeoa?aoo?a
e a caia/aieyo ia i?iaeo e aiiaua noiye a oeaio?a eioa?ana, aicaoaeaeaiiiai
i?iaeoii aaaaeaiey o ian aaeaieaoo?u. Yoio oaeo o?oaeii auei au iauynieoue,
anee au aeaenoaeoaeueii aii?in eaaeae a ieineinoe niia?aaeaiee, eioi?ua
i?eaiaeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao, eee anee au ana caaenaei io acaaoeaaiey
n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoa iiaa?aiiuo e naieo oyaeoueony e i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo. Ia naiii aeaea, iaia?oaeeaoaany caeanue ino?ia ?aciiaeanea ea-
aeaei ai?acaei aeoaaea e iauyniyeinue ai?acaei aieaa na?ueaciuie i?e/eiaie.
Eanaynue yoiai aii?ina e i?eaiaey eceiaeaiiua auoa niia?aaeaiey, Aino-

(-oaaiiue Niaao aianoa n oai caia/aao: . Yoi aaaeia caia/aiea iaiiieiaao i oii,
/oi ninoycaoaeueiue i?eioeei, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue auoue iieiaeai a iniiao
iiioeanna, niaea?aeae a naaa eaeia-oi aioo?aiiaa i?ioeai?a/ea. N iaeiie noi-
aeiiu, eae i?eioeei /enoi noaeii?iecaiaenoaaiiue, ii ianoiyoaeueii o?aaiaae
?aeaaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u. Oaeiai auei iauaa iiaiea e ionthaea eiae/aneee
ia?aoiae e ianaaeaeaieth o?aioeocneiai ia?acoea iaycaoaeueiiai o/anoey aaeai-
eaoo?u. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ninoycaoaeueiue i?eioeei ia yaeyeny o ian
eaeei-oi naiiaeiaeathuei, eciee?iaaiiui ia/aeii. Ii, iai?ioea, iaoi-
aeeeny a iieiii niioaaonoaee n oinoaaiiui e i?aanoaaiiui ie?inica?oea-
ieai oiai a?aiaie, e eioa?an e aeaiiiio aii?ino yaeyaony eeoue io?aaeaieai
iauaai oaea/aiey ainiiaenoaiaaaoeie oiaaea o/aieyie. Oi auei a?aiy aan-
i?aaeaeueiiai ainiiaenoaa o ian oaea?aaoianeie oai?ee caei?iaiai yaiecia.
I.A. *a?iuoaaneee, aeanoeoaeue aeoi ia?aaeiaiai ?onneiai iauanoaa, noiae
i?eie?eoue caueoo iaueiu n i?iiiaaaeueth oai?ee caei?iaiai yaiecia eae
iniiau /aeiaa/aneiai iauaaeeoey. *aeiaae, o/ee I.A, *a?iuoaaneee, ii-
nooiaao oae, eae i?eyoiaa aio iinooiaoue, ?oeiaiaeeony ?an/aoii, aaeyuei
ioeacuaaoueny io iaiueoae auaiaeu aeey iieo/aiey aieueoae auaiaeu. AEa?oaa,
aeieacuaaao aa?ie iiioey?iaeoaai ?iiaia , yoi – . Oi, /oi iacuaatho aicauoaiiui /oanoaii, eaeaaeueiuie no?ai-
eaieyie, ana yoi a iauai oiaea aeecie niaa?oaiii ie/oiaeii ia?aae no?ai-
eaieai eaaeaeiai e naiae iieueca e naii ninoieo ec oiai aea no?aieaiey e
iieueca.

Eiiaoe iyoeaeanyouo e ia/aei oanoeaeanyouo aiaeia auee iiiaioii iae-
aieueoaai oaea/aiey yoie oai?eae, aeiaaaeaiiie caoai Iena?aaui aei aa?eo-
eaniauo noieiia, iinea /aai e ia/aeanue ?aaeoeey. Ii a oio iiiaio ninoy-
caoaeueiia ia/aei oeao?e?iaaei o ian ia eae i?ioeannoaeueiue i?eioeei, a
eae iaeia ec /anoiinoae iauaai acaeyaea ia nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey. Iiyoiio,
oioy ia Caiaaea ia/aei ninoycaoaeueiinoe auei oaea i?iaa?aii iiuoii e
oniaei aucaaoue e naaa e?eoe/aneia ioiioaiea, o ian i?iaicaeaoaiea ia/aea
ninoycaoaeueiinoe ano?aoeei aeeaaeoee ioeeee a iauanoaa, eae i?iyaeaiea
naiaiaeiie ai?ueau ee/iuo eioa?ania, a eioi?oth ainoaea?noai ia ai?aaa aia-
oeaaoueny, eioi?oth noaeuey aeieaeai nica?oeaoue aani?eno?anoii. Aio ii/aio
ycaoaeueiia ia/aei noaei a oeaio?a ?aoi?iu, iii ii?aaeaeeei oi/eo c?a-
iey, n eioi?ie ianoaeaeaeinue e ioeaieaaeinue cia/aiea noaeaaiiai i?aia?aci-
“ey. Ionthaea aea i?ienoaeaei oaeia ?aceia e io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea

e iaycaoaeueiinoe e iiiiiieee aaeaieaoo?u. Ionoue aaaaeaiea iiiiiieee e
iaycaoaeueiinoe iiaeneacuaaeinue ?aciiia?aciaeoeie oai?aoe/aneeie e
i?aeoe/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie e iiuoii caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa,
ionoue yoiai o?aaoao eiaiii ninoycaoaeueiue oa?aeoa? i?ioeanna, i?acoie-
?othuaai i?i/iia ciaiea e uaiaoeeueiia niaethaeaiea i?ioeannoaeueiuo i?a-
aee. Iaaea?ii aea, eae nae/an auei oeacaii, oa aeiaiaeu, eioi?ua Ainoaea?-
noaaiiue Niaao i?eaiaeee i?ioea iaycaoaeueiinoe, aeieacuaatho e naioth
iaioaeiinoue aaeaieaoo?u aiiaua. Ai?acaei auoa oeaieeanue ninoycaoaeueiinoue,
eae inouanoaeaiea naiaiaeiie ai?ueau ee/iuo eioa?ania, a n yoie oi/ee
c?aiey iaycaoaeueiia o/anoea aaeaieaoo?u eee aeaaea iiiiiieey aa ?eniaaeenue
eae ia?aie/aiea a ?anii?yaeaiee naieie a?aaeaeaineeie i?aaaie, eaaeeoe-
oee?iaaeenue eae ia?ooaiea anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa, eae i?aanoaaiiia ianeeea.
Iiyoiio anyeay iiiuoea a oaeii iai?aaeaiee ano?a/aea yia?ae/iue ioii?
e ?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aaeanue, a caeiiiaeaoaeue iaonoaiii eneae eaeie-ieaoaeue
eiii?iienn.

I?iaeo Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia, ii iinoaiiaeaieth eo, iiaeeaaeae
aianaieth ia ieii/aoaeueiia ?aeiio?aiea Iauaai Nia?aiey Ainoaea?noaai-
iiai Niaaoa. Ii aianoi yoiai ei aue ?acineai aianoa n ?anniio?aiiui
iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaeoii onoaaa a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ia caeeth-
/aiea /eaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa e /eiia Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee.
Caia/aiey, eae aeaeii ii iiene Aeaea i i?aia?aciaaiee noaeaaiie /anoe,
aeinoaaeaiu auee io /eaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa e /eiia Ieienoa?noaa
THnoeoeee. Caia/aiey aeinoaaeaiu auee io /eaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa:
eiycy Aieeoeuia, Eiyaeaae/a, Eaineiai, Eeoea, a?aoa Iaieia, eiycy Iaiue-
oeeiaa, Io?aaueaaa, Nooicaiaoa, Eaiaoueaaa, eiycy Aeieai?oeiaa, Aiiai-
eiaa, a?aoa Noia?ieiaa, *aaeeia, Oaiaaaa. Ec Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee
aeinoaaeaiu caia/aiey neaaeothueo eeoe: Aooeeianeiai, ?iaeineiai, Iiaa-
aeiiinoeaaa, n.-iaoa?ao?aneeo iaa?-i?ieo?i?ia: Ethaiueineiai, Iaothieia,
O?eoa, A?naiueaaa, ?iaiae/a, AEeciaaneiai, ?iiaiianeiai, Aa?a, Noa-
?eoeeiai, eiycy Iaieaineiai, Aiaooaaneiai, Eaaaeeia, O?aaoaiaa, Iae-
eianeiai, i?aaenaaeaoaey Eiiia?/aneiai Noaea aa?iia Ei?oa, Neaioeiaa,
sscueiaa, Aiae?aaaneiai, Yiaaeueiaia e Oaoiaa. Caia/aiey yoeo eeoe, oua-
oaeueii na?oiie?iaaiiua e nenoaiaoece?iaaiiua, ia?aciaaee /anoue III Naiaea
caia/aiee, ninoaaeythueo XI oii .

Ia?a/eneaiea iacaaiiuo eeoe ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea iioiio, /oi
iii aua ?ac iaaeyaeii iieacuaaao, eaeie oe?ieee aeoeaiue eioa?an ia-
ia?oaeeeny ii ioiioaieth e noaeaaiie ?aoi?ia. Ii aua aieaa caia/aoaeueii,
/oi i?e anai ?aciiia?acee a iieiaeaiee eeoe, aeinoaaeaoeo caia/aiey, ana
yoe caia/aiey iai?aaeaiu a iaeio e oo aea noi?iio e ii?aaeatho aaeeinoaii

e acaeyaea. Niaaeeiaiiua Aeaia?oaiaiou caiyee naiei i?iaeoii e?ae-
iiceoeeth, oi/ii oae aea, eae e?aeithth iiceoeeth a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
yi\oithi caiyea i?eaaaeaiiay auoa noaouey E. Iiaaaeiiinoeaaa, e iaaeaeo
aeaoiy iiceoeeyie e ?aniieiaeeeenue iieo/aiiua caia/aiey. Ana neaaua
athiu i?iaeoa Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia iiaeia/aiu n aieueoie ci?-
noueth e aac anyeeo ieiee/iinoae aunoaaeaiu ia iieac, a aeaaiia – ea-
ae?eanee ioia/aia iniiaiay /a?oa, /oi i?iaeo ia niaea?aeeo a naaa ie/aai

iiaiai.
, i?aaeaea anaai, eiinoaoe?otho, /oi, ii iauaio oaaaeaeaieth,

iuiaoiea oiaeaoae ninoaaeytho iaeio ec i?e/ei aaaenoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. ?ac yoi oae, anee yoi aeneiia, oi, i/aaeaeii, . Ia-
iaoiaeeii iiyoiio ouaoaeueii iicaaioeoueny i ninoaaa iiaa?aiiuo e n yoith
oeaeueth: 1) iiauneoue ia?aciaaoaeueiue oeaic, ia aeiaieuenoaoynue aiiaua aun-
oei ia?aciaaieai, a o?aaoy ieii/aiey eo?na iaoe th?eaee/aneeo. 2) Aua
no?iaea ioaeii ioiineoueny e i?aanoaaiiui ea/anoaai aaeaieaoa e ie a eiai
neo/aa ia aeiioneaoue a /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iuiaoieo oiaeaoaaa.
, e .
Niaaeeiaiiua Aeaia?oaiaiou, eae oiiiyiooi auoa, au?aceee iuneue, /oi
naiioi?aaeaiea aaeaieaoo?u . Ii ii/aio eiaiii,
oiai ia iauyniaii. , iai?ioea, iieaaatho, /oi e a iaoe aeie
yoi i?eia?aoaao iniaoth i?aeoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue, /oi iaaeci?, i?aaeeaaaaiue
i?iaeoii, e ia inouanoaeony, iioiio /oi . Oi/ii oae aea, aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
i?anoeaea nineiaey, iaeuecy i?aaeinoaaeoue i?aaenaaeaoaeth aeene?aoeeiiiia i?aai
“aaoue aeenoeeieeia?iua acuneaiey ia iiaa?aiiuo. , – aeaaaoue o/?aaeaeaaiui iuia iiaa-

ue iacaaiea i?enyaeiuo, eioi?ia i?enaiaii eaiiaueeai e n/ao/eeai. – I?ei. aao.

noieinoaii eeoei iiaeao eaeoe a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?e oaeii caeiia,
aeiioneathuai aaciaeacaiii anyeee i?iecaie aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea, ia eioi?ia
e aeaeiaaoueny ia i?aaeinoaaeyaony>.

Aaeeinoaaiii, – e yoi i/aiue oa?aeoa?ii, – a /ai noi-
aeyony n Niaaeeiaiiuie Aeaia?oaiaioaie, yoi – a io?eoeaiee iaycaoaeue-
iinoe e iiiiiieee aaeaieaoo?u. eaeoo ai?acaei aeaeueoa a ia-
i?aaeaiee iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa e iioiio ia oniao?eaatho ieeaeeo
iniiaaiee aini?auaoue iiaa?aiiui i?eia?aoaoue oyaeau aeiaa?eoaeae e au-
nooiaoue i?ioea aeeceeo ?iaenoaaiieeia. Onoaiaaeeaaoue oaeea ia?aie/aiey
cia/eo noanieoue a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa eeoe, naiaiaeiuo ?anii?yaeaoueny naiae
nianoaaiiinoueth, /oi auei au i?ioeaii ei?aiiui a?aaeaeaineei caeiiai.
*oi aea eanaaony iiiiiieee e iaycaoaeueiinoe aaeaieaoo?u, oi caeanue eiaiii
iu /eoaai, /oi ia niaeanii.
, eiia/ii, ia iaioee iie/aieai ioia/aiiuo auoa e?e/aueo
i?ioeai?a/ee a ?annoaeaeaieyo Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia e aacaeaeinoii
auetho a aoeeeaniao iyoo, ianoaeaay ia oii, /oi, . Ii aaaeue a
oaeii neo/aa, .

Yoe iai?a?aeaaiua aic?aaeaiey, i?eaiaeeiua , eacaeinue,
aeieaeiu auee au aucaaoue niiiaiea, iao ee eaeiai-ieaoaeue ei?aiiiai ia-
aeinoaoea a naiie iinoaiiaea i?aaeeaaaaiie i?aaiecaoeee aaeaieaoo?u. Aianoi
yoiai Caia/aiey ia?aie/eaathony eeoue i?aaeeiaeaieai ei??aeoeaa, eioi?ue
aue inouanoaeai iiiai iicaeiaa, i?e cia/eoaeueii eciaieaoeony oneiaeyo.
I?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, ooaa?aeaeatho , ia aeieaeiu iieueci-
aaoueny iiiiiieeae. Iai?ioea, eiieo?aioeey aoaeao aeaaioai?ii aeaenoaiaaoue
ia ?acaeoea nineiaey, ii eiieo?aioeey aeieaeia auoue iinoaaeaia a iaaeea-
aeauea ?aiee. . Eae

oaeao aeaeii, n iaeioi?uie eciaiaieyie yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea e auei
inouanoaeaii 10 eao nionoy, a 1874 aiaeo.

Ae?oaia i?aaeeiaeaiea i?aeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, niaea?aeauaany a .

Aanueia ianoiyoaeueii eanathony aii?ina i oaena, i?e/ai
eiie/aneia aia/aoeaiea i?iecaiaeeo i?aaeeiaeaiea ii?aaeaeeoue aiii?a? ii-
nooi/iie ieaoie: oae, iai?eia?, .

Ooo aea aia?aua iinoaaeai aue iniiaiie aii?in aaeaieaoneie yoeee,
eioi?ue inoaeny e, eae oaeaeei ieaea, inoaaony aei neo ii? ia?ac?aoaiiui.
Niaaeeiaiiua Aeaia?oaiaiou enoiaeeee, ii-aeaeeiiio, ec oiai i?aaeiieiaea-
iey, ia eioi?ii noiye e i?iaeo, /oi iiaa?aiiue iaycai ionoaeaaoue anyeia
aeaei, eioi?ia aoaeao aio ii?o/aii. Ioeac io aaaeaiey aeaea i?aaenoaaeyeny
eneeth/aieai e aucuaaao aiaoaoaeuenoai Niaaoa. : . Iinoaaea yoio aii?in, , oioy iie noiyo a iauai
ia i?eioeeieaeueiie aunioa, ia aeatho ia iaai ii?aaeaeaiiiai ioaaoa, a oiaeyo
ana aie?oa aea ieiei. Oae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, oeacuaaaony ia oi, /oi i?aai
iiaa?aiiiai ioeacaoueny io oiaeaeaiey ii aeaeo . N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, oeacuaaaony, /oi . Yoa iuneue ?acaeaaaony
aeaeueoa e io iaycaiiinoe aanoe eaaeaeia aeaei ia?aneaeeaaao ia i?ioeaiii-
eiaeioth noi?iio e i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi a aeaenoaeyo iiaa?aiiiai aeieaeia
io?aaeaoueny ia oieueei caeiiiinoue, ii e iieiay ni?aaaaeeeainoue. Iiiaea
iinooiee, ia cai?auaiiua caeiiii aiiaua, iiaoo n/eoaoueny aieaa eee iaiaa
i?aaeinoaeeoaeueiuie aeey caaiey iiaa?aiiiai .

, o. XV. – I?ei. aao.

ae (-iith i/a?aaeue, aucaaee a yoie /anoe aic?aaeaiey a ee-
oo?a: . Oaeei
ia?acii, ii naiiio ea?aeeiaeueiiio aii?ino aaeaieaoneiai auoey, n naiiai
ca?iaeaeaiey nineiaey ainiiaenoaiaaei aanueia iaii?aaeaeaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea,
eieaaaaoaany iaaeaeo aeaoiy i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie oi/eaie: iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
ia?aaeeoue oyaeoueony ii aiciiaeiinoe io ioeacia io aaaeaiey aeae e iaycai-
iinoueth aaeaieaoa n/eoaoueny ia oieueei n o?aaiaaieyie caeiia, ii e n aaea-
ieyie ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Naiaey e iauei eoiaai naeaeaiiua caia/aiey, ioaeii i?eciaoue, /oi, oioy
iie e ia aeinoeaatho oie auniou, ia eioi?ie noiyea noaouey E.I. Iiaaaei-
iinoeaaa e oioy iie aeiioneatho iaeioi?ua eiii?iiennu e ioee/athony ia-
ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth ii aaaeiaeoei aii?inai, oai ia iaiaa iie ia inoaaeytho
eaiiy ia eaiia io i?iaeoa Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa e aeieaeiu auee iiaanoe
e iieiiio aai ioaa?aeaieth e au?aaioea iiaiai i?iaeoa. Ii yoiai ia neo-
/eeinue. iineoaeeee oieueei iniiaaieai aeey ia?aniio?a Ni-
aaeeiaiiuie Aeaia?oaiaioaie naiaai i?iaeoa.

Ianoaeaeaieth caia/aiee iinayuaiu aeo?iaeu 3 iay e 5 ethiy 1861 a.
ca ? 45. Aeaia?oaiaiou caeiiia e a?aaeaeaineee ?anniao?eaaee i?iaeo a
oneeaiiii ninoaaa, e aeo?iae, ne?aieaiiue oaea no.-nae?aoa?ai N.E. Ca-
?oaeiui, iiaeienai a?aoii Aeoaeiaui, eiycai Aaaa?eiui, aa?iiii Ei?oii,
Eeoea, Ei/oaaai, Ii?iaui, aa?iiii A?aiaaeai, aa?iiii ?ieinianeei,
Aaooeiui e Caiyoieiui. Caia/aiey i?iecaaee naia aeaenoaea. *anoue eo
auea i?eiyoa ia oieueei ii nouanoao, ii Niaaeeiaiiua Aeaia?oaiaiou iie-
iinoueth onaaeaatho e iioeae?iaeo . Iniaaiii iin/anoeeaeeinue
o?aca: . Yoa
O? oae e ia?aoiaeeo aeaeueoa ec iaeiie iauynieoaeueiie caienee a ae?oaoth.
Ua aieaa oa?aeoa?ii, /oi, inoaaeyy aac aieiaiey eaeia-eeai i?aaeeiaeaiea,
iiua Aeaia?oaiaiou niaa?oaiii ia iioeae?otho, a i?inoi i iai

oiae/eaatho, eaii?e?otho, oioy aeo?iae e ia/eiaaony n cayaeaiey, /oi ia
oieueei iauea, ii e /anoiua caia/aiey ii ioaeaeueiui noaoueyi iiaeaa?aioony
iiae?iaiiio e aieiaoaeueiiio ianoaeaeaieth.

Naiia aaaeiia – yoi iiauoaiea, niaeanii naeaeaiiui caia/aieyi, ia-
?aciaaoaeueiiai oeaica aeey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, o/?aaeaeaiea iiiiuie-
/anoaa e oi?acaeiaiea i?iaeoe?iaaiiiai aoaa?ineiai i?enoonoaey n i?aaei-
noaaeaieai naiinoiyoaeueiinoe Niaaoo. Ii, aii?aee naeaeaiiui a noieue ?a-
oeoaeueiie oi?ia caia/aieyi, Niaao inoaeny iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii
i?ieo?i?a A?aaeaeaineie Iaeaou (i no?yi/ai oaea iao ?a/e, iioiio /oi
Niaao o/?aaeaeaaony ia a oacaeiuo, a oieueei a aoaa?ineeo ai?iaeao). I?eiyou
oaeaea caia/aiey ia ono?aiaiee aeaiaaeiuo acuneaiee, i aaaaeaiee a ii?a-
aeaeaiiua a?aieoeu i?aa i?aaenaaeaoaey iaeaaaoue acuneaiey, i i?aaa Niaaoia
cai?auaoue iiaa?aiiui a?aiaiii ioi?aaeaiea iaycaiiinoae e niaa?oaiii
eneeth/aoue eo ec nineiaey. Ii naiua e?oiiua aii?inu – ia aaeaieaoneie
iiiiiieee e iaycaoaeueiinoe, ia iaycaiiinoe aaaeaiey ii?o/aaiuo aeae –
inoaeenue aac ianoaeaeaiey, e iinoaiiaea eo ia eciaieeanue nouanoaaiii. Ii-
iiiieey nio?aiaia a iiaii i?iaeoa, ii caeanue naeaeaia aanueia nouanoaaiiay
onooiea a oii ioiioaiee, /oi onoaiiaeaiea iiiiiieei iinoaaeaii a caae-
neiinoue io i?eciaiey aeinoaoi/iui /enea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, a yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai eiinoaoe?oaony a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea. Ia/aei ii?o-
/aiey aanoe aeaei aua aieaa ?acaeoi i?aaeinoaaeaieai oyaeoueiny i?aaa
ia?auaoueny ia oieueei e Niaaoo, ii e e i?ieo?i?o n i?inueaie i iacia/aiee
iiaa?aiiiai. Nthaea aea ioiineony i?aaeei, ii eioi?iio, a neo/aa nia?oe
eee oyaeeie aieacie iiaa?aiiiai, noae iacia/aao oyaeouaiony n?ie aeey ec-
a?aiey iiaiai iiaa?aiiiai, a aei enoa/aiey yoiai n?iea aai aeaei i?einoa-
iaaeeaaaony. AEaeeee iaeiiie iaycaoaeueiinoe o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u – i?a-
aeei yoi a aeaeueiaeoae ia?aaioea oiaea en/acei, /oiau aiineaaenoaee ain-
e?aniooue a Onoaaa a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.

5. I?AAIECAOeEss AAeAIEAOO?U
II INIIAIUI IIEIAEAIEssI

Eoae, i?iaeo iieiaeaiey i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iieo/ee ieii/aoaeue-
ioth ?aaeaeoeeth a 32 noaoueyo, e niiaa aai inoaaaeinue aianoe a Iauaa Nia?aiea
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa. Ii iiyoue yoiai ia neo/eeinue. Eiaiii a yoio
iiiaio i?iecioei niauoea, eioi?ia, ii iauai?eiyoiio iiaieth, ninoaaeyao
iiai?ioiue ioieo a enoi?ee noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu. Iiieii eioa?anothuaai
ian i?iaeoa iieiaeaiey i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, II Ioaeaeaiea Nianoaaiiie

?- ii/anoaa eaioeaey?ee ?ac?aaioaei e aianei a Ainoaea?noaaiiue N iaao

o?eiaaeoeaoue caeiiii?iaeoia: ainaiue – ii a?aaeaeaineiio noaeii?ie-
” aenoao, /aou?a – ii oaieiaiiio e aeaa (aeeth/ay e iieiaeaiea i i?e-
aeiuee iiaa?aiiuo) – ii noaeiono?ienoao. E?iia oiai, i?enooieee e e

noaaeaiith i?iaeoa i iioa?eaeueiie /anoe, i ianinoiyoaeueiinoe eeoe ia-
oi?aiaiai caaiey e i iin?aaeie/aneeo eiienneyo. N iiya?y 1857 a. Aino-
“noaaiiue Niaao i?enooiee e ?anniio?aieth i?iaeoia e aei naioya?y
1859 a. iinayoee yoiio ?anniio?aieth 39 canaaeaiee. A ieoya?a 189 a.
i?iaeou ?aciia?aiaiii auee iaia/aoaiu e ?acineaiu eae /eaiai Aino-
ioe?noaaiiiai Niaaoa, oae e . Ec iieo/aiiuo caia/aiee ninoaaeaiu auee naiaeu
(ia iaeiii ec oaeeo naiaeia auoa e eaeao ?a/ue), iinea /aai canaaeaiey Ai-
noaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa, iinayuaiiua ?anniio?aieth caia/aiee, aiciaii-
aeeenue, e yoiio caiyoeth auei iinayuaii 14 canaaeaiee. Aio a yoii-oi
iieiaeaiee aeaea, eiaaea, eacaeinue, iinea aeieaiai e oii?iiai o?oaea ?aaiou
aeeceeenue e eiioeo, . . A niioaaonoaee n yoei
23 ieoya?y 1861 a. e ninoiyeinue Auni/aeoaa iiaaeaiea, eiei aeaeueiaeoaa
oa/aiea ?aaio i?einoaiiaeaii e aianoi oiai iiaaaeaii ninoaaeoue .

Anee iiieiaoue aoeaaeueii niaea?aeaiea yoiai iiaaeaiey, oi iii iiaei
au iieacaoueny no?aiiui. Eacaeinue au, /oi ia auei oaea iniiaaiee i?e-
ieiaoue ia?u e nei?aeoaio ieii/aieth a oio iiiaio, eiaaea aeaei iaoiaeeeinue
a oaeii iieiaeaiee, /oi i?iaeou inoaaaeinue oieueei ?anniio?aoue a Iauai
Nia?aiee. Ninoaaeaiea caienee ia Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaieyo ai anyeii neo/aa
ei caiaaeeeoue, a ia onei?eoue oiae aeaea. Ana yoi, iaeiaei, eeoue aeaeeiinoue;

.

?onneiai i?ia?anna, aeoae a oi a?aiy iaae ?inneae. Iieeoe/aneee
aa?iiao?, iaace?ay ia aani?anoaiiua eieaaaiey, /anoaiueei io
iiaeoiaeee e .

?oaeeii aue ia?aeaeai. Eeoaeneay noaia, ioaeaeyaoay a oa/aiea ni?iea
iyoe eao iaoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiua noa?u io iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey
aa?iiaeneie iaoee e nia?aiaiiiai i?ia?anna, iaea. Ia/aea aa?iiaeneiai
ioaee/iiai i?aaa e iaoee, i?iieeaaoea e iai aeioiea eiio?aaaiaeiui iooai
(neiai auei oi?iaeueii cai?auaii aua a 1858 a.) eee a aeaea
caianee?iaaiiuo aiiieiia (eae, iai?eia?,
o a?aoa Aeoaeiaa), iieo/eee, iaeiiaoe, ioe?uoue aeinooi e e iaoae caei-
iiaeaoaeueiie i?aeoeea. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio e?oiiiio niauoeth, a oaeaea ain-
iiaenoaiaaaoaio a oi a?aiy a ?onneii iauanoaa eeaa?aeueiiio iano?iaieth,
naeaeai aue oio iineaaeiee, eiae/aneee oaa, aac eioi?iai i?aaei?eiyoia a?a-
oii Aeoaeiaui 20 eao ia?aae oai aeaei noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu inoaeinue au ia
iieiooe e iaaeiaeaeaiiui.

TH?enou 1862 a. aicuiaee aeaai?iaeioth ?aoeiinoue naeaeaoue yoio ieii-
/aoaeueiue oaa, eioi?ue eiui eacaeny /a?an/o? ?eneiaaiiui>.

Noaey ii yoei eaoaai?e/aneei au?aaeaieyi, iiaeii auei au i?aaeiiei-
aeeoue, /oi a ?aaioao ii i?aia?aciaaieth noaeaaiie /anoe ianooiee ?aoe-

Ecae. 8. n 378.

?e ia?aeii, /oi Ainoaea?noaaiiay Eaioeaey?ey i?iaaaeao caiaoioth
iaaeaeo a/a?aoiei e naaiaeiyoiei aeiai e ii?aaaeaao iaaeaaeaeu, eioi?ua
?aeii aeieaeii auei aucuaaoue Auni/aeoaa iiaaeaiea. Ia eanaynue yoiai
iina ai anai aai iauaia e inoaaaynue a ?aieao i?iaeoa i i?enyaeiuo
?iaiiuo, a?yae ee iiaeii niiiaaaoueny, /oi iaaeaaeaeu yoe ie a iaeaeoae
“?oeoe oea ii?aaaeaeenue. Oio i?iaeo, a eioi?ii, eae ooaa?aeaeaee , ia auei ie/aai iiaiai, oai ia iaiaa ia aue ioa?ioai. Aeey ni-
oaa \aiey Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee Ainoaea?noaaiiay Eaioeaey?ey anaoeaei ain-
iieueciaaeanue eiaiii yoei i?iaeoii, au?aaioaiiui Niaaeeiaiiuie Aea-
ia?oaiaioaie e, a naith i/a?aaeue, ia?a?aaioaiiui ec ia?aiia/aeueiiai
i?iaeoa a?aoa Aeoaeiaa.

Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey, eanathueany i?aaiecaoeee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?ai-
iuo, iaieiatho 16 noaoae (no. 80-95) e a iauai aiieia aini?iecaiaeyo
i?iaeo Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia. Aaaeiaeoea ioee/ey caeeth/athony a
iaeioi?uo ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eni?aaeaieyo, eiathueo, ai?i/ai, aanueia noua-
noaaiiia cia/aiea. Oae, a i?iaeoa aiai?eeinue: a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua
, a Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey aieaa i?aaeeueii aiai?yo: e /eneo
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iiaoo . Nio?aiyy i?aaenaaeaoaeue-
noaiaaiea a Niaaoa ca i?ieo?i?ii Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, Iniiaiua Iiei-
aeaiey aeaeatho ?iaeee oaa aia?aae e oiiieiatho a iniaie noaouea i oiaa?eua
i?aaenaaeaoaey, eioi?iai i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua ecae?atho ec naiae n?aaeu
e eioi?ue canooiaao i?ieo?i?a a Niaaoa, a neo/aa aai aieacie eee ionoo-
noaey. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi iinoaiiaea aaeaieaoneie iiiiiieee ia
inoaeanue aac eciaiaiee. Aianoi ecaeaaaaiie a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea
oaaaee, eioi?ay aeieaeia i?eciaoue oi eee ae?oaia eiee/anoai iiaa?aiiuo
aeinoaoi/iui, Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey ca?aiaa oeene?otho yoi eiee/anoai e
aaiaeyo iiiiiieeth oai, aaea anoue ia iaiaa aeanyoe i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo.

Aaaeiaeoaa aeiiieiaiea, aianaiiia Iniiaiuie Iieiaeaieyie, caeeth-
/aaony a oii, /oi aia?aua caeanue oiiieiaaony i aeayoaeueiinoe i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo a oaieiaiuo aeaeao. Aei neo ii? ana i?iaeou aiai?eee oieueei
i aeaeao a?aaeaeaineeo e niioaaonoaaiii n yoei oiiieiaee oieueei i oyaeo-
ueony, ie/aai ia aiai?y i iiaenoaeeiuo. No. 82 Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee on-
oaiaaeeaaao, /oi a aeaeao oaieiaiuo i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?eieiatho ia
naay caueoo iiaenoaeeiuo eee ii eo ii?o/aieth eee ii iacia/aieth i?aae-
naaeaoaey noaeaaiiai ianoa.

I I?eaaaeaiiueiie eciaiaieyie e aeiaaaeaieyie en/a?iuaathony a nouiinoe
ana iiaoanoaa, i?aaeeiaeaiiua Iniiaiuie Iieiaeaieyie… Oaeei ia?acii,

“Ae?EI…>, o. XVI. – I?ei. eaii.

iaeaieaa aaaeiua, i?eioeeieaeueiua aii?inu Ainoaea?noaaiiay Eaioeaey?ey
iNthoea iie/aieai, ia aeeth/ea eo aiana a Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey e inoaaea
eo ioe?uouie. Oae, i?aaeaea anaai. Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey, ii?aaeaeyy, ni-
aeanii n i?iaeoii Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia, iieiaeeoaeueiua oneiaey

aeey anooieaiey a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, oiae/eaatho ia io?eoeaoaeueiuo
oneiaeyo. Aua oaeeaeoaeueiaa, /oi inoaaony iaauyniaiiie eiiiaoaioeey Ni-
aaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Yoi oai aieaa oa?aeoa?ii, /oi Iniiaiua
Iieiaeaiey oiiieiatho i aeenoeeieeia?iie aeanoe Niaaoa e caeanue, oi/ii
oae aea aoeaaeueii iiaoi?yy iinoaiiaeaiey i?iaeoa Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oa-
iaioia, iaoiaeyo iie/aieai aii?in i eiiiaoaioeee Niaaoa, eioi?ay ii oii-
iyiooiio i?iaeoo ii?aaeaeyeanue oieueei eae ia?aiia/aeueiia ?anniio?aiea
i?ioaiee eeoe, aeaeathueo i?eienaoueny e /eneo iiaa?aiiuo. Ia oiiieiaaony
oaeaea, eoaea e eae i?eiinyony aeaeiau ia iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoa. E, iaeiiaoe,
inoaaony ioe?uoui aii?in i i?aaa i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ioeacuaaoueny
io ii?o/aaiiai aio aeaea e ia iaycaiiinoe aanoe ii?o/aaiia aio ii i?inueaa
oyaeoueony aeaei.

I/aaeaeii, oaeei ia?acii, /oi naiia aieueoaa, ia /oi Eiienney inia-
eeeanue ?aoeoueny, yoi iaieoe iie/aieai e inoaaeoue ioe?uoui e iaeaieaa
nii?iua, uaeioeeaua aii?inu, i?aaeinoaaea ianoiyoaeuenoaai a?aiaie ii-
aeeyoue ia ?aoaiea eo a oo eee ae?oaoth noi?iio. A ana, /oi aioei a Iniiaiua
Iieiaeaiey, ninoaaeyao a nouanoaa naiai aini?iecaaaeaiea niaea?aeaiey oiai
i?iaeoa, aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea eiaai auei oieueei /oi noieue ?aoeoaeueii
i?a?aaii Auni/aeoei iiaaeaieai.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao a aeaia?oaiaioao caeiiia e a?aaeaeaineeo aeae,
a oneeaiiii ninoaaa eo, ?anniio?ae Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey 28 ai?aey, 2,
5, 9, 16, 19, 23, 26 e 30 iay, 2, 6, 23, 27 e 30 ethiy e 30 ethey 1862 aiaea.
Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia aicaoaeeee caeanue eaeeo-
eeai na?ueaciuo niiiaiee e ?aciiaeanee. Iauynieoaeueiay caienea a eioa-
?anothuae ian /anoe aini?iecaiaeeo ana ciaeiiua oaea ?annoaeaeaiey, ia en-
eeth/ay e o?acu i iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eiyoey ia?, /oiau yoi nineiaea i?aae-
noaaeyei aa?iua ?o/aoaeuenoaa i?aanoaaiiinoe, ciaiey e /anoiinoe
oaaaeaeaiee. Aaeeinoaaiiia, ii aanueia nouanoaaiiia e aaaeiia eciaiaiea,
aianaiiia Niaaeeiaiiuie Aeaia?oaiaioaie, caeeth/aaony a ono?aiaiee i?i-
eo?i?a io i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey a Niaaoa e caiaia aai auai?iui i?aae-
naaeaoaeai, i?e/ai noieue nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea ie/ai ie iioeae?iaaii.

I?e oaeie, oae neacaoue, noiia?iinoe ?anniio?aiey, iniaaiii ethai-
iuoii ioiaoeoue, eaeea aea aii?inu aicaoaeeee ?aciiaeanea. Eo anaai iea-
caeinue aeaa: 1) iiaoo ee i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?eienuaaoueny e ie?oaeiui
noaeai e 2) iiaoo ee oyaeoueany a ai?iaeao, aaea eiaao aeeoaeuenoai aeinoaoi/iia

/anoai i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, aeaaaoue aeiaa?aiiinoue eeoeai, ia i?e-
aaeaoei e /eneo neo iineaaeieo. A iaieo neo/ayo a iaiueoeinoaa aue
Iaiei: a ia?aii neo/aa – iaeei, a ai aoi?ii — aaeaiai n I. Io-
iaui. Ii ia?aiio ioieoo a?ao Iaiei ianoaeaae, /oi i?eienea e ie-
aeiui noaeai iaania/eo iiyaeaiea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ai anao ioieoao.
o,i\uoeinoai aea noiyei ca iaania/aiea i?aaeeueiiai iaaeci?a, /oi aeinoe-
aony i?eieneie i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?e noaeaaiuo iaeaoao. Aianoa n
? o-aeie ii?yaeie ?anoe?ye oa??eoi?eaeueioth noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe i?e-
nyaeiiuee iiaa?aiiuo, i?aaeinoaaeyy ei oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue ai anao noaeao ie?oaa.

Eioa?aniaa e aaaeiaa i?aaenoaaeyaony aoi?ia ?aciiaeanea, eanathuaany,
eae e iiaeii auei iaeeaeaoue, iiiiiieee. A?ao Iaiei e Iooaiia iaoiaeeee
iaaiciiaeiui .
Ii aieueoeinoai aeieacuaaei, /oi ia a oii aiana aeaei, /oiau i?aaeoi?aaeaeaoue
aoaeouaa, a a oii, /oiau iaania/eoue ianooieaiea aeaeaaiiai aoaeouaai.
.

Ianiio?y, iaeiaei, ia anth yniinoue e aannii?iinoue yoeo ?annoaeaeaiee,
Ueieueoeinoai naeaeaei onooieo iaiueoeinoao. Niaaeeiaiiua Aeaia?oaiaiou
i?aaeiieiaeeee oeene?iaaoue aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai iiaa?aiiuo a caeiia-
iii ii?yaeea. Ainoaea?noaaiiay Eaioeaey?ey n?aco onoaiaaeeaaea ii-

o. XVI. – I?ei. aai!.

?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai, n/eoathuaany aeinoaoi/iui. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao
ioeacaeny io oeene?iaaiey, i?aaeeiaeaiiiai Ainoaea?noaaiiie Eaioeaey?eae,
e aa?ioeny e iinoaiiaeaieth i?iaeoa Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia, niaeanii
eiaio iiiiiieey anooiaao a neeo, eiaaea /enei iiaa?aiiuo aoaeao i?eciaii
aeinoaoi/iui, a aeinoaoi/iinoue onoaiaaeeaaaony a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea.

A Iauai Nia?aiee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa, eioi?ia ?anniio?aei In-
iiaiua Iieiaeaiey ii noaeiono?ienoao a iaeiii canaaeaiee 4 naioya?y 1862 a.,
ianoaeaeaiea einoeoooa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?ioei aua aieaa noiia?ii,
e ieeaeeo iiauo niia?aaeaiee auneacaii ia auei. Ec ?aciiaeanee inoaeinue
oieueei iaeii – i iiiiiieee. E iiaieth a?aoa Iaieia e Iooaiiaa i?e-
niaaeeieeenue Aaeoaa, Eiyaeaae/, Ieethoei e Iaoeei, a aieueoeinoai ni-
noaaeeinue ec 20 /eaiia. E caeanue oi/ii oae aea ieeaeeo iiauo aeiaiaeia iao,
aini?iecaiaeyony eeoue oa niia?aaeaiey, eioi?ua auneacaiu auee Niaaee-
iaiiuie Aeaia?oaiaioaie.

29 naioya?y 1862 a. iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey auee Auni/aeoa ooaa?ae-
aeaiu, i?e/ai inoaaoaany a Iauai Nia?aiee ?aciiaeanea auei ?ac?aoaii
Ainoaea?ai a iieueco aieueoeinoaa, e, oaeei ia?acii, iiiiiieey i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, oioy e a ioaeaeaiiie ia?niaeoeaa, niiaa ainoi?aeanoaiaaea. A
ieii/aoaeueiie ?aaeaeoeee Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee inoaeinue 15 noaoae, ioii-
nyueony aei aaeaieaoo?u (no. 73-87), o.a. ia iaeio iaiueoa, /ai auei a
?aaeaeoeee Ainoaea?noaaiiie Eaioeaey?ee. Auiaea noaouey, o?aeoiaaaoay ia
eca?aiee Niaaoii oiaa?eua i?aaenaaeaoaey. Noaouey yoa oo?aoeea naia cia-
/aiea, iinea oiai eae Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao caiaiee iacia/aaiiai i?aae-
naaeaoaey Niaaoa auai?iui.

Ninoaaeyy Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey, Ainoaea?noaaiiay Eaioeaey?ey ia?a-
oeea aieiaiea ia oi, /oi aeey i?aaeeueiiai aeaenoaey aoaeoueo onoaaia no-
aeii?iecaiaenoaa a?aaeaeaineiai e oaieiaiiai . Iinaio, e /eneo ia?auo ia?aoiaeiuo ia? i?eiaaeeaaeao oa, eioi?ua
iiaoo niaeaenoaiaaoue ia?aciaaieth nineiaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Aeey
naai neaaeiaaei au, ii ?anniio?aiee Niaaeeiaiiuie Aeaia?oaiaioaie aeaa-
iuo iieiaeaiee i neo iiaa?aiiuo, i?enooieoue iaiaaeeaiii e ni-
noaaeaieth iieiiai i oii i?iaeoa e i?aaenoaaeoue iiue ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?an-
niio?aiea e Auni/aeoaa ooaa?aeaeaiea, ia iaeeaeay ieii/aiey ?aaio ii i?e-
aioiaeaieth onoaaia noaeii?iecaiaenoaa e noaeiono?ienoaa. Iieiaeaiea i
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aeieaeii auoue aneaae caoai iaia?iaeiaaii, aeaau eeoea,
aeaeathuea iinooieoue a yoi caaiea, iiaee i?eienuaaoueny e noaeaaiui ianoai
e caaeaaia?aiaiii iiaeaioiaeyoueny e eniieiaieth naieo iaycaiiinoae i?e
aeaenoaee iiauo onoaaia noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Niaaeeiaiiua Aeaia?oaiaiou

“nii (yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iiae/a?eiooi a aeo?iaea) i?eciaee oeaea-
aeaeaeciinoue yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, iaoiaey eeoue, /oi i?enooieoue e ninoaa-
iae iieiiai i?iaeoa ioaeii ii ?anniio?aiee e Auni/aeoai ooaa?aeaeaiee
iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee.

Iuneue yoa auea iaeia?aia e Iauei Nia?aieai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Ni-
?.I.Ae oioy niaoeeaeueii ia yoii ia oiiieiaaony a aeo?iaea. Ii iinea Au-
ni/aeoaai ooaa?aeaeaiey (29 naioya?y 1862 a.) iineaaeiaaei oiai aea /enea
iiaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa, ioieo 5-e eiaai aeaneo: . A oio aea aeaiue iiaiea Ain. Niaaoa
iieo/eei Auni/aeoaa ooaa?aeaeaiea, ii, eae ecaanoii, a yoie /anoe eniie-
iaii ia auei. Iieiaeaiea i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia auei au?aaioaii
ioaeaeueii, aa?iyoii, iioiio, /oi ?aoi?ia aiiaua i?iaiaeeeanue n aieueoie
auno?ioie, o?aaiaaaoae iaeneiaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey. A naiii aeaea, aeo?iae
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa ii noaeii?iecaiaenoao iiia/ai, eae oiiiyiooi
auoa, 4 naioya?y, e oai aea /eneii iiia/aia Auni/aeoay ?aciethoeey ia
yoio aeo?iaea, a eiae neacaii: . I?e oaeie auno?ioa o?oaeii
auei, eiia/ii, iiniaoue n ioaeaeueiie ?ac?aaioeie Iieiaeaiey i i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo.

6. IOIIOAIEA IAUANOAAIIIAI IIAIEss
E INIIAIUI IIEIAEAIEssI

io?y, iaeiaei, ia oaeoth auno?ioo, Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey iiaaaeaii
iioeeeeiaaoue ai anaiauaa naaaeaiea, /oi e auei naeaeaii 30-ai naioya?y
a. i aeiiieiaiee e 78 . E?iia oiai, Ae-

eiaeaiey auee ?acineaiu a noaeaaiua ianoa, oieaa?neoaou e o.i. n i?aae-
eiaeaieai i?eneaoue naie caia/aiey ia iicaea 1 aeaeaa?y. Iaoe o/aiua,
iaeiaei, ioianeenue aanueia ?aaiiaeooii, e iocuau iinooieee eeoue io i?i-
oanni?a ?eoaeueaaneiai eeoeay Aiaaeaiianeiai e eacaineiai i?ioanni?a *a-
auoaaa-Aeieo?eaaa. Ii iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ioianeinue aanueia aeoeaii e
iioaeeeiaaiiui Iieiaeaieyi, e, ianiio?y ia ei?ioeee n?ie – anaai iie-
oi?a ianyoea – auei i?aaenoaaeaii ieiei 400 caia/aiee, eioi?ua nia?aiu
a 6-oe oiiao, e e iei ninoaaeai nenoaiaoe/aneee naiae. Caia/aiey iinooiaee
io eeoe naiuo ?acee/iuo iieiaeaiee e aeaaea ec naiuo aeaeaeeo caoieonoee.
Ia?yaeo n eiaiaie Iiaaaeiiinoeaaa, ?iaeineiai, A?iiieoeeiai, Iioiaeeiaa,
Ethieia?neiai, noaaoeie aiineaaenoaee ecaanoiuie anae ia?aciaaiiie
?innee, ooo eiaaony e eo?iuoneee aeai?yineee canaaeaoaeue Aaneeenia, e
i?oaeaineee oacaeiue noaeuey Auneiooa, e ie?yoeineee oacaeiue no?yi/ee
Aeiaa, e i?inoi iiiauee Oa?onneiai oacaea Aeo?iiai, e aeai?yiei Aaoaiueeia.
Caia/aiey yoe i?aaenoaaeytho ia?iiiue eioa?an aeey iciaeiieaiey n iaua-
noaaiiui iano?iaieai e ie?inica?oeaieai oiai a?aiaie. Ii caeanue ia ianoi
inoaiaaeeaaoueny ia yoii aii?ina . Aiiaua, caia/aiey eiatho aieueooth oeai-
iinoue, e i?eioeeieaeueioth, e i?aeoe/aneoth. A ieo niaea?aeeony iiiai aeaeueiuo
e na?ueaciuo oeacaiee, ec eioi?uo /anoue auea i?eiyoa oiaaea aea i?e ni-
noaaeaiee noaeaaiuo onoaaia, /anoue inouanoaeaia auea iicaea, eiaaea i?ae-
oeea auynieea iaoaeianoaa, i?aaeaeaeaiiua ?aiueoa, e, iaeiiaoe, /anoue nio?a-
ieea ana naia cia/aiea e ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Oai aieaa oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a ioiioaiee einoeoooa aaeaieaoo?u caia/aiey
a iauai i?aaenoaaeythony aanueia iacia/eoaeueiuie e noiyo ieaea oiai o?iaiy,
ia eioi?ii iaoiaeyony Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey. Oae, iai?eia?, eieeaaeneee
annani? Aeeiia i?ineo ?acuynieoue, iiaeao ee iaeii e oi aea eeoei auoue
iiaa?aiiui eae ii aeaeai a?aaeaeaineei, oae e ii oaieiaiui aeaeai. Naia-
iianeee oacaeiue no?yi/ee Aeoiaaneee iaoiaeeo, /oi . ca aeaeaa?ue ianyoe 1861 a.), oi a i?i-

Ni. E.A. 1 annae . Niia., 1903. Aeaaa IV. Ioiioaiea iauanoaa e iia?a-
iaiiie ia/aoe e Iniiaiui A Iieiaeaiiiyi. – I?ei. aao.

ea\ueiuo ai?iaeao ?innee, ia noieue i?inaauaiiuo, eae ai O?aioeee.
iaiua i?aoaicee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ee/iua iaoaeiaieuenoaey aoaeoo ano?a-
oueny ia eaaeaeii oaao e iiaaaeoo i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothueo noaeaaiuo iano e
ECAI\O a ioiioaiee iacia/aiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo>.
Oiaa?eu i?aaenaaeaoaey A?oaiaaeueneie Iaeaou a?aaeaeaineiai e oaieia-
noaea Aa?aiiae/ au?aaeaaony iaiau/aeii aunieei noeeai: .

Ii aii?ino i iacia/aiee iiniaey aaeaieaoai a. Aa?aiiae/ aeaeaei ia
iaeeiie. A oii aea niunea auneacuaathony aanueia iiiaea. I?enyaeiui ii-
aa?aiiui iaiaoiaeeii, naa?o aiciaa?aaeaeaiey io aeiaa?eoaeae, iacia/eoue io
i?aaeoaeuenoaa niaea?aeaiea. Iaiaoiaeeii iacia/eoue aeaeiaaiuea io Ei?iiu
oioy au iaeioi?ui ec i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. A oa/aiea ia?auo eao aeaaaoue
aeaiaaeiia iiniaea eeoeai, iinayuathuei naay caaieth i?enyaeiiai iiaa?ai-
iiai, iniaaiii a i?iaeioeee. A ianoao, aaea ia iaeaeaony aeinoaoi/iiai /enea
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, io i?aaeoaeuenoaa iacia/eoue aeaeiaaiuea. Aaeaieaou
ii oaieiaiui aeaeai aeieaeiu iieo/eoue ii?aaeaeaiiia e aacaaaeiia niaea?aeaiea
T ii?aaeaeaiiui ieeaaeai. Ae?oaie aa?uee?oao i?aaeeiaeaiea, ia?aie/eaay

aai iacia/aieai iniauo caueoieeia ia iinoiyiiii aeaeiaaiuee aeey aaaeiuo,
e o.ae.
?
i nayce n yoei noiyo oaeaea iiiai/eneaiiua i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeoue

iiaa?aiiui i?aai ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau. Iaeei i?aaeeaaaao iaineii ii-
aeeciaiiue ec noii iauaai caineiai nai?a ii i?ineoaeaiee aanii?i/ii
ia iaiaa 30 eao. Ae?oaie i?aaeeaaaao iaa?aaeaeaoue eo i?aeaiaie. Eeoue iaeei
aiein ?acaeaaony ca oi, /oiau ie aaeaieaou, ie iiaa?aiiua ia eiaee ieeaeeo
?aiaia e oi?iaiiuo iaeaaeae. ?acaeaaaaoenue iiiai/eneaiiua aieina i?ioea
eceeoiae noanieoaeueiinoe oneiaee i?e iinooieaiee a i?enyaeiua iiaa-
?aiiua, i?aaeeaaaeinue ia?aie/eoueny ia ia?aue ?ac o?aaiaaieyie oi?ioae
i?aanoaaiiinoe e /anoiinoe. Auei aeaaea e oaeia ecoieoaeueiia i?aaeeiaeaiea,
/oiau i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, inoaaeaoaai caaiea iiaa?aiiiai, eae i?e-
aueoaai iaeiinoi?iiia ?anniao?eaaoue aeaea, ia aeiioneaoue a caeaiey noaeaaiuo
iano aei enoa/aiey o?ao eao.

N ?aaeeei aaeeiiaeooeai e aanueia ai?y/i iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ioianeinue
e aii?ino i iiiiiieee aaeaieaoia. Aanueia iaiiiaea aioiau auee oaeiaea-
oai?eoueny oai, /oiau ia ia?aia a?aiy ia noaniyoue naiaiaeu oyaeoueony, ii
OIO ?i?eii, iiaeii neacaoue, ?aoeoaeueii noiye i?ioea anyeie iiiiiieee
aiiaua. Cai?auaoue oyaeouaiony aaa?youe caueoo naiaai i?aaa oiio, eiio
ii i?eciaao auaiaeiui, cia/eo eeoaoue aai niiniaia caueou. I?aaeoaeuenoai
aeieaeii ia iaaycuaaoue aaeaieaoia, a oieueei i?aaeeaaaoue ei, i?aaeinoaaeyy
eaaeaeiio naiaiaeo auai?a. . , e o.ae.

Eae ?ac ia?aoiia iaaethaeaeinue ii aii?ino i ?iee e caaea/ao aaeaieaoo?u:
iieiay ?aciiaieineoea niaiaaeaao n yeaiaioa?iui iaiiieiaieai. Iaeii ca-
ia/aiea iaoiaeeo, /oi aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey o ian aeiaa?ey e iiaiio o/?aaeaeaieth
iaiaoiaeeii iinoaaeoue i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui a iaycaiiinoue no?iaoth ?ac-
ai?/eainoue a i?eaia caueou ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai, a a ae?oaii caia/aiee
iu /eoaai, /oi i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue ninoaaeyao aeiiaoiee aeo, a eioi?ii
eceaaaaony, i?eieiaao ee iiaa?aiiue ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aanue ene
eee ca /anoue. Oi/ii oae aea e ioiineoaeueii oaieiaiiai aeaea iaeii caia/aiea
i?ineo ?acuynieoue, eiatho ee i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?aai ioeacaoueny io
caueou oao iiaenoaeeiuo, eioi?uo i?anooieaiea niaa?oaiii iaia?oaeaii e
iioiio caueoa ia?aae noaeii iaaiciiaeia. A ae?oaia i?yii o?aaoao, /oiau,
anee aeiiaiinoue iiaenoaeeiiai i/aaeaeia, i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue aeieaeai

o. – aean ia?iaea.

aecao-ueny io caueou. Caoi io aaeaieaoia, eioi?ua aoaeoo ninoiyoue ia
a o?aaoaony, /oiau iie ie io eaeeo aeae ia ioeacuaaeenue. .

*?acau/aeii ?acei auaeaeyaony ia yoii na?aiueeii oiia iocua neoaeea-
a Ai?iiaaea oaieiaiuo aeae nae?aoa?y Aiaaeaiiaa. Iocua yoio aanueia
eioa?anai e i?eaeiaeai eae n aiaoiae noi?iiu, oae e ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth,
ii i?eioeeieaeueiiio ioiioaieth e cao?iiooui aii?inai.

. Aaea e eaeie aoaeao yecaiai, e eaeoth
aeieaeiinoue eoi caieiae a noaeaaiii ianoa – yoi ia iauyniaii; a, eiia/ii,
ana ianoiyuea no?yi/ea aaea-ieaoaeue neoaeeee oioy ienoeaie e, aa?iyoii, ii
iaeiie ?ooeia oaea aoaeoo a ninoiyiee auaea?aeaoue eaeie-ieaoaeue th?eaee/aneee
yecaiai. ?aaiiia?ii aeaeaiea nicaeaoue eaeia-oi iiaia noaeii?iecaiaenoai,
ioee/iia io caiaaeiuo aa?iiaeneeo, auei i?e/eiith niaoaiey iiiyoee i
aeaoo o/?aaeaeaieyo; iioa?eona e o?aieoaey eiioa/iuo eiea (Niicaaoaia/a
n1a5 Ueo?iiaeac). ss iieaaath, /oi ec i?aaeuaeouaai iiaeii aeaeaoue, /oi y ie-
neieueei ia aeoiath i?eaeaoue noieue aaaeiia cia/aiea oieueei iaeiiio iacaaieth

aaeaieaoia iiaa?aiiuie a oii neo/aa, anee au noaooo eo aue ii aiciiaeiinoe
oi?io, e iaiai?io, ieeae ia aeoiath, /oiau ianiaa?oainoai noaoooa iiaei
auoue o?aaiiaaoeaaaii oieueei iaeiei iacaaieai aaeaieaoa. Auaiaeii aea ec
anaai neacaiiiai aeieaeii auoue oi, /oi aiciiaeii niaa?oaiiiio noaoooo
aeieaeii niioaaonoaiaaoue i?eee/iia iacaaiea aaeaieaoa. Aiai?th aaeaieao –
eae au neacae e ae?oaia eaeia ?aaiineeueiia neiai, anee au iaoae aai a
iaoai ycuea. Anee aea iu i?aaenoaaei naaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, a /enei
eioi?uo, eiia/ii, ia caiaaeeyo anooieoue e ana ianoiyuea no?yi/ea, a aieue-
oeinoai eo ninoaaeyao iaiaeiaaaeiia cei a iaoai ainoaea?noaa, – eiae/iia
ii?iaeaeaiea iaoaai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, – i?eaaaei e yoiio aoaa?ineeo e
oacaeiuo iioa?eonia, eioi?ua, ii niuneo 91, aa?iyoii, aoaeoo iacia/aaiu
i?aaeoaeuenoaii e, eiia/ii, n ecaanoiui ?aiaii e n ioiaee?ii, aeieaeiinoe
eo i?enaiaiiui, – aoaeao iaaeinoaaaoue oieueei oiai, /oiau e i?enyaeiui
iiaa?aiiui aeaee ioiaee?u; oiaaea iieo/ei iu a eoiaa oaeia noaeii?iecaiae-
noai, eioi?iai, eiia/ii, ieaaea iao e eioi?ia aoaeao ia a i?eia? ooaea aeaaea
ianoiyuaai iaoaai, ii neaaeothuei niia?aaeaieyi: ai-ia?auo, iooaaua ec-
?ee aeey oyaeoueony aeieaeiu iai?aiaiii e cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eoueny n
Oiaiueoaieai aeaea oacaeiuo noaeia e iaeao (i?iaeoe?iaaiiuo ie?oaeiuo e
oiuo noaeia): ai-aoi?uo, ecaea?aeee ii noaeii?iecaiaenoao oiaea cia/e-
oaeueii oaaee/aony.

Aaaaeaiea o ian aeaniiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, aac niiiaiey, i?aaenoaaeo
aieueoea iaoaeianoaa, eae ii iiainoe naiiai aeaea, oae e ii ia?iiiinoe
oa??eoi?ee iaoaai ioa/anoaa; yoe iaoaeianoaa iiaoo auoue o?aaiiaaoaiu
oieueei oai, eiaaea i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aeaniinoe neoaeao oaaaeaaiia a iauanoaa
nineiaea, a ia iaoe no?yi/ea, aieueoeinoai eioi?uo eee aaca?aiioiu, eee
ecaanoiu a iauanoaa naiei i?iiu?noaii eee aeo?iuie iaeeiiiinoyie.

Eo/oee caeii oio, eioi?ue oaeiaieniieiei, a ia oio, eioi?ue eaaeaony
oaeei oieueei a oai?ee, a ia naiii aeaea a i?aeoeea iia?aoaao i?ioea naiuo
aaaeiuo iniiaaiee. Iiaeao auoue, iia aic?acyo, /oi caeiiiaeaoaeue i?e ec-
eiaeaiee 76 aue ?oeiaiaeei neaaeothueie niia?aaeaieyie: ai-ia?auo, ee-
aa?aeueiui iai?aaeaieai ianoiyuaai a?aiaie e, ai-aoi?uo, iianaieai ia-
aeinoaoea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?e i?aaenoiyuae ?aoi?ia. Iiaeii aac-
ioeai/ii neacaoue, /oi yoe niia?aaeaiey niaa?oaiii ia iniiaaoaeueiu.
Ai-ia?auo, iianaoueny, /oiau o ian aue iaaeinoaoie a aaeaieaoao – iaaic-
iiaeii; noieo oieueei acyoue io/aou ca iineaaeiea 20 eao Ieienoa?noaa Ia-
?iaeiiai I?inaauaiey eii/eaoei eo?n a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo, e
iu iieo/ei oaeie ia?iiiue eoia (aa?iyoii, ouny/ 20), /oi, eiia/ii, yoiai
eiee/anoaa ia?aciaaiiuo ethaeae auei au aeinoaoi/ii e aeey aieueoaai ai-
noaea?noaa, /ai ?inney; ai-aoi?uo, eeaa?aeeci oiaaea oieueei oi?io, eiaaea
ii eiaao caeiiiua i?aaeaeu. Oaeei ia?acii o ian, eae e a ae?oaeo aino-
aea?noaao, anyeiio aac?acee/ii aeicaieyaony auoue aeieoi?ii, anee oieueei ii
auaea?aeeo yecaiai a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoeao; aeiioneaoue aea a nineiaea aaeai-
eaoia ethaeae, auaoeo ianoiyueie no?yi/eie, aac?acee/ii, ana ?aaii, /oi
aeicaieeoue auoue aeieoi?ii eaaeaeiio oaeueaeoa?o eee ciaoa?th, oioy yoe iin-
eaaeiea ii iaeiie oaea ?ooeia eiiaaea aeaeatho /oaeana, a eioi?ua aa?eo i?inoie
ia?iae.

Iaeiaei, y iieaaath, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai ia ?aoeony ia yoo iineaaeithth
ia?o. Ia ?oeiaiaeeea ee caeiiiaeaoaey ooo ae?oaay
iuneue, i eioi?ie y oiiiyioe oaea auoa, a eiaiii: eaeia-oi aac-
io/aoiia iianaiea o/?aaeaeaiey ianoiyuae aaeaieaoo-
?u, aneaaenoaea /aai e aaeaieaou iacaaiu i?enyae-
iuie iiaa?aiiuie e aaeaieaoo?a iecaaaeaia n i?i-
oannee ia ?aianei.

Caoai, aanueia anoanoaaiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iaa?yae ie iaeaeaony iiiai
enoeiiuo ethaeae, a oai aieaa eiathueo ecaanoiia iieiaeaiea a iauanoaa,
eioi?ua ?aoaony auoue i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie. A iia eaaeaony, /oi i?a-
aeoaeuenoao neaaeiaaei au oiio?aaeoue ana noa?aiey, /oiau i?eaea/ue e ia-
?acoaiiio o/?aaeaeaieth aaeaieaoia, ethaeae aunoaai ia?aciaaiey, e aeey yoiai:
1) iinooieaiea a /enei aaeaieaoia naeaeaoue aieaa o?oaeiui; 2) iono?aieoue

aeae iiaeo iaae iauanoaii iacia/aieai aoaa?ineeo e oacaeiuo iioa?eonia,
aeaeaiea yoi naeaeaoue naiaiaeiui aeey eiieo?aioeee, ia?aaeea ceioiio-
?aiey aciinii ecaanoiie noiiu aeaiaa e ia?aie/ea /enei eo a eaaeaeii
aeaeae Eneeth/aieai ec yoiai i?aaeea iiaeao auoue oieueei iacia/aiea i?a-
iioaaeuenoaii iioa?eonia a oao ai?iaeao e ianoiinoyo, aaea ii aaaeiinoe eee
aeaeiianaeaiiinoe ia iaoeinue au /anoiuo eeoe, aeaeathueo ioe?uoue iioa-
?eaeueiua eiioi?u; 3) ie aaeaieaou, ie iiaa?aiiua, ie iioa?eonu ia aeieaeiu
oeaoue ieeaeeo ?aiaia e oi?iaiiuo iaeaaeae (oniaoiinoue aeaea ie?iauo o/-
?aaeaeaiee, eiia/ii, aeieaeii ioianoe, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, e e ionoonoaeth ioi-
aee?ia e oi?iaeueiinoae); 4) ana yoe iaycaiiinoe iiaoo auoue eniieiyaiu
/anoiuie eeoeaie, niio?y ii noaiaie eo ia?aciaaiey, oae, iai?eia?, aae-
aieaoii iiaeao auoue oieueei eii/eaoee eo?n a aunoai o/aaiii caaaaeaiee,
iiaa?aiiui a aeaeao – eii/eaoee eo?n a aeiiacee e auaea?aeaaoee yecaiai
a th?eaee/aneeo iaoeao a oieaa?neoaoa. A a aeaeao iiaouaai auoue iaaeinoaoea
i?e i?aaenoiyuae ?aoi?ia aeicaieeoue niaaeeieoue yoe aeaa iaycaiiinoe a iaeiii
eeoea, anee oieueei yoi eeoei eiaao i?aai auoue aaeaieaoii, e o.ae.; 5) oae eae
aeieaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, e ia aac aa?iyoey, /oi yoa ?aoi?ia aoaeao i?iec-
aaaeaia ia iaeiia?aiaiii ai anai ainoaea?noaa, e /oi aeaeaoaeueii auei au
aianoa n oai, /oiau yoi iiaiaaaaeaiea auei i?eiyoi e onaiaii iaeiiia?acii
a noaeaaiuo ianoao, oi, a aeaeao yoiai iaeiiia?acey, iia eaaeaony, /oi e 79
neaaeoao naeaeaoue oaeiai ?iaea i?eia/aiea, /oi ia ia?aua o?e aiaea ii aaaaeaiee
a ecaanoiie ianoiinoe iiaiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, naii i?aaeoaeuenoai ia-
cia/aao i?aaenaaeaoaeae niaaoa aaeaieaoia ec oao aea eeoe, eioi?ua caienaiu
a oaaaee noaeaaiuo iano. Iacia/ay eeoe aieaa eee iaiaa aio ecaanoiuo e
iciaeiieaoenue oaea n aeaniui noaeii?iecaiaenoaii, i?aaeoaeuenoai aoaeao
eiaoue aieueooth oaa?aiiinoue, /oi aeaiiay ?aoi?ia aoaeao aaaaeaia iaeiiia?acii
e iieo/eo i?eee/anoaothuoth ae oi?io; 6) a aeaeao aoaeouaai i?aia?aciaaiey
o/?aaeeoue eaoaae?o ninoycaoaeueiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa a Eiia?neii o/eeeua
i?aaiaaaeaiey, ?ani?ino?aiea yoo ia?o iia?aiaiii e a oieaa?neoaoao, aeaau
ii ieii/aiee aeanyoeeaoiaai ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea ieeoi ia iia iieo/eoue
caaiey aaeaieaoa, ia auaea?aeaa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai yecaiaia>.

I I?iaaaay yoio iocua, iaeuecy ia oaeeaeoueny oiio, /oi a oanoeaeanyouo
aiaeao ni/eiaiey Iaeeaaaeee i?ieiaeeee naaa aei?iao a Ai?iiaae. Nei?aa
iiaeii iuei i?eaueiooue e iunee, /oi aoaa?iaoi? auoeaae ii otheth, iaaeaee,
no?yi/ee /eoae a i?eaeiaea i?iecaaaeaiea ciaiaieoiai ainoaea?noai-
aaea e eeae aai nioeciu a iniiao naiae ioeaiee Iieiaeaiee. Ii aua aieaa
ueii, /oi yoio oaieiaiuo aeae no?yi/ee noiae oae aeoaiei i?iiee-
OOUe a nouiinoue Iniiau Iieiaeaiee e iaeoe oai io?aaeaiea oiai iaaeiaa?ey,
???? oae ioe?uoi aoeoe?iaaea i?eaaaeaiiay auoa iauynieoaeueiay

caienea a?aoa Aeoaeiaa ?? eioi?ia, e niaeaeaieth, ii?aaeaeyei aeaeueiaeoaa
iai?aaeaiea anao ?aaio.

E?iia e?eoe/aneeo caia/aiee, iinooieei aua aeaa i?iaeoa i?aaiecaoeee
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ec eieo iaeei eiae. ii-aeaeeiiio, eaeia-oi i?ae-
oe/aneia cia/aiea. Ii i?eiaaeeaaeeo /eiiaieeo iniauo ii?o/aiee ii Ie-
ienoa?noao Ainoaea?noaaiiuo Eiouanoa Ai?neiio e i?aaenoaaeye aeiaieueii
iaeaiia eneaaeaiea Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee. I?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua ii?a-
aeaeythony ii i?eeaco ieieno?a thnoeoeee, ninoiyo a aeieaeiinoe iaaeaeo 8 e
5 eeannii, niio?y ii einoaioeee noaea, i?e eioi?ie iie ninoiyo, iieo/atho
niaea?aeaiea io eaciu, eia/a .
Ianiio?y ia yaiua ianiia?aciinoe, i?iaeo yoio naiei ee a. Ai?neei eee
ioeoeeaeueii aue iaia/aoai, iioiio /oi a caia/aieyo i?io. *aauoaaa-
Aeieo?eaaa (ec Eacaie), ia?yaeo n Iniiaiuie Iieiaeaieyie, aiai?eony e
i i?iaeoa a. Ai?neiai.

I?io. *aauoaa i?aaeiinueaao naiei caia/aieyi aanueia ?aoeoaeueioth
e?eoeeo niaiauaiey ii Iniiaiui Iieiaeaieyi ooieoeee aoina? e aViea .
Nnueaynue ia i?eia? Aa?iaiee, aaoi? aiai?eo, /oi … Canei,
eae caia/aii oaea, i?ioanni? iiaeaa?aaao aeanoieie e?eoeea i?iaeo Ai?neiai
e ?aeiiaiaeoao aeeaea aea?aeaoueny Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee. Ii ni naiae noi-
?iiu ii i?aaeeaaaao, /oiau /eaiu Niaaoa ecae?aeenue iiaeeciaiii aeey oiai,
/oiau iie .
Caeanue iiaeii oieueei oaeeaeyoueny, eaeea ?aoeoaeueiua e iaiiaeoiaeyuea n?aae-
noaa i?aaeeaaathony aeey ai?ueau n iaia/aaiui aaoi?ii ceii. Ii oaea ni-
aa?oaiiie i?eaeiaeueiinoueth ioee/aaony ae?oaia i?aaeeiaeaiea. .
N)ia.aon.y eeoue i?eaaaeoue e yoiio, /oi, ii iiaieth naiiai i?io. *aauoa-
ia.Aeieo?eaaa, .

Niaa?oaiii iniai noieo a iieiii niunea neiaa i?iieeiiaaiiia caia-
/aiea i?aaenaaeaoaey Iiaeeaaneie Oaieiaiie Iaeaou A?aeinoianeiai. Iii
ia eiaao, i?aaaea, iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ioiioaiey e aaeaieaoo?a, ii oyaeanoue
iineaaenoaee, ei i?aaeneacaiiuo, iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueii io?aceeanue eiaiii
ia aaeaieaoo?a. A. A?aeinoianeee aaeeinoaaiiue ec anao ia?aoee aieiaiea
ia oi, /oi ?aoi?ie?othony oieueei i?ioeannoaeueiua caeiiu, ii?iu aea ia-
oa?eaeueiiai i?aaa, onoa?aeua e iani?aaaaeeeaua, inoathony aac eciaiaiee.
.

Oaeaniia iaeacaiea, iaeiiaoe, oie/oiaeaii. Ii a?aaeaeaineea e oaieiaiua
caeiiu oae aei neo ii? e aeaenoaotho ana oa aea. Anoanoaaiii iiyoiio, /oi
a aeaeueiaeoai eceiaeaiee iai ia ?ac i?eaeaony aniiiieoue ia yoeo i?i?i-
/aneeo neiaao. Ii e caeanue iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie
ia?a i?ioeai?a/ey ai acaeyaeao ia ?ieue e cia/aiea aaeaieaoo?u, eioi?ua a
i?aaeoanoaothuai eceiaeaiee i?eoeinue oaea eiinoaoe?iaaoue, e oa iiaeic?e-
oaeueiay inoi?iaeiinoue, n eaeie caeiiiaeaoaeue iaoiaeee yoio iniiaiie aii?in,
a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iauyniythony aaciaaeaaeiui i?ioeai?a/eai, eaeia no-
uanoaiaaei iaaeaeo caeiiii e oiaaeaoiei o?iaiai ni?aaaaeeeainoe, eai yoi
i?ioeai?a/ea nicaeaaaei aeey aaeaieaoa aeaienoaaiiia iieiaeaiea. Neoaeeoaeue
e ?uoea?ue caeiia, ii iia ieacaoueny a aeanoieie eieeecee ni ni?aaaaeeeainoueth.
Iicaea, a 70-o aiaeao, yoa oaia i i?aaaea-enoeia e i?aaaea-ni?aaaaeeeainoe
noaea caieiaoue iauanoaaiiia iiaiea e oneeaiii ?ac?aaaouaaeanue a eeoa-
?aoo?a. Ii oiaaea aiein A?aeinoianeiai i?icao/ae niaa?oaiii iaeeiiei e
ia i?eaeaeae e naaa ie/ueaai aieiaiey. Oai?ey caei?iaiai yaiecia, enoi-
aeeaoay ec ?aaiii?aaiinoe, ?aaiineeueiinoe e naiaiaeiie ea?u eioa?ania,
eaii?e?iaaea yoe aii?inu e caaioeeanue oieueei i oii, /oiau ainoaea?noai
ia aiaoeaaeinue a yoo ea?o, a eeoue iaania/eaaei auea?aaoaio i?aaeeueiinoue
ieaoaaea.

Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio e a iaoe?iie aeo?iaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a, aucaaiiie
iioaeeeiaaieai Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee, aii?in yoio ieeai ia iiaeieiaeny.
Iaeie aaoi?u aeo?iaeueiuo noaoae ia?aie/eaaeenue i?inoi eceiaeaieai ni-
aea?aeaiey Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee. Aanueia oa?aeoa?ii, /oi e /eneo oaeeo

aaoi?ia i?eiaaeeaaeae A.Ae. Nianiae/ , eioi?ue i?e anae naiae ia?aciaai-
iinoe ia iaoae iaoa?eaea aeey e?eoeee. Ae?oaea aea ?ac?aaaouaaee oaea
oi?ioi ciaeiiua iai oaiu. A
I. Ia?eia, aiineaaenoaee ia?aii?enoonoaothuee a A?aaeaeaineii Eannaoee-
iiiii Aeaia?oaiaioa, ?aoeoaeueii aunooiee i?ioea iiiiiieee aaaeaiey no-
aeaaiuo aeae. Aio eae ii oi?ioee?oao auaiae ec naiae noaouee: .

A oii aea (1862 a., ieoya?ue) au-
eacuaathony i?ioea aunieiai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai oeaica. Ii e?aeiae ia?a
ae ia?aia a?aiy ioaeii naeaeaoue eneeth/aiea aeey eeoe, iieo/eaoeo ia?aci-
oeiua a n?aaeieo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo. Yoa iuneue ai?y/i auea iiaeaea?aeaia
Ca?eiui a (1862 a., ?? II e 12). Aaoi? aieony,
/oi o?aaiaaiea ia?aciaaoaeueiiai oeaica i?aa?aaeeo aeinooi a aaeaieaoo?o naii-
o/eai e oai eeoeo aa, auoue iiaeao, naiuo ia?acoeiauo aea?iaaiee. Eiia/ii,
yoio aaoi? e i?ioea iiiiiieee, ii ii eaeao aua aeaeueoa e aiiaua ainnoaao
i?ioea i?aaiecaoeee aaeaieaoo?u a aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai o/?aaeaeaiey. I?i-
oea ia?aciaaoaeueiiai oeaica auneacaeanue e (1862 a.,
? 281, noaouey Caeoeaaa). A iiyaeeanue
aua noaouey O. Einia/aaa (1863 a., etheue), a eioi?ie aaoi? ia?auaao aie-
iaiea ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ouaoaeueiie au?aaioee oneiaee, eioi?ua iiaee
au iiaeiyoue aeiaa?ea e aaeaieaoai. E /eneo oaeeo oneiaee aaoi? ioiineo
caiaio iaeiaiiaaiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo caueoieeaie – ia iaeia-
iiaaiea eo aaeaieaoaie aaoi? oaea, ii-aeaeeiiio, aiiaua ia ?ann/eouaaao.
Aoi?ia oneiaea – i?eiyoea any/aneeo ia? aeey ono?aiaiey anyeiai noiaenoaa
aaeaieaoia n /eiiaieeaie. Iaeiiaoe, I. Aeaenaiae?ia aicaoaeee aii?in i aei-
iouaiee caueou e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiio neaaenoaeth, i?e/ai au?aaeaao oaa?ai-
iinoue (), /oi yoi ia/aei aoaeao i?eiyoi no-
aeaaiuie onoaaaie. Ii yoiio aii?ino aicieeea iieaieea iaaeaeo iei e Ia-
eaeeineei, aiineaaenoaee aaoi?ii iiioiaioaeueiiai o?oaea ia aaeaieaoo?a .

7. ?AC?AAIOEA INIIAIUO IIEIAEAIEE

Ninoaaeaiea i?iaeoia noaeiono?ienoaa e noaeii?iecaiaenoaa ii iaia?i-
“iui Iniiaiui Iieiaeaieyi aiceiaeaii auei ia Ainoaea?noaaiioth
Oeey?eth. Ii . A Eiienneth aioee /eiu Aino-
aea?noaaiiie Eaioeaey?ee, I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, II Ioaeaeaiey Nia-
noaaiiie Aai Eiia?aoi?neiai Aaee/anoaa eaioeaey?ee, Ieienoa?noaa THn-
oeoeee, Ieienoa?noaa Aioo?aiieo Aeae e aoaa?ineeo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee,
anaai 30 /aeiaae. E?iia oiai, i?eieiaee o/anoea a ?aaioao Eiiennee aeaa
naiaoi?a – Ethaiueineee e Iaothiei.

Ei-
ienney ?acaeeanue ia o?e ioaeaeaiey. Ioaeaeaiea noaeiono?ienoaa auei ni-
noaaeaii iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii Ieaaneiai (ninoiyaoaai i?e Ainoaea?no-
aaiiie Eaioeaey?ee, caianoeoaey i?aaenaaeaoaey Eiiennee), ec aa?iia A?ai-
aaey (Aee?aeoi? Aeaia?oaiaioa Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee), Aeaiaaneiai
(noa?oee /eiiaiee II Ioaeaeaiey), Aneiiae/a (iiiiuiee Noaon-Nae?aoa?y
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa), AEaeoooeia (/eiiaiee Ainoaea?noaaiiie Eai-
oeaey?ee), E?aeoa?a (iaa?-nae?aoa?ue I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa), I?ei-
ooea (neiae?neee aoaa?ineee i?ieo?i?) e ?iaeineiai (iineianeee aoaa?i-
neee i?ieo?i?). Ioaeaeaiea noaeiono?ienoaa eiaei 47 canaaeaiee aeey ia-
noaeaeaiey i?iaeoa, n 16 iiya?y 1862 a. ii 12 naioya?y 1863 a. I?e
?anniio?aiee aeaau i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?eieiae aua o/anoea /eai
Eiiennee Ooei, a a iauaa nia?aiea Eiiennee niaoeeaeueii auee i?eaeaoaiu
i?enyaeiua no?yi/ea eiiia?/aneeo noaeia: N.-Iaoa?ao?aneiai – Caooeaai
e Euaeei e Iineianeiai – Iao?ia. Iauaa nia?aiea Eiiennee eiaei
8 canaaeaiee – a aaaonoa, naioya?a e ieoya?a 1863 a., o.a. iaeiia?aiaiii
n oai, eae oee canaaeaiey ioaeaeaiee. I?iaeo Iieiaeaiey i i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo ?anniio?ai a ia?auo aeaoo canaaeaieyo iauaai nia?aiey – 8 e
13 aaaonoa 1863 a. A canaaeaiee 8 aaaonoa iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii Ainoaea?-
noaaiiiai Nae?aoa?y i?enoonoaiaaei 29 /eaiia: I.A, Aooeeianeee,
A.O. Au/eia, A.I. Aeeeiaaoia, aa?ii A.A. A?aiaaeue, A.E. Ao?ei,
I.I. Aeaiaaneee, ss.A. Aneiiae/, I.E. Ca?oaeiue, N.E. Ca?oaeiue,
O.E. Caooeaai, I.A. Coaia, E.A. Eaea/aa. A.A. Eie?ei, E.A, Eiaa-
eaaneee, I.I. E?aeoa?, I.I. Ethaiueineee, I.I. Euaeei, A.A. Ia-
othiei, A.A. Ia?aooe, A.I. Iao?ia, A.I. Ieaaneee, I.E. Iiiia,
E.A. I?eiooe, Ae.A. ?iaeineee, A.E. ?aieineee, A.A. O?eo, N.I. Oa/-
eia, Ae.I. Ooaei, I.Ae. Ynnai. A neaaeothuai canaaeaiee naa?o oiai o/a-
noaiaaee aua – I. E. Eaeno. I.E. ?icia, E.Ae. AEaeoooei, ia auei
A.A. Iaothieia. I?aaeea i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ninoaaeee aeaao
aoi?oth aeaayoiai ?acaeaea i?iaeoa o/?aaeaeaiey noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee,

/ai a ia?aie ?aaeaeoeee i?iaeoa cia/eony, /oi yoa aeaaa aianaia a Ei-
iniai io anaai i?iaeoa. ?aaeaeoi?ii yoie aeaau aue ss.A. Aneiiae/.
aoi?ay aeaaa iaieiaao noaouee 313-371 i?iaeoa, a iauynieoaeueiay
ienea e yoie aeaaa caieiaao no?aieoeu 226-276 ec iauaai eiee/anoaa
.a no?aieoe. Iauynieoaeueiay caienea ?acaeaeaia ia o?e ioaeaeaiey, e eaae-
aeo ioaeaeaieth i?aaeoanoaotho ioiinyueany nthaea Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey:
i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aiiaua (no.no. 13, 16, 17); i niaaoa i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo – (no.no. 79, 80, 86); i i?aaao, iaycaiiinoyo e ioaaonoaai-
iinoe i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo (no.no. 73, 74, 75, 78, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85,

86.87).

Oeaio? oyaeanoe iauynieoaeueiie caienee eaaeeo a iiiai/eneaiiuo ?ac-
iiaeaneyo. eioi?ua aicieeee a Eiiennee. Oa aea i?aaeea, eioi?ua i?i-
oiaeeee aaeeiiaeanii, iioeae?iaaiu aanueia aaaei, aeaaiui ia?acii, nnueeie
ia eo niioaaonoaea Iniiaiui Iieiaeaieyi. Ia?aia ?aciiaeanea aucaae
aii?in i aeiiouaiee a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua eeoe, oioy e ia neoaeeaoeo
ii noaeaaiiio aaaeiinoao, ii auaoeo i?ioanni?aie eee i?aiiaeaaaoaeyie
th?eaee/aneeo iaoe. Iaiueoeinoai noiyei i?ioea aeiiouaiey, iaoiaey, /oi
i?aeoe/aneia ciaiea i?ioeanna anoue aeaaiia oneiaea, aac eioi?iai iaeuecy
oniaoii eniieiyoue iaycaiiinoe i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, iaaeaeo oai eae
caiyoey i?ioanni?ia e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae th?eaee/aneeo iaoe auaatho ii/oe
eneeth/eoaeueii oai?aoe/aneea. Iaeiaei, e iaiueoeinoai niaeaoaeinue ia oi,
/oiau aeiiouaiea ?ac?aoeoue ia ia?aoiaeiia a?aiy. Ia?iiiia aea aieueoei-
noai (26 i?ioea oanoe) enoiaeeei ec oiai niia?aaeaiey, /oi iyoeeaoiee
noaae ioaeai .

Ueanueia oa?aeoa?ii, /oi oi aea iaiueoeinoai a oaaee/aiiii ninoaaa aioiai
aiiiua naanoe ia iao iyoeeaoiee noaae e caiaieoue aai i?aeoe/aneei
“ii a iniaii eiieoaoa i?e noaeaaiie iaeaoa. Ii aieueoeinoai, noiy
y naiae oi/ea c?aiey, ia niaeaneeinue n oaeei i?aaeeiaeaieai, iieaaay, /oi
?O”iea io iyoeeaoiaai noaaea iiaeao auoue aeiiouaii oieueei a aeaea
a?aiaiiie ia?u.

N aii?inii i i?ioanni?ao th?eaee/aneeo iaoe Eiiennee i?eoeinue ano?a-
oeoueny aoi?e/ii, e niiaa aii?in aucaae ?aciiaeanea. Iii aniuoioei ii
ioieoo i aeicaieaiee i?ioanni?ai auoue aianoa n oai e i?enyaeiuie iiaa-
?aiiuie. *anoue oiai aea iaiueoeinoaa auneacaeanue i?ioea aeiiouaiey oaeiai
niaianoeoaeuenoaa, oae eae neoaeaa i?ioanni?a oieaa?neoaoa eee ae?oaiai
aunoaai o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey o?aaoao ia iaiaa iinoiyiiuo e io/aoeeauo

caiyoee, eae e anyeay ae?oaay neoaeaa, a iiaeao auoue, e aieaa. Iiyoiio
aanueia iianii a eioa?anao iaoee e neooaoaeae, anee iie n caiyoeyie ii
aeieaeiinoe i?ioanni?a aoaeoo niaaeeiyoue e aaeaieaoneea caiyoey a ianoiyuai
niunea yoiai neiaa. Aieueoeinoai aea aeieacuaaei, /oi niaianoeoaeuenoai
iiaeao oieueei i?eianoe iieueco, eai iaiaauaiea i?ioanni?ia i?aeoe/aneeie
naaaeaieyie iieacii e aeey ieo, e aeey iauanoaa, e aeey neooaoaeae.

Niaa?oaiii eiia iaiueoeinoai ia?aciaaeinue ii aii?ino i iaaeiiouaiee
a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua eeoe, eneeth/aiiuo ec iauanoa e aeai?yineeo ni-
a?aiee ii i?eaiai?ai neo nineiaee. Oieueei /aou?a /eaia (I. Ca?oaeiue,
N. Ca?oaeiue, Eie?ei e ?aieineee) ieacaeenue i?i?ieaie e ianoaeaaee
ia oii, /oi . Aieueoeinoai aea noiyei
ia oi?iaeueiie oi/ea c?aiey, /oi eneeth/athony eeoea, eioi?uo , a oaeeo eeoe oa?iaoue a nineiaee iaeuecy.
Ioiineoaeueii aea aa?aioee i?aaeeueiinoe eneeth/aiey aieueoeinoai onii-
eaeaaeinue ia oii, /oi eneeth/athony aeaoiy o?aoyie aieinia e i?eoii ii
?anniio?aiee iauyniaiee ia a oii nia?aiee, a eioi?ii aicaoaeaeai aii?in
ia eneeth/aiee, a a neaaeothuai. Oaia?ue-oi ianiiiaiii, /oi i?aaeeueii niio-
?aei ia aaue iaiueoeinoai, e anee nineiaea iaei oa?iaei io yoiai i?aaeea,
oi iauyniaiey ioaeii eneaoue ia a oao iioeaao, eioi?ua aieueoeinoai i?e-
aiaeeei, a a eiaeeooa?aioiinoe nineiaiuo iauanoa.

Ia?aia ioaeaeaiea caeai/eaaaony aeanyoeii no?ie, iinayuaiiuo iiiiu-
ieeai i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Yoe no?iee eiatho niaoeeaeueiue eioa?an,
oae eae iie naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi oiie/aiea noaeaaiuo onoaaia i iiiiuieeao
ia neo/aeii. Eae a 78 no. Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee, – aiai?eo Eiienney, –

aeaeaony i iiiiuieeao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, oi Eiienney ni/ea
aiaeeiui a 317 no. i?iaeoa neacaoue iieiaeeoaeueii, /oi i?enyaeiua ii-
“iua iiaoo eiaoue iiiiuieeia, ii?aaeaeea i?eoii: eiaaea nee iineaaeiea
aoo ia naay i?eieiaoue oiaeaeaiea ii aeaeai, eaeeie iie a yoii neo/aa

coiaeo-ny i?aaaie e eaeoth ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Noaouey aea yoa aeaneo
. i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua iiaoo eiaoue iiiiuieeia, eioi?ua i?eieiatho
ae ay oiaeaeaiea ii aeaeai eeoue n ?ac?aoaiey Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa-
?aiiuo.

Ai aoi?ii ioaeaeaiee, iinayuaiiii Niaaoo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo,
eiaaony iaeii ?aciiaeanea ii aii?ino i oii, eaeea iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoa
iiaoo auoue iaaeaeiaaiu. Caeanue iauaaeeieeenue iaa iaiueoeinoaa, i eioi?uo
i?eoiaeeeinue oaea oiiieiaoue (n iaeiie noi?iiu Au/eia, Aeeeiaaoia, Ea-
aea/aa, Ooaei, n ae?oaie – ?aieineee e Eie?ei); yoi iiaia iaiueoeinoai
iieaaaei, /oi iaaeaeiaaieth aeieaeiu iiaeeaaeaoue ana iinoaiiaeaiey niaaoa
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eai auaiai? eee i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea, aeaeaaiua Ni-
aaoii i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, iiaoo auoue noieue aea /oanoaeoaeueiu aeey
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, eae e anyeia ae?oaia acuneaiea n iaai, e iao ie-
eaeeo iniiaaiee eeoaoue i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai i?aaa iaaeaeiaaoue iinoa-
iiaeaiea Niaaoa, eiei aeaeaaony aio auaiai?, eee i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea, anee
ii n/eoaao iinoaiiaeaiea yoi iai?aaeeueiui. Aieueoeinoai aea nnueaeinue
ia oi, /oi cai?auaiea i?eiineoue aeaeiau ia iinoaiiaeaiey i auaiai?ao
eee i?aaeinoa?aaeaieyo ia anoue iniaaiiinoue eee ecuyoea ec iauaai i?aaeea,
a iai?ioea oiai, anoue oieueei ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
iauaai i?aaeea, nouanoaothuaai aeey eeoe anao nineiaee ii ioiioaieth e
i?eaiai?ai ie?iauo noaeae e i?aaeiieaaaaiiai aeey anao eeoe noaeaaiiai aa-
aeiinoaa ii ioiioaieth e ii?aaeaeaieyi, iinoaiiaeaiiui a aeenoeeieeia?iii
ii?yaeea.

Iacaaeneii io i?eaaaeaiiiai ?aciiaeaney, a yoii ioaeaeaiee iaiaoiaeeii
aua ioiaoeoue eciaiaiiue aiineaaenoaee ii?yaeie eca?aiey Niaaoa, i?iae-
oe?iaaiiue Eiienneae. Aiciaiiaeaiea Niaaoa i?eciaii iaiaoiaeeiui aea-
eaoue aaeaaiaeii, /oiau /eaiu Niaaoa, eca?aiiua ia neeoeii i?iaeieaee-
oaeueiia a?aiy, ia naeaeaeenue i?iecaieueiuie ?anii?yaeeoaeyie a aeaeao ni-
neiaey. Aianoa n oai Eiienney iaoiaeeea, /oi aaeaeo aaaeiinoe ooieoeee

? eca?aiea aai, eiaaea . Eiienney n/eoaao a iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo ia-
“ueii e aiciaiiaeaiea Niaaoa, a iioiio e iinoaiiaeea, /oi iauaa
?” n/eoaaony ianinoiyaoeiny, anee a iiia i?eauei iaiaa iieiaeiu
o i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, iiaeaaaeiiuo Niaaoo; a oaeii neo/aa
“ao cae?uaaaony. Ae?oaia aaaeiia iinoaiiaeaiea, aiineaaenoaee

eciaiaiiia, eanaeinue ioaeaeaiee Niaaoa, eioi?ui Eiienney i?aaeiieaaaea
i?aaeinoaaeoue ana i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe Niaaoa i?e noaeaaiuo iaeaoao.

Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai ?aciiaeanee, eae e iiaeii auei i?aaeiieiaeeoue,
aucaaei ioaeaeaiea o?aouea, o?aeoothuaa i i?aaao e iaycaiiinoyo i?enyaeiiai
iiaa?aiiiai. Ana, /oi aei neo ii? aicaoaeaeaei nii?u, oae e inoaeinue i?aae-
iaoii ?aciiaeaney. Iiaeao ee i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue i?eieiaoue ia naay
neiaanioth caueoo ai anae Eiia?ee? Yoio, eacaeinue au, ianouanoaaiiue
aii?in iiaeiye ni aeia ana iieieaoeany oai i?ioeai?a/ey. Iaiaoiaeeii yoi
aeiionoeoue, ianoaeaaei iaiueoeinoai, iioiio /oi i?e iiaii ii?yaeea noaei-
i?iecaiaenoaa, eae oyaeouaiony, oae e iaaeiyaiiio a iniaaiiinoe aaaeii
eiaoue oi?ioaai caueoieea, ii e?aeiae ia?a ai a?aiy neiaaniiai ninoy-
caiey. Ii oi?ioeo caueoieeia o?oaeii aoaeao nuneaoue a aieueoeinoaa
iaoeo aoaa?ineeo e oacaeiuo ai?iaeia. Iaeuecy iianaoueny nicaeaiey iiiiiieee
a iieueco noiee/iuo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Iai?ioea, anee ianoiua i?e-
nyaeiua iiaa?aiiua iieo/ao eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue a naiai
ie?oaa, oi eiaiii oiaaea a eo iieueco aoaeao o/?aaeaeaia iiiiiieey. Ii yoiio
neo/ath aniiiieee aeaaea e i aiciiaeiii ia?aaainoaa noi?ii, iioiio /oi
aaaeiua oyaeoueany ia a ninoiyiee aoaeoo i?eaeaoaoue noiee/iuo iiaa?aiiuo,
ii yoi niia?aaeaiea eaaei auei ii?iaa?aiooue nnueeie ia i?aaeonoaiiaeaiioth
aa?iiieth eioa?ania. . Aieueoeinoai
aea iianaeinue, /oi oaeia aeicaieaiea oi?i/eo iieiaeaiea . Eoi au ie aue a aeaiiii nii?a i?aa, aieueoeinoai eee
iaiueoeinoai, iaeuecy ai anyeii neo/aa ia oaeeaeyoueny oiio, /oi ana yoe
aii?inu ia auee ii?aaeaeaiii acaaoaiu, ia auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu ?aiueoa,
/ai Eiienney i?enooieea e ?aoaieth /anoiinoae.

Naiue ceiaiaeiaaiue aii?in aaeaieaoneie iiiiiieee, , ?aciiaeanee ia aucaae. Caeanue ia?aae iaie aaeeinoaaiiue neo-
/ae, eiaaea Eiienney n/eoaaony n o?aaiaaieyie iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.
. A yoeo aeaeao Eiienney e i?i-

Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee a

ae?iaaea eciaieoue niioaaonoaothuaa i?aaeei

i\i niunea, /oiiu ia oaiaeueth onoaiaaeeaaeny eiiieaeo, a a eaaeaeii io-
?\ueiii neo/aa noaeaaiay iaeaoa oaeinoiaa?yeanue a iaee/iinoe aeinoaoi/iiai

/anoaa e aicaoaeaeaea oiaeaoaenoai ia onoaiiaeaiee eiiieaeoa. I?e
aeaei ioiioaiee e iauanoaaiiiio iiaieth iaoaeeaeoaeueii, eiia/ii, /oi a
aeaeynieoaeueiie caienea, eae oiiiyiooi auoa, eiaaony eeoue iaeia aaeeino-
aaiiay nnueea ia caia/aiey, i?eneaiiua ni anao eiioeia ?innee. Ii aan-
aii?ii caia/aoaeueii, /oi aeaaea e a oi eneeth/eoaeueiia a?aiy, aeaaea e i?e
aei oneiaee, /oi ath?ie?aoey naia aeaeaea auneooaoue aiein iauanoaa, –
oaoioeae, ia /oi iauanoaaiiia iiaiea iiaei ?ann/eouaaoue – yoi ia oi,
/oiau aio auea naeaeaia eeoue aeaeeiinoue onooiee. Caaea/a, eae iu oieueei
/oi aeaeaee, ninoieo a oii, /oiau oioy oaeiaeaoai?eoue
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, ieneieueei ia ineaaeyy aeaenoaey io?eoeaaiiai ei
i?eioeeia. Eoae, aii?in i iiiiiieee ?aciiaeanee ia aucaae. Ii oai aieaa
oa?aeoa?ii, /oi aea?eee nii? aicai?aeny ia /anoiii aii?ina i i?aaa oy-
aeoueony aeiaa?youe naie oyaeau eeoeai, caaaaeuaathuei eo aeaeaie, e /oi
niiaa ia yoie aeaoaee iauaai aii?ina anieuee ana i?eioeeieaeueiua niia-
?aaeaiey. Aaeaa ee aiciiaeii, – oae ?annoaeaeaei iaiueoeinoai ec aeaaiaae-
oeaoe /eaiia, – caaioeoueny a oaeie noaiaie eneeth/eoaeueii ia eioa?anao
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, /oiau a iieueco eo ia?ooaoue naiua nouanoaaiiua
i?aaa oyaeoueony, i?eioaeaeay eo ianeeuenoaaiii ia?aianoe naia aeiaa?ea n
eeoe, eioi?ua oaea ii?aaaeaee iiia, ia eeoea, eioi?uo iie aiana ia ciatho.
O/?aaeaeaiea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, – ioaa/aei ia yoi aieueoeinoai, –
noaaeo naaa caaea/ae ai?ioueny n iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui ninoiyieai noaeaaiie
/anoe. Ia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aiceaaathony iaycaiiinoe aeiaieueii ia-
?aiaieoaeueiua. Iie auae?atho Niaao, /eaiu eioi?iai aeieaeiu iinayuaoue
cia/eoaeueioth aeieth naiaai a?aiaie ia aacaiciacaeiia neoaeaiea naiae ei?-
ii?aoeee. I?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua aeieaeiu caueuaoue, ii/oe anaaaea aac aic-
iaa?aaeaeaiey, iaaeiyaiuo ii aeaeai oaieiaiui… E ii aeaeai a?aaeaeaineei
iie aeieaeiu i?eieiaoue ia naay caueoo eeoe, iieuecothueony i?aaii aaaeiinoe.
E?iia oiai, naiue iaaeci? ni noi?iiu Niaaoa ninoaaeyao noaniaiea aeey
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Iiyoiio . Caeanue aia?aua aieueoeinoai eaeao iaano?a/o in-
TTiio aic?aaeaieth e i?eciaao, /oi . Ii yoio oaeo ieneieueei ia eciaiyao acaeyaea ia

?ieue e caaea/e aaeaieaoo?u. Noaniaiea iaiaoiaeeii a aeaeao i?aaeeueiiai io-
i?aaeaiey i?aainoaeey. Auaiaea ianeieueeeo /anoiuo eeoe aeieaeia auoue ii-
aea?oaiaaia aeaao anaai ainoaea?noaa e o.i. Oaeiau i?eioeeieaeueiua ?an-
noaeaeaiey, eioi?ua caieiatho nauoa iyoe no?aieoe. Ii caeanue iie ninoaaeytho
iaioaeiue aaeeano, ca eioi?ui niaa?oaiii en/acaao oa /anoiinoue iauaai
aii?ina, i eioi?ie eaeao ?a/ue. Anee au ana yoe aeiaiaeu auee en/a?iaiu
i?e ?ac?aoaiee iauaai aii?ina ia aaeaieaoneie iiiiiieee e aii?in yoio
aue i?eioeeieaeueii ?aoai, oi eo ia ioaeii auei au iiaoi?youe neo/aeii,
e ana /anoiinoe ?aoaeenue au naie niaie.

Iiiyoii, /oi e aii?in i i?aaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ioeacuaaoueny
io aaaeaiey aeaea, inoaaoeeny a oaeii aea iaii?aaeaeaiiii iieaeaiee, ii oai
aea i?e/eiai aucaae na?ueaciua ?aciiaeaney. Aii?in yoio aiciee a nayce
n i?iaeoe?iaaiiui Eiienneae i?aaeeii, /oi eaaeaeue oyaeoueeny ai?aaa
ia?auaoueny a Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ni neiaaniie eee ienueiaiiie
i?inueaie i iacia/aiee iiaa?aiiiai aeey aaaeaiey aeaea, e Niaao iaycai yoo
i?inueao eniieieoue. I?e oaeie iinoaiiaea aeaea aii?in i i?aaa ioeacuaaoueny
io aaaeaiey aeaea i?eia?aoaao ia?iiiia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea ia oieueei
iioiio, /oi neo/ae iacia/aiey iiaoo /anoi aicieeaoue, ii e iioiio, /oi
?ane?iaony ?acieoea iaaeaeo aacaiciacaeiui e aiciacaeiui aaaeaieai aeae;
ii?o/aiea Niaaoa iiaeao eanaoueny iaeeiaeiai eae aacaiciacaeiiai, oae e
aiciacaeiiai aaaeaiey aeae; aeaaiaea?y yoiio aii?in i i?aaa ioeaca noaaeony
ai anae naiae ino?ioa. Ii, oai ia iaiaa. Eiienney noiaea iaieoe ana
ino?ua oaeu. I?aaeaea anaai, aii?in aue naaaeai e oiio, iiaeao ee i?enyaeiue
iiaa?aiiue ioeacuaaoueny aac iauyniaiey i?e/ei. Aeaayoue /eaiia iaiueoei-
noaa ioaa/aee ia yoio aii?in io?eoeaoaeueii, eai … Iiyoiio iaiueoeinoai
iiaaeeaaaei eneeth/eoue ec i?iaeoa no. 357, ii eioi?ie iiaa?aiiiio i?aaei-
noaaeyeinue ioeacaoueny, anee ii iaeaeao i?aiyonoaea a naiii naienoaa aeaea,
ianiaeaniiai n aai oaaaeaeaieyie, e nio?aieoue eeoue i?aaeei, a neeo eiaai
ioeac iiaeao iineaaeiaaoue ia eia/a, eae iinea i?aaenoaaeaiey Niaaoo aei-
noaoi/iuo aeey naai i?e/ei.

Ionthaea, i?aaeaea anaai, auoaeaao, /oi, ii iiaieth Eiiennee, ianiaeanea
ii?o/aaiiai aeaea n oaaaeaeaieyie iiaa?aiiiai ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo aei-
noaoi/iuo aeey ioeaca i?e/ei, /oi ia ioeaca ii ianiaeaneth ioaeii oiiiyiooue
iniai, aac /aai oaeiai ioeaca auoue ia iiaeao. Iaiueoeinoai ianoaeaaei ia
nio?aiaiee yoiai iniaiai oiiieiaiey, ii aieueoeinoai aua ?aoeoaeueiae
oeeiieeinue io i?eioeeieaeueiie iinoaiiaee aii?ina, ii?iaa?aay aeiaiaeu
iaiueoeinoaa /enoi i?aeoe/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie. I?iaeo, ai-ia?auo, ia
i?aaeinoaaeyao i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa aaaeaiey aeae
a?aaeaeaineeo. Oyaeoueany nio?aiytho i?aai aanoe aeaea naie e ii?o/aoue
aaaeaiea eo aanueia iaoe?iiio e?oao eeoe. Aea e aiiaua iiiiiieey, a oii
aeaea, a eaeii iia onoaiaaeeaaaony, . Ia/aai oaeaea io-
aaoueny, /oi aicieeiao auiiaaoaeuenoai ni noi?iiu i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo.
Anee eoi aei?iai cai?ineo, oi oyaeoueeny ia oieueei nai iiaeao aanoe aeaei,
ii anaaaea iaeaeao ae?oaiai iiaa?aiiiai, eioi?ue aicueiao ieaoo aieaa oia-
?aiioth. Iai?ioea, i?eiyoea iiaiey iaiueoeinoaa e iiaeao i?eaanoe e ia-
?ooaieth i?aa oyaeoueony. . N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoi auei au iani?aaaaeeeainoueth e ii ioiioaieth
e naiiio i?enyaeiiio iiaa?aiiiio. .

1 aeei ia?acii, ni anao noi?ii aii?in ieacaeny ?anniio?aiiui, e?iia
oieueei iniiaiie oi/ee c?aiey i oii, a /ai aeieaeiu caeeth/aoueny ooieoeee
aaeaieaoo?u ia noaea. Iooiai-oi e auoiaeeei, /oi n iaeiie noi?iiu Ei-
ienney ia aeiioneaao aiciiaeiinoe ioeaca io aaaeaiey aeaea, ianiaeaniiai
n oaaaeaeaieyie aaeaieaoa, aac niaoeeaeueiiai oiiieiaiey ia yoii a caeiia.
A n ae?oaie noi?iiu Eiienney ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi /anoiinoue au?aaeaaony
a niioaaonoaee aeaea ia oieueei aaeaieyi caeiia, ii e o?aaiaaieyi ni?a-
aaaeeeainoe, /oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?anoiaeaeaiea n yoeie iineaaeieie o?a-
aiaaieyie aan/anoii aeey aaeaieaoa, oioy au ii ie ia eioo io aaeaiey
caeiia ia oeeiieeny. A aaaeue a i?enyaa naiae i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue
iaycoaony a oi/iinoe e ii e?aeiaio naiaio ?acoiaieth eniieiyoue caeiiu
Eiia?ee. Anee au Eiienney noaea ia i?eioeeieaeueioth oi/eo c?aiey,
oi eae au aii?in ?aoai ie aue, ai anyeii neo/aa ana yoe nii?u ia
iiaee au aicieeiooue, e n?aco aianaia auea au yniinoue e ii?aaeaeaiiinoue,
ionoonoaea eioi?uo, eae oaeaeei ieaea, anaaaea aeaaaei naay /oanoaiaaoue
aanueia caiaoii.

Iineaaeiaa ?aciiaeanea einioeinue aii?ina i i?aaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa-
?aiiuo caieiaoueny oi?aiaeae eee oi?aiauie iai?ioaie, ?aianeaie e
i?iiuneaie. Aanueia ethaiiuoii, /oi oi iaiueoeinoai, eioi?ia aunea-
caeinue i?ioea niaianoeoaeuenoaa i?ioanno?u n aaeaieaoo?ie, a aeaiiii
neo/aa, iai?ioea, ieacaeinue n?aaee aieueoeinoaa, ionoaeaaaoaai niaian-
oeoaeuenoai. Iaiueoeinoai ninoaaeeinue ec ae?oaeo eeoe, ii e a aeaiiii
neo/aa iii iioeae?iaaei naia io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea /enoi i?aeoe-
/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie. .
Noieue ?aoeoaeueiia yaii iaoaeeeaaao ia iiaeiyoea aii?ina i
i?eioeeieaeueiie niaianoeiinoe caiyoey oi?aiaeae n caiyoeai aaeaiea-
oo?ie, i ?acieoea i?eaiia, iaaueia, i?e aeoaieii ianoiaenoaa oeaeae, ii
ana yoi inoaeinue aeaeaei a noi?iia. Aua aieaa ia?auatho ia naay aieiaiea
?annoaeaeaiey aieueoeinoaa. Iii aeaeaao nieoe n i?ioeannoaeueiie oi/ee
c?aiey e iiniio?aoue ia aeaei n oi/ee c?aiey ni?aaaaeeeainoe e aunoeo
eioa?ania ainoaea?noaaiiuo. A aeey yoiai Eiienney nnueaaony ia caeii
1-ai yiaa?y 1863 a. i iioeeiao ca i?aai oi?aiaee, i?aaeinoaaeaoee eeoeai
anao nineiaee e anai aac ecuyoey eeoeai, ninoiyuei ia neoaeaa aino-

aiiieeeeiiauai?ai.aani?aiyonoaaiiiiieo/aouenaeaeaoaeuenoaa eo-
oe”a oe i?iiuneiaua. Ionthaea Eiienney caeeth/aao, /oi .
ii ca a?aieoeae nouanoaotho iiaeiaiua cai?auaiey, oi aeey ian yoi ia
aiacaoe, iioiio /oi .
Aieueoeinoai aeaaea oaa?aii, /oi anee au ai O?aioeee, Aiaeee eee Eoaeee
i?eoeinue ii/aio-eeai ecaeaaaoue iiaua caeiiu ia aaeaieaoo?a, oi caeiii-
aeaoaee neo no?ai, ainieoaiiua ia oai?eyo ia?aieeanniuo iieeoeeia-yei-
iiiia. aaeaa ee ?aoeeenue au aioe?iaaoue iiaeiaiia cai?auaiea. *oi aea
eanaaony i?aaeii/oaiey iaeiiai caiyoey ae?oaiio, oi aieueoeinoai yoiai ia
iianaaony, iioiio /oi oaeie i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue nai naay iaeaaeao.
.

Iauynieoaeueiay caienea caeai/eaaaony aii?inii ia aae?aniii nai?a.
Eae ecaanoii, yoei nai?ii auee iaeiaeaiu, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, ionoaaiua /e-
iiaieee, caieiathueany no?yi/anoaii. Eiienney iaoea, /oi . Eioa?anii
ooo aea ioiaoeoue, /oi, oai ia iaiaa, iieeoeey o?aaiaaea io i?enyaeiuo ii-
aa?aiiuo acyoey aae?aniiai aeeaoa. Iiyoiio nia. Niaao a 1867 aiaeo ia-
?aoeeny e nia. iaa?-iieeoeiaenoa?o n oiaeaoaenoaii ia aeiioneaoue iiaeiaiuo
o?aaiaaiee, e io 3 ieoya?y 1867 a.. ca iiaeienueth aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioa O?a-
iiaa, auei iieo/aii ioiioaiea, a eioi?ii aiai?eeinue, /oi, niaeaoaynue n
aeiaiaeaie Niaaoa e ia iaoiaey ni naiae noi?iiu ieeaeiai iniiaaiey e o?a-
aiaaieth io a.a. i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aae?aniuo aeeaoia, ii naeaeaao ni-
ioaaonoaothuaa ?anii?yaeaiea ii iieeoeee.

Ueiaiii u. I?aaei-
oeoea yoiai i?aaa Niaaoo iaiaoiaeeii aaeaeo oao aaaeiuo iaycaiiinoae,
oiiua aiceaaathony ia iiaa?aiiuo, e auei au . Iaiiiiea canei, /oi oaeia i?aai
iaaeinaa.\yaony ia ia?aia a?aiy i?e aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea o/?aaeaeaiey aae-
iaoo?u noaeaaiui iaeaoai, e /oi iiyoiio iaeuecy ia i?aaeinoaaeoue aai e
Niaaoai ieieno? thnoeoeee i?iaeieaeaao: . Aeaeaa,
ieieno? thnoeoeee ?aoeoaeueii iiaeaea?aeeaaao iiaiea iaiueoeinoaa Eiiennee
a aii?inao ia iaaeaeiaaiee iinoaiiaeaiee Niaaoa (ana iinoaiiaeaiey iiae-
eaaeao iaaeaeiaaieth) e i?aaeinoaaeaiee aaeaieaoai i?eieiaoue ia naay nei-
aanioth caueoo e aia ianoa i?eienee. . Uaeioeeaiai aii?ina i i?aaa i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo ioeacuaaoueny io aaaeaiey aeae ieieno? thnoeoeee nianai ia ea-
naaony iioiio, /oi ii i?inoi i?aaeeaaaao eneeth/eoue i?aaeei ia ia?auaiee
oyaeoueony e Niaaoo n i?inueaie i iacia/aiee iiaa?aiiiai. . *oi aea eanaaony aii?ina i eiiieaeoa, oi ieieno?
iieaaaao iaiaoiaeeiui ainnoaiiaeoue i?aaeei Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee, eae
aieaa yniia e ii?aaeaeaiiia.
Ueaeaa ee ia aieueoa anaai niia?aaeaiee iinayuaii aii?ino i iieiaeaiee

i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ii ioiioaieth e ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa. Ieieno?
thnoeoeee n/eoaao aanueia iieaciui, /oi ea?uea?a i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai
ia aoaeao i?aaenoaaeyoueny /ai-oi niaa?oaiii eneeth/eoaeueiui, aac anyeiai
enoiaea e aiciiaeiinoe ia?aeoe ia ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao. Ii aianoa n
oai ii i/aiue caaioeony, /oiau i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua a ioiioaiee i?i-
ecaiaenoaa a /eiu ia auee iinoaaeaiu a i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea, e
iioiio i?aaeeaaaao niioaaonoaothuea noaouee i ieo iaiiai ia?aaeaeaoue. Iaaei
i?eiiiieoue, /oi yoio aii?in iinoaaeai aue oaea a ia?aii Aeoaeianeii
i?iaeoa e /oi eaaeaeue neaaeothuee i?iaeo ii-naiaio yoi i?aaeei eciaiye.

Ianiiiaiii, iaeiaei, naiia aaaeiia eciaiaiea, i?aaeeiaeaiiia ieieno?ii
thnoeoeee, eanaeinue iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. A Iniiaiuo Ii-
eiaeaieyo iie oiiieiaeenue, eae ecaanoii, eeoue ieiioiaeii, e ieieno? thn-
oeoeee iieaaaao, /oi yoi oiiieiaiea iiaeeaaeeo aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth a
ianoiyuai onoaaa, eioi?ue aeieaeai ii?aaeaeeoue) oneiaey e ii?yaeie iinooi-
eaiey a nineiaea, i?aaa, iaycaiiinoe e iiae/eiaiiinoue eeoe, e iaio i?e-
iaaeeaaeaueo. Oae eae iiiiuieee iiaeaioiaeythony e caaieth i?enyaeiiai
iiaa?aiiiai, oi oneiaey iinooieaiey aeieaeiu auoue, i/aaeaeii, oa aea, ca
eneeth/aieai o?aaiaaiey aeinoeaeaiey 2-eaoiaai aic?anoa e noaeaaiie i?ae-
oeee. Ii canei, i?iaeieaeaao ieieno?, aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeacaiiie oeaee –
i?ia?aoaiey iiiiuieeii i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai iiuoiinoe, iaiaoiaeeii:
n iaeiie noi?iiu, aeaoue aio e oiio aiciiaeiinoue, aeicaieyy aio, e?iia caiyoee
aaeaieaoneeo, iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo, oae neacaoue, eaaeiaoiuo, o/anoaiaaoue a
neiaaniuo i?aieyo e ae?oaeo noaeaaiuo aeaenoaeyo; n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aic-
eiaeeoue ia Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iaycaiiinoue aeaenoaeoaeueii ia-
aethaeaoue ca iiiiuieeaie iiaa?aiiuo e ?oeiaiaeeoue eie. Aneaaenoaea naai
aeaeaoaeueii, /oiau Niaao, i?aaeaea /ai oaeinoieo iiiiuieea i?enyaeiiai
iiaa?aiiiai caaiey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, iieo/ae io/ao i caiyoeyo aai
a oa/aiea -eaoiaai n?iea. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea, aeey ia?aaeaeaiey eioa?ania
eeoe, eioi?ua iiaeaeaee au ii?o/eoue naie aeaea iiiiuieeai i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, e aeey eniieiaiey o?aaiaaiey, au?aaeaiiiai a no. 76 Iniiaiuo
Iieiaeaiee, /oiau aeaenoaeyie iiiiuieea ?oeiaiaeee i?enyaeiue iiaa-
?aiiue e iaaethaeae ca naiei iiiiuieeii, /oiau ia iai eaaeaea iaeioi?ay
i?aanoaaiiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca naieo iiiiuieeia. Iiyoiio ieieno? thn-
oeoeee i?aaeeaaaao ninoaaeoue aeey iiiiuieeia ?yae i?aaee e ec ieo ia?aciaaoue
iniaia IV Ioaeaeaiea. Ioaeaeaiea yoi, ii i?aaeiieiaeaieth ieieno?a, aeieaeii
auei aeaneoue oae: No. 1. Eaaeaeue i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue iiaeao eiaoue
iiiiuieeia, ii?aaeaeaiea eioi?uo, ii aai i?aaenoaaeaieth, caaeneo io on-
iio?aiey Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. No. 2. Iiiiuieeaie i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu eeoea. eii/eaoea eo?n th?eaee/aneeo

ineieo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo eee auaea?aeaaoea yecaiai a neo iaoeao,
ioeoii ia iiaeoiaeyo iiae 2-e e neaaeothuee ioieo C?C no. (ii?aaeaeythuee.
\eia ia iiaoo auoue i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie). No. 3. Iiiiuieee
oeue iiaa?aiiuo caieiathony aeaeaie ii ii?o/aieth e iiae iaaethaea-
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, i?e eioi?uo iie ninoiyo. No. 4. Iiiiuieee
aaeoeue iiaa?aiiuo eiatho i?aai oiaeaeaiey ii aeaeai ia?aaia ni anaie
o?iiieie eeoeaie ia i?aaao, eceiaeaiiuo a no.no. 349 e CcI (o.a. n?aa-
ciaeony n i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie e ?iaeeoaeyie eee eiathueie iauoth
aeao e o.ae.) No. 5. A neo/aa ii?o/aiey iiiiuieeai i?enyaeiiai iiaa-
?oeiai oyaeoueiny aeaea a oaeie ianoiinoe, aaea eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai
iaeaeaiey ii aeaeai i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui, i?enyaeiue ii-
oeaiaiiue, i?e eioi?ii iiiiuiee ninoieo, eiaao i?aai oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue a
Niaaoa i aeicaieaiee iiiiuieeo aanoe ii?o/aaiia aio aeaei. No. 6. A aeaeao
oaieiaiuo iiiiuieeai i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iiaeao auoue ii?o/aaia
i?aaenaaeaoaeai noaeaaiuo iano caueoa iiaenoaeeiuo. No. 7. Ii aaaeaieth aeae,
i?eiyouo n ?ac?aoaiey Niaaoa eee ii ii?o/aieth noaeaaiiai ianoa, ii-
iiuieee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iieuecothony anaie i?aaaie e ianoo ana
iaycaiiinoe i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, iiaeeaaea ca ia?ooaiea neo iaycai-
iinoae onoaiiaeaiiie aeey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ioaaonoaaiiinoe. No. 8.
I?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua iaycaiu i?aaenoaaeyoue Niaaoo io/ao i caiyoeyo
naieo iiiiuieeia.

Iu i?eaaee iieiinoueth i?iaeo i?aaee i iiiiuieeao eiaiii iioiio,
/oi, eae ecaanoii, a noaeaaiuo onoaaao io ieo ie/aai ia inoaeinue. Iu
nae/an oaeaeei, ii/aio yoi oae neo/eeinue. Ii ynii oaea, /oi ieiieaoiia
oiiieiaiea i iiiiuieeao, aucaaaoaa noieueei cao?oaeiaiee ionoonoaeai
?aaeaiaioaoeee, ioithaeue ia neo/aeii, /oi i?iaeo i?aaee nouanoaiaae, anee
e aeaeaei ia a niaa?oaiiii aeaea, oi, ai anyeii neo/aa, aeinoaoi/ii ?ac?a-
aioaiiii. I?aaeaea, iaeiaei, /ai ia?aoeoueny e yoiio aii?ino, iaiaoiaeeii
aua inoaiiaeoueny ia caia/aieyo naiaoi?ia e iaa?-i?ieo?i?ia, iinooieaoeo
iiyoue a aanueia cia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa. A ieo, ai?i/ai, ie/aai nouano-
aaiiiai iao. Naiaoi? A.I. Aacia?acia ?aeiiaiaeoao ec inoi?iaeiinoe . Naiaoi? eiaeaia?-aaia?ae ?a?aa?a i?aaeoniio?eoaeueii i?aae-
eaaaao iaiai?eoue eaoaai?e/anee, /oi ia iiaoo auoue i?enyaeiuie iiaa?ai-
iuie eeoea aeaineiai iiea. Naiaoi? Aaeia?i aaniieieony, /oiau ia ia?a-
iaieoue eacia/aenoaa iaineyie i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui. .
*oi eanaaony ae?oaeo ieieno?ia, oi iie iaioee o/?aaeaeaiea i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo iieiui iie/aieai. Eeoue iaa?-i?ieo?i? Nayoaeoaai Neiiaea
naeaeae caia/aiea i oii, /oiau i?aaeiieaaaaiia ?ac?aoaiea i?ioanni?ai e
i?aiiaeaaaoaeyi th?eaee/aneeo iaoe auoue i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie ia ?an-
i?ino?aiyeinue ia nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae, i?aiiaeathueo oea?eiaiia caeiii-
aaaeaiea, e /oiau eciaieoue oi?io i?enyae aeey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo.

Iniaaiiiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaaao caia/aiea iaa?-i?ieo?i?a I.I. Na-
iaiiaa, n ia?aiai acaeyaea i?aaenoaaeythuaany aeaaea i?inoi eo?ueaciui, ii
a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaaiaeyuaa ia aanueia na?ueaciua ?aciuoeaiey. Iaa?-
i?ieo?i? inoaiaaeeaaaony ia aii?ina i oi?ioea i?enyae i?enyaeiuo ii-
aa?aiiuo e aeoiaao, /oi iia aeieaeia auoue eciaiaia. Neiaa: o?aieoue aa?iinoue
Aai Eiia?aoi?neiio Aaee/anoao – i?aaenoaaeythony iaa?-i?ieo?i?o ni-
aa?oaiii eeoieie, iioiio /oi i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie iiaoo auoue eii-
no?aioeu, e aua iioiio, /oi neoaeaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo anoue /anoiay.
. Ia yoii iaa?-i?ieo?i? ia in-
oaiaaeeaaaony. Ii aeaeaao aua iaeei ?aoeoaeueiue oaa aia?aae e oniao?eaaao
i?ioeai?a/ea a neiaao i?enyae: eniieieoue a oi/iinoe e ii e?aeiaio ?a-
coiaieth caeiiu Eiia?ee. .

*eoay yoe ?aoeoaeueiua noaeaeaiey, eeoiee ?ac iiaeii oaaaeeoueny, eaeea
oiaeua iineaaenoaey eiaei oeeiiaiea io i?eioeeieaeueiie iinoaiiaee ai-
i?inia. I?eaaaeaiiua ?annoaeaeaiey iu oaea /eoaee ?aiueoa e a aeo?iaeueiuo
noaoueyo, e a caia/aieyo ia Iniiaiua Iieiaeaiey. Aea e naia Eiienney,
eae oieueei /oi auei ioia/aii, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao /anoiinoe caeiiiinoue.
Oaeei ia?acii, eae e neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, eaii?e?iaaiea iaaei?acoiaiee
ia oieueei ia ono?aiyei eo, ii, iai?ioea, cia/aiea eo ana aieaa iaino?yeinue.
Oaia?ue yoe noaeaeaiey a aua aieaa ?aceie oi?ia iiaoi?yao iaa?-i?ieo?i?,
/eai noaeaaiie i?aaiecaoeee, caao?aoiee inouanoaeoaeue noaeaaiuo onoaaia.
Aio au, i/aaeaeii, neaaeiaaei naeaeaoue aua oaa aia?aae e, ia ia?aie/eaaynue
oai, /oiau ec i?enyae aua?ineoue neiai , iinoaaeoue aieaa oe?iei
aii?in: iiaeao ee ainoaea?noai aaiaeeoue einoeooou, a iniiaa aeayoaeueiinoe
eieo eaaeeo ia/anoiinoue. Ae?oaea, eae iu aeaeaee, noaaeee e yoio aii?in e
?aoaee aai a oii niunea, /oi aaeaieaoo?a, e niaeaeaieth, iaecaaaeiia cei .
Ai anyeii neo/aa, ynii, /oi oaeea ecoieoaeueiua iiaiey, eae aiein iaa?-
i?ieo?i?a Naiaiiaa, i?e anae eo ?aceinoe e oaeiaaoinoe, ia auee e?e/auei
aeenniiainii, a ioaa/aee aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiiiio aicc?aieth. E ana
aea, ianiio?y ia noieue ?aceea aic?aaeaiey, yoio aii?in ia aue ioeoeeaeueii
iinoaaeai, e a caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo noaeaeaieyo iao ia iaai ieeaeiai ioaaoa.

9. I?IAEO IIEIAEAIEss IA AAeAIEAOO?A
A AINOAeA?NOAAIIII NIAAOA

Caia/aiey, iinooieaoea ia i?iaeo Eiiennee, ia auee ath ianoaeaeaiu:
aaeaeo niaoiiai aeaeaeaiey ?aoi?iu, iie iinooieee iaiin?aaenoaaiii a Ai-

n)iioa. 1864. .\ 2 I. Oea/aa. Auoue eee ia auoue aaeaieaoo?a. – I?ei. aao.

noaea?noaaiiui Niaao. Niaaeeiaiiua Aeaia?oaiaiou caeiiia e a?aaeaeaineeo
aeae ?anniio?aee i?iaeo o/?aaeaeaiey noaeaaiuo iano a /aou?ao canaaeaieyo:
1/, 20. 24 e 2/ ethiy 1864 a. AEo?iae canaaeaiee (? 48) caieiaao 60 no?a-
ieoe. ec ieo aeaaa II ?acaeaea VII – i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eceiaeaia
ia 8 no?aieoeao. Iiiyoii, /oi i?e oaeii noiia?iii ianoaeaeaiee caeanue
iaeuecy eneaoue iiauo noaeaeaiee e na?ueaciuo aic?aaeaiee ia ?annoaeaeaiey
Eiiennee. A Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioao inoaeinue eeoue iaeii ?aciiaea-
nea – ii aii?ino i aeicaieaiee i?ioanni?ai th?eaee/aneeo iaoe auoue i?e-
nyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie. Iaiueoeinoai (Eeoea e Ii?ia) noiyei ca ooaa?-
aeeoaeueiia ?aoaiea, iaoiaey, /oi . Iiaiea iaiueoeinoaa
aiciaeaaeaei aua a aii?ina i oii, ai?aaa ee oyaeoueany ii?o/aoue aaaeaiea
aeae eeoeai, caaaaeothuei eo aeaeaie. Iao?oaeii aeiaaaeaoueny, /oi Ainoaea?no-
aaiiue Niaao a niioaaonoaee n iauei iinoaiiaeaieai noae ia noi?iio
.

, o. ~)6. – I?ei. aao

Ana inoaeueiua ?aciiaeaney, i?ienoaaeoea a Eiiennee, ia inoaiiaeee
aaia aieiaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa; ii e?aeiae ia?a, a aeo?iaea

ae? yoiai ia inoaeinue. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao niaeaoaeny anaaaea n iia-
ieai aieueoeinoaa Eiiennee.

Aanueia ?aoeoaeueii Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao iinooiee e n iiiiuieeaie
iienyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Aii?aee iiaieth ieieno?a thnoeoeee, eioi?ue ia-
iaeee iinoaiiaeaiey i?iaeoa Eiiennee iaaeinoaoi/iuie e i?aaeeaaae ?ac-
aeoue eo a iniaoth aeaao, Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao i?eciae e yoe iinoaiia-
eaiey eceeoieie. . Oaeia aeicaieaiea, ii iiaieth Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia, auei
au ia niaeanii n Iniiaiuie Iieiaeaieyie, eioi?uie, aeey oiai, /oiau
auoue i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie, o?aaothony eae th?eaee/aneia ia?aciaaiea,
oae e neoaeaa a i?iaeieaeaiea ecaanoiiai a?aiaie ii noaeaaiiio aaaeiinoao.
Anee iiiiuiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai oaeiaeaoai?yao iaiei yoei onei-
aeyi. oi ii nai iiaeao i?eienaoueny a /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo: eiaaea
aea ii ia niaiauaao eioi?iai-eeai ec neo oneiaee, oi ia iiaeao caiaieoue
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e ?ac?aoaiea ia oiaeaoaenoai ii
aeaeai ia?aaia n i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie aio aeaii auoue ia iiaeao>. Ca-
ueuae ee ieieno? thnoeoeee, o/anoaiaaaoee a canaaeaieyo Niaaeeiaiiuo
Aeaia?oaiaioia, naie i?aaeeiaeaiey, ec aeo?iaea ia aeaeii. Iaeuecy, iaeiaei,
ia caiaoeoue, /oi, eiaaea ananeeueiue oiaaea ieieno? aioo?aiieo aeae Aaeoaa
i?aaeeaaae eciaiaiey a i?iaeo, ?anoiaeyueany n Iniiaiuie Iieiaeaieyie
(iai?eia?, ii aii?ino i i?aia?aciaaiee neaaenoaaiiie /anoe aiiaua), oi
Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao ia oe?uaaeny ca oi?iaeueioth ia?aaeo ianiioaaonoaey
n Iniiaiuie Iieiaeaieyie, a aoiaeee a ?anniio?aiea nii?iiai aii?ina
ii nouanoao.

Caoi a ae?oaeo ioieoao Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao aanueia iaeeueii ain-
iieueciaaeny i?eaaaeaiiuie auoa caia/aieyie ieieno?a thnoeoeee. Oae, ec-
iaiaii i?aaeiieiaeaiea i cae?uoee Niaaoa a neo/aa iayaee a iauaa nia?aiea
iaaeeaaeauaai eiee/anoaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. . Niia?acii n yoei, i?eiyoi i?aaeeiaeaiea ie-
ieno?a thnoeoeee, /oiau a oaeii neo/aa i?aaeiee Niaao nio?aiye naie
Teiith/ey aua ia aiae. Oi/ii oae aea i?eiyoi Ainoaea?noaaiiui Niaaoii
yiea ieieno?a thnoeoeee ioiineoaeueii ioeaca a i?eiyoee a /enei ii-

aa?aiiuo ii iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiinoe i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoa. Aianoa n oai,
Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao ieacaeny aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiui, iaaeaee ieieno?
thnoeoeee. Ieieno? i?iaeoe?iaae aeiiouaiea aeaeia ia ioeac a i?eiyoee
ii iaoi?iaeueiui i?e/eiai. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao acaeyioe eia/a. . Ii
i?e yoii Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao ia eanaaony i?yii aii?ina, iiaeeaaeao ee
yoe ioeacu Niaaoa iaaeaeiaaieth a noaeaaioth iaeaoo, eae i?aaeeaaae iinoa-
iiaeoue a iniaie noaouea ieieno? thnoeoeee () eee aea, ie/aai
ia oiiieiay ia yoii i?aaeeiaeaiee, Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao oai naiui
eiae a aeaeo naeaeaoue ioeac Niaaoa a yoeo neo/ayo aacaiaeeyoeeiiiui. Ie-
eaeeo oeacaiee ii yoiio aii?ino a aeo?iaea ia eiaaony. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai
auei, /oi oio/an, ii aaaaeaiee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, nia. noaeaaiay iaeaoa
i?eiyea e naiaio ?anniio?aieth aeaeiao ia ioeac a i?eiyoee ii iaoi?-
iaeueiui i?e/eiai e iio?aaiaaea io Niaaoa i?aaenoaaeaiey iauyniaiee i
i?e/eiao iai?eiyoey, a Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a canaaeaiee 4 aaaonoa
1866 a. iinoaiiaee oiieiiii/eoue naiaai i?aaenaaeaoaey niiaueoue yoe naa-
aeaiey neiaanii Noa?oaio I?aaenaaeaoaeth /anoiui ia?acii, ia ca-
aeoiuaaynue iaae oai, ianeieueei oaeie niinia niioaiee niioaaonoaoao ii-
eiaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. E. E. A?naiueaa a naieo oiaea ia aicaoaeaeaao niiiaiee: . Oaeia ioiioaiea Ni-
aaoa oai aieaa caia/aoaeueii, /oi ioeoeeaeueiue i?aai Ieienoa?noaa THn-
oeoeee aeieacuaaao, iai?ioea, /oi iinoaiiaeaiey Ni-
aaoa ii no. 380 iaaeaeiaaieth ia iiaeeaaeao. Iicaea e Niaao niioaaoeeny e

ia yoo oi/eo c?aiey, e I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao a oaeii niunea
aeniee yoi i?aaeei a ?yaea naieo ?aoaiee .

Aica?auaynue e ianoaeaeaieth Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia, iaaei canei
oaoeoue. /oi iie niaeaneeenue n iiaieai ieieno?a thnoeoeee i aiceiaeaiee
ae ie?oaeiua noaeu, a ia ia noaeaaiua iaeaou, ooieoeee Niaaoia. Oi/ii oae
aea. niaeanii n iiaieai ieieno?a, i?aaeei ia onoaiiaeaiee eiiieaeoa Ai-
noaea?noaaiiue Niaao ainnoaiiaee a oii aeaea, a eaeii iii auei onoaiiaeaii
Iniiaiuie Iieiaeaieyie. Ii aii?ino ia ioaeaeaiiyo Niaaoa Niaaeeiaiiua
Aeaia?oaiaiou aa?uee?iaaee caia/aiea ieieno?a a noi?iio aieueoae naii-
noiyoaeueiinoe Niaaoa. .

Neaaeoao aua ioiaoeoue, /oi Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao ?anoe?ee e?oa eeoe,
i?ioea eioi?uo i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue ia ai?aaa aunooiaoue, aeeth/ea nthaea
?iaeiuo aeyaeae e aeaith?iaeiuo a?aoueaa e nanoa?, e iiyniee, /oi i?ioeaioiue
nai? n i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia?acoao iauee eaieoae ii anae ?innee.

Naiue uaeioeeaue aii?in – i i?aaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ioea-
cuaaoueny io aaaeaiey ii?o/aaiuo aeae – Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao iaioae
aanueia ?aoeoaeueii. . ?aaiui ia?acii Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao iaoae, /oi
. I I?aaeei yoi . Aianoa
n oai, iaeiaei. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao ion?i/ee inouanoaeaiea i?aaa oy-
aeoueony ia?auaoueny e Niaaoo n i?inueaie i iacia/aiee iiaa?aiiiai aei
onoaiiaeaiey eiiieaeoa. .

Aieueoay caneoaa Niaaeeiaiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
iie, iaeiiaoe, eeeaeaee?iaaee aii?in i neoaeaaiuo i?aaao e i?aeiouanoaao
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eioi?ue aicaoaeaeae oae iiiai caia/aiee e nii?ia
ai anao i?aaeuaeoueo i?iaeoao. .

Ia yoii, nianoaaiii, e eii/aaony ianoaeaeaiea ?aoi?iu. Iauaa nia?aiea
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa iinayoeei o/?aaeaeaieth noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee
oieueei iaeii canaaeaiea, 2-ai ieoya?y 1864 aiaea. Iiiyoii, /oi ia oieueei
i i?eioeeieaeueiuo eciaiaieyo, ii e aiiaua i eaeeo-eeai iii?aaeao ia
iiaei auoue e ?a/e. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao a iauai nia?aiee niaeaneeny
ni anaie ia?aiaiaie, aianaiiuie a i?iaeo Eiiennee Niaaeeiaiiuie Aea-
ia?oaiaioaie, e i?eciae eeoue ioaeiui naeaeaoue . Oieueei iaeii ?aciiaeanea Niaaeeiaiiuo
Aeaia?oaiaioia e inoaiiaeei ia naaa aieiaiea iauaai nia?aiey. A 4-i
ioieoa no. 357 iinoaiiaeaii, /oi i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie ia iiaoo auoue
eeoea, ninoiyuea ia neoaeaa io i?aaeoaeuenoaa eee ii auai?ai, ca eneeth-
/aieai caieiathueo ii/aoiua eee iauanoaaiiua aeieaeiinoe aac aeaeiaaiey.
. Yoi ia/aei e aioei a caeii.

Ianoaeaeaiea ?aoi?iu auei caeii/aii. 20 iiya?y 1864 a. noaeaaiua
onoaau iieo/eee Auni/aeoaa ooaa?aeaeaiea i?e ciaiaieoii iaieoanoa, e
aaeaieaoo?a iieo/eea naia th?eaee/aneia auoea.

*a?ac aiae iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, a aeaeaa?a 1865 a.,
ieieno? thnoeoeee aioae a Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao n i?aaenoaaeaieai ii
i?iaeoo iauaai iaeaca noaeaaiui ianoai. A i?aaenoaaeaiee yoii, iaaeaeo
i?i/ei, ieieno? thnoeoeee Caiyoei aniiieiaao e i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo:
. Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio, a i?iaeoa iauaa”
iaeaca noaeaaiui onoaiiaeaieyi, a no. 2-e aiai?eony: , a . Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao a cana-
aeaiee 22 yiaa?y 1866 a. iaoae, /oi i?enooiaoue e ninoaaeaieth iauaai
iaeaca iiea i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii, e neaaeoao ia?aie/eoueny ecaeaieai a?aiaiiuo
ae?aaee aioo?aiiaai ?anii?yaeea a noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaieyo. A i?iaeoa a?a-
iaiiuo i?aaee no. 10 aeaneo, /oi . A no. II aiai?eony, /oi . A i?eeiaeaiiii aea oeacaii, /oi .

10. A?AIAIIUA E IA?AOIAeIUA I?AAEEA

Auoa oaea auei caia/aii, /oi i?e ooaa?aeaeaiee Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee
noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu auei iiaaaeaii Iieiaeaiea i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
au?aaioaoue aieaa iiniaoii e aianoe aai ioaeaeueii ia ?anniio?aiea Aino-
aea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa. Yoi no?aieaiea aicieeei a nayce n nic?aaoei oaaae-
aeaieai, /oi iiaua onoaau iaeuecy i?eaanoe a aeaenoaea aac o/?aaeaeaiey aae-
aieaoo?u. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, nouanoaiaaei iianaiea, /oi ia ia?aia a?aiy
ia iaeaeaony aeinoaoi/ii th?enoia, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo oneiaeyi, i?iaeoe?o-
aiui aeey i?eiyoey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Iiyoiio oaea n naiiai ia/aea
i?aaeiieaaaeinue, ia?yaeo n iinoiyiiuie i?aaeeaie, oi?ioee?iaaoue ?yae ia?a-
oiaeiuo ia?. A ia?aiia/aeueiuo i?iaeoao ia?aoiaeiua ia?u eiaee oa?aeoa?
aanueia iianiue ii naiae iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. ?anniio?aa a 1859 aiaeo ia?aue
Aeoaeianeee i?iaeo, Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao e iauei oneiaeyi i?eiyoey
a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?eniaaeeiee i?aaeei (i?eia/aiea eao. 5), /oi
aeieiea ia aoaeao onoaiiaeaiiiai /enea eaiaeeaeaoia, niaaeeiythueo a naaa
icia/aiiua a i?aaeoanoaothuae no. 5 oneiaey, i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua iiaoo
auoue iacia/aaiu ec aeaeathueo iinooieoue a nea caaiea /eiiaieeia, nii-
niaiuo, aeaaiiaaeaaeiuo e eiathueo aeinoaoi/iua ii /anoe noaeaaiuo a?aae-
aeaineeo aeae naaaeaiey, oioy eeoue iaeiith i?aeoeeith i?eia?aoaiiua. A ca-
ia/aieyo ia i?iaeo Ainoaea?noaaiiui Niaaoii oeacuaaeinue, /oi .
Caia/aiey, oaeei ia?acii, inoaaeee aac aieiaiey ae?oaoth noi?iio aii?ina,
a eiaiii, /oi n?ie aeaenoaey eueaioiuo i?aaee ia aue oeene?iaai e iinoaaeai
a caaeneiinoue io oiai, eiaaea /enei eaiaeeaeaoia, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo iinoi-
yiiui oneiaeyi, aoaeao i?eciaii aeinoaoi/iui. Eae ecaanoii, eiaiii oaeay
iinoaiiaea aii?ina nio?aieeanue a caeiia ii ioiioaieth e onoaiiaeaieth
eiiieaeoa, e oi/ii oae aea ecaanoii, /oi eiiieaeo oae e ia aue onoaiiaeai
aei neo ii?.

Ii oa caia/aiey, eioi?ua auee naeaeaiu ii nouanoao, oae iiaeaenoaiaaee
ia Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao i?e ia?aniio?a ei i?iaeoa a 1861 a., /oi, ii-
aoi?ea ana i?eaaaeaiiua niia?aaeaiey, Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao iinoaiiaee
aiiaua i?eia/aiea e 5-e (canei 6-e) noaouea eneeth/eoue e, oaeei ia?acii,
eueaioiuo i?aaee aeaaea e ia ia?aia a?aiy ia au?aaaouaaoue. Oiaaea-oi e
aicieeea iuneue, aianoi a?aiaiiuo ia?, onei?eoue ?ac?aaioeo Iieiaeaiey
i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e aaanoe aai a aeaenoaea ?aiueoa noaeaaiuo onoaaia.
I?e ?ac?aaioea Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee Ainoaea?noaaiiay Eaioeaey?ey a
naieo niia?aaeaieyo auneacaea, /oi . Iaeiaei, i?e ?anniio?aiee ninoaaeaiiuo Ainoaea?no-
aaiiie Eaioeaey?eae Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee, Niaaeeiaiiua Aeaia?oaiaiou,
iiaeaea?aeeaay acaeyae ia onoaiiaeaiee no?iaeo oneiaee aeey iinooieaiey a
i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, aa?ioeenue e i?aaeiei i?aaeiieiaeaieyi e auneacaee
aneieuecue iuneue, /oi aaeeinoaaiiia eneeth/aiea, eioi?ia iiaeii aeiionoeoue
ec yoiai i?aaeea aia/aea aeey oiai, /oiau eae iiaeii nei?aa oneeeoue nineiaea
iiaa?aiiuo, e aeey oiai, /oiau ia eeoeoue oaeiauo noaeaaiia aaaeiinoai,

aei” a aeicaieaiee anooiaoue a nineiaea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a oa/aiea
auo oanoe eao aanii?i/ii neoaeeaoeo a aeieaeiinoyo i?aaenaaeaoaeae iaeao
eo oiaa?euae, iaa?-nae?aoa?ae e nae?aoa?ae Naiaoa e aoaa?ineeo i?i-
eo?i?ia> .
Iniiauaaynue ia yoii, 1 inoaea?noaaiiay Eaioeaey?ey iaeiia?aiaiii n

thaaioeie i?iaeoa noaeiono?ienoaa ninoaaeea e a?aiaiiua i?aaeea i i?e-
yaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. I?aaeea yoe ninoiyo ec /aou?ao noaoae e caeeth/athony

ae /oi eeoea, eii/eaoea eo?n o/aiey a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo,
oioy au e ia ii th?eaee/aneiio oaeoeueoaoo, ii i?ineoaeeaoea ii noaeaaiiio
aaaeiinoao ia iaiaa o?ao eao, ia oaeeo ianoao, ia eioi?uo iiaee i?eia?anoe
i?aeoe/aneea naaaeaiey a i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aoaiee noaeaaiuo aeae, i?eieia-
thony a /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a oa/aiea ia?auo oanoe eao. Oi/ii
oae aea iiaoo auoue i?eieiaaiu eeoea, eii/eaoea eo?n o/aiey a aunoeo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo ii th?eaee/aneiio oaeoeueoaoo. O?aoueth a?oiio ninoaa-
eytho oa, eioi?ua, oioy e ia eii/eee ainieoaiey a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaa-
aeaieyo, ii caieiatho ii aaaeiinoao Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee aeieaeiinoe ia
ieaea 7-ai eeanna, a oaeaea nae?aoa?e Naiaoa. Iaeiiaoe, /aoaa?ooth a?oiio

ninoaaeytho i?enyaeiua no?yi/ea i?e eiiia?/aneeo noaeao.

Naie ionooieaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiay Eaioeaey?ey iioeae?oao oai, /oi
ia?aay a?oiia i?aaenoaaeyao aeinoaoi/iua aa?aioee a oii, /oi iia ninoieo
ec ethaeae aiieia ?acaeouo e aeiaieueii iiaeaioiaeaiiuo aeey oiai, /oiau
auoue oi?ioeie iiaa?aiiuie. . Ie-
ieno? thnoeoeee ?aoeoaeueii ia niaeaneeny n oaeei oe?ieei ?acaeaeaaieai
a?aieoe. . E?iia oiai, ii ioiioaieth e i?enyaeiui no?yi-
/ei eiiia?/aneeo noaeia ieieno? i?aaeeaaae ia?aie/eoue eo i?eai a i?e-
nyaeiua iiaa?aiiua oieueei oaie, eioi?ua iieo/atho io i?aaenaaeaoaeae noaeia
iaeia?eoaeueiua naeaeaoaeuenoaa. Onoaiiaeaiea ca?aiaa oanoeeaoiaai n?iea
eacaeinue ieieno?o eceeoiei. .

*oi eanaaony ii?yaeea inouanoaeaiey yoeo a?aiaiiuo i?aaee, oi, ii
iiaieth ieieno?a, eo neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue ioaeaeueii io ianoaeaeaiey ia?a-
oiaeiuo ia? aiiaua. Neaaeoao iuia aea ?anniio?aoue yoe a?aiaiiua i?aaeea,
oai aieaa, /oi aua a 1862 a. iineaaeiaaei Auni/aeoaa iiaaeaiea, /oi o/-
?aaeaeaiea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aeieaeii auoue i?aaeaea anaai aaaaeaii a
aeaenoaea. Iaeiaei, Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao e a yoii neo/aa ia niaeaneeny
n ieieno?ii thnoeoeee. Oioy ei a?aiaie ianoaeaeaiey Niaaeeiaiiuie Aea-
ia?oaiaioaie i?iaeoia oaea ieii/aoaeueii auynieeinue, /oi Iieiaeaiea i
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia iiniaao ioaeaeueii, ?aiueoa Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia,
oai ia iaiaa Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao inoaaee aiana aac ?anniio?aiey i?iaeo
a?aiaiiuo i?aaee. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao iaoae, /oi yoe i?aaeea ii no-
uanoao ia ioee/athony io anyeeo ae?oaeo a?aiaiiuo i?aaee. A ?ac oae, oi
.

(Iaeiia?aiaiii n ninoaaeaieai i?iaeoia noaeaaiuo onoaaia Eiienney
i?iaaea oaeaea e i?aaeea ioiineoaeueii ii?yaeea aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea
aeeaiiuo Eiienneae iiauo onoaaia noaeiono?ienoaa e noaeii?iecaiae-
eiaaea onoaau nee oaeinoiyony Auni/aeoaai ooaa?aeaeaiey. Niia?aaeaiey
oie Eiiennee ia eiatho i?yiiai ioiioaiey e caeiiiaeaoaeueiui noaeueaai
aeeaieaoo?u. Ii iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, eaeoth auaeathuothny ?ieue ea?aea aae-
ieaoo?a a i?aaenoaaeaiee ninoaaeoaeae noaeaaiuo onoaaia. I?e ianoaeaeaiee
aeae?ina i /enea ie?oaeiuo noaeia a eaaeaeie aoaa?iee a Eiiennee i?iecioei
?aciiaeanea. O?e /eaia (aa?ii A?aiaaeue, Eaeno e Eie?ei) noiyee ia oii,
/oi a eaaeaeie aoaa?iee aeieaeai auoue o/?aaeaeai iaeei oieueei noae, e iioeaii
iie aunoaaeyee oi niia?aaeaiea, /oi . Aieueoeinoai
ia niaeaneeinue n yoeie niia?aaeaieyie, iaoiaey, /oi ia ia?aue ieai aeieaeiu
auoue iinoaaeaiu eioa?anu ioaeae ianaeaiey i?e ?ani?aaeaeaiee ie?oaeiuo
noaeia. .
Yoe ?annoaeaeaiey e nii?u, iiaeaeoe, aua oa?aeoa?iaa aeey auyniaiey ain-
iiaenoaiaaaoeo oiaaea oi/ae c?aiey ia aaeaieaoo?o, iaaeaee iinoaiiaeaiey
caeiia.

Eiienney ia aeiaaea naieo ?aaio aei eiioea. Aaeaeo oiai, /oi . Iia ia?aciaaia auea iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii /eaia

“Eath. . o. 64. n. 100. – I?ei. aao.

Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa Aooeiaa ec aeanyoe eeoe. o/anoaiaaaoeo a i?aaeiae
Eiiennee. ?aaiou yoie Eiiennee iinyo iacaaiea: . Aeaaa ia?aay o?aeooao ia iauai ieaia aaaaeaiey
a aeaenoaea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, a aeaaa aoi?ay – i oao i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo
ia?ao, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia.
*anoue IV yoie aeaau onoaiaaeeaaao . Enoiaeiie oi/eie neoaeao
aeey Eiiennee oa i?aaeea, eioi?ua i?iaeoe?iaae ieieno? thnoeoeee a naieo
caia/aieyo ia i?iaeo noaeiono?ienoaa. Eiienney iaoiaeeo a iauai oieueei
iieaciui aeiionoeoue oa iaeaa/aiey aeey anooieaiey a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua,
eioi?ua i?iaeoe?iaae ieieno? thnoeoeee, ii ?aoeoaeueii auneacuaaaony i?i-
oea aeiiouaiey i?enyaeiuo no?yi/eo, aeaaea ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?aaenaaeaoaeae
eiiia?/aneeo noaeia. Caoai, eiay a
aeaeo, /oi aua i?e ?anniio?aiee Iniiaiuo Iieiaeaiee i i?aia?aciaaiee
noaeaaiie /anoe Niaaeeiaiiua Aeaia?oaiaiou Caeiiia e A?aaeaeaineeo Aeae
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa i?eciaee, /oi aeey i?aaeeueiiai aeaenoaey Noaeaa-
iuo Onoaaia iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ei a?aiaie aaaaeaiey iiuo auee ii aic-
iiaeiinoe aioiau e i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, Eiienney i?eciaea ioaeiui
ninoaaeoue . Ii
Noaeaaiui Onoaaai i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?eieiathony Niaaoii. Ii Ni-
aaoia a iiiaio ioe?uoey iiauo noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee aua ia aoaeao. Iiy-
oiio Eiienney i?iaeoe?iaaea ia?aciaaoue a eaaeaeie aoaa?iee iniaua ei-
ieoaou ec i?aaenaaeaoaeae e oiaa?euae i?aaenaaeaoaey noaeaaiuo iaeao e ao-
aa?ineiai i?ieo?i?a, aiceiaeea ia yoe eiieoaou ?anniio?aiea i?ioaiee
i i?eiyoee a /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e i?aaenoaaeaiea ia ieii/a-
oaeueiii eo ooaa?aeaeaiee ieieno?o thnoeoeee. . A naieo
ia/aieyo ia yoe i?aaeea ieieno? thnoeoeee i?aaeeiaeee eo aeiiieieoue aanue-
a nouanoaaiiui i?aaeeii, /oi Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia aue ia-
iaciaai ec eeoe, iinooieaoeo a yoi nineiaea ii iaeaa/eoaeueiui i?aaeeai.
Canei eciaiaiiue Eiienneae, niaeanii caia/aieyi ieieno?ia, i?iaeo

aue ?anniio?ai a iniaii niaaeeiaiiii i?enoonoaee aeaia?oaiaioia 2, ~3, 9
e 12 ethey e 20 aaaonoa 1865 a. Ii aii?ino ia ia?aciaaiee nineiaey i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao aian aeaa eciaiaiey. Ia?aia
eanaaony ninoaaa eiieoaoa aeey i?eaia a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua. Ainoaea?-
noaaiiue Niaao i?eciae iaiaoiaeeiui e i?aaeinoaaeoue ieieno?o thnoeoeee iacia/aiea
i?aaenaaeaoaey eiieoaoa. Aoi?ia, aieaa aaaeiia caia/aiea eanaaony i?aaa
ieieno?a thnoeoeee ioeacuaaoue a ooaa?aeaeaiee a caaiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa-
?aiiiai aac iauyniaiey i?e/ei. Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao iaoiaeeo, /oi ii-
iauaiea yoie iaiai?ee a caeii iiaei au ineaaeoue aeieaeiia aeiaa?ea e
?anii?yaeaieth ieieno?a thnoeoeee, e iieaaaao aeey aieueoaai ia?aaeaeaiey
yoiai aeiaa?ey iinoaiiaeoue, /oi iaaeiaieueiua ioeacii iiaoo i?aaenoaaeoue
naie iauyniaiey ieieno?o thnoeoeee, eioi?ue i?aaeeaaaao aeaei i oii ia
?anniio?aiea Ia?aiai Aeaia?oaiaioa I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa. Iin-
eaaeiaa i?aaeeiaeaiea aucaaei aanueia iaoe?iua i?aiey a iauai nia?aiee
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa. Caeanue a?aiaiiua i?aaeea ?anniao?eaaeenue 20
e 27 naioya?y 1865 aiaea . I?aai aeaeiau ia ioeac ieieno?a aicaoaeeei
?aciiaeanea. 8 /eaiia (a?ao Eeaeiieoaeue, a?ao Io?aaueaa 2, Eaiaoueaa,
Oienoie, Ae. Ieethoei, Aaeoaa, ?aeoa?i, Iacaioeaa) aeieacuaaee, /oi
i?aaeinoaaeaiea oaeiai i?aaa eeoeo, ia ooaa?aeaeaiiiio ieieno?ii thnoeoeee
a caaiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, ?aaiineeueii i?aao aeaeiau ia ?anii-
?yaeaiea ieieno?a. .

Iiaiea aieueoeinoaa iieo/eei Auni/aeoaa ooaa?aeaeaiea, e 29 ieoya?y
1865 a. Ainoaea?ue iaienae ia Iieiaeaiee i aaaaeaiee a
aeaenoaea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia 20 iiya?y 1864 a. Iieiaeaiea yoi ninoieo ec
92 noaoae. Ia?aiia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea nineiaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
ia?acoao aeaao V e eiaao naiue noaoae:

.

Aanueia ethaiiuoia aeaeueiaeoay noaeueaa yoeo a?aiaiiuo i?aaee; eae
aeaeii ec no. 44 i?aaee, aeaenoaea eo ia ia?aie/aii eaeei-eeai n?ieii
(). Oae e i?aaeeaaae onoaiiaeoue ieieno? thnoeoeee a naieo
caia/aieyo. Iiyoiio, nae/an aea ii aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea noaeaaiuo onoaaia,
aiciee aii?in, nio?aiytho ee yoe a?aiaiiua i?aaeea naith neeo. Niaianoeii
ee iaeiia?aiaiiia aeaenoaea iaeaa/eoaeueiuo i?aaee e Iieiaeaiey i i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo? Niaaou i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ?ac?aoeee yoio ai-
i?in a iieiaeeoaeueiii niunea. Iniiaaiea aeey yoiai nia. Niaao aeaeae a
oii, /oi iiiaea noaouee Iieiaeaiey 19 ieoya?y aannii?ii nio?aiytho iieiia
cia/aiea e iinea aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea noaeaaiuo onoaaia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii

iiaiaea ioiaiyoue aeaenoaea no. 44-e. Ii aeaaiia niia?aaeaiea caeeth-
inue a oii, /oi i?eciaiea no. 44-e iioa?yaoath naith neeo oiaiueoeei
e aanueia cia/eoaeueii /enei eeoe, iiaoueo iinooieoue a i?enyaeiua iiaa-
iiua. Yoiai acaeyaea Niaaou i?iaeieaeaee aea?aeaoueny iaeciaiii, e eie-
eaoeaa ioiaiu ionooieaiee io noaeaaiuo onoaaia i?eiaaeeaaeeo ieieno?o
oeoee. A eiioea 1871 a. ninoiyeinue ?anii?yaeaiea Ieienoa?noaa THnoe-
?E i i?ae?auaiee aeaenoaey iaeaa/eoaeueiuo i?aaee, onoaiiaeaiiuo no. 44
Iieiaeaiey 19 ieoya?y 1865 a.

A aeaeao iineianeiai Niaaoa nio?aieeinue ioiioaiea noa?oaai i?aaena-
aeaoaey iineianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou io 15 iiya?y 1871 a., ca ? /65,
eioi?ia niiauaao, /oi . Aeaenoaea caeiia
i?ae?auaii auei, oaeei ia?acii, i?inoui ?anii?yaeaieai ieieno?a, oioy
caeii yoio ioithaeue ia aeaaae aio niioaaonoaothueo iieiiii/ee.

Ae?oaie aii?in iinoaaeea noaouey 50 a?aiaiiuo i?aaee ioiineoaeueii
oiai, eanaaony ee onoaiiaeaiiia ath ia?aie/aiea oieueei ia?auo auai?ia a
Niaao, eee eeoea, iieo/eaoea caaiea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ii a?aiaiiui
i?aaeeai, aiiaua ia iiaoo auoue ecae?aaiu a Niaao. E yoio aii?in ?ac-
?aoai aue Niaaoaie a niunea aeiiouaiey ionooieaiee io Noaeaaiuo On-
oaaia. .

No. 358 O/?. noae. ono. – .

No. 334 \/?. noae. ono. – .

II. IA?AUA EIIEOAOU E NIAAOU

Oioy a?aiaiiua i?aaeea e iieo/eee neeo caeiia 19 ieoya?y 1865 a.,
e oioy nei?aeoaa ia?aciaaiea nineiaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aunoaaey-

A?naiueaa E.E. Caiaoee i ?onneie aaeaieaoo?a. Nia. 1875. n. 74. – I?ei. aa

einue aeaeii iaioeiaeiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe, oai ia iaiaa eiieoao, onoaiiaeai-
iue a?aiaiiuie i?aaeeaie, aue ia?aciaai eeoue a ia?oa 1866 a. Ienueiii
io 9 ia?oa ia eiy naiaoi?a I.O. Aieuoia?a, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai a aeieaeiinoue
i?aaenaaeaoaey nia. Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, ieieno? thnoeoeee oaaaeiiee aai, /oi
eiieoao ia?aciaai iiae aai, Aieueoaia?a, i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii, e /oi eiieoao
yoio ninoieo ec neaaeothueo eeoe: i?aaenaaeaoaey aeaia?oaiaioa nia. Noaeaaiie
Iaeaou O?eoa, i?aaenaaeaoaey nia. Ie?oaeiiai Noaea Iioiaeeiaa, i?aae-
naaeaoaeae nia. Iaeaou oaieiaiiai noaea Ia?eiae/a e 1-ai aeaia?oaiaioa
a?aaeaeaineiai noaea Coaa?aaa, oiaa?euae i?aaenaaeaoaeae icia/aiiuo iaeao:
Oo?/aieiiaa, Aaoo?eia, Aethia e nia. aoaa?ineiai i?ieo?i?a Eaiaa. Eae
aeaeii ec ,
ia?aia canaaeaiea ninoiyeinue 14 ia?oa; ia yoii canaaeaiee iinoaiiaeaii
auei niae?aoueny ia canaaeaiey ii iiiaaeaeueieeai a 2 /ana aeiy e iaia/aoaoue
ioaeeeaoeee a aacaoao. Ioaeeeaoeey aeaneo oae:

.

No. 379 \/?. noae. ono. – .

Aa?aia i?ioaiea iinooieei \) ia?oa io i?enyaeiiai no?yi/aai nia.
iiai/aneiai noaea, iaaeai?iiai niaaoieea O.Aiae?aaaa, a a /enea iineaaeieo
I1 ai?aey) iinooieei i?ioaiea iaeiiai ec /eaiia eiieoaoa, Aeaenaiae?a
Oo?/aieiiaa. I?ioaiea iinooieei 17 ia?oa, noaoneiai niaaoieea Aeieo?ey Noaniaa –
-)\ ia?oa e iaaeai?iiai niaaoieea Aeaaeeie?a Nianiae/a – 18 ia?oa. Anaai

eiieoao iinooieei 68 i?ioaiee. Ec ieo 12 eeoeai ii oi?iaeueiui e
oe?oae?iaeueiui i?e/eiai ioeacaii. Ec /enea i?eiyouo 27 /aeiaae auee
ae?aaenoaaeaiu aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey ieieno?o thnoeoeee II ai?aey, inoaeueiua
i?aaenoaaeaiu 22 ai?aey. Ieieno? ooaa?aeee anao i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aio II ai-
?aey, a oae eae 17 ai?aey auee ioe?uou iiaua noaeaaiua o/?aaeaeaiey a
Iaoa?ao?aa, oi ieieno? thnoeoeee i?eciae naie iieiiii/ey en/a?iaiiuie.
28 ai?aey ieieno? thnoeoeee oaaaeiiee , /oi n ioe?uoeai 17 ai?aey nia. Noaeaaiie Iaeaou e ie?oaeiiai
noaea, ?anniio?aiea i?ioaiee eeoe, aeaeathueo i?eienaoueny e /eneo i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ia iniiaaiee no.no. 367 e 378 O/?aaeaeaiey noaeaaiuo
onoaiiaeaiee , ai?aaeue aei ia?aciaaiey Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?e-
iaaeeaaeeo nia. Ie?oaeiiio Noaeo, aneaaenoaea /aai o/?aaeaeaiiue a N.-Ia-
oa?ao?aa eiieoao aeey i?eiyoey ?anniio?aiey i?ioaiee aeaeathueo auoue
i?enyaeiueueie iiaa?aiiuie, iiaeeaaeeo cae?uoeth. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai ioii-
oaiey yaeeanue iineaaeiyy caienue a : . Iaeiaei, nia. Ie?oaeiiio
Noaeo ia i?eoeinue eniieiyoue iaycaiiinoe Niaaoa. Oae eae a yoi a?aiy
oaea ia?aciaaeny Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, oi, ii caeeth/aieth No-
aeaaiie Iaeaou, . I?ai?iaiaeeoaeueiay aoiaaa, i?e
eiae aeaea yoe ia?aaeaiu a Niaao, iaienaia ia aeaiea eaioeaey?ee Oaieiaiiai
Aeaia?oaiaioa Noaeaaiie Iaeaou e iiaeienaia: .

Iineianeee eiieoao aeaenoaiaae aua aieaa e?aoeia?aiaiii. 18 ai?aey,
ca .Ii 423, eiieoao i?aaenoaaee .

ieieno?o thnoeoeee aeaenoaeoaeueiiio oaeiiio niaaoieeo e eaaaea?o Aeieo?eth
Ieeieaaae/o Caiyoieio> nienie 27 eeoe, i?eiyouo ei a /enei i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, ec eieo 11 /aeiaae i?eiyoi ia iniiaaiee 354 no. O/?. noae.
ono., a 17 /aeiaae ii 1 e 2 ii. 44 no. a?aiaiiuo i?aaee, 19 ieoya?y 1865 a.
Ii ieieno? thnoeoeee inoaaee yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea ia ?anniio?aiiui e 28 ai-
?aey oaaaeiiee noa?oaai i?aaenaaeaoaey iineianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, /oi
n ioe?uoeai 23 ai?aey iineianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou e ie?oaeiiai noaea
?anniio?aiea i?ioaiee i?eiaaeeaaeeo iineianeiio Ie?oaeiiio Noaeo, . Noa?-
oee i?aaenaaeaoaeue eniieiee yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea 4 iay, a 6 iay ninoiyeinue
canaaeaiea iauaai nia?aiey anao ioaeaeaiee Iineianeiai Ie?oaeiiai Noaea,
. Aeieeaae/eeii aue /eai noaea Y.I. Noiaoe. . Ec i?ioieiea aea yanoaoao, /oi ec /enea 27 anie?aioia ia caaiea

i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai 18 /aeiaae auei i?eiyoi, a aeaayoe eeoeai ioeacaii
a i?eiyoee a /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo.

Yoe aeaiiua ia aiieia noiaeyony n iaia/aoaiiuie a Nai?ieea Iaoa?e-
aeia, ecaeaiiii ii ii?aaeaeaieth iineianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
ii neo/ath 25-eaoey aeecie nineiaey, ii iie caeinoaiaaiu ec , a eioi?ii i?ioieieu ie?oaeiiai noaea eia-
thony a eiieyo, canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiiuo /eiiaieeaie ie?oaeiiai noaea. Auei
ee i?inoie neo/aeiinoueth eee oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii a?aiaie, /oi eae a
Iaoa?ao?aa A.I. Oo?/aieiia, oae e caeanue, n?aaee i?eiyouo a i?enyaeiua
iiaa?aiiua, aue aeaeii?iecaiaeeoaeue a?aiaiiiai eiieoaoa, aoaeouee i?aae-
naaeaoaeue Niaaoa I.E. Aeia?ioioia.

Ioia/aiiay no?iainoue ie?oaeiiai noaea i?e i?eiyoee a i?enyaeiua ii-
aa?aiiua auea iiae/a?eiooa i?aaenaaeaoaeai aeaia?oaiaioa Noaeaaiie Iaeaou
A. E. Oaoiaui a aanueia no?aiiie ?a/e, n eioi?ie ii ia?aoeeny e i?e-
nyaeiui iiaa?aiiui i?e i?eaiaea eo e i?enyaa: . Yoa ?a/ue ii?aaeaao naiae nooinoueth e
aanniaea?aeaoaeueiinoueth, noieue ia niioaaonoaothueie enoi?e/aneiio cia/a-
ieth iiiaioa.

A Iaoa?ao?aa, eae oaea caia/aii, Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aue
ia?aciaai iaiaaeeaiii. A naiue aeaiue aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea Noaeaaiuo On-
oaaia, 17 ai?aey 1866 a., a N.-Iaoa?ao?aa, iaee/iua i?enyaeiua iiaa?ai-
iua, a /enea aieaa aeaaaeoeaoe, ainiieueciaaeenue i?aaii, i?aaeinoaaeaiiui
ei no. 357-th . Auai?u a Niaao i?ienoiaeeee 2 iay 1866 a. iiae i?aaenaaea-
oaeuenoaii /eaia Noaeaaiie Iaeaou A.I. Ia?eiae/a . Eca?aiiuie iea-
caeenue: i?aaenaaeaoaeai Niaaoa – Ae.A. Noania, oiaa?euai i?aaenaaeaoaey –
A.Y. E?aocieueae e /eaiaie Niaaoa: E.E. A?naiueaa, A.I. Aaaaneee,
A.A. I?eioe, A.A. Naia?neee-Auoiaaoe, A.I. Oo?/aieiia.

A Iineaa, eae yanoaoao ec neacaiiiai, e iiiaioo ioe?uoey iiauo no-
aeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aua ia auei. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue,
6 iay, i?eiyoi auei anaai 18 /aeiaae, o.a. /enei, iaaeinoaoi/iia aeey ia-
?aciaaiey Niaaoa. *enei yoi oaaee/eaaeinue aanueia iaaeeaiii, e aei 9 nai-
oya?y 1866 aiaea ie?oaeiue noae eni?aaeye iaycaiiinoe Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo. ?ieue naith, ai?i/ai, ie?oaeiue noae en/a?iuaae i?eiyoeai a
/enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo eee ioeacii. Eeoue a iineaaeiai canaaeaiee
ie?oaeiui noae, ii aeieeaaeo /eaia noaea Y.I. Noiaoea, i?eiye oaeno aic-
iaa?aaeaeaiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Ii e yoi iauyniyaony ia nianoaaiiie
eieoeeaoeaie noaea, a ianoiyieyie ieieno?a thnoeoeee, eioi?ue caaioeeny
i nei?aeoai ecaioiaeaiee i?iaeoa oaenu. Niaeanii au?aaioaiiie iineia-
neei noaeii oaena, aiciaa?aaeaeaiea aeieaeii auoue iacia/aii eeoue i?enyae-

A .
A?naiueaue E E. Oeac. ni/., n. 64. – I?ei aao.

iiio iiaa?aiiiio oie noi?iiu, a iieueco eioi?ie ninoiyeinue noaeaaiia ?a-
oaiea, e i?eoii n noiiu i?enoaeaeaiiiai acuneaiey, a ia n noiiu caya-
eaiiiai enea. Ca aaaeaiea aea oaieiaiuo aeae ii iacia/aieth i?aaenaaeaoaeae
noaeaaiuo iano eee ii eca?aieth naiei iiaenoaeeiui i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua
aeieaeiu iieo/eoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, niio?y ii ?iaeo aeaea, neiaeiinoe aai,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaeiinoe caueou, io 25 ?oa. aei
500 ?oa. I?iaeo iineianeiai noaea aeaeueiaeoaai aeaeaeaiey ia iieo/ee.

2-ai naioya?y, ca iiaeienueth 14 i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, a iineianeoth
Noaeaaioth Iaeaoo auei iiaeaii i?ioaiea, aanueia eaeiie/aneia. . Yoi i?ioaiea auei ca-
neooaii 6 naioya?y, e ?ac?aoaiea auei aeaii. 16 naioya?y ninoiyeinue ia?aia
iauaa nia?aiea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii /eaia No-
aeaaiie Iaeaou I.A. Ecaieueneiai. Ia nia?aiee i?enoonoaiaaei 18 i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, e nia?aiea, . Ooo aea nia?aiea i?enooieei e auai?ai e eca?aei a ia?aue
Niaao: i?aaenaaeaoaeai I.E. Aeia?ioioiaa, oiaa?euai i?aaenaaeaoaey –
ss.E. Ethaeioeaaa e /eaiaie Niaaoa: E.A. ?eooa?a, A.O. Aaieneaaneiai e
A.A. Eiaa?oa.

*oiau caeii/eoue yoio i/a?e ia?aciaaiey o ian nineiaey aaeaieaoia,
i?eaaaeai aua naeaeaoaeuenoai E. E. A?naiueaaa i oii, eae a oi a?aiy niio?aee
ia iaycaiiinoue aaeaieaoa, e eae aaeaieaou aioiaeeenue e ?iee naiae. A?yae
ee iiaeii iouneaoue naeaeaoaeuenoai aieaa aaoi?eoaoiia, anee aniiiieoue, /oi,
eae i?aaeeueii ioiaoee A.Ae. Nianiae/ a ?a/e naiae, ia?auaiiie e E.A. A?-
naiueaao: .

E oiiiyiooii . A naieo E.E. A?naiueaa aniiieiaao, /oi . A ainiiieiaieyo naieo, iaia/aoaiiuo
a , E. A?naiueaa iiae?iaiaa aiai?eo i ?aaioao e?oaeea.

.1902 a.. O? 2. – I?ei. aao.
O?. – aeaea ecaanoiua.

eanaeinue aii?ina i oii, inoaaony ee a neea aeiaiai? iaeia, anee nianoaaiiee
iaiyoiai eiouanoaa i?iaeae aai ae?oaiio eeoeo. Ca ooaa?aeeoaeueiia ?ac?a-
oaiea aii?ina aiai?ee y; i?ioeaieeii iiei aue Ae.A. Aa?, ionoaeaaaoee
oi?ioeo: Ea/A UeainUei IiaiUea . Oi?ioi iiiith, eae y aieiiaaeny a iaeeaeaiee
aeiy, iacia/aiiiai aeey canaaeaiey, ieeiaaea ia?aae oai iia ia i?eoiaeeeinue
aea?aeaoue ?a/ue a i?enoonoaee aieaa eee iaiaa iiiai/eneaiiiai nia?aiey.
Ioaeii auei ?aoeoue, /oi eo/oa: iaienaoue ee ?a/ue io ia?aiai neiaa aei
iineaaeiaai e caoai cao/eoue aa iaeconoue, eee i?eaioiaeoueny e aa i?i/oaieth,
eee aea onoaiiaeoue ca?aiaa oieueei aeaaiua aa ioieou, a ai anai inoaeueiii
iieiaeeoueny ia eii?iaecaoeeth. ss inoaiiaeeny ia iineaaeiai niiniaa aeae-
noaee (eioi?iai aea?aeaeny e ai ana a?aiy naiae aaeaieaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe),
ii oai aieaa aeooei iia auei a oio iiiaio, eiaaea i?eoeinue anoaoue e ia-
?aoeoueny e iiei , ii no?iaei neooaoaeyi. Iu ana i/aiue
oi?ioi iiieiaee, /oi iaeuecy o?aaiaaoue iiiaiai io ia/eiathuaai i?aoi?a,
ii aianoa n oai ana auee ?aniieiaeaiu e acuneaoaeueiie e?eoeea, ni?aaaae-
eeai iaoiaey, /oi eiaiii ia ia?auo ii?ao iia aaaeiaa e iieaciaa, /ai iioaaea.
Ioe?iaaiiinoue iu n/eoaee aeey naay iaycaoaeueiith e ia noaniyeenue iiae-
/a?eeaaoue ana oi, /oi eacaeinue iai iaaeinoaoi/ii i?iaeoiaiiui eee neaai
au?aaeaiiui. Eae au oi ie auei, ?a/e auee neacaiu, aeenioo
, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue e iaeeaeaiiue, aeaaiiieo/ii i?eaaaeai e
eiioeo – e n yoeo ii? naeaeaeenue ethaeiui caiyoeai
e?oaeea. A ia/aea 1860 a. y aunooiee ia?aae iei iaaeieoaeai a-aee AEaoinn,
i?ioeann eioi?ie, aeaaiaea?y, a iniaaiiinoe, caueoeoaeueiie ?a/e Aa??uea,
i?ia?aiae iacaaeieai ia?aae oai a iaeiii ec o?aioeocneeo i?iaeioeeaeueiuo
noaeia ; caueoieeii aa yaeeny Ae.A. Noania, e ?onneia iineaaeiaaei,
neieueei iia iiiieony, i?eia?o o?aioeocneiai, o.a. neeiieeinue e ii?aaaeaieth
iaaeiyaiie. Ia iiaeeaaeeo ieeaeiio niiiaieth, /oi ana yoe
iaaeiaiey, caueou, i?aaenaaeaoaeueneea ?acthia nineoaeeee iaiaeoth neoaeao
oai ec ian, eioi?ui noaeaeaii auei i?eeiaeeoue ?oeo, a oie eee eiie ?iee,
e inouanoaeaieth noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu. E ianoiyuaio aeaeo iu iiaeoiaeeee
oaea ia iiae/eaie e n?aaieoaeueii eaaei aioee a aai eieath, onaieee naaa
aai i?eaiu. Iaiaa inycaoaeueia, ii aaeaa ee iaiaa aaeeea, auea iieueca,
eioi?oth iu ecaeaeee ec niaianoiiai ianoaeaeaiey aeae, caeiiii?iaeoia e
th?eaee/aneeo aii?inia. Anee ?a/e, i?iecianaiiua a e?oaeea, niinianoaiaaee
?acaeoeth i?aoi?neeo iaaueia, oi o/anoea a i?aaeeueii aaaeaiiuo nii?ao
iiaeaioiaeyei , i?eo/aei e ananoi?iiiaio aiaeeco, e iaoiae/e-

Iai. – Eoiey ?ac?ooaao iaei.

A-aea /Eaoinn iaaeiyeanue a oii, /oi aaeaea cano?aeeoue iieiaeiai /aeiaaea, canoeaiooiai ii/ueth
a aa naaeo, eoaea ii i?eoae aoaeoi au aeey naeaeaiey n aei/a?ueth iiaenoaeeiie. – I?ei. aaii.

oe ?aieeeao, e aieiaoaeueiiio auneooeaaieth i?ioeaieeia, e niieie-
iio ii oi?ia, e en/a?iuaathuaio ii niaea?aeaieth ioaaoo ia eo a?aoiai-
oaoeeth>.

?acthie?oy ana neacaiiia, i?eoiaeeony eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi ?ani?i-
no?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeoaieie e iai?ioiaeeiie i?iianoe iaaeaeo
aeioeui e ianoiyuei iaoae aaeaieaoo?u ia nianai i?aaeeueii, oioy
iii niaea?aeeony aeaaea e a noaeaeaieyo ninoaaeoaeae onoaaia. A aeaenoae-
oaeueiinoe, ia?aue i?iaeo Aeoaeiaa, oae iaauaiaeii ioee/athueeny io i?i-
aeoa Eiiennee 1820 a., oioy e aue i?eciai iaauaiaeiui, ia aue, iaeiaei,
a Iiiiiia ioaa?aioo, a, iai?ioea, iineoaeee enoiaeiui ioieoii aeey aeaeue-
iaeoeo ?aaio ii nicaeaieth o ian aaeaieaoo?u. I?eaa?aeaiiinoue e i?i-
oeiio oai aieaa caia/aoaeueia, /oi iaiaoiaeeiinoue iieiiai n iei ?ac?uaa
i?iieeea oaea oiaaea a iauanoaaiiia niciaiea e aanueia oaaaeeoaeueii io-
ia/aeanue e a aeo?iaeueiuo noaoueyo e a caia/aieyo ia Iniiaiua Iiei-
aeaiey. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia ono?ienoai aaeaieaoo?u cia/eoaeueii aeeyei
e iauanoaaiiia iano?iaiea, iaoiaeeaoaany iiae aeeyieai oai?ee caei?i-
aiai yaiecia, ia iicaieyaoae ainoaea?noao aiaoeaaoueny a /anoiua i?a-
aiioiioaiey e a /ai au oi ie auei noaniyoue naiaiaeo ?anii?yaeaiey
a?aaeaeai naieie i?aaaie. Iiae yoei aeeyieai ninoaaeoaee noaeaaiuo on-
oaaia ioeacaeenue io nicaeaiey i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiai iieiaeaiey aeey aaeai-
eaoo?u e, iaeiaeea ia iaa na?ueaciua iaycaiiinoe, iiae/eiea aa no?iaie
aeenoeeieeia, ioaa?aee ia oieueei iaycaoaeueiinoue o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u a
i?ioeanna, ii iiiiiieeth, oioy oaea e oiaaea a?iiei e ianoie/eai oeacu-
aaeinue, /oi oaeei iooai nicaeaaony eaeay-oi o?iaeeeaay ianoaiiaea, ei-
oi?ay aeieaeia neoaeeoue aaaeiui i?aiyonoaeai aeey anooieaiey a nineiaea,
eai anooieaiea o?aaoao ecaanoiiai naiiio?a/aiey. I?aaeoaaaeaeaiea i?i-
oea aaeaieaoo?u, e?iia oiai, uaae?i ieoaeinue aeoaieei iaaeiaa?eai, ei-
oi?ia auei aiaae?aii aei?aoi?iaiiuie oiaeaoayie, aiooeaoeie y?eia e
iaecaeaaeeiia aia/aoeaiea ia aaeaieaoa. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai a cia/eoaeue-
iie ia?a iaoaei ia?aciaaieth i?aaeeueiiai acaeyaea ia caaea/e aaeaiea-
oo?u. Ianeieueei acaeyaeu yoe auee iayniu, eo/oa anaai aeieacuaaaony
n?aaiaieai noaouee E.I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaaa, iieaaaaoaai, /oi aac i?aaeeueii
i?aaieciaaiiie aaeaieaoo?u ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue i?aainoaeea, n iia-
ieai iaa?-i?ieo?i?a Naiaiiaa, aeieacuaaaoaai, /oi neiaa i?enyae auioaeaeatho aaeaieaoa e eey-
oaii?anooieaieth. Ianiio?y, iaeiaei, ia oaeoth iooaieoeo iiiyoee, ni-
noaaeoaee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia ecaaaaee noaaeoue iniiaiua aii?inu
aaeaieaoneie yoeee e any/anee eo iaoiaeeee. Nthaea aua ioaeii i?eaaaeoue
iieiaeoaa eaii?e?iaaiea iiiiuie/anoaa. ianiio?y ia naeaeaiiua ie-

ieno?ii thnoeoeee oeacaiey ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aaoee?iaaoue yoio einoeooo.
Iaeiiaoe, oniaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ioeanna, aeinoeaiooia Noaeaaiuie Onoaaa-
ie, iaecaaaeii aeieaeii auei naeaeaoue aua aieaa i/aaeaeiuie iaaeinoaoee
iaoa?eaeueiuo caeiiia e oaeoaeoue i?iianoue iaaeaeo oae iacuaaaiie oi?-
iaeueiie e aeaenoaeoaeueiie i?aaaeie, – a oaeie ?aceaae iaecaaaeii aeaeae
aeaoniuneaiiui iieiaeaiea aaeaieaoa, i?ecaaiiiai inouanoaeyoue neeo e
cia/aiea caeiia.

IA?AOIAeIUE IA?EIAe
(1866-1874)

12. IA?AIIA*AEUeIUA ONEIAEss
E IANOAIIAEA AEECIE
AAeAIEAONEIAI NINEIAEss

Eoae, ioiioaiea ninoaaeoaeae Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia e aaeaieaoo?a i?aae-
noaaeyaony i?iieeiooui aanueia y?eie aeaienoaaiiinoueth. Niciaiea iaia-
oiaeeiinoe aaanoe aaeaieaoo?o ia iiaei ono?aieoue aeoaieiai e iae iaaeiaa?ey,
ecaeaaia oei?aieaoaainy e oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai. Iiyoiio aianoi oiai,
/oiau iicaaioeoueny i ia?ao aeey i?eaea/aiey th?enoia e iiaiio einoeoooo,
ninoaaeoaee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia nicaeaee oeaeue ?yae i?aiyonoaee aeey oniao-
iie i?aaiecaoeee nineiaey. I?aiyonoaey yoe auee i/aiue na?ueaciu e anee
iie ia ieacaeenue iaiaeieeiuie, oi eeoue iioiio, /oi oiaaea auei nianai
iniaia a?aiy e niaa?oaiii eneeth/eoaeueiia iano?iaiea. E?anii?a/eaue
naeaeaoaeue e auaeathueeny o/anoiee yoeo aeiae, A.O. Eiie aiai?eo a naieo
: . Aaaaeaiea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia canoaaeei iiiaeo ethaeae iaiyoue naith
aeeciaiioth ea?uea?o. Oae, ii neiaai A.I. Ethnoeoa, ii iinooiee a Oa?ue-

eiineee oieaa?neoao ia iaoaiaoe/aneee oaeoeueoao, ii neooe i i?aaenoiyuae
?aoi?ia iiaoaeeee aai ia?aeoe ia th?eaee/aneee oaeoeueoao e aieoe a iiaia
nineiaea.

Oaeia iano?iaiea, ii-aeaeeiiio, iniaaiii y?ei eiioeaio?e?iaaeinue
eiaiii ii ioiioaieth e aaeaieaoo?a. A ?a/e, i?iecianaiiie a Iauai Ni-
a?aiee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo 30 ai?aey 1906 a., A.I. Ethnoeo aiai?ee:
. Ii neiaai A.Ae. Nianiae/a, . Oi aea naiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
e E.E. A?naiueaa a naieo . A 1885 a.
E.ss. Oieieoeeee ooaa?aeaeae, /oi
.

Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ia ieacaei ieeaeiai aeeyiey ia ia?aciaaiea iacaae-
neiiai nineiaey, i eioi?ii ia/oaee ninoaaeoaee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, e oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ia?aiia/aeueii iii ninoaaeeinue nieioue ec ionoaaiuo
/eiiaieeia, a/a?aoieo ae?aoeia ioaa?aiooiai noaeaaiiai ?aaeeia. Aeaaea ia
aa?eony, eiaaea ociaaoue, eaeea yeaiaiou oyaioaee e iiaiio nineiaeth aae-

aieaoo?u. A /enea ia?auo, cayaeaoeo a Iaoa?ao?aa i naiai aeaeaiee anoo-

o-ue a /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, auee, iai?eia?, i?acon aiaiiiai
ae Ai?iaeaaiaeaoneeo caaiaeia e ?aaaio caineie aeoiaie eaioeaey?ee, e
iaa iie auee i?eiyou. Aiiaua, ec 26 i?ioaiee, ia?aaeaiiuo eiieoaoii

ia?aciaaaoeeny Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, iaeii auei io aeieoi?a
th?eaee/aneeo iaoe Aeaaeeie?a Nianiae/a e iaeii – io i?enyaeiiai no?yi-
/aai, ana aea inoaeueiua i?eiaaeeaaeaee auaoei /eiiaieeai ?aciuo ?aiaia.
ia/eiay io eieeaaeneiai nae?aoa?y aei aeaenoaeoaeueiiai noaoneiai niaaoieea.
Ii iano?iaiea, i eioi?ii oae y?ei naeaeaoaeuenoaoao A.O. Eiie, auei noieue
eeueii, /oi iiae/eiyei naaa ana e anao, e /a?ac aeaa-o?e ianyoea iinea aaaaeaiey
noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu ioeoeeaeueiue i?aai Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee iia eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi . E aeaaea oaeea caacyoua
a?aae iaoae aaeaieaoo?u, eae Oeaae?ei , ienaee, /oi .

Aa?ie/aneee iiiaio, aucaaiiue inouanoaeaieai Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, iea-
cae aannii?ii naiia ?aoeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia noaeueau iaoae aaeaieaoo?u. Ii
aeae ia?aue neeueiue oie/ie, ii?aaeaeeaoee iai?aaeaiea, ii eioi?iio aeaeio-
einue ?acaeoea nineiaiie aeecie. Ii aa?ie/aneee iiiaio ieeiaaea ia iiaeao
aeeeoueny aeieai. Aio ia niaio i?eoiaeyo aoaeie, – e oiaaea iaii?iaeueiua on-
eiaey, ia eioi?ua auei oeacuaaaii aua i?e au?aaioea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia,
ana neeueiaa e neeueiaa noaee aeaaaoue naay /oanoaiaaoue. N?aco aea ia?eniaaeny
iaaeinoaoi/iue i?eeea nee e aaeaieaoo?a. I?aaenaaeaoaee i?iaeioeeaeueiuo noaeia
oi e aeaei ia?auathony a Iaoa?ao?a e Iineao n i?inueaie iaeoe aeaeathueo
iinaeeoueny a ie?oaa oiai eee ae?oaiai noaea. I?ai?iaiaeaeay iaeii ec oaeeo ia-
?auaiee (i?aaenaaeaoaey aeaaeeie?neiai Ie?oaeiiai Noaea) a Niaao, i?aaenaaea-
oaeue nia. Ie?oaeiiai Noaea A.I. Iioiaeeia i?ineo ociaoue, ia iaeaeaony ee
aeaeathueo ia?anaeeoueny ai Aeaaeeie? e .
I?aaenaaeaoaeue eaoeineiai noaea niiauaao, /oi eeoe, aeaeathueo auoue i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie i?e noaea, ii aeaeaiey
ia yoi ieeoi ia ecuyaee>.
Iaaeaeo oai, eae ana iie i?eaaaeytho, aeae a?aaeaeaineeo a noaea i?iec-

Nianiae/ A.Ae. Canoieueiua ?a/e>, n. 18. – I?ei. aao.

. – I?ei. aao. (Aa?iyoii, aaoi? eiaao a aeaeo ?aaioo
E.ss. Oieieoeeiai . Nia.. 1E85. –
Iiei. nino.).

Noaeaaiue Aanoiee, 34, 1866 a. – I?ei. aao.

Ana ian ?oaatho e oeauoo. – aiai?ee Nianiae/. – e ia?aue iaaeaeo ieie – oio aaeeeee
oe?ee. eioi?ue e anoue aaeeinoaaiiue oi?ioee i?icaee iaoaai a?aiaie> (Canoieueiua ?a/e.
)- I?ei. aao.
Oaae?ei I.Ue. Ni/eiaiey, o. VI. n. 301. – I?ei. iaai.

aiaeeeinue noieueei, /oi i?enyaeiiio iiaa?aiiiio, ii-aeaeeiiio, iia auoue
aa?aioe?iaai i?eee/iue ca?aaioie. Ec yoeo i?iecaiaeeaoeony a noaeao aeae
cia/eoaeueiia /enei aaeinue /a?ac iiaa?aiiuo. Oae, ii ni?aaea, nia?aiiie
iaoa?ao?aneei e iineianeei Niaaoaie a 1868 a., ieacaeinue, /oi, iai?eia?,
a Ineianeii noaea ia 473 aeaea /a?ac iiaa?aiiuo auei aaaeaii 173 aeaea, a
Aaeeeeo Eoeao ia 187 – 93, a Iiaai?iaea ia 115 – 96 e o.ae. Ii yoe
oeeo?u e naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi i?aaeiea oiaeaoae ii aeaeai ia neiaeeee naiaai
i?oaeey e i?iaeieaeaee aeaenoaiaaoue. Ca ieie noiyea o?aaeeoeey, e oio aea
i?aaenaaeaoaeue eaoeineiai noaea oaeinoiaa?yao, /oi .

Ii naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi oiaeaoae ia oniieaeaaeenue ia i?i/iinoe
oaeeo o?aaeeoeee. Iie yia?ae/ii ai?ieenue ca naia nouanoaiaaiea e niaei
eiieo?e?iaaee n iiauie iaoaioiaaiiuie aaeaieaoaie. Ethaiiuoii, /oi
aeaaea ia no?aieoeao ioeoeeaeueiiai yoe ainiiaea ia-
/aoaee naie iauyaeaiey i . A 1868 a. a Iaoa?ao?aa ia-
?aciaaeny ,
oaa?yaoee a ?annueaaiuo ieaeaoao, /oi . *?acau/aeii oa?aeoa?iia iauyaeaiea ia/aoaeinue a , oeacuaathuaa noaiaiue iaaaaeanoaa /anoiuo oiaeaoaaa. Iauya-
eaiea yoi aoeaaeueii aeaneei oae: . A 1867 a. iaoa?ao?aneee iaa?-iieeoeiaenoa? ia?aoeeny n
cai?inii a Niaao, iiaeii ee ?ac?aoeoue ionoaaiiio eieeaaeneiio nae?aoa?th
Iaeoieio eiaoue auaaneo, e Niaao, ioaa/ay, /oi aeey yoiai ia ano?a/aaony
caeiiiuo i?aiyonoaee, iieaaae, iaeiaei, /oi .

Aaaaeaiea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia canoaaeei /anoiuo oiaeaoaaa oaniaa niei-
oeoueny, e iie noaee niaaeeiyoueny a eiiiaiee. Oae, a o?ia eeoe iauyaeyee, /oi iie . Iauyaeaiea ia?aoeei ia naay
aieiaiea oai, /oi a /enea yoeo eeoe iaeei aue ii/aoiue ie?iaie noaeuey. N
ae?oaie aea noi?iiu, eiaaea Ieienoa?noai THnoeoeee noaei niae?aoue naaaeaiey
i ninoaaa oiaeaoaaa, oi ieacaeinue, ii neiaai , /oi cia/e-
oaeueiia /enei /anoiuo oiaeaoaaa ia eiatho aeaaea th?eaee/aneie i?a-
ainiiniaiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia noi?iia i?aaeiaai auee e ca-
ei?aiaeua o?aaeeoeee iaae?aoue /eneii iiaieaa, oeaiith iiaeaoaaea, e ia?ac-
ai?/eainoue a n?aaenoaao. Ii aua aaaeiaa auei, /oi i?e yoii oiaeaoae ia
ianee ia naaa ieeaeeo iaycaiiinoae, eioi?ua auee aiceiaeaiu ia i?enyae-
iuo iiaa?aiiuo e eioi?ua auee aeey ieo, i?e iacia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa
aaeaieaoia, aanueia /oanoaeoaeueiu. Oae, iai?eia?, a oaa?neii noaea a 1867 a.,
ii niiauaieth i?aaenaaeaoaey noaea, i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua aaee 108 a?aae-
aeaineeo aeae (/anoiua oiaeaoae 169 aeae), a . Oaeei ia?acii, /enei iaycaoaeueiuo
caueo i?aauoaei eiee/anoai a?aaeaeaineeo aeae. A ?acoeueoaoa oi e aeaei
i?eoiaeeony ano?a/aoueny n cayaeaieyie oaeiai ?iaea. . .

Oi/ii oae aea e iaoa?ao?aneee Niaao a 1870 a. a iaeiii ec naieo ii-
noaiiaeaiee auneacaeny a oaeii aea niunea :

. 1875. n. 136. 144. – I?ei. aao.
Iinoaiiaeaiea Nia. Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo io 28 oaa?. 1870 a., n. 3.- I?ei. aao.

.

E yoiio aua i?eniaaeeiyeny no?iaee iaaeci?, eioi?ue i?iyaeye Niaao,
e aeenoeeieeia?iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca anyeia ?onooieaiea io au?aaaouaaa-
oaeny Niaaoii aaeaieaoneie yoeee. Iiyoiio, eae oieueei eoi-ieaoaeue /oa-
noaiaae naay noaniaiiui, eae oieueei eiio?ieue Niaaoa noaiiaeeny oyaino-
iui, ii oio/an auoiaeee ec ninoaaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ie ia eioo ia
iaiyy oa?aeoa?a naiae i?ioannee. Oae, auoae oiaaea ec ninoaaa i?enyaeiie
aaeaieaoo?u iinea aeenoeeieeia?iiai i iai i?iecaiaenoaa ecaanoiue a oi
a?aiy i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue ss.I. Na?aa?yiue.

A oii aea iai?aaeaiee aeeyei ionoonoaea anyeie ?aaeaiaioaoeee einoe-
oooa iiiiuie/anoaa. Iiiiuieee ieacaeenue niaa?oaiii aani?eci?iuie,
a?ioaiiuie ia i?iecaie noaeueau. . A Iineaa au?aaioaeanue ae?oaay i?aaiecaoeey. I?enyaeiue
iaaiaiiueo Ieaaaei onoaiiaee aeey naieo iiiai/eneaiiuo iiiiuieeia oi-
aa?euaneee noae /anoe. Ii neiaai , . Aio aaee-
ie/iua oeacaiey ia iiiuoee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aianoe eaeia-eeai
niaea?aeaiea a ee/iue iao?iiao e onoaiiaeoue i?aanoaaiioth naycue ni noa-
aea?aie.

Oaeia aacio?aaeiia iieiaeaiea iiiiuieeia iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeei e aanue-
ia iaaeaeaoaeueiui iineaaenoaeyi a aeaoo ?aciuo iai?aaeaieyo. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, th?enou, aeaeaaoea iinayoeoue naay aaeaieaoo?a, ia ?ann/eouaaee
iaeoe iaaeeaaeauoth oeieo a ee/iii iao?iiaoa e i?aaeii/eoaee iinooiaoue
a eaiaeeaeaou ia noaeaaiua aeieaeiinoe, n oai, /oiau aanoe aeaea ia i?aaao
/anoiuo eeoe. Yoa no?aiiay i?aeoeea, ainnoaiiaeaoay iaeio ec iaeaieaa
oaiiuo noi?ii aei?aoi?iaiiiai noaeaaiiai no?iy, a?iceea oei?aieoueny a
iiauo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo. Ii neiaai A.A. Eaiaeea?a, ii, aianoa n
eiycai O?oniaui e ae?oaeie oiaa?euaie, ca/eneeaoenue a eaiaeeaeaou ia no-
aeaaiua aeieaeiinoe i?e iineianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaoa e caieiaeenue oiae-
aeaieai ii aeaeai. Oieueei aiae nionoy noa?oee i?aaenaaeaoaeue, naiaoi? Ii-
eaiia, i?aaeeiaeee ei aueoe a ionoaaeo e caienaoueny a iiiiuieee i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Ii a i?iaeioeee yoio iianiue ii?yaeie aua aeieai
aea?aeaeny. A ei??aniiiaeaioeeyo ia?aaeei ano?a/athony
oeacaiey, /oi, iai?eia?, a Aeaoa?eiineaaa ec eaiaeeaeaoia ia noaeaaiua

Ii neiaai A.I. Ethnoeoa. yoei i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui aue A.I. Oo?/aieiia. 140 iauaiea
n iiiiuieeaie auei e o ae?oaeo i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiuo, ia eiay. iaeiaei, oaeiai i?aaieciaaiiiai
?aeo?a. – I?ei. aao.

A 18/4 a. iaeei ec iiiiuieeia. Iee Aa?eaiia, aucaaiiue a noae ii iaaeiaieth a oii. /oi ii
ainiieueciaaeny iiacaeeie a Ca?aene, /oiau ioaeoue aeaei o iao?iia, ioeacaeny yaeoueny ia noae e aucaae
I- iieaaaei ia AeOYEUe. Ieaaaei cayaee i auciaa i?ieo?i?o, e Aa?eaiia, i?aaeaiiue noaeo iiae.
O- oaea, i?eaiai?ai aue e a?anoo ia aiaiiie aaoioaaooa ia 3 aeiy. Ethaiiuoii, /oi a naiai aic-
?aaeaiee i?ieo?i?o Aa?eaiia au?aaeae oaeeaeaiea, /oi iaaeieo?eueiay aeanoue aiai?eo i eaeii-oi oi-
aa?euaneii noaea, noaea. ia ooaa?aeaeaiiii aeanoueth. (Noaeaaiue Aanoiee>, 1874, – 10). –
?ei. aao.

aeieaeiinoe aaeaieaoo?ie caieiaaony iaeei . Aei neo ii?, /eoaai iu a ae?oaii
ianoa, eaiaeeaeaou ia noaeaaiua aeieaeiinoe i?e eo?neii Ie?oaeiii Noaea
aani?aiyonoaaiii aaee a yoii noaea, a ea/anoaa iiaa?aiiuo, a?aaeaeaineea
aeaea . A ia/aoe aicieeaea aeaeaa iieaieea ii yoiio aii?ino, i?e/ai ii-
eiaeeoaeueiia aai ?ac?aoaiea i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iaaeno?aoo?u aiana ia ano?a-
oeei ioii?a, oioy eacaeinue au, /oi ana, /oi iaiiieiaei i?aaeiea ii?yaeee,
aeieaeii auei nei?aa aucuaaoue i?aoaaee/aiiua iianaiey.

Ii anee th?enou, aeaeathuea iinayoeoue naay aaeaieaoo?a, ecaaaaee ca-
ienuaaoueny a iiiiuieee, ia ?ann/eouaay caeanue iieo/eoue ioaeioth iiaeai-
oiaeo, oi, iai?ioea, aaeaeo iai?aaieciaaiiinoe iiiiuie/anoaa, nthaea no?a-
ieeenue niiieoaeueiua yeaiaiou, aeaeaaoea eniieueciaaoue caaiea iiiiuieea
a ?aciuo noi?iiieo oeaeyo. .

Iaeiiaoe, yoa iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue iieiaeaiey iiiiuieeia i?eaiaeeea e
oiio, /oi ni noi?iiu noaaea?ia aicieeee iiiuoee inaiaiaeeoue naay io iaae-
ci?a Niaaoa. Oii?ioth ai?ueao n Niaaoii aae iiiiuiee A.I. Oo?/aieiiaa
Ethoea (aiineaaenoaee oiaa?eu ieieno?a thnoeoeee) a 1870 a. Ii oiaeaoaenoao
Niaaoa, Ie?oaeiie Noae noae iacia/aoue iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
ia caueoo iiaenoaeeiuo. Ethoea ioeacaeny io caueou; a eiaaea Niaao aucaae
aai aeey iauyniaiee, ii e io yoiai ioeacaeny, cayaeyy, /oi iiiiuieee ia
iiae/eiaiu Niaaoo. Niaao, . Iaeiaei, Noaeaaiay Ia-
eaoa, ii aeaeiaa a. Ethoea, ioiaieea iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa, oae eae aeaeno-
aothuee caeii ia aeaao oaa?aeie oi/ee iii?u aeey onoaiiaeaiey oaeiai iaae-

, 1876, ? 69. – I?ei. aao.
. 1870 a.. 115. – I?ei. aao.
A?naiueaa E.E. Oeac. ni/. n. 45. /. II. – I?ei. aao.

ia .

Oaeei iooai iaeaeai aue auoiae ec oaeueoeaiai iieiaeaiey. Niaao e
i?aaeeiaeee A.I. Oo?/aieiiao io/eneeoue Ethoea, /oi e auei ei naeaeaii.
A ?acoeueoaoa i?aaiecothuaa ia/aei ainoi?aeanoaiaaei, ii ia?eiaoee yoie
ai?ueau ia iiaee, eiia/ii, neoaeeoue iiaeiyoeth i?anoeaea iiaiai nineiaey.

Oi/ii oae aea a?aaeeei ii?iaeueiiio ?acaeoeth ninouanoaiaaiea, ia?yaeo
(; noaeaaiuie onoaaaie, e a?aiaiiuo i?aaee 19 ieoya?y 186 a., i?aaeinoaa-
eyaoeo iaeaa/eoaeueiua oneiaey aeey anooieaiey a i?enyaeioth aaeaieaoo?o.
Eaeie, a naiii aeaea, i?aeoe/aneee niune eiaei caienuaaoueny a iiiiuieee,
anee, niaeanii no. 44 a?aiaiiuo i?aaee, eeoei, caieiaaoaany th?eaee/aneie
i?aeoeeie, aeiioneaeinue a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua e aac noaaea iiiiuieea.
Anee, oai ia iaiaa, a Iaoa?ao?aa oio/an ii ioe?uoee Niaaoa A.I. Ethnoeo
ioe?ue caienue a /enei iiiiuieeia, oi yoi eeoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi i?ae-
oe/aneea niia?aaeaiey ia ea?aee oiaaea aeiieie?othuae ?iee. Ii, iai?eia?,
a Iineaa oaeay e?oiiay aaee/eia, eae O.I. Ieaaaei, n/ao eceeoiei
i?ioiaeeoue noaae iiiiuieea, a ainiieueciaaeny a?aiaiiuie i?aaeeaie. I?e
yoii, i?ineoaeea 1 aiae e II ianyoeaa e i?aeoeeoy 2 aiaea e 10 ianyoeaa,
O.I. Ieaaaei aeieacuaae, /oi aianoa yoe oeeo?u ninoaayo iyoue eao, oae
eae no. 44 o?aaoao eeai 5 eao i?aeoeee, eeai 4 aiaea neoaeau ii noaeaaiiio
aaaeiinoao. . Auoiaeeo, oaeei ia?acii, /oi
nio?aiyy e iinea anooieaiey a aeaenoaea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia neeo iaeaa/e-
oaeueiuo i?aaee (a iie, eae oaea auoa oeacaii, aeaenoaiaaee aei 1871 a.),
caeiiiaeaoaeue nai naiaeee ia iao cia/aiea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia a ?anniao?e-
aaaiie iaeanoe e noaaee i?aiyonoaey aeey i?aaiecaoeee nineiaey.

13. IOIIOAIEA I?AAEOAEUeNOAA
E AAeAIEAOO?A

Oaeiau auee oa oneiaey, a eioi?uo ia/aea aeeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue ?onneay
Aaeaieaoo?a. Eae ecaanoii, iaaeiaue ianyoe noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu i?ioae aanueia
“””?I. Iia ieacaeanue eii?iaeiui oaeii a iaoai ainoaea?noaaiiii i?aa-
Tyia. Ioeoeeaeueiue io-

e?iaaiii i?eciaao, /oi .
?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea anaai i iaoa?ao?aneeo i?ioeannao, aicaoaeaeaiiuo Ie-
ienoa?noaii Aioo?aiieo Aeae. A iaa 1866 a. ia/aoi auei noaeaaiia i?a-
neaaeiaaiea i?ioea , i?ioea , i?ioea ca iiiauaiea a ? 3 noaouee TH. AEoeianeiai: . Aeanoyuoth ?a/ue ii yoiio iineaaeiaio aeaeo i?iecian E.E.
A?naiueaa (Aaeoaaneay iacaaea yoo ?a/ue caoaeeeai-eiaeie), e iiae-
noaeeiua (aianoa n AEoeianeei noaeeee e ?aaeaeoi?a Iuieia) auee ii?aa-
aeaiu a ia?aie einoaioeee.

Naii niaith ?acoiaaony, /oi ino?ia iaaeiaieuenoai iiauie noaeaie ia-
?aoeeinue i?aeiouanoaaiii i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u, eioi?ay aieueoa anaai nii-
nianoaiaaea enoiaeo i?ioeannia, ia niioaaonoaiaaaoaio iaeeaeaieyi aaeieie-
no?aoeee. A naieo ainiiieiaieyo i i?ioeanna Ea?aeiciaa Ae.A. Noania, iaaeaeo
i?i/ei, ?anneacuaaao: ss aio ioaaoee, /oi iu aeey yoiai iacia/aiu,
e aeaei yoi caueuaai ii iacia/aieth eiycy Aaaa?eia. Oiaaea i?eioe neacae:
. Ia yoi Oo?/aieiia ioaaoee: . Iaaeaeo oai, i?eioe Ieue-
aeaiao?aneee aue nai a /enea noaeae ii aeaeo, e ioiioaiea e aaeaieaoo?a
auei aiiaua aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiia. .
I/aaeaeii iiyoiio, /oi a neiaao i?eioea Ieueaeaiao?aneiai i?inoi neuoaeny
aeaaii ciaeiiue oaea iocaoe iaiiieiaiey caaea/ aaeaieaoo?u.

Iu aeaeaee auoa, /oi e ai O?aioeee, a no?aia ni noa?ie e ioee/ii
?acaeoie aaeaieaoo?ie, ia ?ac ianooiaee iiiaiou, eiaaea aaeaieaoia ioi-
aeaeanoaeyee n caueuaaiuie eie iiaenoaeeiuie. Anee oae auei ai O?aioeee,
oi oai aieaa yoi yaeaiea aeieaeii auei ?acaeoueny o ian, i?e iaaeinoaoi/iie

eoeueoo?iinoe e iiaecia einoeoooa. Iiiyoii, iiyoiio, /oi o/anoea aaeai-
eaoo?u a eeoa?aoo?iuo e iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannao e aeoaieia aia/aoeaiea,
eaeia i?iecaiaeeee a yoeo aeaeao ?a/e caueou, ia iiaei ia aicaoaeeoue na-
?ueaciiai iaaeiaieuenoaa aeanoe e aeieaeii auei ie?oaeeoue aaeaieaoo?o aoii-
noa?ie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai iaaeiaa?ey e iiaeic?aiey. Ianeieueei yoe /oanoaa
auee neeueiu, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao enoi?ey eiycy A. E. O?oniaa. Iaeei ec naiuo
aeanoyueo aaeaieaoia Iineau, o/anoaiaaaoee ai anao auaeathueony i?i-
oeannao, i?eacaeaaoee ia?aaeei a Iaoa?ao?a (ii i?eieiae, iai?eia?, o/anoea
a Ia/aaaneii aeaea, e ?a/ue aai i?eaeaeea e naaa iauaa aieiaiea), eiycue
O?onia aue auneai a aaeieieno?aoeaiii ii?yaeea a I?eaaeoeeneee e?ae
e, nionoy ianeieueei eao, inaiaiaeaeai ec nnueee iiae oneiaeai neiaeaiey ei
caaiey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai e iinooieaiey ia ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao .

Ii e iacaaeneii io yoiai, eiaaea aa?ie/aneee iiiaio niaieeny aoaeiyie,
naiay i?aaiecaoeey aaeaieaoo?u aeieaeia auea aucuaaoue e naaa iiaeic?eoaeue-
iia ioiioaiea aeanoae. . Aeaaiaea?y yoiio nineiaea n?aco naeaeaeinue i?eaa-
aeeuai aeey anao iaaeiaieueiuo e aiieiuo. Ninoaaeoaee noaeaaiuo onoaaia
iieaaaee, /oi aaeaieaoo?a naeaeaaony ?annaaeieeii aeey anae iaaeno?aoo?u.
A a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe neo/eeinue ia/oi ia?aoiia, (Nianiae/).

Ana yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa, iiaoi?yai, e nicaeaaaee iaaeiaa?/eaia, iiaei-
c?eoaeueiia ioiioaiea e aaeaieaoo?a, e yoi ioiioaiea aanueia neeueii aeeyei
ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea nineiaey. Anei?a iinea aaaaeaiey noaeaaiuo onoaaia
a 1866 a., , auaoee oiaaea ioeoeeaeueiui i?aaiii Ie-
ienoa?noaa THnoeoeee, ienae: , n. 158. – I?ei. aao.
. 1906. ai?aeue, n. 282. – I?ei. aao.

Aeia-i?aaenaaeao?eue 1 inoea?noaaiiiae Niaaoa e i?aaenaaeaoaeue Aa?oiaiiai Noaea. – I?ei. aao.
. 1906. ai?aeue, n. 276. – I?ei. aao.

oio iineaaeiee oaeo ia oiiieiaaony a ainiiieiaieyo A.O. Eiie i ei. O?oniaa, ii niiauai
iia A.A Eaiaea?ii. – I??ei. aaioi.
( aniae/ A.Ae. Canoieueiua ?a/a. n. ~). – I?ei. aao.
.ao – oaaaeeua.

ei iaeei iooue e oiio, /oiau iieiaeeoue aio i?i/iia iniiaaiea: yoi ioianoenue
e iaio n aeiaa?eai e ii aiciiaeiinoe ono?aieoue i?aa?aaeu e aai aeayoaeueiinoe
e aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth. *oi-ieaoaeue iaeii: eee a iauanoaa iiaeao noua-
noaiaaoue ecaanoiia o/?aaeaeaiea eee iao. A ia?aii neo/aa iaaei i?eaeaoue aio
ana oa oneiaey, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey aai aeayoaeueiinoe; a i?ioeaiii
neo/aa ioaeii ioeacaoueny io iunee ia aai onoaiiaeaiee. Iao ie/aai a?aaeiaa,
eae, ianoaaeyy ecaanoiia o/?aaeaeaiea oe?ieeie i?aaaie, aianoa n oai noa-
?aoueny i?eaeaoue aio oaeea oneiaey aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua ia i?aeoeea eei-
ieeenue au e ia?aie/aieth yoeo i?aa. Caeiiiaeaoaeue, noaa ia yoio iooue,
ioieiay iaeiie ?oeie oi, /oi aeaii ae?oaie, ia aeinoea au ie/aai, e?iia
ineaaeaiey nicaeaiiiai ei o/?aaeaeaiey a naiii aai ei?ia, oae eae naeaeae
au iaaiciiaeiui inouanoaeaiea oie oeaee, aeey eioi?ie i?aaeiieaaaeinue ni-
caeaoue yoi o/?aaeaeaiea>.

Yoe e?anii?a/eaua, y?eea neiaa eae aoaeoi aeey oiai oieueei e auee
neacaiu ioeoeeaeueiui i?aaiii Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee, /oiau ?ac/a iiae-
/a?eiooue iaiaoeaoaany ioiioaiea caeiiiaeaoaey e aaeaieaoo?a, iieiia ?aa-
iiaeooea e aa noaeueaai. A aeeaeaeoaa e aaaaeaieth noaeaaiuo onoaaia a?aiy
i?aaeoaeuenoai aua i?iyaeyei iaeioi?ue eioa?an. Oae, a 1867 a. Aeaia?-
oaiaio Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee ia?aoeeny a Niaaou n cai?inii ,
Iaoa?ao?aneee Niaao iaiaaeeaiii ioaaoee, /oi ii iieaaae au ii?aaeaeeoue
yoi /enei oeeo?ith noi, ii aeaeueiaeoaai aeaeaeaiey aii?in ia iieo/ee. Aia/aea
Ieienoa?noai au?aaeaei iaeioi?ia aaniieienoai ii iiaiaeo iaaeinoaoea i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eai, eae iu aeaeaee auoa, ni noi?iiu i?aaenaaeaoaeae
iinooiaee cayaeaiey i iaaiciiaeiinoe ioi?aaeyoue i?aainoaeea niaeanii o?a-
aiaaieyi Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia. Ia?aeeaeueii n Niaaoaie, Ieienoa?noai noaei
?ac?aaaouaaoue ia?u aeey i?eaea/aiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a i?iaeioee-
aeueiua noaeu. A aaaonoa 1869 a. ca ? 13549 Ieienoa?noai ia?aoeeinue e
noa?oei i?aaenaaeaoaeyi noaeaaiuo iaeao n oee?eoey?ii, a eioi?ii noaaeei
aii?in ia iaeaa/aiee i?eaia a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?e i?iaeioeeaeueiuo
noaeao. , 1866, ? 18. – I?ei. aao.

No. 388 O/?. noae. ono. – .

“”uo, a ea/anoaa eo iiiiuieeia, i?aaeii/ooo naiinoiyoaeueioth aeay-
iinoue a aoaa?iee, /oi, i/aaeaeii, aanueia aeaeaoaeueii e aeey ianoiuo
auaaoaeae, eioi?ui eo/oa eiaoue ia aiieia iiuoiuo caueoieeia, /ai ia
iaoue eo aiana. A neo/aa inouanoaeaiey naai i?aaeiieiaeaiey neaaeiaaei au
aianoa n oai iinoaiiaeoue, /oi eeoea, aeiiouaiiua a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua

“o icia/aiiiai a?aiaiiiai i?aaeea, iiaoo caieiaoueny aaaeaieai aeae
oi\ueei a i?iaeioeeaeueiuo ie?oaeiuo noaeao, i?e/ai iaaeci? ca oi/iui ni-
aeaaeaieai yoiai ii?yaeea iia au auoue i?aaeinoaaeai noiee/iui Niaaoai
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo… Caoai iiaeii auei au iinoaiiaeoue, /oi n enoa-
/aieai n?iea, onoaiiaeaiiiai iauei caeiiii aeey iinooieaiey a i?enyaeiua
iiaa?aiiua, auoaoiiiyiooia ia?aie/aiea oa?yao naith neeo, e i?enyaeiue
iiaa?aiiue i?eia?aoaao i?aai oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue ai anao noaeaaiuo onoaiia-
eaieyo ie?oaa Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, e eioi?ie ii i?eienai, ia eneeth/ay e
noaeia noiee/iuo. I?eciaaay yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea caneoaeeaathuei oaa-
aeaiey e eiay a aeaeo, /oi a iaeioi?uo eiino?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaao
(iai?eia?, eoaeueyineii) aeiiouaiu iiaeiaiua iaeaa/eoaeueiua oneiaey
aeey i?iaeioeeaeueiuo aaeaieaoia, n/eoath ioaeiui, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aeaeue-
iaeoeo ni noi?iiu ieieno?a thnoeoeee ii naio i?aaeiaoo ?anii?yaeaiee,
nia?aoue iiaiey e i?aeoe/aneea oeacaiey ethaeae, aeeaeaeoei ia?acii
ciaeiiuo n yoei aaaeiui aii?inii. Aneaaenoaea /aai eiath /anoue iiei?-
iaeoa i?ineoue Aaoa I?aainoiaeeoaeuenoai aeinoaaeoue iia a aiciiaeiie
nei?inoe iiae?iaiia Aaoa caeeth/aiea ii aii?ino i ia?ao e oaaee/aieth
/enea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?e i?iaeioeeaeueiuo ie?oaeiuo noaeao, e
i oii, eaeea o?aaothony aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee eciaiaiey eee aei-
iieiaiey a Noaeaaiuo Onoaaao 20 iiya?y 1864 a.>. O?aaoaiua cayaeaiey
auee aeinoaaeaiu, ii aii?in ia aeaeioeny n ianoa, e ieeaeeo eciaiaiee
e aeiiieiaiee a onoaau aianaii ia auei.

Ca anai oai, aeaiiue neo/ae aue aaeeinoaaiiui a naiai ?iaea, iioiio
/oi caeanue ana-oaee neuoai aue oioue eaeie-ieaoaeue ioeeee. Ai anao ae?oaeo
neo/ayo, eaeea au aii?inu ia aicaoaeaeaeenue, iie aaniethoii eaii?e?iaaeenue
Ieienoa?noaii, e oiaeaoaenoaa Niaaoa i?inoi inoaaaeenue aac iineaaenoaee.
Oae, a aeiiieiaiea e oeacaiiiio aii?ino, Niaao a 1869 a. . Oiaeaoaenoai yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oeacaieai ia ianiioaaonoaea
iaaeaeo o?aaiaaieyie aeey iinooieaiey a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua e ia neoaeao
ii noaeaaiiio aaaeiinoao. A aeieacaoaeuenoai Niaao i?eaiaeeo neaaeothuee

oaeo: Yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea Niaaoa oaeaea inoaeinue aac
iineaaenoaee .

A eiioea 1866 a. iaoa?ao?aneee Niaao aicaoaeee oiaeaoaeoai ia onoaiia-
eaiee eiiieaeoa, iaoiaey, /oi aeey Iaoa?ao?aa aeinoaoi/ii noa /aeiaae aeey
onoaiiaeaiey eiiieaeoa. Aicaoaeaeay naia oiaeaoaenoai, Niaao ia?aoee aie-
iaiea ia oi, /oi . Iiyoiio
Niaao i?eoiaeeo e caeeth/aieth, /oi . Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa i?eciaea oi-
aeaoaenoai Niaaoa caneoaeeaathuei oaaaeaiey e i?aaenoaaeea aai a Ieian-
oa?noai, ii
(AEo?i., 13 naioya?y 1867 a.). A 1868 a. oiaeaoaenoai auei aiciaiiaeaii,
i?e/ai Niaao eiae aiciiaeiinoue eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi iianaiey ia/eiatho
nauaaoueny. Iinea io?eoeaoaeueiiai ioaaoa Ieienoa?noaa i?ioei aieaa aiaea;
. Ia yoio ?ac oiaeaoaenoai Niaaoa niiaa
auei iiaeaea?aeaii Ie?oaeiui Noaeii e Noaeaaiie Iaeaoie, ii iiyoue in-
oathnue aac anyeeo iineaaenoaee. A 1870 a. oi aea oiaeaoaenoai ninoaaeyei
“?aeao neiaaniuo iauyniaiee, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ieieno?o thnoeoeee io
eiaie Niaaoa i?aaenaaeaoaeai aai e aeaoiy /eaiaie, e ia yoio ?ac iii ia
i?eaaei ie e eaeiio ?acoeueoaoo. Nionoy o?e aiaea Niaao aiiaue aa?ioeny e
oiio aea aii?ino e, e niaeaeaieth, iia eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi . E yoei niia?aaeaieyi Niaaoa E.E. A?na-
iueaa i?eaaaeyao aua oeacaiea ia oi, /oi . Oai ia iaiaa, Niaao, aeaey
aaconiaoiinoue anao i?aaeieo oiaeaoaenoa, ioeacaeny io iiaiai eo aicaoae-
aeaiey, e iaia?aiey ninoaaeoaeae Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia ioiineoaeueii onoaiia-
eaiey eiiieaeoa oae e inoaeenue ia inouanoaeaiiuie.

Oi/ii oaeia aea ioiioaiea i?iyaeaii auei e e caaioai nia. Niaaoa
ia i?aaiecaoeee nineiaey iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. *ooue ia n
ia?auo aeiae naiaai nouanoaiaaiey Niaao ia?aoee aieiaiea ia iaiaoiaee-
iinoue o?aaoee?iaaoue iieiaeaiea iiiiuieeia e iiae/eieoue eo eiio?ieth Ni-
aaoa. I?aaeaea, – aiai?eony a AEo?iaea Niaaoa io 9.11.1871 a., – Niaao
i?eieiae oieueei e naaaeaieth cayaeaiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i i?eiyoee
eie iiiiuieeia e io/aou i caiyoeyo iineaaeieo; yoe cayaeaiey e io/aou
ia iiaeaa?aaeenue ieeaeiio eiio?ieth. A 1869 a. Niaao iinoaiiaee i?eieiaoue
a /enei iiiiuieeia oieueei oaeeo eeoe, eioi?ua iieo/eee th?eaee/aneia
ia?aciaaiea, e onoaiiaeoue ia?u iaaeci?a ca iiiiuieeaie. Ii, niciaaay,
/oi anao yoeo ia? aoaeao iaaeinoaoi/ii, e i?aaeaea anaai iioiio, /oi, eae
iieacae i?eaaaeaiiue auoa neo/ae Ethoea, iiiiuieee a ethaie iiiaio iiaoo
ioeacaoueny io iiae/eiaiey au?aaaouaaaiui ii?iai, Niaao aicaoaeee aii?in
i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eaaaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee iiiiuieeia. Niaeanii n iiaieai
anao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, a oaeaea e iiiiuieeia, Niaao au?aaioae i?i-
aeo i?aaee, iiaeeaaeaueo ooaa?aeaeaieth a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea, e i?aae-
noaaee eo ia ?anniio?aiea nia. Noaeaaiie Iaeaou; Iaeaoa i?aaenoaaeea eo
a Ieienoa?noai, ii ie iaeaeoaai ioeeeea i?aaenoaaeaiea ia ano?aoeei.
Caoai, (AEo?i., 9 iay 1873 a.) . Ii e yoi oiaeaoaenoai, eae ecaanoii,
auei inoaaeaii aac oaeiaeaoai?aiey.

A?naiueaa E.E. Oeac. ni/.. n. 273. – I?ei. aao.
A?naiueaa E.E. Oeac ni/., n. 62. – I?ei. aao.

A ia?aue aea aiae naiae aeayoaeueiinoe Nia. Niaao noieeioeny n aii?inii
. Aeey i?iaa?ee niioaaonoaothueo cayaeaiee
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iaiaoiaeeii ninoaa Niaaoa oneeeoue /eaiaie Noaeaaiie
Iaeaou e i?eaea/ue e o/anoeth i?aaenoaaeoaey i?ieo?i?neiai iaaeci?a. Niaao
au?aaioae iiaue i?iaeo e i?aaenoaaee aai a Noaeaaioth Iaeaoo, ii iiyoue, –
eiinoaoe?oao eaoiienaoe , –
.

Oaeia ioiioaiea, ianiiiaiii, i?aaenoaaeyei ecaanoioth nenoaio, iioiio
/oi iii auei iaeciaiiui, eaeiai au ie auei niaea?aeaiea oiaeaoaenoaa.
Ia?yaeo n i?eaaaeaiiuie oiaeaoaenoaaie, eiaaoeie i?eioeeieaeueiia cia-
/aiea aeey aeecie nineiaey, auee e oaeea, eioi?ua i?aneaaeiaaee /anoe/iua
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey e ieeaeeo niiiaiee aucaaoue ia iiaee, ?aaii eae e
ia i?aaenoaaeyee ieeaeeo o?oaeiinoae aeey i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue. Oae, a 1871 a.,
Niaao iinoaiiaee oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue ia ecaeaiee, a ?acaeoea i?aaee no. 38
O/?. noae. ono. , caeiia . A 1872 a. oiaeaoaenoai auei i?aaenoaaeaii Noaeaaiie Ia-
eaoa, a a oaa?aea 1874 a. Niaaoo auei niiauaii, /oi oiaeaoaenoai inoaaeaii
Ieienoa?noaii THnoeoeee aac iineaaenoaee. Oaeay aea o/anoue iinoeaea oi-
aeaoaenoai ia ecaeaiee caeiia, ?aaoee?othuaai io?aio e iai?aaeaiea aeae,
inoaaoeony iinea oia?oaai i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai,

N yoeie iaeiiia?aciuie i?eia?aie ethaiiuoii niiinoaaeoue enoi?eth
aceiaiey 10?/i nai?a n aiii?a?a, iieo/aaiiai i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui. I?e
ecaeaiee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia ii?aaeaeaiea ?acia?a nai?a auei ioeiaeaii aei
onoaiiaeaiey oaenu aeey aiciaa?aaeaeaiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Ca au-
?aaioeo oaenu Ieienoa?noai acyeinue oae ona?aeii, /oi i?aaeinoaaeei Ni-

o A?naiueaa E.E. Oeac ni/., n. 203. – I?ei. aao.

-o. 38 \/?. n\ae ONI. – -oaiaeeueiui CAea?aea-
ieai 10% nai?a ec iieo/aaiiai i?enyeyyaeiuie iia aa? aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
ieacuaaaony i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeiuiui. Naiia aaeaea /eaiia Niaaoa,
acuneeaathueo eee niae?athueo yoio iaaeaeia ni ana?ao iaiI?ii?aoee e, nea-
aeiaaoaeueii, a oii /enea n naieo naay, i, e naieo naaaeee?othuie, auei
au e?aeia iaanoanoaaiii e ia niioaaonoeoaiaaei au i> ino> i?eioee i?aaa,
a neeo eioi?iai ieeoi ia iiaeao auoue noaeioaeueath a naio?” i ueiii aeaea. Iaeuecy
ia i?eciaoue, /oi e aeey Noaeaaiie Iaeaooaou i?aaeeuee-aaeiAeieue ii naio i?aae-
iaoo iaae Niaaoii i?aaenoaaee au aieuiyoea cao?oaeaeyaeae.iyoiio Niaao ii-
eaaae, /oi eeai Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa naia ia au?aaioaaioa aeey ie?. noaeia e
noaeaaiuo i?enoaaia, ia eioi?uo aoaeao aa aiceiaeaii acae nai?a, ie>, anee
Iaeaoa inoaiaony i?e iiaiee, /oi iaycaacaiiinoue yoa aeeaaeaoue iaNiaaoa,
.

Iauaa nia?aiea aeaia?oaiaioia iieineianeie INo?i Iaeaou, ii ?an-
niio?aiee yoiai iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoooa, nai?a niieo/a-
aiiai i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie ii o oaena aiciaaieey, ?acaeaeyy
iiaiea Niaaoa, /oi i?aa e-: eea yoe u, auoue onoa-
iiaeaiu eeoue a c a eiiiaea : a o ae ue i i i a.;ae e a>. Ieieno?

(.oeoeee, iaeiaei, ia niaeaneeny n yoeie niia?aaeaieyie e a 1873 a. iiae-
oaa?aeae iaycaiiinoue Niaaoa caiyoueny aceiaieai nai?a, nineaaoenue i?e
aei ia au?aaioaiiua nia. Niaaoii i?aaeea. Iiyoiio e iineianeee Niaao
ae?ooiee e aceiaieth 10% nai?a. Ii oaea a 1875 aiaeo iineaaeiaae iiaue
“oeieoey? ieieno?a thnoeoeee, ia?aianoee ia ie?oaeiua noaeu iaycaiiinoue
iceiaoue nai?. Iinea yoiai iineianeee Niaao iaiaaeeaiii i?ae?aoee ace-
iaiea nai?a, a a Iaoa?ao?aa iii i?iaeieaeaeinue. E yoiio aua inoaaony
i?eaaaeoue, /oi aceiaaiua Niaaoaie aeaiueae ia?aaeaaaeenue a Eacia/aenoai
oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau, i?ieaaeaa oai aeaa-o?e aiaea, aa?iooueny a Niaao aeey
?ani?aaeaeaiey, e, iaeiiaoe, /oi ec aeaiaa, aceiaaiuo n aiii?a?a i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, io/eneyeenue ecaanoiua noiiu ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea eaiaeeaeaoia
ia noaeaaiua aeieaeiinoe ca caueoo ii iacia/aieth.

Yoio iineaaeiee i?eia? aaciaaeaaeiuo eieaaaiee ii aii?ino i aceiaiee
10% nai?a aeieacuaaao, /oi eiaeeooa?aioiia ioiioaiea e noaeueaa aaeaieaoo?u
aeeeoiaaeinue ia oieueei eciaieaoeiny iano?iaieai, ii oaeaea enoiuaieai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai oai?/anoaa.

Aua y?/a neacaeenue iaa yoe iiiaioa ia iaiaeeaeaiiii eciaiaiee ii?yaeea
ia?aciaaiey nineiaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?e aeaeueiaeoai oa??eoi?e-
aeueiii ?ani?ino?aiaiee aeaenoaey noaeaaiuo onoaaia. Eae ecaanoii oaea,
i?eai a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?aaeinoaaeai aue a?aiaiiuie i?aaeeaie
19 ieoya?y 1865 a. iniaui eiieoaoai, eioi?ua aeaenoaiaaee aei ioe?uoey
iiauo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. N ioe?uoeai eo eiieoao oi?acaeiyeny, e ooie-
oeee aai ia?aiineeenue ia Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo eee, aei aai ia?a-
ciaaiey, ia ie?oaeiua noaeu. I?e aaaaeaiee iiauo noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee
a ie?oaao noaeaaiuo iaeao – Iaeanneie e Eacaineie e a aoaa?ieyo: Iie-
oaaneie, Ieaeaai?iaeneie, Niieaineie e Eino?iineie, yoio ii?yaeie aue
cia/eoaeueii eciaiai . Noaoueae 14 Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeae. 1 ai?aey 1871 a.
eino?oeoeee naiaoi?ai, iacia/aiiui aeey ioe?uoey noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee
a oeacaiiuo ianoiinoyo, auei iinoaiiaeaii: . Yoi eciaiaiea ie/ai ae?oaei ia iiaeao auoue iau-
yniaii, eae aeaeaieai nio?aieoue ca Ieienoa?noaii i?aai ooaa?aeaeaiey a
caaiee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, onoaiiaeaiiia a?aiaiiuie i?aaeeaie. I?e

A Iineaa, eae oaea oiiieiaeinue auoa. i?” i?iaeo oaenu nin(-,” .i ie?oaeiui .oaeii.
I?ei. aao.

, E. ?eooa?. . Iineaa. 1878. – I?ei. /ao.
.NoaeaiiuE Aanoiee>, 1875. 12 – I?ei. eeii.

yoii ia auei i?eiyoi ai aieiaiea, /oi a eiieoaoao ninoiyo /eaiu oi-
?acaeiyaiuo noaeaaiuo iano (i?aaenaaeaoaeue e oiaa?eue i?aaenaaeaoaeae iaeao
a?aaeaeaineiai e oaieiaiiai noaea e aoaa?ineee i?ieo?i?), e /oi, neaaeiaa-
oaeueii, n ioe?uoeai iiauo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee oaeie eiieoao ieeae ia
iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue. Cao?oaeiaiea auei ?ac?aoaii oae, /oi .
A oaeii i?iecaieueii eciaiaiiii aeaea eiieoaou nouanoaiaaee e, i?eieiay
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, i?aaenoaaeyee eo ia ooaa?aeaeaiea ieieno?a thnoe-
oeee. Oieueei a 1874 a. ia yoio ii?yaeie auea i?eianaia aeaeiaa (ia iaeanneoth
Noaeaaioth Iaeaoo), e I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao aanueia ?aoeoaeueii i?a-
e?aoee aeaenoaea yoiai ii?yaeea, iaoiaey, /oi oiiiyiooia i?aaeei e eino?oe-
oeey i?ioeai?a/ao no.no. 45 e 0 Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiiai 19 ieoya?y
1863 aiaea iauaai Iieiaeaiey i aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia,
?aaii O/?aaeaeaieth noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee (no. 378), ieeaeei iicaeiaeoei
ocaeiiaieai ii i?iaeieaeaieth e Naiaeo Caeiiia ia ioiaiaiiui. Iiyoiio
aeaenoaea 14 eino?oeoeee, aii?aee aa aoeaaeueiiio niuneo, aeieaeii auoue
i?eciaii i?ae?aoeaoeiny, . Ieieno? thnoeoeee aini?eiye oieeiaaiea
Naiaoa e ?acineae niioaaonoaothuee oee?eoey?, ii a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
eao yoio o?iaeeeaue ii?yaeie aeaenoaiaae .

Oaeia ioiioaiea oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe aeieaeii auei neacaoueny, eiia/ii,
e ia ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo iaaeno?aoo?ie e aaeaieaoo?ie. Ia?aue ?aaeceiiiue
io/ao i aeayoaeueiinoe iiauo noaeia iia aua eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo i?ieo?aoo?ie e aaeaieaoo?ie aiieia ii?iaeueiu. Ii iaeioi?ua aeen-
niiainu noaee neuoaoueny aanueia auno?i. E ia auei ee ia/oi neiaiee/aneia
a oii, /oi ia?aui iiaenoaeeiui a n.-iaoa?ao?aneii Ie?oaeiii Noaea aue
ia?aue iiiiuiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai A.I. Ethnoeo, iaaeiyaoeeny
a inei?aeaiee noaeaaiiai neaaeiaaoaey Aeeueaaniaa . *?acau/aeii oa?aeoa?-

A Eacaie, iai?eia?, iauaa nia?aiea ioaeaeaiee Ie?. Noaea iinoaiiaeei, niaeanii oeaco Noae.
Iaeaou, cae?uoue eiieoao n 23 yiaa?y 1873 a. e i?eiyoue ana iaycaiiinoe niaaoa ie?. noaeo. Ii, eae
oeacaii, a?aiaiiue eiieoao oiaea anaoeaei ninoaaeyeny ie?. noaeii e, neaae., eciaiaiea i?iecioei ia
a ninoaaa, a a oa?aeoa?a aeayoaeueiinoe. Aianoi a?aiaiiuo i?aaee ie?. noae ioiuia aeieaeai aue ?oei-
aiaenoaiaaoueny eneeth/eoaeueii Noaeaaiuie Onoaaaie. – I?ei. aao.

A.I. Ethnoeoo, eae iiiioieeo e?en. iie. Aaaaneiai, n.n. Aeeueaania ioeacae a niiauaiee
naaaeaiee i i?iecaiaeyuainy o iaai aeaea. A.I. Ethnoeo iaienae noae. neaaeiaaoaeth ienueii, a eioi?ii
oi?aeae aai a iaciaiee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia e iaeaca, e caeai/eaae naia ienueii neiaaie; . A.I Ethnoeo aeiiaiui naay in i?eciae e i?inee Noae: . Ia yoi nia. Ie?oaeiie Noae a naiai ii?aaeaeaiee aanueia ?acei
ioaaoee, iacaaa iiaiea Niaaoa aieineiaiui, e cayaee, /oi anee a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo Noae i?aaenoaaeye iai?aaeeueiua aeaenoaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo,
eioi?ua auee i?aeiouanoaaiii iai?eee/iu ni noi?iiu i?enyaeiuo iiaa-
?aiiuo, oniio?aieth eo Niaaoa, oi a yoii ii ia ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny i?aae-
iieaaaaiui i?aaeeii, a aeaenoaiaae, oaeei ia?acii, eneeth/eoaeueii
ii aeiaa?eth e i?aaeeueiinoe aeaenoaee Niaaoa i?en. iiaa?aiiuo ie?oaa
nia. Noae. Iaeaou>. A yoeo iioeaao ynii neuoaony iocaoee iieeoeaeneiai
?aaeeia e i?iecaiea, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue onooieoue naia ianoi ia/aeo
caeiiiinoe e i?i/iui th?eaee/aneei ioiioaieyi.

onoii oi, /oi y iiao neacaoue a naith iieueco>. I?aaenaaeaoaeue ia ?ac?aoee iiaenoaeeiiio /eoaoue, e
A.I. Ethnoeo ia/ae naith caueoo oae:
(, 1866, ? 18). – I?ei. aao.

No. 134 \/?. noae. ono, – .

No. 137 \/?. noae. ono. –

No. 138 /?. noae. ono. – ), ii, eae oaea auoa oiiiyiooi, Niaaou e naie ni-
neaeuecuaaee ia yoio iianiue iooue, aiceiaeea, iai?eia?, a Iaoa?ao?aa ia
i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa iaycaiiinoue /anoiui ia?acii niiaueoue noa?-
oaio i?aaenaaeaoaeth Noaeaaiie Iaeaou naaaeaiey, canoaaeaoea Niaao ioea-
caoue anie?aioo ia caaiea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ii no. 380 O/?. noae.
onoaiiaeaiee.

Aaeaieaoo?a, eae iu aeaeaee, ia ia?anoaaaea aeieacuaaoue, /oi aiceiaeai-
iua ia iaa iaycaiiinoe ia niioaaonoaotho aa i?aaai, e ia yoii iniiaaiee
oiaeaoaenoaiaaea oi ia onoaiiaeaiee eiiieaeoa, oi ia iaeaa/aiee oneiaee
anooieaiey a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua. A iaaeaeo oai, noaeaaiua o/?aaeaeaiey
aeaeaee iiiuoee aeaeueiaeoaai noaniaiey i?aa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a iieue-
co /anoiuo oiaeaoaaa. Oae, Aaeeeieooeeee Ie?oaeiie Noae aicaoaeee aii?in
i cai?auaiee i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui iaeiiai ie?oaa oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue ii
aeaeai a noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo ae?oaiai ie?oaa, oioy aei onoaiiaeaiey eii-
ieaeoa oaeia i?aai i?eiaaeeaaeaei aiiaua anai aeaeathuei. Aeey i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo onoaiaaeeaaeanue, oaeei ia?acii, ?aioiiaaieo iniiiaeo . Iin-
eianeay Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa ia oieueei aicaoaeeea, ii e ?aoeea a 1872 a. yoio
aii?in ii ioiioaieth e i?enyaeiiio iiaa?aiiiio ie?oaa nia. Noaeaaiie
Iaeaou A. Aa?ea, i?aaeuyaeaoaio ene a Ieaeaai?iaeneii ie?oaeiii noaea
e iiaeaea?aeeaaaoaio caoai eioa?anu naiaai aeiaa?eoaey a iineianeie No-
aeaaiie Iaeaoa. Iaeaoa ioaa?aea aic?aaeaiey A.A. Aa?ea, nineaaoaainy ia
oi, /oi ii ia iieueciaaeny caaieai i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, a aunooiae
eae /anoiia eeoei, e oeacaea, /oi . I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao, i?aaaea, ?aoaiea Iaeaou ioiaiee
e ?acuyniee, /oi aei aaaaeaiey oaaaee, eioi?ay onoaiiaeo iiiiiieeth aeey
i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?u ia aaaeaiea aeae, i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue ia iiaeao

No. 380 \/?. noae. ono. – .
Eaii. – i?eaeeaaey iai?eyoiay, iaaeinoieiay.

uai oao i?aa, eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeao ethaiio /anoiiio oiaeaoath. Ii
aeaeaioeey noanieoue i?aaa aaeaieaoo?u nauoa ia?u, onoaiiaeaiiie a
ioea, i?aaenoaaeyaony /?acau/aeii oa?aeoa?iie.
Auee neo/ae e aieaa iaeeea, ii ia?auaaoea ia naay aieiaiea eiaiii

ao?eaaaiie oi/ee c?aiey iaii?iaeueiuo ioiioaiee e aaeaieaoo?a.
O a 1873 a. a oie aea Iineaa aicieeea iuneue ia o/?aaeaeaiee a caeaiee
,aea Aeaeeioaee Iineianeiai Noaeaaiiai Ie?oaa.
a?auaee aieiaiea, /oi ii onoaao yoie aeaeeioaee /eaiaie iiaoo auoue
ana eeia noaeaaiiai aaaeiinoaa, ia/eiay io i?aaenaaeaoaey Noaeaaiie Iaeaou
aei iineaaeiaai aieueiiiaaiiiai ienoea, ca eneeth/aieai i?enyaeiuo iiaa?ai-
ae Iineianeiai Ie?oaa. .

14. IA?AUA OAAE AAeAIEAOO?U

Ia i?eaiaey aeaeueiaeoeo aeieacaoaeuenoa, iiaeii n iieiui iniiaaieai
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi Niaaou i?enooiaee e naiae aeayoaeueiinoe a oneiaeyo, aeaeaei
ia aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey i?aaeeueiie e niieieiie ?aaiou. A iaaeaeo oai ?aaioa
i?aaenoiyea o?oaeiay e aanueia ioaaonoaaiiay, iioiio /oi ana ioaeii auei
nicaeaaaoue caiiai. Ieeaeeo o?aaeeoeee iaeiieaii ia auei, ieeaeiai ooiaea-
iaioa ia nouanoaiaaei, ia ia /ai auei iiyoiio oe?aieoueny a ia?aia a?aiy.
Iaiaoiaeeiu auee na?ueaciua oneeey, /oiau n?aco acyoue oaa?aeue e ii?a-
aeaeaiiue eo?n. Aeaaiay iianiinoue auea a oii, /oi iaae?oaeaethaiia ioii-
oaiea a?iceei aucaaoue ?aaeoeeth e noieeiooue Niaao n i?yiiai e ii?aaea-
eaiiiai iooe. E oaeay oaiaeaioeey, aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?iaeaaeanue. Oae, ia-
i?eia?, iaiaeiie?aoii aeaeaeenue iiiuoee iinoaaeoue iaycaiiinoe caueou
ii iacia/aieth e aaaeaiey aeae iieuecothueony i?aaii aaaeiinoe a caaeneiinoue
io onoaiiaeaiey eiiieaeoa, ii Niaaou aanueia ?aoeoaeueii i?ioea yoiai
ainnoaee. A ia?aii io/aoa naiai nia. Niaao auneacae ii yoiio iiaiaeo,
/oi .

Oaeei ia?acii, iianiinoue oceiai e nooiai i?ioanneiiaeecia ano?aoeea
na?ueaciue ioii?. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?e oii iiauoaiiii e ianeieueei
?iiaioe/aneii iano?iaiee, eioi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoao oanoeaeanyoua aiaeu, ia-
o?oaeii auei eca?aoeoue caaea/e aaeaieaoo?u e a iai?aaeaiee i?ioeaiiieiae-
iie iaeiinoi?iiiinoe – eaii?e?iaaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaea/. A iaeiii
ec ia?auo canaaeaiee iineianeiai Ie?oaeiiai Noaea, i?e ?acai?a aeaea i
a?iaeyaao, i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue ?eooa?, caueuaaoee ii iacia/aieth,
cayaee i?enyaeiui canaaeaoaeyi, /oi . Ethaiiuoiue neo/ae i?i-
ecioae a iineianeii Noaea n ecaanoiui aiineaaenoaee i?enyaeiui iiaa-
?aiiui E.A. Eoia?ieeii. Iacia/aiiue caueuaoue e?. I?ieioueaaa, oaea-
oaai aaeaiai n Eaaaaeaaui /aou?ao /aeiaae e aeaaoaai ia noaea aanueia oee-
ie/iua iauyniaiey, E.A. Eoia?iee, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, a ?a/e naiae neacae:
. Au-
yniyy, caoai, i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo iuiaoieie e i?aaeieie iieacaieyie
e aaconeiaii aeiaa?yy i?aaeiei, E. Eoia?iee oae caeii/ee naith ?a/ue: Iineianeee Niaao i?eciae iiaaaeaiea E.A. Eo-
ia?ieea iaoianoiui, e E. E. A?naiueaa ii yoiio iiaiaeo ieoao a naiae
eieaa: .

A naieo ainiiieiaieyo A.O. Eiie, a nayce n a?iieei aeaeii ieeeeiia?a
Ianyiieeiaa, iaaeiyaoaainy a iiaeaeiaa iaeueieoeu, ?anneacuaaao, /oi eiaaea
Ianyiieeia aue a?anoiaai, ii , 1866, E? 16. __ I?e

? iaeeianeee, iacaaeieai ia?aae oai ia?aoaaeoee a aaeaieaoo?o ec oiaa?e-
– i?ieo?i?a iaoa?ao?aneiai Ie?oaeiiai Noaea. Ca yoio naie iaaieueoie
ueiaiiue o?oae. – oae eae ii aeaeiaai oaeiai ?iaea iiaa?aiiua ia aei-
aeae/nue e ee/iui iauyniaieyi, – Ai?iaeeianeee iieo/ee io Ianyi-
ae?a iyoue ouny/ ?oaeae. Ecaanoea ia yoii i?iecaaei iaeioi?ia aieiaiea
i?-oaiao?aneii iauanoaa, i/aiue /ooei ioiineaoainy ei anaio, /oi eanaeinue
a\a Ianyiieeiaa. Iaeioi?ua i?eiaiyee e iiaa?aiiiio iaaeiyaiiai noeoe
o?eianith: .
ae aeioiaeeei aei Ai?iaeeianeiai e aeaenoaiaaei ia aai aia/aoeeoaeueioth
iaoo?o oae?o/athuei ia?acii, oae /oi ii i?eoae, iaeiiaoe, ei iia – naiaio
noa?iio nineoaeeaoeo e auaoaio ia/aeueieeo – e cayaee, /oi aeaeiau ia-
ienaiu ei iioiio, /oi aai oaaaeeee a iaaeiiaiinoe Ianyiieeiaa, naeaeaa-
oaainy aea?oaie iauanoaaiiiai i?aaeoaaaeaeaiey, ii /oi ii aioia aica?aoeoue
aeaiueae aeey ecaaaeaiey aeaeueiaeoeo oi?aeia. ss neacae aio, /oi iaeaneith
aica?auaiey yoeo aeaiaa iacaae Ai?iaeeianeee a?ineo eeoiee a?oc ia /aoo
iaaeiaiey, ai a?aae aeiaa?eaoaiony aio eeeaioo, oae eae yoi aica?auaiea
aoaeao, aac niiiaiey, enoieeiaaii eae i?eciaiea ei, Ai?iaeeianeei, ae-
iiaiinoe iineaaeiaai… Acaieiiaaiiue Ai?iaeeianeee ia aac o?oaea niaea-
neeny iineaaeiaaoue yoiio niaaoo> .

Aeaei Ianyiieeiaa aiiaua ieacaeinue aeey aaeaieaoo?u oyaeaeui eniu-
oaieai. Ii neiaai A.O. Eiie, .

Aeey aaeaieaoo?u aea, iiieii i?eaaaeaiiiai eioeeaeaioa n Ai?iaeeianeei,
yoi a?iieia aeaei eii/eeinue i?eaea/aieai e aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaai-
iinoe aeaoo auaeathueony i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo: I.A. Iioaoeia, caueo-
ieea Ianyiieeiaa, e A.I. Aa?a?aea, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue aunooieoue ii-
aa?aiiui a?aaeaeaineiai enooea, ii a iineaaeithth ieiooo aue aucaai Ii-

, Eiie A.O. . O. 1, n. 14. – I?ei. oo.

aioeianeee, – i?eaaaeyao A.O. Eiie, – inoaeny aa?ai naaa e ia?ooee iioeienoe/aneia
?aiea yaeiaeouie neiaaie: . – I?ei. iaii

oaoeiui eae naeaeaoaeue ii aeaeo. Yoi-oi e iineoaeeei iiaiaeii e i?eaea/aieth
I.A. Iioaoeia, a A.I. Aa?a?ae iaaeiyeny a oii, /oi aue iiaa?aiiui
nia/aea iaeiie, a iioii ae?oaie noi?iiu. Iaeei iieo/ee auaiai?, a ae?oaie –
no?iaee auaiai?, e iaa auoee ec Niaaoa, e ninoaao eioi?iai oiaaea i?e-
iaaeeaaeaee.

Neacuaaeenue io a?aiaie aei a?aiaie e noa?ua iaauee. . Oae, i?ioea A.Ae. Nianiae/a, auaoaai oiaa?euai i?aae-
naaeaoaey Niaaoa, auei aicaoaeaeaii aeenoeeieeia?iia aeaei ii iaaeiaieth aai
a iaienaiee anaiiaeaeaiiaeoaai i?ioaiey ia ioiaia ?aoaiey a?aaeaeaineiai
eannaoeeiiiiai aeaia?oaiaioa I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa. Aua ?ac/a naii-
ai oaeoa a?inaaony a aeaca niinia caueou A.Ae. Nianiae/a, eioi?ue, iaaeaeo
i?i/ei, nnueaeny ia oi, /oi ii aeaenoaiaae ia eae i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue,
ii aeiaa?aiiinoe, e iioiio aai iiaaaeaiea ia iiaeeaaeeo eiiiaoaioeee Niaaoa.
Ii Niaao, oeacaa, /oi aio iiaenoaeiu ana aeaenoaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo,
niaa?oaiiua eie, eae aaeaieaoaie, a naiii iaoe?iii niunea yoiai neiaa,
eaoaai?e/anee ?acuyniee, /oi .

Ia iaiaa oa?aeoa?ai, eae iocaoe noa?uo ii?yaeeia, ae?oaie neo/ae. Aeaia
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, oiaea i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo e ninoaao Niaaoa, – Na-
ia?neee-Auoiaaoe e Ino?yeia ?acineaee naiaoi?ai caieneo ec aeaea, eioi?ia
iie aaee a Eannaoeeiiiii Aeaia?oaiaioa I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa. Ii
yoiio iiaiaeo iaoa?ao?aneee Niaao iinoaaee iauee aii?in e ?acuyniee,
/oi, caueuay i?aai e io?aiyy eioa?anu naieo aa?eoaeae, i?enyaeiua ii-
aa?aiiua aeieaeiu oiio?aaeyoue aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee oieueei caeiiiua
e /anoiua n?aaenoaa. ?annueea /anoiuo caienie /eaiai e i?ieo?i?ai iiauo
noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee, eae aei, oae e iinea neooaiey aeaea, eiaao oa?aeoa?
iaaeaniiai oiaeaoaenoaa ii aeaeo, niaa?oaiii i?ioeaiue aeooo Noaeaaiuo
onoaaia 20 iiya?y 1864 a. e aaaaeaiiiai eie ninoycaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna.
Iau/ae ?annueee /anoiuo caienie onoaiiaeeny i?e aeaenoaee i?aaeiaai
ii?yaeea noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, ioee/eoaeueiuie /a?oaie eiaai auee ienueiai-
iinoue e eaioeaey?neay oaeia… Ii iau/ae, niioaaonoaiaaaoee iaeiiio ii-

yaeeo, yaeyaony niaa?oaiii ianiaianoeiui n ae?oaei, i?yii i?ioeaiii-
iyiiuei> Auyniyy aeaeaa, a /ai nouiinoue iiaiai ii?yaeea ninoieo, Niaao
iiaeieaeaao: .

A Iineaa i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?iyaeyee neaainoue e ioaeeeaoeeyi,
eiathuei oa?aeoa? ?aeeai. A 1873 a. Niaao, ia?aoea aieiaiea ia yoio
oaeo, iaoae iaiaoiaeeiui oi?iaeueiui iinoaiiaeaieai au?aceoue iaiaeia-
?aiea iiaeiaiui ?aeeaiai e iauyaeoue i oii aa. i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui,
i?iny eo a oi aea a?aiy ia aeicaieyoue eo iiiiuieeai i?eaaaaoue e oaeei
?aeeaiai.

A 1870 a. aei naaaeaiey iineianeiai Niaaoa aeioei, /oi iaeioi?ua i?e-
nyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?aaenoaaeytho a Eiiia?/aneee Noae aaenaey ei acun-
eaieth ia ii aeiaa?aiiinoyi, a ii aeaieiaui iaaeienyi. Niaao ?aoeoaeueii
aini?aoee yoi a eioa?anao nineiaey, eioi?ia ii iieiaeaieth naiaio a ia-
uanoaa aeieaeii auoue ia?acoeii i?yiiou ioiioaiee a naieo aeaenoaeyo e
ae?oaei eeoeai.

Eiee/anoai oaeeo neo/aaa ia?ooaiee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aeieaa, aa?i-
yoii, iiaeii auei au oiiiaeeoue. Iie ano?a/aeenue aiiaua a ia?aiia/aeueiii
oiaea noaeaaiuo onoaaia, e a naieo y?eeo ainiiieiaieyo A.O. Eiie i?eaiaeeo
iaiaei io/anoe ia/aeueiuo, io/anoe eo?ueaciuo i?eia?ia. Ii aaaeii e cia-
iaiaoaeueii, /oi Niaao, auai?iue i?aai nineiaey, iaeciaiii e ?aoeoaeueii
?aaae?iaae e iaonoaiii no?aieeny e iaia/aiiie oeaee. A aeaea Ianyiieeiaa,
eae oeacaii auoa, Niaao ia inoaiiaeeny ia?aae inoaeaeaieai naieo /eaiia.
E aeaenoaeoaeueii, oioy, eae iu ieaea oaeaeei, i?anna iiiai caieiaeanue
aaeaieaoo?ie e ioiineeanue e iae e?aeia iaae?oaeaethaii, ii i?ioea Niaaoa,
eae i?aaenoaaeoaey nineiaey, ieeaeeo iaiaaeie ia auei. Iai?ioea, ca Ni-
aaoii, ii-aeaeeiiio, neiaeeeanue aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiay ?aiooaoeey no?iaiai
e Iacoi?a/iiai noaeuee. Oae, iai?eia?, aacaoa , ?anneacuaay i neo-
/aa ia?ooaiey aaeaieaoii i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aeieaa, i?eaaaeyao: . Niaao iaaeiyeny nei?aa a eceeoiae no?iainoe. Oae,
eiaaea a 1874 a. iauaa nia?aiea, niaeanii n Niaaoii, iinoaiiaeei, /oi
i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua ia aeieaeiu yaeyoueny e aunooiaoue a iaueo nia?aieyo
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa a ea/anoaa oeeoeaiuo aeoeeiia?ia, i?eciae yoi iinoaiiaeaiea aanoeaeueii no?iaei”. Oi/ii oae aea, aianoa
n , aae ianoiyuoth eaiiaieth i?ioea
Niaaoa ca onoaiiaeaiea eniuoaiee a caaiee oi?aiaiai e a?aaeaeaineiai no-
aeii?iecaiaenoaa. ) ni?aaaaeeeai ca-
ia/aao, – oae ieoao , – /oi iaoe i?enyaeiua ii-
aa?aiiua a iaaeo noieeoeao oa?iaeatho i?aa?aoeoueny a ?aaeeoth e e?aeia aei-
?iaoth aeey iaaiaaouo iiiiiieeth a i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. I?eciaee yoie
iiiiiieee oaea aeaeiu ec oiai, /oi nia. Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aac
?ac?aoaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiui ii?yaeeii aunoae aeanoe ia?aciaae ec naay
iaaeicaieaiioth annioeeaoeeth, iiae iacaaieai eniuoaoaeueiie eiiennee, ei-
oi?ay i?enaaeaaao naaa aeanoue ia?aie/eaaoue i?aaa ninoiyiey>. I?aaenaaea-
oaeth Niaaoa E. E. A?naiueaao i?eoiaeeeinue aunooiaoue n ienueiii a ?aaeaeoeeth,
aeieacuaay, /oi ie/aai i?ioeaicaeiiiiai a oaeeo eniuoaieyo, aa?aioe?o-
thueo iaaeeaaeauee ninoaa aaeaieaoo?u, ia niaea?aeeony, e oae eae i?e ia-
ee/iinoe 380 no. O/?. noae. ono. aic?aaeaoue i?ioea eniuoaiee auei au
ioae?aii, oi ?aoeoaeueii ainnoae i?ioea yoie noaouee,
aeathuae Niaaoo aaneiio?ieueiia i?aai ioeaca a i?eaia a i?enyaeiua ii-
aa?aiiua. I?e yoii, ooo aea aacaoa ni/ea ioaeiui cayaeoue, /oi ni noi?iiu
Niaaoa .

Oaeei ia?acii. Niaao nei?aa iaaeiyeny a eceeoiae no?iainoe, e iioiio
n iieiui iniiaaieai A.Ae. Nianiae/ iia neacaoue a iaeiie ec naieo ca-
noieueiuo ?a/ae: .

10. – I?ei. aao.
, 1874, ? 201. – I?ei aaii.
. 1874, ? 136. – I?ei. aio.

Yoe neiaa A.Ae. Nianiae/a oai oi/iaa niioaaonoaotho aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
ninoaa Niaaoa ioee/aeny a oi a?aiy oaeeaeoaeueiui iinoiyinoaii. Ca
ae iaiauo eao E. E. A?naiueaa ia auoiaeee ec ninoaaa Niaaoa (aiae – /eaiii
Niaaoa aiae – oiaa?euai i?aaenaaeaoaey e 6 eao – i?aaenaaeaoaeai),
A Ae Nianiae/ iaoiaeeeny a ninoaaa Niaaoa 7 eao (aiae – i?aaenaaeaoaeai

(o aeao __ /eaiii Niaaoa), A.I. Oieianeee – 7 eao, Iao?inia –
6 \ao Aa?a?ae e Oaiaaa – ii 5 eao. I/aaeaeii, neaaeiaaoaeueii, /oi aieue-
oeinoai nineiaey iaeia?yei eeieth iiaaaeaiey Niaaoa. *oi yoi auei eiaiii
iaeia?aiea, a ia i?inoie eiaeeooa?aioeci, iiaeii noaeeoue ii neaaeothuei
iieia?ai, /?acau/aeii oa?aeoa?iui. A ia/aea 1870 a. iaeei ec i?enyaeiuo
aeiaa?aiiuo aicaoaeee aii?in, iaycaoaeueia ee aeey /eaiia nineiaey caueoa
ii iacia/aieth, iiea ia onoaiiaeai eiiieaeo. A Niaaoa iaia?oaeeeinue ?aceia
?aciiaeanea. Aeaa /eaia Niaaoa ioaa/aee ia yoio aii?in io?eoeaoaeueii, ii
aieueoeinoai (5 /aeiaae) n/eoaei i?eiyoea caueou aaconeiaii iaycaoaeue-
iui. Iiaiea aieueoeinoaa Niaaoa auei iaeia?aii aieueoeinoaii iauaai
nia?aiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, nicaaiiiai aeey ianoaeaeaiey yoiai ai-
i?ina.

Aeaa aiaea nionoy iaeiei ec i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aue iiaeiyo aii?in
i iacaeiiiii ?ani?ino?aiaiee Niaaoii naiae eiiiaoaioeee ia aeaenoaey
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, niaa?oaaiua eie ia a ea/anoaa aaeaieaoia. Ii
yoiio iiaiaeo oiaea auei nicaaii iauaa nia?aiea, a eiai oieueei aeaia /eaiia
aai aunooieee ia iiaeaea?aeeo oaeiai acaeyaea e aeieacuaaee, /oi . Ana inoaeueiua auneacuaaeenue ca i?eiyooth
Niaaoii i?aeoeeo, e ia?iiiia aieueoeinoai i?eciaei eceeoiei i?aiiaea-
aaoue Niaaoo eaeea-eeai i?aaeea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeaeia aeenoeeieeia?iie
aai aeanoe.

Eae oaea aeaeii, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, ec oeacaiiiai, oeaio? oyaeanoe nineiaiie
?aUeiou iaoiaeeeny oiaaea a Iao?ia?aaea. A thaeeaeiii ecaeaiee iineianeiai
Niaaoa (ii neo/ath 25-eaoey iineianeeo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo) iaia/a-
oaiu iieiaeaiey ec aeenoeeieeia?iuo i?iecaiaenoa, au?aaeaiiua a aeaea
iaueo o?aaiaaiee, iacaaeneii io aeaiiiai neo/ay. I?e yoii ieacaeinue,
/oi oaeea iieiaeaiey iiaeii ecaea/ue ec ii?aaeaeaiee Niaaoa, ia/eiay n

Eaaiue E.E. Oeac. ni/.. n 123. – I?ei. aeo

aeaaiaaeoeaoiai aiaea aai nouanoaiaaiey. Eneeth/aiea iiaei auoue naeaeaii eeoue
aeey ianeieueeeo iieiaeaiee ec iaeiiai ii?aaeaeaiey 1867 aiaea. A ia?aia
a?aiy iineianeee Niaao aeee, oae neacaoue, ni aeiy ia aeaiue. ia auaeaeaay
iaueo aii?inia, iaaeaeo oai eae a Iaoa?ao?aa Niaao iieueciaaeny, iai?ioea,
eaaeaeui neo/aai, /oiau iinoaaeoue i?eioeeieaeueiue aii?in. Yoo ?acieoeo
iaaeaeo Iineaie e Iaoa?ao?aii E. E. A?naiueaa iauyniyao cia/eoaeueii aieue-
oei eiee/anoaii aeae a iaoa?ao?aneii Niaaoa, aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi a Ia-
oa?ao?aa oyaeoueany ioioiaa ia?auathony n aeaeiaaie. E?iia oiai, a Ia-
oa?ao?aa ?aciiia?aciaa noaeaaiua aeaea. Iaeiiaoe, any iaoa?ao?aneay ianoa-
iiaea aieueoa aucuaaao ia aeeaoth . Iiieii oeacaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, ?acieoeo i?eoiaeeony iauyn-
ieoue aua e ?acee/iuie ninoaaaie Niaaoia. A Iaoa?ao?aa n?aco iiyaeeenue
th?enou, i?eia?aooea ana?inneeneoth ecaanoiinoue, e n?aaee ieo aieueoa anao
ii?aaioae ia iieueco aaeaieaoo?u, eae nineiaey, E.E. A?naiueaa.

A Iineaa oaeeo eiai a ia?aia a?aiy ia auei, e aiiaua o?iaaiue aae-
aieaoo?u noiye ai?acaei ieaea. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee oei?aiyaoeony i?aaia
iiaeii oeacaoue, /oi a 1872 a. auei nicaaii iauaa nia?aiea aeey ianoaeaeaiey
aii?ina, a eaeeo neo/ayo iaeei i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue iiaeao i?eiyoue aeaea,
iaoiaeyueany a i?iecaiaenoaa o ae?oaiai. Nia?aiea, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia ninoi-
yeinue, – ieeaeeo neaaeia, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ia inoaeinue, – ii naiia aic-
aoaeaeaiea oaeiai aii?ina aeinoaoi/ii oa?aeoa?ii.

Ionoaeinoue Iineau e eiioeo ?anniao?eaaaiiai caeanue ia?aoiaeiiai ia-
?eiaea ?ac?aoeeanue ino?ui e?ecenii. A 1875 a. ia auai?ao a Niaaoa i?i-
ecioei iieiia iaiiaeaiea ninoaaa. Ie iaeei ec i?aaeieo /eaiia Niaaoa
ia aue ia?aeca?ai. Nai i?eiaaeeaaeauee e caaaeeioe?iaaiiiio ninoaao,
I.O. A?iiieoeeee iauyniye e?ecen oai, /oi nineiaea aiciooeeinue no?i-
ainoueth Niaaoa . Iaeiaei yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea ia iaoiaeeo naaa oaeoe/aneiai
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey, e aieaa i?aaeeueiui iaaei n/eoaoue iiaiea A.A. Eaiaeea?a,
i?eienuaathuaai yoi i?eoieo iieiaeuo e naaaeeo nee, aeoeaii aunooiaaoeo
ai anao i?iyaeaieyo nineiaiie aeecie.

A?nniue?a E.E. Oeac. ni/.. n. 5. 6.- I?ei aao.
“Iaaeaey-, 1875. I” 52. – I?ei. aao.

Eceiaeeoue caeanue aeayoaeueiinoue iaoa?ao?aneiai Niaaoa auei au iaaic-
iaeii oae eae yoi ioiyei au neeoeii iiiai ianoa. A eieaa E. E. A?naiueaaa
eia.oeiio iaci?o yoie aeayoaeueiinoe ioaaaeaii ieiei 300 no?aieoe oai?enoie
ia/oi. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ia inoaeinue ii/oe ie iaeiiai aii?ina, ie iaeiiai
oaieea aaeaieaoneie aeecie, eoaea au Niaao ia caaeyioe e ia iiiuoaeny
inaaoeoue aai. Aeinoaoi/ii i?eaanoe iaeaaeaiea, ninoaaeaiiia E.E. A?na-
iueaaueu, /oiau noaeeoue, ianeieueei ?aciiia?acia e eioaineaia auea aeay-
oaeueiinoue Niaaoa. Aio ia?a/aiue aii?inia, ?anniio?aiiuo a yoie eieaa.

.

Ana yoe aii?inu iiaeaa?aaeenue ianoaeaeaieth Niaaoa e iaoee ?acuyniaiea
a aai ii?aaeaeaieyo e aeo?iaeao. Aeaaiaea?y ioia/aiiiio auoa iinoiyinoao
ninoaaa Niaaoa, i?aeoeea aai ioee/aeanue aieueoie onoie/eainoueth, ieeaeeo
eieaaaiee a auneacuaaaiuo acaeyaeao ia caia/aeinue, iaeiaaeaeu i?aiiaeaiiua
i?aaeea nio?aiyeenue iaeciaiiuie, iieo/ay eeoue ia i?ioyaeaiee a?aiaie
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea. Eae oaea caia/aii auoa, Niaao a naiii ia/aea ia-
ia?oaeeaae oaiaeaioeeth ?anoe?eoue naith eiiiaoaioeeth. Aaeaeo iinoiyiiiai
iaaeinoaoea a i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Niaao iaia?oaeeaaao aieueooth nien-
oiaeeoaeueiinoue, aanueia naiaiaeii oieeoao iiiyoea neoaeau ii noaeaaiiio aa-
aeiinoao, o?aaoaiie aeey iieo/aiey caaiey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai. Niaao
i?eieiaao /eiiaieeia ?aoeoaeueii anao aaaeiinoa, anee oieueei iie i?aae-
noaaeytho oaeinoiaa?aiea a oii, /oi caieiaeenue ii naiae neoaeaa aaaeaieai
noaeaaiuo aeae. Ii, ia?yaeo n yoei, Niaao aeae aanueia ?ani?ino?aieoaeueiia
oieeiaaiea 380 no. O/?. noae. ono., i?aaeinoaaeythuae Niaaoo i?eieiaoue a
niia?aaeaiea oa naaaeaiey, eaeea i?eciaao ioaeiuie e iieaciuie. I?aaaea,
neo/ae i?eiaiaiey yoie 380 no. ia auee iniaaiii /anou, ii, eae aeaeiaaeny
, yoi i?aaeei oa??i?ece?iaaei anao anie?aioia, e
anyeee, eoi eiae oioy eaeia-ieaoaeue iniiaaiea niiiaaaoueny, ecaaaae iiaea-
aaoue i?ioaiea i i?eiyoee aai a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua. E?iia oiai. Niaao

?aeniieueciaaeny, eae oaea auei oiiiyiooi, noaoueae yoie aeey onoaiiaeaiey
eniuoaiee ia caaiea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, anee i?aaeoanoaothuay aea-
yoaeueiinoue anie?aioa ia iiaea neoaeeoue naia ii naaa aeinoaoi/iui aeiea-
caoaeuenoaii aeinoaoi/iie iiaeaioiaee. .

Oa aea oaiaeaioeey neacuaaaony e ia no?aieaiee Niaaoa ?ani?ino?aieoue
naith aeanoue e ia iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. A caeiia, eae ec-
aanoii, i ieo oiiieiaaony aneieuecue, e, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?e au?aaioea
noaeaaiuo onoaaia oeacuaaeinue ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue o?aaoee?iaaoue iieiaeaiea
iiiiuieeia, iii inoaaaeinue iaii?aaeaeaiiui. A iaeiii ec ia?auo canaaeaiee
naieo (2 ethiy 1866 a.) Niaao iaycae i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo niiauaoue i
a?aiaie iinooieaiey e iei iiiiuieeia aeey iaania/aiey i?aaeeueiinoe en-
/eneaiey iyoeeaoiaai noaaea. *a?ac aeaa aiaea Niaao iaycae i?enyaeiuo ii-
aa?aiiuo niiauaoue aeaa ?aca a aiae naaaeaiey i caiyoeyo iiiiuieeia, ii-
noaiiaea ia aeeth/aoue a noaae oao iieoaiaeee, ioiineoaeueii eieo naaaeaiee
aeinoaaeaii ia auei. A iiiiuieee caienuaaeenue naiua ?aciiia?aciua yea-
iaiou. Oae, a aeo?iaea ca 1867 a. (no?. 78) caienaii, /oi i?enyaeiue
iiaa?aiiue niiauee i i?eiyoee ei a iiiiuieee eaea?y E.E. Oienoiai.
Nieioue e ?yaeii a iiiiuieee caienuaaeenue nooaeaiou, e a oa/aiea ia?aiai
aiaea naiaai nouanoaiaaiey Niaao i?inoi i?eieiae e naaaeaieth cayaeaiey
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. A 1867 a. (, no?. 99) Niaao iinoaiiaee,
/oi oioy e ia ano?a/aaony i?aiyonoaee e ca/eneaieth nooaeaioia a iiiiuieee,
ii caiyoey, iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eeoe, aua ia ieii-
/eaoeo eo?na, ia i?eieiaoue a ?an/ao i?e en/eneaiee iyoeeaoiaai n?iea,

O/?- noae. ono. iieiaeaiiiai. Nionoy aiae yoi iinoaiiaeaiea i?ea?aei
aua aieaa iauee oa?aeoa?. Niaao iinoaiiaee, /oi, ii niuneo 354 no.,
“”””Ueoeaie iiaoo auoue oieueei eeoea n aunoei th?eaee/aneei ia?aciaa-
ieai, e /oi aiiaua iie aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe oai aea o?aaiaaieyi, eaeea
“yoy caeiiii aeey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo (ca eneeth/aieai, eiia/ii,
iyoeeaoiaai noaaea e aic?anoiiai oeaica). A niioaaonoaee n yoei Niaao au-
?a ioae a 1869 a. i?aaeea i?eaia, a aianoa n oai onoaiiaee e i?aaeea
iaaeci?a ca iiiiuieeaie. Ii yoei i?aaeeai: .

Aianoa n oai Niaao enoiaeaoaenoaiaae i?eiyoea iiiiuieeia a i?enyae-
iua no?yi/ea ii enoa/aiee ecaanoiiai noaaea e iacia/aiea eo caueoieeaie
iiaenoaeeiuo. Ii eiaiii caeanue, ia ii/aa iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe iieiaeaiey ii-
iiuieeia, aicieeee oaea ioia/aiiua auoa iaaei?acoiaiey. Iaeei ec ii-
iiuieeia, a. Ethoea, ioeacaeny caueuaoue, a eiaaea Niaao i?eaeae aai ca
yoi e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii e Niaao i?eciae iaeiiiaoaioiui. Noaeaaiay Ia-
eaoa auioaeaeaia auea eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi . Iiieiay, iaeiaei,
/oi oaeei ia?acii nicaeaaony iieiaeaiea niaa?oaiii iaii?iaeueiia, No-
aeaaiay Iaeaoa i?aaeeiaeeea eiii?iienn, auneacaa, /oi ia?ii?eyoey Niaaoa
iiaoo auoue iaycaoaeueiu aeey iiiiuieeia eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iie
/a?ac i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, i?e eioi?uo ninoiyo, ecuyayo aeaeaiea aeia?i-
aieueii iiae/eieoueny oaeei ia?ai. Niaao i?eiye yoio eiii?iienn e a 1871 a.
iinoaiiaee o?aaiaaoue io iiiiuieeia, i?e iieo/aiee eie caaiey, iiaeienee
a oii, /oi iie aoaeoo aeia?iaieueii iiae/eiyoueny anai iinoaiiaeaieyi e ?an-
ii?yaeaieyi Niaaoa. Eiii?iienn ieacaeny aeecianiiniaiui, e neo/ae Ethoea
oae e inoaeny aaeeinoaaiiui, ii iaii?iaeueiinoue iieiaeaiey yoei ia auea
ono?aiaia, a, iai?ioea, aua aieaa iiae/a?eeaaeanue ioia?aieai iiaeiaiuo
iiaeienie, ia niioaaonoaiaaaoeo oa?aeoa?o ioaee/ii-i?aaiauo ioiioaiee.
ssnii auei, /oi aeey ono?aiaiey iaii?iaeueiinoe iaiaoiaeeia caeiiiaeaoaeue-
iay ?aaeaiaioaoeey, e Niaao a oii aea 1871 aiaeo au?aaioae i?iaeo caeiia,
iniiaaiiiai ia ainiieiaiee ee/iiai iao?iiaoa ninoaaiui, ia onoaiiaeaiee
i?aaee, iaania/eaathueo eco/aiea iiiiuieeaie a?aaeaeaineeo e oaieiaiuo
aeae, e, a nayce n yoei, aeiiouaiee eo e aaaeaieth oaieiaiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo
aeae. Ii iu oaea ciaai, /oi oiaeaoaenoai Niaaoa, eae e ana i?i/ea aai
aeiiiaaoaeuenoaa caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee, ia eiaei ieeaeiai oniaoa e
inoaaeaii auei aac iineaaenoaee.

Ai?acaei iaiueoa iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?iyaeye iineianeee Niaao a io-
iioaiee iiiiuieeia. I?aaaea, aua a 1869 a. caeanue auei iinoaiiaeaii,
/oi a iiiiuieee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iiaeii ca/eneyoue oieueei eeoe,

oaoeo aunoaa th?eaee/aneia ia?aciaaiea e aeaeathueo caieiaoueny no-
aeaeaee i?aeoeeie iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii eca?aiiiai eie i?enyaeiiai iiaa?ai-
iai e a ianoa iinoiyiiiai aai aeeoaeuenoaa, a ia a eaeii-eeai ae?oaii ai?iaea.
i_iae ieeaeie nayce iaaeaeo Niaaoii e iiiiuieeaie caeanue onoaiiaeaii ia
ae ,aeae Aei 1872 a. Niaao ioeacuaae aeaaea a auaea/a naeaeaoaeuenoa ia caaiea
iiiiuieea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, iaoiaey, /oi auaea/a oaeiai naeaeaoa.\ue-
aa caaeneo io i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, i?e eiai iiiiuiee ninoieo. A
io/aoa ca 1870 a. eiaaony oeacaiea ia oi, /oi iinooieaoea a Niaao aeaeiau
ia iiiiuieeia , a a neaaeothuai io/aoa Niaao
eiinoaoe?oao, /oi .

Ai?i/ai, i?aeoeea iaoa?ao?aneiai Niaaoa a yoii ioiioaiee oiaea ia
ioee/aaony iinoiyinoaii, /oi iniaaiii a?inaaony a aeaca i?e noieeinoe aa
aiiaua. Oae, a 1871 a. i?aaenaaeaoaeue nia. Ie?oaeiiai Noaea niiauee Niaao)
i aeaenoaeyo iiiiuieea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai Nianiae/a, eaiaeeaeaoa i?aa
Iie/aiiaa, eioi?ue aac aeinoaoi/iiai iiaiaea, aneaaenoaea caia/aiey i?aae-
naaeaoaey, oaeaeeeny ec caea canaaeaiey, inoaaea iiaenoaeeiiai aac caueou.
A.Ae. Nianiae/ cayaee, /oi ii oaea aeaeae ca yoi Iie/aiiao auaiai?, e
Niaao, oaeiaeaoai?eaoenue oaeei cayaeaieai, iinoaiiaee i?eiyoue aai e naa-
aeaieth . Auoiaeeo oae, eae aoaeoi auaiai?u, aeaeaaiua iao?iiii, ?aciic-
ia/iuo aeenoeeieeia?iui acuneaieyi, iaeaaaaiui Niaaoii, e ?ac iao?ii
naeaeae aiooaiea iiiiuieeo, oi Niaao ia ai?aaa iaeacuaaoue aai aoi?e/ii.

Iaeiiaoe, oa aea oaiaeaioeey ?anoe?eoue i?aaeaeu eiiiaoaioeee neacaeanue
e ia iiae/eiaiee aeenoeeieeia?iiio iaaeci?o Niaaoa oaeeo aeaenoaee /eaiia
nineiaey, eioi?ua auoiaeyo ec e?oaa aaeaieaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A yoii
no?aieaiee naiai Niaao ano?aoee aieaa oii?iia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ni noi-
?iiu ioaeaeueiuo /eaiia nineiaey, oioy, eae oaea auei oiiiyiooi, iauaa
nia?aiea aiieia iaeia?eei yoo oaiaeaioeeth Niaaoa. Ii caeanue i?ioeaiaeaenoaea
ioaeaeueiuo /eaiia auei ?aoeoaeueii neiieaii I?aaeoaeuenoaothuei Naia-
oii, eioi?ue ?acuyniee, /oi ,

Aii?in yoio aeey aaeaieaoo?u aiiaua iaeei ec naiuo noa?uo e, aianoa
n oai, naiuo nii?iuo, e aei neo ii? ieaaea ia eiaao aiieia io/aoeeaiai e
oi/iiai ?aoaiey. Iaoe Niaaou ia aianee a noa?ue nii? ie/aai nouanoaaiii
iiaiai, iie aea?aeaeenue n?aaeiae eeiee. E.E. A?naiueaa oae oi?ioee?oao
ia/aea, eioi?uie Niaao ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny: .

Aieueoia aieiaiea Niaao oaeaeee iauanoaaiiui iaycaiiinoyi aaeaieaoa
e iiae?iaii ?ac?aaioae aii?inu, naycaiiua n aaaeaieai aeae eeoe, iieuecoth-
ueony i?aaii aaaeiinoe, e n caueoie ii iacia/aieth. . Niaao no?iai neaaeeo e i?eie-
iaao anyeea ia?u, /oiau i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua ia oeeiiyeenue io yoeo
iaycaiiinoae e eniieiyee eo aeia?iniaanoii. Niaao o?aaoao eco/aiey ii-
?o/aiiiai aeaea e i?eaioiaeaiey e caueoa. I?enyaeiiio iiaa?aiiiio, ei-
oi?ue ia aeaeaeny n iiaenoaeeiui, iauyaeaii i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea, aai iauyn-
iaiey, /oi iiaenoaeeiue niciaeny e /oi aeaei ianeiaeiia, ia auee i?eiyou
ai aieiaiea, e .

Oai ia iaiaa, eiaiii caeanue, a iaeanoe ?acuyniaiey iauanoaaiiuo ii-
aeiiinoae aaeaieaoo?u, ninoiyeinue iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa, eioi?ia aucaaei
aieueoea ia?aeaiey. Aeaei a oii, /oi aua a 1866 a. aue aicaoaeaeai aii?in

Oeeoe?oai ii E.E. A?naiu-ao, n. 128. – I?ei. aao.
Oai aea, n. 137, 138. – I?ei. aao.
.

Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, eiia/ii, /oi anee au Niaao e iauaa nia?aiea
aiceiaeeee ia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iaycaiiinoue auacaeaoue ia caueou
ii iacia/aieth noaea, oi oaeia naiiiiaea?oaiaaiea caneoaeeaaei au aieueoae
iioaaeu. Ii io?eoeaoaeueiia ?aoaiea a?yae ee aeaao i?aai aeaeaoue ia?aoiua
auaiaeu, eae iioiio, /oi aaaeue e i?ioeaioiue nai?, i eioi?ii ieoao
E.ss. Oieieoeeee, aua ia nouanoaiaae a oi a?aiy, oae e i?aaeaea anaai
iioiio, /oi, eae oaea auoa oeacaii, i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua e aac oiai
auee aanueia na?ueacii ia?aiaiaiu iaycaiiinoyie ii caueoa iiaenoaeeiuo
e aaaeaieth aeae eeoe, iieuecothueony i?aaii aaaeiinoe.

I?aaiecaoi?neea no?aieaiey Niaaoa au?aceeenue aua a o/?aaeaeaiee
eannu i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e eo iiiiuieeia aeey auaea/e iiniaee o/ano-
ieeai e eo naiaenoaai. A Iineaa oaeay eanna auea ioe?uoa ianeieueeeie
aiaeaie iicaeiaa, oaea a 1877 a. E?iia oiai, a Iaoa?ao?aa e Iineaa o/-
?aaeaeaiu auee aeaeeioaee, e, iaeiiaoe, i?e Ie?oaeiii Noaea o/?aaeaeaia

Oieieoeeee E.ss. . Nia. 1883.
– I?ei. aao.

eiinoeueoaoeey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eae ia?aay iiiuoea i?aaieciaaiiie
e aeinooiiie th?eaee/aneie iiiiue ianaeaieth.

N naiae noi?iiu, e iiiiuieee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iaia?oaeeaaee
aieueoia no?aieaiea e i?aaiecaoeee. Iinea o/?aaeaeaiey oiiiyiooie eii-
noeueoaoeee ninoaaeeny e?oaeie iiiiuieeia aeey iiaea/e niaaoia ii aeaeai
ie?iaie thnoeoeee, ii yoio e?oaeie anei?a ?aniaeny. A 1870 a. iiiiuieee
eca?aee ec n?aaeu naiae eiienneth ec iyoe /eaiia (A?. Aa?aeianeiai, Ea. Aa-
neeueaaa, Iee. E?ueiaa, A.I. Ethnoeoa e A. Ooeia), eioi?ua a ia/aea
1871 a. aioea a Niaao n au?aaioaiiui i?iaeoii i?aaiecaoeee iiiiuieeia .
I?iaeo aue ?anniio?ai, eciaiai Niaaoii, eioi?ue e aicaoaeee oiaeaoaenoai
ia ecaeaiee caeiia, ii, eae ecaanoii, oiaeaoaenoai ia eiaei ieeaeiai oniaoa.
Iaeiaei no?aieaiea iiiiuieeia e i?aaiecaoeee ia yoii ia inoaiiaeeinue.
Aicieeea iuneue ia o/?aaeaeaiee eiinoeueoaoeee iiiiuieeia i?e ie?iaii
nuacaea. Au?aaioea i?iaeoa auea ii?o/aia eca?aiiie a iauai nia?aiee
iiiiuieeia eiiennee. . Oiaaea ca?iaeeeanue, ii-aeaeeiiio ia aac o/anoey
Niaaoa, iuneue i nicaeaiee iinoiyiiiai i?aaia iiiiuieeia. A iiya?a 1872 a.
au?aaioaiiue iniaie eiienneae i?iaeo i?aaee ia iaueo nia?aieyo ii-
iiuieeia e ecae?aaiii eie i?aaia, ca eioi?ui auei inoaaeaii iacaaiea
eiiennee iiiiuieeia, ?anniao?eaaeny e aue i?eiyo a iauai nia?aiee
iiiiuieeia, eioi?ua ooo aea e eca?aee a ia?aue ?ac iinoiyiioth eiienneth.
Niaao iaiaaeeaiii i?eciae nouanoaiaaiea eiiennee, eae i?aaenoaaeoaey ii-
iiuieeia. Iaeiaei Niaao ?aaieai i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaae no?aieaieth eiiennee
e ?anoe?aieth naiae eiiiaoaioeee. Oae, . Ie?iaie Nuacae ia?aaeae i?iaeo o ?anniio?aiea
niaoeeaeueii eca?aiiie ec n?aaeu Nuacaea eiiennee, eioi?ay i?eoea e caeeth/aieth, /oi ,
173, \i 43.). – I?ei. aao.

oeoe ia?aoeeanue a Niaao n i?inueaie aeiioneaoue aeaoo ec aa /eaiia e i?e-
onoaiaaieth a Niaaoa, n niaauaoaeueiui aieinii, i?e ?acai?a aeae i ia-
iaaeeueiuo aeaenoaeyo eee oiouaieyo iiiiuieeia. Niaao ioeeiiee yoo
iinueao. eae iioiio, /oi ninoaa Niaaoa ii?aaeaeai caeiiii e /oi canaaeaiey
?ai cae?uou aeaaea aeey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, e iaio ia i?eiaaeeaaeaueo,
oae e iioiio, /oi o/anoea aeaiooaoia io iiiiuieeia a ?anniio?aiee aeae i
iiiiuieeao aiana ia i?aaenoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui> (, 26-ai yi-
aa?y 1874 a.).

Oaeei ia?acii ynii, /oi Niaao ?acaeaae aanueia yia?ae/ioth aeayoaeue-
iinoue, i?e/ai, eae oaea caia/aii, iieueciaaeny eaaeaeui neo/aai, /oiau ii-
noaaeoue iauee aii?in e aeaoue ia iaai ii?aaeaeaiiue e en/a?iuaathuee ioaao.
*oi eanaaony th?eaee/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aaeaieaoo?u, oi iia n?aco auea
iinoaaeaia ia aieueooth aunioo. Aua ?eieyia ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi iaa1:iaa5 iii
eeii aani iaaneiiea . A oneiaeyo iaoae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia auei, ai anyeii
neo/aa, ?aoeoaeueii ieeaeeo aeaiiuo, eioi?ua iiiiaee au i?aoi?ii naea-
eaoueny. Ia auei ie oeieu, ie i?aeoeee e?anii?a/ey. Aanue no?ie iao,
iieeoeaenei-i?eeaciie, iaoiaeeeny a iai?eie?eiii i?ioeai?a/ee n a?iieei
/aeiaa/aneei neiaii. , – /oi o ian ia oiatho aiai?eoue. A yoeo neiaao iiiai i?aaaeu> . Ii
eae oieueei aaaaeaiu auee Noaeaaiua Onoaau, n?aco ia?iaeeeenue aeanoyuea
i?aoi?u, yaeaoeany ai anai?oaeee, eae Iaeeaaea ec aieiau Caana. Aaci
anyeie oeieu, aac i?aaieciaaiiie iiaeaioiaee, ni anao noi?ii aunooieee
ia noaeaaioth a?aio ethaee, ia oieueei oiaaoea aeaaeaoue neiaii, ii e a aieue-
oeinoaa oaeaioeeaua. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue eiaia A.O. Eiie,
I.O. A?iiieoeeiai (, i eioi?ii aiai?ee ei?ieue Ee?>), AEo-
eianeiai (nooay, /oaeaeay anyeeo o?ac, i?iieoaiiay aaniiuaaeiie e?iieae,
ii anaaaea i/aiue iaaeoiaiiay e e?aoeay ?a/ue), eiycy O?oniaa (/a?othuee
aiein, ecyuiay i?inoioa ?a/e, ene?aiiinoue oiia e neea e?eoe/aneiai aia-
eeca, iaeiie naiae ?a/ueth ii aeaeo Aoi?iaie n?aco auaeaeioaoaainy a ia?aua
?yaeu iineianeie aaeaieaoo?u e caiyaoaai iaaeieai ia?aia ianoi a Iineaa).
A?naiueaaa (aeoaieea iiciaiey, ecyuanoai i?eaiia e iio/eoaeueiay

Caeeth/aiea Niaaoa…-, n. 13 – A?naiueaa E.E. Oeac. ni/., n. 63. – I?ei. aao.
-Ieai – I?aoi?aie ia noaiiayony, ii ?iaeaeathony.
oaeiaiue Aanoiee>., 1866. Oa 3. – I?ei. aao.
1\>ie E.O., (.Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu>, n. 338. – I?ei. aa:i.

/enoioa a eniieiaiee naieo iaycaiiinoae, oaeaioeeaia e auno?ia neiai
eioi?iai eeeinue eae ?aea, aeenoay i?ic?a/iinoueth naieo no?oe e ianeuoii
eiiay a naiai iaioa?aoeiii oa/aiee i?aa?aaeu i?ioeaieea), A.Ae. Nianiae/a
(?aceee oaeiaaoue aeano, iai?aaeeueiua oaea?aiey iaae iaiineooiuie, ii
aaneeie neiaaie, n ni/iinoueth e?anie e anaaaea i?eaeiaeueiui, aaeoi/eaui
inaauaieai i?aaeiaoa) , I.A. Iioaoeia, A.I. Aa?a?aea. Ana yoe eiaia n?aco
aeatho i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, eaeia ia oieueei aiaaonoai, ii e ?aciiia?acea
i?aoi?neeo oaeaioia ii?iaeaeaii auei Noaeaaiuie Onoaaaie. A /anoiinoe,
ioiineoaeueii aaeaieaoia A.O, Eiie aniiieiaao, /oi iinea iacia/aiey aai
a Iaoa?ao?a aio ii?o/aii auei aunooieoue .

Auei au iaaiciiaeii caeanue aoiaeeoue a iiae?iaioth ioeaieo e iuoaoueny
aeaoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?onneiai noaeaaiiai e?anii?a/ey. Ii iaeio /a?oo eiaiii
caeanue iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue. . Ai?y/i i?aaeoi?aaeaeae i?ioea yoie iian-
iinoe , iinayoeaoee a naiii ia/aea naiaai nouano-
aiaaiey ia?aaeiaoth noaoueth aii?ino i noaeaaiii e?anii?a/ee. Ioeoeeaeueiay
aacaoa i?iaiaeeo iaaeaeo Aiaeeae e O?aioeeae e
oae oa?aeoa?ecoao o?aioeocneia e?anii?a/ea: . Aacaoa oaa?aei iaaeaaony, /oi .

. Oi/ii oae aea e
ienaee, /oi .

Ana yoe iiaeaeaiey e ooaa?aeaeaiey ieacaeenue i?aaeeueiuie. I?e anai
?aciiia?acee i?eaaaeaiiuo auoa oa?aeoa?enoee iaoeo i?aoi?ia, anoue, iae-
iaei. /a?oa, eioi?ay ioia/aaony ai anao, iaeei iiiaeeoaeue, eioi?ue iiaeao
auoue auianai ca neiaee, – yoi i?inoioa ?a/e, ionoonoaea a iae iaoaoe/-
iinoe e anyeeo, oae iacuaaaiuo ai?aia niaeniiaina.

ss?eei ia?acoeii a yoii ioiioaiee iiaoo neoaeeoue iaia/aoaiiua ?a/e
A.Ae, Nianiae/a. Aei /aai aeioiaeeea no?iainoue a yoii ioiioaiee, iiaeii
aeaeaoue ec oiai, /oi, iai?eia?, a ?aoeaicee ia nai?iee ?a/ae A.O. Eiie
E. E. A?naiueaa noaaee aio a aeio oiio?aaeaiea oaeeo caeeth/eoaeueiuo o?ac:
. Eee: .

Eiay oaiaeaioeey caia/aeanue a Iineaa, e naiui neeueiui aa au?aceoaeai
aue O.I. Ieaaaei.

. A.A. Iaeeaeia, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, aniiieiaao i ?a/e Ieaaaei
caueoo Aaeeoaiiaa, iaaeiyaoaainy a oaeenoaa i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai
-oa?inaeueneiai. , 1868 a., E? 356. – I?ei.

a?aa?eo. Ii eii/ee yooaeoiui ia?auaieai e iieieiiio Noa?inaeueneiio:
, iinea /aai a caea iineuoaeenue ?uaeaiey,
caieaeae iaeei ec noaeae>.

A naieo E.E. A?naiueaa ioia/aao oio
i?eai caueou, ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iai auei au aanueia i?enei?aii. .

A aoaeie/iie ?aaioa, eioi?ie aeieaeiu auee ioaeaoueny noaeaaiua o/?aae-
aeaiey, oio o?iaaiue, ia eioi?ue n?aco iiaeiyeinue iaoa noaeaaiia e?anii?a/ea,
iioneaeny, eiia/ii, cia/eoaeueii ieaea. Ia yoi e oeacuaae a

I.E. Iaieineee , nia?aaoee oeaeue ?yae i?eia?ia ionooieaiee
caueoieeia io enoeiiuo caaaoia Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia e i?aae?aeaaoee ia
yoii iniiaaiee i?eaeeaeaiea /a?iiai aeiy aeey aaeaieaoo?u. Ii ?aaeaeoeey

aeo?iaea nii?iaiaeeea noaoueth a. Iaieineiai i?eia/aieai, a eioi?ii iai-
aa?eaaea, /oi . Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oaeea aea
a aieueoii eiee/anoaa i?eaiaeyony e a ainiiieiaieyo A.O. Eiie i aeay-
oaeueiinoe i?ieo?aoo?u ia ia?auo ii?ao. Ii caeanue iie e niiauathony, eae
ethaiiuoiua ionooieaiey io ii?iu, eae ianiioaaonoaea oiio o?iaith, ia
eioi?ue iiaeiyeenue ei?eoae, e eioi?ue yia?ae/ii iiaeaea?aeeaaeny e a ee-
oa?aoo?a.

Ai?acaei o?oaeiaa auynieoue ?ieue e noaiaiue o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u a ?ac-
?aoaiee e inaauaiey i?aeoe/aneeo aii?inia iaoa?eaeueiiai e i?ioeanno-
aeueiiai i?aaa. Oaeia auyniaiea iio?aaiaaei au aeieaiai e e?iiioeeaiai

. 1872 a.. ” 8 e 10: 1873 a., ? 5. – I?ei

aeaea Ii iiaeii eaoaai?e/anee ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi i?aaenoiyaoay caeanue ?aaioa
aea?iaaea eneeth/eoaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey e ciaiee. Ei a?aiaie ecaeaiey no-
?(}oeue? onoaaia ieeaeie th?eni?oaeaioeee o ian ia nouanoaiaaei. I?aaaea,
oey iaeaa/aiey aeayoaeueiinoe iiauo noaeia ieieno? thnoeoeee Caiyoiei ica-
iioiieny ninoaaeaieai nai?ieea ?aoaiee I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa
(a 2 /anoyo e ~) oiiao, a eioi?ua aioee ?aoaiey iaueo nia?aiee I?aae-
oaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa n 1833 ii 1864 a.), ii, – i?eaaaeyao enoi?ee Na-
?iai-a, – i?aainoaaiioth naycue iaaeaeo noa?ie e iiaie i?aeoeeie iiaeii
iaeoe oieueei a i/aiue ia?aie/aiiii e?oaa aii?inia . Eia/a e auoue ia iiaei,
iioiio /oi aeayoaeueiinoue noa?uo e iiauo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee iino?iaia
auea ia niaa?oaiii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ia/aeao. Aei?aoi?iaiiua noaeaaiua
o/?aaeaeaiey iaycuaaeenue i?eiaiyoue caeii aoeaaeueii, ia aeiioneay iaiai-
/eaiai iaiinoiyinoaa naiii?iecaieueiuo oieeiaaiee. I?e iayniinoe caeiia
noaeu aeiaiaeeee naie niiiaiey aei Naiaoa, a i?e iaaeinoaoea caeiia e Naiaoa
aeieaeai aue aicaea?aeeaaoueny io ?aoaiey eiie?aoiiai aeaea. Naii niaie
?acoiaaony, /oi aea?aeaoueny a ?aieao aoeaaeueiiai oieeiaaiey noaeu ia iiaee,
a eaeia cia/aiea eiaei o?aaiaaiea aoeaaeueiiai oieeiaaiey, yoi aanueia
y?ei eeethno?e?oao a oiiiyiooie enoi?ee aa?ii A.Y. Iieueaea ia iaeiii
i?eia?a. ?acae?ay a 1822 a. aii?in i oii, aeieaeii ee n/eoaoue ?iaeiaui
eiaiea, i?eia?aoaiiia eoieath o ?iaenoaaiieea ec oie aea oaieeee, aii?in,
aucaaaoee niiiaiea ?aciuo einoaioeee, Ain. Niaao, a Aeaia?oaiaioa Ca-
eiiia, iaoiaey, /oi ?aciiia?aciua ?aoaiey naai aeaea ?aciuie ianoaie i?i-
ecioee iooiai, /oi ec ieo o?e noaeeee ii neiaai caeiia, a o?e ii aai
niuneo, caeeth/aao, /oi, anee au ?aoaiey noaeaaiuo iano iiaee auoue o/-
?aaeaeaiu ia niunea caeiia, oi oaeiaia caeeth/aiea neo iineaaeieo o?ao
iano auei au iainii?eii, a eae aeaea noaeaaiua aaaeaii auei ?aoaoue ia ii
niuneo, ii ii neiaai caeiia, oi?aoaiey ia?auo o?ao iano… caneoaeeaatho
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey .

A?yae ee ioaeii aeieacuaaoue, /oi oaeay i?aeoeea ia iiaea neoaeeoue ii-
niaeai aeey iiauo noaeia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee iniiauaaoue naith aeayoaeue-
iinoue ia ia aoeaa, a ia ?acoia caeiia, e, niioaaonoaaiii n yoei, ia ai?aaa
auee nnueaoueny ia iaaeinoaoie, iaiieiioo eee i?ioeai?a/ea caeiia. Oaeei
ia?acii, noaeaaiui aeayoaeyi i?eoiaeeeinue caeanue ia/eiaoue nuciiaa. A aianoa
n oai, aaaaeaieth iiauo noaeia niioonoaiaae i/aiue ?aceee yeiiiie/aneee
iiaeuai no?aiu, aucaaiiue inaiaiaeaeaieai e?anoueyi, ?acaeoeai aeaeacii-
aei?iaeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, iiyaeaieai aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa e o/?aaeaeaiee

, Nia. 1911. o. IV,
” – I?ei aao.
u aea. n. 423. – I?ei. aao

e?aaeeoa. Aicieeee iiaua th?eaee/aneea ioiioaiey, niaa?oaiii ia i?aaeon-
iio?aiiua a?oae/aneei aeanyoui oiiii, e iiaiio noaeo i?eoiaeeeinue n?aco
aunooiaoue a oai?/aneie ?iee. Anoanoaaiii, /oi any oyaeanoue yoiai iieiaeaiey
ia?ooeeanue a ia?aoth aieiao ia aaeaieaoo?o, eioi?ie i?eoiaeeeinue noaaeoue
e ?ac?aaaouaaoue aii?inu, ia?aaeei iaoueaynue ia canoa?aeua i?eau/ee. Oae,
aa?ii Iieueaea ioia/aao, /oi I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaio Naiaoo iaiaeiie?aoii
i?eoiaeeeinue iaiiieiaoue noaeaaiui iaeaoai, /oi iie naie aeieaeiu aeien-
eeaaoueny niunea caeiia e ia ai?aaa ia?auaoueny e Naiaoo n oiaeaoaenoaii
i ?ac?aoaiee aai, /oi caeii niaea?aeeo iauea i?aaeea, /oi aeey oyniaiey
aai niunea anoue iiiai niiniaia e i?eciaeia, a?iaea enoi?e/aneiai i?ien-
oiaeaeaiey caeiia, aai oeaee e i?. ?acuyniaii i?aai noaea i?eiaiyoue caeii
ii aiaeiaee, oeacaia aeaaea aiciiaeiinoue ia?auaoueny e ia/aeai a?aaeaeaineiai
i?aaa. Iiaeii iiyoiio ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aac o/anoey aaeaieaoo?u, eioi?ay
i?aeiouanoaaiii e aicaoaeaeaea ana oaeea aii?inu ia?aae I?aaeoaeuenoao-
thuei Naiaoii, iaoa noaeaaiay i?aeoeea a?yae ee ni?aaeeanue au n neiaeiie
caaea/ae. Aea e I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao a oneiaeyo eannaoeeiiiiai i?i-
ecaiaenoaa ia iia au i?iyaeoue naiae i?aaioai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, anee
au aaeaieaoo?a ia iiaeieiaea oao eee ae?oaeo aii?inia.

Ioaeii aua iniai ioiaoeoue aeaea ia/aoe e iieeoe/aneea aeaea. Oaeeo a
oi a?aiy auei i/aiue iiiai, e iaeioi?ua ec ieo ioee/aeenue aieueoie neiae-
iinoueth. Auoa auei oaea oiiiyiooi i aeaeao ii iaaeiaieth A,N. No?iaeia
e ii iaaeiaieth Iuieia e AEoeianeiai, ii eioi?ui aunooiae E. E. A?-
naiueaa, i?eaeaeoee iauaa aieiaiea naieie ?a/aie. Oi/ii oae aea a ni-
/eiaieyo A.Ae. Nianiae/a (oii V) iaia/aoaiu ioiinyueany e yoiio ia?eiaeo
?a/e ii aeaeo Aaeaeaao?iaa (ecaeaiea eieae Aoiaeoa), Uaiiaa (ecaeaiea ia?a-
aiaea Ienai ia Aiaeee Eoe Aeaia), Iieyeiaa (ecaeaiea Enoi?ee ?aoeei-
iaeecia Eaeee), aeaei i caaiai?a, o.a. Ia/aaaneia aeaei, aeaei Aeieaooeia,
Aeiioianeiai ii iaaeiaieth a iaia/aoaiee e ?ani?ino?aiaiee i?ieeaiaoeee
i?anooiiiai niaea?aeaiey. Ana yoe ?a/e oi?ioi ecaanoiu eaaeaeiio th?enoo,
a ?a/ue ii Ia/aaaneiio aeaeo a caueoo Eociaoeiaa E.E. A?naiueaa n/eoaao
.
Iiieii aeaoaeueiiai eco/aiey anaai aeaea, yoe ?a/e aeauoo aeoaeiie aiaeeca,
y?eei inaauaieai oao o/aiee, eioi?ua niaea?aeaony a eie?eieie?oaiuo
eieaao, e auyniaieai nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee, n?aaee eioi?uo aicieeatho ii-
eeoe/aneea i?anooieaiey. A oiiiyiooie ?a/e a caueoo Eociaoeiaa
A.Ae. Nianiae/ ia?aoee aieiaiea noaea ia ?aceee aeooaaiue ia?aai?io, ei-

e niaa?oeeny a Eociaoeiaa ca naiia ei?ioeia a?aiy. Ec aeia?iai nuia,
ae ae ae?oaa, aieiaoaeueiiai, nino?aaeaoaeueiiai, ethayuaai – ii a eaeea-
ae aeaa n iieiaeiie ianyoea i?aa?aoeeny a ?ueyiiai i?iiaaaiaeenoa e

aeaeaeeae naie ?oee oaeenoaii. Ia?aiaia yoa iauyniyaony aeeyieai ia
ciaeiaa ae?oaiai eeoea, e oaea/aiea aai iiyoiio iaaei n/eoaoue aeey Eoc-

eiaa niya/athuei aeio ianoiyoaeuenoaii. . Noaa ia oaeoth

aeceoeeth, A.Ae. Nianiae/ ?enoao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ee/iinoue Ia/aaaa, oa-
eaeoaai Eociaoeiaa, n ae?oaie – aeaao ea?oeio oao oneiaee, a eioi?uo aeeea
?onneay iieiaeaaeue, e oaeei iooai auyniyao, auei ee Eociaoeiao eaaei ni-
i?ioeaeyoueny.

Oaeay iinoaiiaea caueou, anoanoaaiii, aucuaaea iaaeiaieuenoai, A ?a/e
naiae ii aeaeo Iuieia e AEoeianeiai, i?iecianaiiie ai aoi?ie einoaioeee,
E.E. A?naiueaao oaea i?eoeinue oeacaoue, /oi . Eae ecaanoii, oio/an iinea aeaea Iuieia
e AEoeianeiai auea ecaeaia ia?aay iiaaeea e Noaeaaiui Onoaaai, ecia-
ieaoay iiaenoaeiinoue ii aeaeai i i?anooieaieyo ia/aoe, a iinea Ia/aaaneiai
aeaea, . A ?acoeueoaoa auea ecaeaia iiaaeea,
eciaieaoay iiaenoaeiinoue aeae i iieeoe/aneeo i?anooieaieyo. Anee aea ni-
iinoaaeoue yoe oaeou n ioia/aiiui auoa ioiioaieai aaeaieaoo?u e aeaeai
yoiai ?iaea, oi a?yae ee iiaeii niiiaaaoueny, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a auee aucaaiu aeeyieai caueoeoaeueiuo
?a/ae.

( 1871, iiya?ue). A ee/iie aanaaea ni iiith, nionoy
aieaa 40 eao iinea iaienaiey oiiiyiooie noaouee, E.E. E?naiueaa eaoaai?e/anee iiaeoaa?aeee naie
iocua. – I?ei. aao.

Noaeaaiue Aanoiee>. 1866, ? 55. – I?ei. aao.
, n. 127 – [I?ei aao.

15. IOIIOAIEA IAUANOAA E AAeAIEAOO?A

Oaeiaa, a iauai, ea?oeia aeayoaeueiinoe, ?acaeoie a ia?aua aiaeu aae-
aieaoo?ie. Eae au ie ioeaieaaoue yoo ?aaioo naiia ii naaa. ai anyeii neo/aa
ia iiaeao auoue aeaoo iiaiee, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue Niaaoia, yaeyaoayny ia?aui
iiuoii a iaoae iauanoaaiiinoe, ?acei auaeaeyeanue ia oiia ainiiaenoai-
aaaoeo oiaaea i?eioeeiia caei?iaiai yaiecia, i eioi?uo aiai?aii auei auoa.
Anee aeaaea n/eoaoue i?aaeeueiui ioia/aiiia auoa oeacaiea E.ss. Oieieoe-
eiai ii iiaiaeo ioeaca Niaaoa aiceaaaoue ia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo caueoo
ia auacaeiuo nanneyo, oi ai anyeii neo/aa yoio aaeeinoaaiiue oi?ae aeieaeai
eeoue iiaeoaa?aeeoue, /oi a iauai iai?aaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe ?oeiaiaeyuaai
i?aaia – Niaaoa – auei aiieia i?aaeeueiui. Oai ia iaiaa, ?ieue aaeai-
eaoo?u ia oieueei ia eiiiie?iaaea, ii n naiiai ia/aea iia noaea aucuaaoue
e naaa io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea.

. Ianeieueei oeaiia a onoao Uaae?eia
ia?aay /anoue ooaa?aeaeaiey, ianoieueei aea iaaa?ia aoi?ay aai iieiaeia. I?i-
oea iiauo noaeia aunooiaea aeaenoaeoaeueii oieueei ?aaeoeeiiiay i?anna, ii
ia aaeaieaoo?o iaiaaeee nuiaeenue eiaiii e oieueei ec eeaa?aeueiiai eaaa?y.
Oaea a 1866 a. , oiaaea i?aaio Ieienoa?noaa THn-
oeoeee, i?eoiaeeeinue ionoaeaaoue aaeaieaoo?o io e , aeieacuaaaoeo, /oi Niaaoo ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaneiio?ieueiia i?aai
ono?aiyoue io i?eiyoey a nineiaea eeoe ii iaoi?iaeueiui i?e/eiai, E eiioeo
aea ?anniao?eaaaiiai ia?eiaea ienae, /oi . O naiiai Uaae?eia ano?a/athony oieueei ?ao?iniae-
oeaiua oeacaiey ia oi, /oi a ia?aia a?aiy aeaenoaey Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia
aieueoia cia/aiea eiaee caaiou ia aaeaieaoneie ?aiooaoeee. . Ii yoe ?ao?iniaeoeaiua oea-
aeae neoaeeee eeoue aeey oiai, /oiau iooaieoue aeoaeio iineaaeiaaaoaai
caoai iaaeaiey, – a iiea aeeeeinue yoi ene?iiaoiia a?aiy, aaeaieaoo?a ia
ae?a/aea ?aoeoaeueii ieeaeie iiaeaea?aeee.

Oai aaaeiaa, eiia/ii, auynieoue, /oi aea nianoaaiii aucuaaei iauano-
aaiiia iaaeiaieuenoai, e ia /oi auee iai?aaeaiu iaiaaeee ia/aoe. *oiau
oynieoue naaa yoi, aeinoaoi/ii inoaiiaeoueny ia aeaoo-o?ao y?eeo i?eia?ao.
E /eneo eo, i?aaeaea anaai, ioiineee iaooiaaoaa a naia a?aiy aeaei E?i-
iaaa?aa, neooaaoaany a nia. Ie?oaeiii Noaea . Caueoieeii E?iiaaa?aa
aunooiee A.Ae. Nianiae/, eioi?ue e aucaae no?anoiua iaiaaeee ni anao
noi?ii, a a oii /enea e oaeeo ei?eoaaa, eae Uaae?ei e Aeinoiaaneee. Naiay
nouiinoue aeaea oae eceiaeaia o Uaae?eia: , iieiaeie ioaoe n iai?/aieai caiaoee, /oi a
?aaaiea oaea oei?aieeenue iaeioi?ua aeo?iua i?eau/ee, i?e nouanoaiaaiee
eioi?uo aeaiueia oioy e iiaeao auoue aeanoyuae (a aeaaiiaia?aiiii ie?a
eieioie), ii ie a eaeii neo/aa ia eiaao i?aaa ia iacaaiea iieaciie. Iaae-
eaaeaei aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia yoe i?eau/ee, ono?ieoue oae, /oiau ?aaaiie caaue
i ieo. Iaia?aiea ioee/iia, ii, e niaeaeaieth, a. E?iiaaa?a – iaaeaaia-
naiio/ea, e i?eoii /aeiaae ?acae?aaeeoaeueiue, iueeee e naiiiaaeayiiue.
Ii neacae naaa: ia ioaeii iia ieeaeeo niaaoia, ie/ueae iiiiue. ss naeaeath
ana nai. Ii oae eae /aeiaae, ia i?eaioiaeaiiue e ecaanoiiai ?iaea aeay-
oaeueiinoe, iiaeao oieueei i?iecaiaeeoue iooaieoeo, oi aanueia anoanoaaiii, /oi
naiiiaaeayiiue iaaeaaia ia ia?auo aea ii?ao aeieaeai aue niciaoueny a naiae
ianinoiyoaeueiinoe e, ca iaaeinoaoeii a?aiaie aeey eco/aiey iiaaeoeo ia-
aeaaiae/aneeo nenoai, i?eaaaiooue e oai ainieoaoaeueiui i?eaiai, eioi?ua

Uaae?ei I.A,. Ni/eiaiey, o. VI, N. 561. – I?ei. aao. (Aiae e ianoi ecaeaiey

I?ei nino.).
.

Ii aeiiino i?eneoae auei aicaoaeaeaii iaaeiaiea i?ioea E?iiaaa?aa a
enoycaiee. Ii aue i?aaeai noaeo, ii i?enyaeiua canaaeaoaee auianee ii?aa-
aeaoaeueiue aa?aeeeo. ?a/ue A.Ae. Nianiae/a iai?aaeaia auea ia aeieacaoaeue-
noai oiai, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa ia auei enoycaiey a niunea oaieiaii ia-
eacoaiiai aeayiey, a auea eeoue iaii?iaeueiay nenoaia ainieoaiey oece-
/aneei aicaeaenoaeai. Ii ee/ii, Nianiae/, ioithaeue ia yaeyaony aa
noi?iiieeii, ii, e niaeaeaieth, a iaoai iauanoaa nenoaia yoa aua aanueia
?ani?ino?aiaia, e .
Oaeay iinoaiiaea caueou e aiciooeea Aeinoiaaneiai e Uaae?eia. O?aca
ca o?acie, iie iiaeaa?aatho aeaoaeueiiio aiaeeco anth ?a/ue A.Ae. Nianiae/a
e ai?y/i iaaiaeotho ia oi, /oi ii noa?aeny oiaeeoue cia/aiea ianeeey, ni-
aa?oaiiiai iaae ?aaaieii, e aeieacaoue, /oi enoycaiey a oaieiaiii niunea
ia auei.

A oaeii ioiioaiee e aeaeo ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai iao. Aai i?aaeaeaeae,
nianoaaiii aiai?y, e nai A.Ae. Nianiae/, ia/aaoee naith ?a/ue n oeacaiey,
/oi ii aieony ioaea/aiiie eaeae, i?ec?aea. . Yoi iaaiaeiaaiea canei ia?aianaii auei, ii iaueiiaaieth, e
ia caueoieea io/eoaey, e ie/aai oa?aeoa?iiai, neaaeiaaoaeueii, caeanue ia
auei au. Ii e Uaae?ei, e Aeinoiaaneee ia?aiinyo aii?in ia i?eioeeie-
aeueioth ii/ao e, a eiioea eiioeia, noaayo aii?in ?aa?ii. E Aeinoiaaneee,
e Uaae?ei eiinoaoe?otho, /oi eae aaeaieao Nianiae/ auiieiee aeia?ini-
aanoii naie iaycaiiinoe, i?e/ai Aeinoiaaneee aua ioia/aao, /oi . E?iia oiai, aanueia y?ei ioia/aaony
a iinoaiiaea iaaeiaiey. . . Ionthaea, eacaeinue
iaecaaaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi caueoa auea iaiaoiaeeia, e ?aaeiaaoueny

/oeueoaoai, ath aeinoeaiooui. Ii Uaae?ei iaoiaeeo, /oi A yoii oniao?eaaaony i?ioeai?a/ea, eioi?ia
oeaeao-aeuenoaoao i , eioi?ua i?iyaeyea a ioiioaiee iaa eeoa?aoo?a,
eae noa?oay nano?a a eeaa?aeecia>. . Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio, oioy, eae ioia/aao
Aeinoiaaneee, caueoa E?iiaaa?aa auea ii iacia/aieth, noaouey Uaae?eia
iineo oaeie yiea?ao: . A y aio: . – 2-e cieioa?ue: – 1-e cieioa?ue: . (Ec iaecaeaiiie
eieae ).

Oaeia no?iaue e aacaiaeeyoeeiiiue i?eaiai?, eioi?ue oaeaioeeaue
naoe?ee auiineo aaeaieaoo?a. A iaaeaeo oai eiae/aneee auaiae ec anaai nea-
caiiiai Uaae?eiui oio, /oi aaeaieaoo?a, eae i?ioanney, ie/ai ia ioee/aaony
io anyeiai ae?oaiai ?aianea, e /oi eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo iia ioaeaeaaony
io naieo i?yiuo caaea/ e eioa?anoaony aii?inaie aeecie, iia i?aaenoaaeyao
iauanoaaiiia cia/aiea. O?oaeii neacaoue, /oi iiae?acoiaaae naoe?ee iiae
, eioi?oth i?iyaeea aaeaieaoo?a ia ia?-
auo ii?ao. Oaeo oio, /oi ca yoe aiaeu ioiioaiea e aaeaieaoo?a ia eciaieeinue.
Ue /anoiinoe, ii iiaiaeo oei?a Nianiae/o, /oi aio ia neaaeiaaei aaycuaaoueny
a oaeia aeaei, aanueia ethaiiuoii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?eaeeceoaeueii a oi aea
a?aiy, ia iaaaea 1873 a., A.Ae. Nianiae/ a naiae canoieueiie ?a/e aiai?ee,
/oi aio ia no?aoii a?aaeaeaaiia ioiioaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa e aaeaieaoo?a.
Ii .

Oaeei ia?acii, Uaae?ei eae aoaeoi noo/eony a ioe?uooth aeaa?ue, iiaoi?yy
eeoue oi, /oi aei iaai aiai?ee nai Nianiae/. E anee, oai ia iaiaa, ii
aunooiee n oaeie ?aceinoueth eiaiii i?ioea Nianiae/a, oi, i/aaeaeii, yoi
ioaeii iauynieoue ?acee/iui iiieiaieai nouiinoe aaeaieaoneeo iaycai-
iinoae e caaea/. Iniaaiii y?ei yoi naiaia?aciia iiieiaiea neacaeinue o
Aeinoiaaneiai. N ?aciuie iaiai?eaie () aaoi? noaaeo aiiaua aii?in i oii, . E ioaa/aao ia yoio aii?in
aanueia ia/aeueii: .

Iiea, oaeei ia?acii, Aeinoiaaneee eae aoaeoi aua eieaaeaony. Ii a
aeaeueiaeoai ii noaiiaeony aieaa ii?aaeaeaiiui e i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi
aaeaieao ia iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue aeia?iniaanoii. . .
Ec anao yoeo noaeaeaiee iaiin?aaenoaaiii e iaecaaaeii auoaeaao oio

Nianiae/ A.Ae. “Canoieueiua ?a/e), n. /. – 1]?ei. aao.

iae /oi a eioa?anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo aaeaieaoo?a aeieaeia auoue oie/oi-
ae ]-[i Aeinoiaaneee ia ?aoaaony oaeie auaiae naeaeaoue e. i?aaeoniio?e-
“(ae iaiai?eaoenue, /oi aai neiaa i?aaenoaaeytho iaeaiaeoee ia?aaeien,
i noaaeo aii?in: . Eoae, n iaeiie noi?iiu – i?eciaiea /anoii eniieiai-
iiai aaeaieaoneiai aeieaa e aeanoi/aeoaa i?ac?aiea ca yoi, n ae?oaie – i?e-
oaiie einoeoooa aaeaieaoo?u a?aaeiui onoaiiaeaieai e ?aoeoaeueiia ia-
aeaeaiea iinyaiooue ia aai nouanoaiaaiea – yoa iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue noaeaea-
iee, yoe aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey canoaaeytho aeoiaoue, /oi a iniiaa oae
eaaei i?i?uaaaoaainy a?aaeaeaaiiai ioiioaiey e aaeaieaoo?a eaaeaei oei-
?aieaoaany aaeaie i?aaeoaaaeaeaiea, eioi?ia, eae iu aeaeaee auoa, oae neeue-
ii aeaaaei naay /oanoaiaaoue i?e aaaaeaiee noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu. Iiyoiio aei-
noaoi/ii auei ethaiiuoiiai oaeoa, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyaony ia aiieia ii-
iyoiui, ia niioaaonoaoao eaeei-oi niooiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi i caaea/ao
aaeaieaoo?u, /oiau ia noa?uo ae?iaeaeao auniei iiaeiyeinue yoi caei?aiaeia
i?aaeoaaaeaeaiea, e /oiau iii a ?aiiai a yoeo oaeoao eneaei iiaiai aeey naay
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey.

Aua aieaa y?ei oaeia eiaiii ioiioaiea i?iyaeeinue ia aeaea ii iaae-
iaieth a?. Iynieeiauo a iiaeeiaa aeooiaiiai caaauaiey Aaeyaaa. Caeanue ia
auei aeaaea e oiai iauanoaaiiiai eioa?ana, eaeie a aeaea E?iiaaa?aa au-
cuaaei enoycaiea ?aaaiea. Iynieeiau iaaeiyeenue a iiaeeiaa aeooiaiiai
caaauaiey Aaeyaaa; yoei caaauaieai eiouanoai inoaaeyeinue aeaia iieie-
iiai. A?aaeaeaineeie enooeaie ii aeaeo aunooieee ethaee, niaa?oaiii /oaeaeua
Aaeyaao, ia eiaaoea n iei i?e aeecie aai ieeaeeo niioaiee. Caueoieeii
iaeiiai ec a?aoueaa Iynieeiauo aunooiee E. E. A?naiueaa. Aeaei neooaeinue
aeaa ?aca: ia?aue ?ac a Iaoa?ao?aa, aaea iaaeieoaeai aunooiae A.O. Eiie,
aoi?ie ?ac, iinea eannaoeee ia?aiai ii?aaaeaoaeueiiai i?eaiai?a, a Iineaa,
ii e caeanue i?enyaeiua canaaeaoaee auianee ii?aaaeaoaeueiue aa?aeeeo. . Ia noae iinuiaeenue naiua a?o-

-, eo. – ec i?aaeoanoaothoaai, iacaaeneiiai iiuoa.

Eiaaea i?iecianai aueue\ ii?aaaeaoaeueiue i?eaiai?, ioaeeea, eae ecaanoii, caoeeaea, a ai?iaea
aeiaieueiu ?aoaieai i?enyaeiuo e eiiiaioe?otho aai oaeeie iioeaaie, eioi?ua ia eiatho
“i iauaai n caaea/aie i?aainoaeey: ?anneacuaatho iiiaia iiiaeanoai oaeeo aauae, eioi?ua iiaoi-
niieacii e i?ioeaii> (1 Iaciaeiiaoe a Nia. Aaae.> 26/11 18/2 a.). i Iaeiieaa no?anoii iaiaaee
->”, eioi?ue iinea aoi?iai ii?aueaeaineueiiai aa?aeeeoa niioaaoeeny e ienae oaea e ia?aoiii niun-
ueai[;n iIoanoaaiiia iiaiea aeaaii \:+:a aicao/aeaeinue ii yoiio i?ioeanno ?acee/iuie oieeaie e
-. – ie, iaiiieiathueie a yoii ioiioaiee ciaiaieoue oe/ii?ineee i?ioeann, ai a?aiy eioi?iai

aua ia?aeaiey e eineioaoeee. Ieii/aiea iiae ?a/e aucaaei a ia/aoe yaei-
aeoua auoiaeee. Iia ia oioaee i?inoeoue oiai, /oi y ia i?aaenoaaee ec naay
o?aioeocneiai iaaeieoa., aeaeyuaai a ii?aaaeaoaeueiii i?eaiai?a ee/ioth
aeey naay iaeaeo. Ia oieueei iaeeay i?anna, ii e iaeioi?ua aieaa nieeaeiua
i?aaiu, – au?aaeaaoea /aou?a aiaea nionoy naia e?aeiaa niaeaeaiea ii
iiaiaeo inoaaeaiey iiith i?ieo?aoo?u, – iaiaaeaee ia iaiy ca neaainoue
iaaeiaiey, a iaeei, eiaaoee e?oiioth ecaanoiinoue a aaeeao?enoeea, eneon-
iue oeaaeeaaoaeue iauanoaaiiuo iano?iaiee, aeaaea iacaae a naiai oaeueaoiia
iia iaaeiaiea caueoeoaeueiie ?a/ueth>.

, ia oioaee aeiionoeoue iunee, /oi ii iia auoue oaaaeaeai a iaaeiiaiinoe
ia?aoeaoaainy e iaio iiaenoaeeiiai, e n iaiie o ?oa aiieee i iieo/aiiii
ei ca naie oyaeaeue e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue o?oae aiieia caeiiiii aiciaa?aae-
aeaiee. Auoue iiaeao, a yoeo caaenoeeauo iaiaaeeao eaaeaea iaeia ec i?e/ei
oiai, /oi anei?a ?onneay aaeaieaoo?a oo?aoeea a naieo ?yaeao oaeiai aacoi-
?a/iiai e /enoiai, eae e?enoaee, aeayoaey> .

Nai E. E. A?naiueaa io?eoeaao naycue iaaeaeo yoeie iaiaaeeaie e inoaa-
eaieai aaeaieaoo?u, ii, ai anyeii neo/aa, ianiiiaiii, /oi oaeia no?anoiia
ioiioaiea ia iiaei ia aiineoue nioou e o?aaiae a aeayoaeueiinoue iieiaeiai
nineiaey. A iaaeaeo oai, eae caia/aao A.O. Eiie, N oao ii? i?ioei aieaa iieoaiaea, e iauanoai i/aaeaeii niciaei naith ioeaeo: eae ?a/ue
caueou, oae e aa?aeeeo i?enyaeiuo auee ano?a/aiu a Iineaa au?aaeaieai iieiiai oaeiaieuenoaey,
ianoieueei a?iieei, /oi iii aucaaei caia/aiea i?aaenaaeaoaey. A yoii iaeuecy ia aeaeaoue aeia?iai ciaea
aeey iaoaai iaoanoaaiithai ?acaeoey: iaoaaaeaiea iauanoaa e i?eaiai?o i?enyaeiuo anoue i?aaeaea anaai
iaoaaaeaiea e naiiio naaa: aeaeaiea aea iauanoaa iiae/eieoue i?enyaeiuo iinoi?iiiaio aeeyieth, aai
o?aaiaaiea io i?enyaeiuo ecaanoiiai ?aoaiey – yaeaiea a aunoae noaiaie i?enei?aiia: yoi aeeyiea,
yoi o?aaiaaiea iiaoo, aaaeue, enoiaeeoue e ia ec iauanoaa, ii ec ae?oaeo, niaa?oaiii /oaeaeuo iauano-
aaiiiio iiaieth enoi/ieeia>. – I?ei. aaai.
Eiie A.O. , n. 147, 148. – I?ei. aaai.

?iaeiaiio a nouiinoe aeaeo iauanoaaiiia iiaiea>. Aaaeue, a naiii aeaea,
aee au aeaaea aeiionoeoue, /oi iiaeeia aue niaa?oai Iynieeiauie. oi a?yae
i?oe oeacaiiuo oneiaeyo, eiaaea aii?in oae i oii, aoaeao ee i?eiaaeeaaeaoue
ouanoai aeaia, n eioi?ie iieieiue aue a iaeeo/oeo ioiioaieyo, eee
niaa?oaiii /oaeaeui aio ethaeyi, – a?yae ee yoi i?anooieaiea iiaei aie-
oeaeaao-ue iauanoaaiioth niaanoue. N ae?oaie noi?iiu – ia iiaei aea iauano-
aaiiia iiaiea i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue naia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeiiaiinoe Iyn-
ieeiauo i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio oaaaeaeaieth caueoieea, /aou?iaaeoeaoue eao cia-
eiiiai n Iynieeiaui e Aaeyaaui. Aua neeueiaa aeieaeai aue iieieaaaoue
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea aa?aeeeo i?enyaeiuo. Ii iii, iai?ioea, ia inoaii-
aeeinue e ia?aae oai, /oiau aianoa n aaeaieaoo?ie aeene?aaeeoe?iaaoue e noae
i?enyaeiuo. Oi/ii oae aea oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi E.E. A?naiueaa iieueci-
aaeny oaea oiaaea eneeth/eoaeueiie ?aiooaoeeae, i eioi?ie aiai?ee A.O. Eiie,
oieueei iaino?yei no?anoiinoue iaiaaeaiey, a ioithaeue ia canoaaeyei iieiea-
aaoueny eee oniiieoueny a ni?aaaaeeeainoe e oeaeaniia?aciinoe iaiaaeie. Anee
e yoiio i?eaaaeoue ioia/aiioth auoa, ii ioiioaieth e , eaaeinoue
ia?aoiaea n iaeiie iiceoeee ia i?ioeaiiieiaeioth, oi ea?oeia iieo/aaony
aeinoaoi/ii y?eay.

Iiyoiio i?eaaaeaiiuie aeaoiy eiie?aoiuie i?eia?aie iiaeii ia?aie-
/eoueny, oai aieaa, /oi Iynieeianeia aeaei noaei ia?eoeaoaeueiui, e?ueaoui
au?aaeaieai aeey iaicia/aiey neiaeeaoaainy iiaiey ia aaeaieaoo?a. E Aeinoi-
aaneee , e Uaae?ei ia ?ac aica?auaeenue e aaeaieaoo?a, e anaaaea a iaeiii e
oii aea oiia, i?e/ai caia/aoaeueii, /oi Uaae?ei eiae aeeceeo i?eyoaeae n?aaee
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo (A.I. Oieianeee e A.I. Aaaaneee).

Io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea Aeinoiaaneiai e aaeaieaoo?a, ianiiiaiii, iauyniyaony i?e/eiaie
aieaa aeoaieeie, iacaaeneiuie io oiai eee ae?oaiai ninoiyiey ?onneie aaeaieaoo?u. Eae ni?aaaaeeeai
caia/aao aI.E. Aeoaiaaeueae a noaouea i Aeinoiaaneii (Neeoyou, auione II, no?. 92): ,
ii e oai. aeaaiia, /oi iie iaeee, /oi iie iiaa?oiinoiua caueoieee /aeiaa/aneie aeooe e nieiatho n
iaa i?anooieaiey, eae oaieo. A naiae i?ioanneiiaeueiinoe iie iaoaiece?otho /aeiaaea e ieeiaaea ia
aeaeyo, a /ai enoeiiay i?anooiiinoue e i?aaioa. Iiaeii naaa i?aaenoaaeoue, eaeoth ee/ioth a?aaeaeo aeieaeai
ieoaoue noaei?iaeiue Aeinoiaaneee, oa?cathueeny i?iaeaiie i?anooieaiey e iaeacaiey, e caeii-
/aiiie, aeeo?aoiie, ia?yaeiie oeao?a caueoieea ii i?ioannee… Iaauiineia aeey Aeinoiaaneiai oa
“oue e eaaeiiuneaiiinoue, n eioi?ie ii?aaaeuaatho io aaea aeiiaaooth /aeiaa/aneoth AeOOO. E

” oi ia naiae ienoe/aneie aunioa ii n i?ieeyoeai ioaa?a au ciaiaieoue aoiaiiue aoi?eci
?” ” ia caaeoiuaaynue i?aaeii/ae au aeanyoue iaaeiiuo inoaeeoue, /ai iaeiiai aeiiaiiai ii?aaaeaoue.
Aei oaeie noaiaie aue ii i?iieeioo niciaieai /aeiaa/aneie aeiu. A oi aea a?aiy ii, eiia/ii, ia
” ” noea. eioi?ue oiaea ia eaeao ca i?aaeaeu oaeoa, e aeey aai onoaiiaeaiey ?iaony a /oaeie
a.. .oae Ianouaeai, e neaaeiaaoaeue a naiai auiuouaaiee enoeiu, iieiie enoeiu, a?oai aoi?aaaony
naiua iiiuneu niie aea?oau.. – I?ei. aao.

A eiioea eiioeia nenoaiaoe/aneea iaiaaeee, a eioi?uo i?eieiaee o/an-
oea naiua auaeathueany ienaoaee, i?eaaee e oiio, /oi ioaeii auei iiae-
aanoe eoiae, naeaeaoue oa auaiaeu, i?aae eioi?uie, eae iu aeaeaee auoa,
ionooiee Aeinoiaaneee. Auaiaeu yoe naeaeae Aaa. Ia?eia a /?acau/aeii
iaooiaaoae a naia a?aiy e aei neo ii? iaiyoiie noaouea , iaia/aoaiiie iiyoue-oaee a eeaa?aeueiii . , – iieuecoaony cia/eoaeueiith ec-
aanoiinoueth a iaoae eeoa?aoo?a e iauanoaa, eae oaeaioeeaue ienaoaeue
e /anoiue iauanoaaiiue aeayoaeue. Ii ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo oao i?a-
eiaania, n a. Eaoeiaui ai aeaaa, eioi?ui noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia noieue aea
iaiaaenoia, eae /a?oo eaaeai. Iiiauaia noaouey Ia?eiaa a aacaoa, anaaaea
n iieiui ni/oanoaeai ioiinyuaeny e noaeaaiie ?aoi?ia e ?aaeaeoe?oaiie
oaeei iiuoiui ecaeaoaeai, eae E?aaaneee, oiathuei /ooei i?eneooe-
aaoueny e iauanoaaiiiio iiaieth>.

Oaeueaoii A. Ia?eiaa iiyaeeny ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii n eieaie E.E. A?-
naiueaaa, a eioi?ie, eae iu oaea aeaeaee, ouaoaeueii nia?ai aanue iaoa?eae,
iaeiieaiiue aeayoaeueiinoueth iaoa?ao?aneiai Niaaoa ca 8 eao. Ii a. Ia?eia
n yoei iaoa?eaeii ia n/eoaeny e i?ioeaiiinoaaeye, iai?ioea, naie aanueia
?aoeoaeueiua auaiaeu oai aeaiiui, eioi?ua niaea?aeaony a eieaa E. E. A?-
naiueaaa. Oi/ea c?aiey A.Ia?eiaa n?aco ii?aaeaeyaony yiea?aoii, eca?ai-
iui aaoi?ii aeey naiaai oaeueaoiia: … Yoio oyaeeee oi?ae aiieia i?eiaiei, ii iiaieth
aaoi?a, e iaoae aaeaieaoo?a, eioi?ay ?enoaony aio a oaeii aeaea:

. Eae au ia oae. Au aeaeeoa, eaeay
iaaaeue, a?iicu, eia?u, ea?oeiu. Yoi ana aeey aan, e au aeieaeiu caieaoeoue
ca yoi. Ia?aoaaieoa a eaaeiao. Ia i?aaaea ee, ianoiyuee eaaeiao ieieno?a.
Iiaeii ee aeaoaai caieaoeoue /aeiaaeo, eioi?iio iaiaoiaeei ieienoa?neee
eaaeiao. Ii aaaeue yoiai iaei. *aeiaaeo iaeuecy ia?aie/eoueny iaeiith iii-
oe?iaeie aeiia. O aaeaieaoa aeieaeia auoue iieiaeay, e?aneaay aeaia, eioi?ay
ia iiaeao acaeeoue eia/a, eae a i/aiue iiaie e i/aiue uaaieueneie ea?aoa, ia
i/aiue e?aneauo e i/aiue aei?iaeo eioaaeyo. I?e ea?aoa ioaeai eaeae, ioaeia
eoiuey ooaa, e, eiay ea?aoo, iaeuecy aea neaeaoue aeiia: iaiaoiaeeii acaeeoue ia
aaeu e aa/a?a, a eoi acaeeo e ae?oaei, oio e nai aeieaeai aeaaaoue eiiaaea
aa/a?a. Naiiio aaeaieaoo oiaea ioaeai yeeiaae e eioaaee. Caieiaynue oeaeue
aeaiue aeaeaie, i?inoeoaeueii iinayoeoue ii/eo-ae?oaoth ea?oai eee aeio: au
ciaaoa, /oi yoi ca i?iianoue – ea?ou.

Oioeoa eiaoue iaiy aaeaieaoii, oae caieaoeoa iia ca ana yoi: ca ea?aoo
aeaiu, ca iia oaiiaineia…

– iaiy, a. aaeaieao, oaeia-oi e oaeia-oi aeaei…

i ae, a /enea ia?aeaiee ia caueoieeia ii oiiiyiooiio aeaeo i iiaeeiaa aeooiaiiai caaauaiey
Iacuaaeinue ia oi, /oi caueoieee iieo/eee naie aiii?a? ooo aea, a caea canaaeaiey, iinea
“””e-iaiiy aa?aeeeoa i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae, /oi, ii neiaai E.E. A?naiueaaa, ninoaaeyao auaeoi-
– I?ei. aao.

– Ai… A ai neieueei oeaieoa au yoio ene?

– Aea ene iaaieueoie, ?oaeae 800. ss /aeiaae aaaeiue, iia e 800 ?oaeae
aei?iae.

Aaeaieao oio?eony e a ?ayaeoiuee ea?aao ei?iaoeith, ioaaeynue a naia e?anei.
– Eae aea au neaaeaoa, – nie?aiii ni?aoeaaao , caaey-
aeuaay n aaniieienoaii a no?iaua i/e caeiiieea.

– Ciaaoa, /oi? ss aai niaaooth a?ineoue yoio ene… – ?aoeoaeueii iau-
yaeyao aaeaieao. – Ea?a naa/ae ia noieo.

– Eae ia noieo, iiieeoeoa… Ca /oi aea naiaio aeia?o iiiai?anio
i?iiaaeaoue?

– Aeaeeoa ee, yoe iaeaiueeea aeaeeoee noiyo iai noieueei aea oeiiio,
eae e ii?yaei/iua aeaea, a oeaee ieeaeie… ss ia iiao acyoue iaiueoa 500 ?oa-
eae… Oae anoue ee aai ?an/ao?
– Iiieeoeoa, a. aaeaieao, aaaeue yoi 60%!

– Iiaeaoa ia?aoeoueny e ae?oaiio iiaa?aiiiio; y neeoeii caiyo, –
oieiaeii aui?iaaaeeaaao iaoiieeiue caeiiiee.

Oaeiau aaeaieaou aeiia. I?aau au eee aeiiaaou, yoiai aii?ina iie
aai ia i?aaeeaaatho. Ei aeinoaoi/ii ciaoue, noieo ee a?aoueny ca aeaei, eee
ia noieo: iiiai ee ia?aiaaeao a ea?iai, eee iaei.

Ii, iiaeao auoue, iu iiea/eaaai ?ineioue eo ianoaiiaee e ono?aeaaai
ei aania/aeueiue auo oeaiith naiaai nianoaaiiiai aeaaininoiyiey ii e?aeiae
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iiaeao auoue, aac ieo iu eeoeeenue au e iineaaeiaai, e
oieueei iiiiuueth iaiaueiiaaiiie iiuoiinoe, oneeee e eiaeinoe aaeaieaoa
nianee naith /anoue eee naia eiouanoai. Iaaei aea, a naiii aeaea, caieaoeoue
/aeiaaeo, eioi?ue anth thiinoue iinayuaao eco/aieth aeey aan naiae niaoee-
aeueiinoe, a iioiio i?iaiaeeo aeie e ii/e a ?aaioa iaae aaoei aeaeii, a?inay
naie nianoaaiiua aeaea. Yoi auei au ooaoeoaeueii, anee au auei ni?aaaae-
eeai. Ii, e niaeaeaieth, ai?ueeee iiuo iieacae nianai ia oi. Anee au ii-
?o/eee aeaei aaeaieaoo, yoi ioithaeue ia cia/eo, /oi au aa?aioe?iaaiu io
anyeie caaiou ia yoii aeaea, /oi aaeaieao aoaeao ci?ei neaaeeoue ca anaie aai
oacaie e ca?aiaa i?eaioiaee aeey aan iaaeaaeiua n?aaenoaa iai?iiu. Iao, e
niaeaeaieth, nieioue aea ?yaeii au aeaeeoa, /oi aaoe aaeaieaou i?iioneatho
n?iee aiaeeyoeee, ociatho iinea aan i iai?aaeaiee aeaea, a eiiaaea e niaa?-
oaiii ia ni?aaeythony i iai. Anee eo aa?uo io aeaea ia ianoieueei aaeee,
/oia o ieo ooee noaee ia iaeooea, aoaeueoa oaa?aiu, /oi a ia?iiiii aieue-
oeinoaa neo/aaa iie ciaeiiyony n aeaeii oieueei i?e iiaea/a i?inuea aea
iaeaioia noaeiaiai?aiey, naiui iiaa?oiinoiui e aaco/anoiui ia?acii.
Oioeoa aeaenoaeoaeueii aeaeaaoue naia aeaei, naie yaeyeoanue a noae, naie ii-
ioeaeoa aaeaieaoa e oeacuaaeoa aio ia aai oiouaiey.

(“eaaeoo ca/ai aea aaeaieaou? Ii/aio aea a oaeii neo/aa naiiio ia
oe aeaea? Aii?in eiae/aneee, ii-aeaeeiiio, oi?aeanoaothuee. Ii ooo-oi
eeoea ?acieoea iaaeaeo i?aeoeeie e oai?eae. Ii oai?ee, au anaaaea ai?aaa
(aeoenue aac aaeaieaoa. Ia i?aeoeea, aac aaeaieaoa au n o?oaeii iieo/eoa
aioth ionooth ni?aaeo a noaea, ia aiai?y oaea i auea?uoa aeaea. Aaeaieaou –
ae ethaee a noaea, e eo iin?aaeie/anoai /ooue ia aoeaaeueii o?aaoaony noaeii.
Ioaeeea aei oaeie noaiaie oaaaeeeanue, /oi aeaa?e noaea ioe?uou, a nouiinoe.
oieueei aaeaieaoai, /oi aeaaii a?ineea iiiuoee iaoiaeeoueny aac ieo. Ii e?ae-
“?Ae ia?a, oaeiaa i?aeoeea oao ie?oaeiuo noaeia, eioi?ua iai ciaeiiu>.

Oaeia, ii neiaai A. Ia?eiaa, oei iaoaai aaeaieaoa. Anoue, eiia/ii,
eneeth/aiey. Ioaeeea ciaao ianeieueei neaaiuo eiai a /enea ecaanoiuo
aaeaieaoia iaoeo, ii yoi – ?aaeeia, . Eae ie ia/aeueia, iaeiaei, ia?eniaaiiay ea?oeia, ana
aea inoaaaeinue au aua ooaoaiea, /oi yoi yaeaiea a?aiaiiia. Oai aieaa,
/oi aaoi? e nai oeacuaaao ia oiaaeaoiaa ainiiaenoai – io/anoe niciaoaeue-
iia, io/anoe aanniciaoaeueiia – a aa?iiaeneii ia?aciaaiiii iauanoaa
i?eioeeia ooeeeoa?ecia, eioi?ue ioeaieaaao i?aanoaaiiia aeinoieinoai ii-
nooieia n oi/ee c?aiey auaiaeu eo. Iu oaea oiiieiaee, /oi yoe ia/aea
nicaeaee a iauanoaa i?aeoeeo . Ii caia/aoaeueii, /oi
nai A. Ia?eia n/eoaao oai?eth ooeeeoa?ecia i?ia?anneaiie e i?ioeaiii-
noaaeyao aa iiaaaeaieth aaeaieaoia a aai aiia?aaeaiee. Oaeo yoio aanueia
oa?aeoa?iue, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuee i noaiaie niooaiiinoe iiiyoee. Nae/an,
iaeiaei, yoo nnueeo ia ooeeeoa?eci ioaeii ioiaoeoue eeoue eae ianoiyoaeue-
noai, eioi?iio iiaeii auei i?eienuaaoue oi eee ae?oaia, ii a?aiaiiia aee-
yiea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aaaeue aaeaieaoo?a oieueei o ian auea yaeaieai iiaui,
A ae?oaeo no?aiao einoeooo yoio ainoiaeeo e aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe, e, oaeei
ia?acii, e niiinoaaeaiea n eiino?aiiie aaeaieaoo?ie aeaao i?aai iaaeayoueny,
/oi ia/aeueiay ea?oeia, ia?eniaaiiay A. Ia?eiaui, eiaao oa?aeoa? a?a-
iaiiue. Aaoi?, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?aaeoniao?eaaao oaeia aic?aaeaiea . . Ii ec aeaeueiaeoaai ieacuaaaony, /oi ?a/ue eaeao aiana
ia i ianoiyuae ieiooa, /oi ii naiiio nouanoao naiaio aaeaieaoo?a anoue
einoeooo aioeainoaea?noaaiiue. Aeinoiaaneee, eae iu aeaeaee, iaiaa?eaaeny,
/oi ana aai iunee ii yoiio iiaiaeo ii auneacuaaao eae ia?aaeien. A. Ia?eia,
iaiai?io, ooaa?aeaeaao naie caeeth/aiey eae iai?aeiaeioth enoeio. ,
?acaeaay aeaeueoa yoo iuneue, aaoi? nai naay iiaenoaaeaaao, e auaiaeu aai
noaiiayony ana aieaa ino?uie. . Ionthaea aaoi? i?eoiaeeo e caeeth/aieth, /oi nicaeaiea einoeoooa
aaeaieaoo?u aiana ia anoue oaa aia?aae, e eo/oaio aoaeouaio, eae e?anoueyineay
?aoi?ia, iiaeaoiay e o.i. Iao. Yoi noa?ue a?ao, eioi?ue ia na?anuaaaony,
eae eciioaiiay ia?/aoea. Yoi noa?ay aieaciue, eioi?ay a?anoaao a aeoaeio
i?aaiecia e i?eieiaao oai iiaua oi?iu. .

Eoae, cia/eo, aeaei ia ai a?aiaiiuo eee ianoiuo oneiaeyo, a a i?e/eiao
i?aaie/aneeo e iaono?aieiuo. Iiyoiio ec anao i?eaaaeaiiuo ooaa?aeaeaiee
oieueei iaeei auaiae e iiaeao auoue naeaeai: aaeaieaoo?o ioaeii oie/oiaeeoue.
Oaeie auiaae e aue naeaeai oiaaea a ia/aoe. , –
aaeaieaoo?a anoue o/?aaeaeaiea aaci?aanoaaiiia, iia aeieaeia auoue oie/oiaea-
ia>. A iaaeaeo oai, ianiio?y ia anth naith niaeinoue, aaoi? o?oneeai ionooiaao
ia?aae auaiaeii, ei aea naiei naeaeaiiui. I?ioea iiaiai noaea aiiaua, . *oi aea eanaaony aaeaiea-
oo?u, oi .

*eoay yoo noaoueth, iao?oaeii aniiiieoue, /oi, ai anyeii neo/aa, A. Ia?-
eia ia yaeyaony a aeaiiii aii?ina eieoeeaoi?ii, ia aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo /anoue
iinoaiiaee o ian oaeiai i?eioeeieaeueiiai aii?ina. Auoa oiiiyiooa auea
noaouey a. N-aa a ca 1859 a. A. Ia?eia eeoue iiaoi?yao,
aeaaea /ooue ia a oao aea au?aaeaieyo, oi, /oi aiai?eeinue oaea i?e ninoaaeaiee
Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia. Nouanoaaiiay ?acieoea eeoue a oii, /oi oiaaea aaoi?
noaouee ia aiyeny aeaeaoue ?aoeoaeueiue auaiae e, iiieiay, /oi ionoonoaea
aaeaieaoo?u inoaaeo ionoia ianoi, iaaeayeny caiieieoue aai eaeei-ieaoaeue
naiiauoiui n?aaenoaii, a ia neaii caeinoaiaaiiui. Nionoy aea aeanyoue eao a.
Ia?eia, aini?iecaiaey oa aea aeiaiaeu, i?eciaaony, iaeiaei, /oi aaeaieaoo?o
caiaieoue ia/ai, e /oi iia aeieaeia auoue nio?aiaia.

Noaouey A. Ia?eiaa i?iecaaea ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea e, /oi anaai ca-
ia/aoaeueiaa, iia i?iaoaeeea eioa?an e aa ia?aienoi/eieo, e oiiiyiooie
noaouea N-aa, a naia a?aiy ia i?eaeaeoae iniaaiiiai aieiaiey. , iaiiieiay ia yoie noaouea, aeaeiaaeny, /oi aa oeacaiey a naia a?aiy
ia auee ioeaiaiu ii aeinoieinoao, e ?aeiiaiaeiaae ainiieueciaaoueny iuneueth
i iaoeeiiaeueiii ?acaeoee noaeaaiuo oi?i, aeathueo aiciiaeiinoue iaieoenue
aac aaeaieaoo?u. Ii a iauai noaouey A. Ia?eiaa eiaea aeaaea eae aoaeoi
aeaaioai?iua ?acoeueoaou. Iia aeiaaea iaiaaeee aei Aa?eoeaniauo noieaia
e aucaaea aeeaaeooth ?aaeoeeth. oio/an iinea iiya-

ioey oaeueaoiiia a. Ia?eiaa iiianoee ?yae noaoae, a eioi?uo ia?auae aie-
iaiea ia oi, /oi iaia/aoaiea oaeeo oaeueaoiiia a , iacaaeneii
iaaea io eo niaea?aeaiey, naii ii naaa eiaao iiiaiciaiaiaoaeueiia cia/aiea,
aeoaieee e aanueia i?enei?aiue niune. Aacaoa iiieiaea, /oi . Ii
caoai ieacaeinue, /oi aieueoeinoai i?aaiia ia/aoe ioianeinue aanueia io?e-
oeaoaeueii e aunooieaieth a. Ia?eiaa. Nai iiaeaa?a iaia/aoaiioth
o naay noaoueth no?iaie e?eoeea e cayaee, /oi, anee eoi iiaeao auoue iacaai
nioenoii, oi eiaiii nai a.Ia?eia. Iiyoiio e iaiyao
naie acaeyae ia cia/aiea yoie noaouee, iaoiaey, /oi i?e oaeii ioiioaiee
noaouey Ia?eiaa oa?yao naia neiioiiaoe/aneia cia/aiea .
Aacaoa niaaooao A. Ia?eiao iiaeo/eoueny e, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, oeacuaaao, /oi
.

Aanueia aeaoaeueiiio e ianoiyoaeueiiio ?acai?o oaeueaoii A. Ia?eiaa
aue iiaeaa?aioo a noaoueyo N.O. Ieaoiiiaa, iaia/aoaiiuo a o?ao eieaeeao
. Io yoiai oaeueaoiia aaoi? aica?auaaony aua
e e oiiiyiooie noaouea N-aa e i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao ei eieao E.E. A?naiueaaa.
Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi a oi a?aiy, eae noaouea N-aa oae iin/anoeeaeeinue, aean-
oyuay noaouey E. Iiaaaeiiinoeaaa, neoaeeaoay nie?ooeoaeueiui ioaaoii ia
yoo noaoueth, ia ?acaeaeeea aa o/anoe, ia yoie noaouea oaia?ue ia aniiiieee.
I?aaaea, N.O. Ieaoiiia i?eoiaeeo e oai aea auaiaeai i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aaeaieaoo?u, eae neeu, naea?aeeaathuae i?ioeaiiauanoaaiiua einoeieou e
iiiiaathuae iaeaeaiiiio a ai?ueaa aai n iaeae/eeii, ii oiai y?eiai aeanea
a?aoiaioia, eaeie ii?aaeae a noaouea Iiaaaeiiinoeaaa, caeanue oaea ia iaeoe.
E?iia oiai, ia yoio ?ac ioaao iineaaeiaae ia a iauae i?anna, a a niaoeeaeueiii
th?eaee/aneii i?aaia e iioiio ia iia, iniaaiii a oi a?aiy, eiaoue neieue-
ei-ieaoaeue caiaoiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

Ii iiaieth N.O. Ieaoiiiaa, iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e aaeai-
eaoo?a yaeyaony iaiainiiaaiiui. Aaeaieaoo?a ia iaiaioea aiceaaaaoeony
ia iaa iaeeaeaiee, e anee iia aeaeaea io eaeaaea, ?eniaaaoaainy ninoaaeoaeyi
OAeaiuo onoaaia, oi ioaeii i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea, /oi i?aaiecaoeey aa in-

, 1875, ? 7. – I?ei. aao.
, 1875 a., I?.? II, 14 – I?ei. aao.

“noiie A?aaeaeaineiai e Oaieiaiiai I?aaa>, 1873 a., ..? 3-5. – I?ei. aao.

oaeanue iacaeii/aiiie, e /oi ion?i/eie a ia?aciaaiee eiiieaeoa ia aaeai-
eaoo?o ieacaeenue aiceiaeaiiuie iaycaiiinoe aac i?aaeinoaaeaiey ae i?aa.
Iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea aaoi? iauyniyao naiui oa?aeoa?ii i?i-
oannee. ) iaycaiu naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai
naiei aea aaeaieaoai>.

16. IOIIOAIEA AAeAIEAOO?U
E NAIEI CAAeA*AI

A?yae ee oeacaiiui, oae neacaoue, aeeoaeneei i?e/eiai iiaeii i?eaeaaaoue
neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueaciia cia/aiea. Ii caeanue N.O. Ieaoiiia iiaeoiaeeo e
aii?ino, eioi?ue aeaenoaeoaeueii aeieaeai aue nouanoaaiii aeeyoue ia ia-
aeaaii?eyoiia iieiaeaiea aaeaieaoo?u. Ianiiiaiii, /oi n?aaee iaa naiie
ia auei a oi a?aiy yniiai e oi/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i caaea/ao aaeaieaoo?u.
Iu oaea aeaeaee, eaeia ?aceia ia?ooaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aeieaa aeiio-
uaii auei E.A. Eoia?ieeii, i?iecianoei aianoi caueoeoaeueiie iaae-
ieoaeueioth ?a/ue. Oioy Niaao e inoaeee aai iiaaaeaiea, ii aii?in i i?aaa
caueoieea cayaeyoue i?enyaeiui, /oi ii n/eoaao naiaai eeeaioa aeiiaiui
e ia caneoaeeaathuei caueou, aucaae, ii neiaai N.O. Ieaoiiiaa, nii?
e a eeoa?aoo?a, e a naiii nineiaee . Ae?oaie i?eia? aua aieaa ?aceoaeai,
iioiio /oi ii eanaaony oiaaeaoiaai ei?eoay aaeaieaoo?u E. E. A?naiueaaa.
A naiae eieaa E.E. A?naiueaa nnueaaony ia oaeie oaeo, . .
Oaaaeaaiue aaoi? niaa?oaiii ia inoaiaaeeaaaony caeanue ia aii?ina,

, ei. 3, n. 132. – I?ei. aao
ai aea, ei. “), n. 143. – I?ei. aao.

?acieoea iaaeaeo caueoie ii niaeaoaieth e ii iacia/aieth. Eiaaony
aeaeanue a aeaeo eaeay-ieaoaeue ?acieoea a niiniaa aaaeaiey caueou (ii a oaeii
o-/aa caueoa ii niaeaoaieth aiiaua aicaoaeaeaao i?ioea naay iaaeiaa?ea),
, ?acieoea oieueei a oii, /oi iaycaoaeueiinoue caueou nieiaao n aaeaieaoa
aeaonoaaiiinoue ca eniieiyaiia ei ii?o/aiea (a oaeii neo/aa oaiue iaaeaao ia
.ioth i?ioanneth aaeaieaoa); n ae?oaie aea noi?iiu, aua i?e ninoaaeaiee No-
iaaiuee Onoaaia oeacuaaeinue, /oi oaeie ioeac aaeaieaoa iiaeao na?ueacii ioya/eoue
noaeueao iaaeiyaiiai, eioi?ue i?aaenoaiao ia noaea oaea inoaeaeaiiui eeoeaie,
ae?aaeiacia/aiiuie ieacuaaoue th?eaee/aneoth iiiiuue. Anee, eae nai E. A?na-
iueaa oeacuaaao, caueoiee, i?aa?auathueeny a iaaeieoaey aei noaea, niaa?oaao
iaeii ec naiuo oyaeaeuo ia?ooaiee aaeaieaoneiai aeieaa, oi ii/aio yoi ianoi-
yoaeuenoai niaa?oaiii ia ea?aao ieeaeie ?iee a aeaiiii neo/aa? I?e au?aaioea
Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, eae iu ciaai, aii?inu yoe inoaeenue aac ioaaoa, e oaia?ue
iaia?oaeeaoeany iayniinoe iiaee aiineoue niooo.

Ii naiui caia/aoaeueiui i?eia?ii i?aaenoaaeyaony enoi?ey aii?ina
ia o/anoee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a iaueo nia?aieyo aeoeeiia?ia a ea-
/anoaa i?aoi?ia ca oo eee ae?oaoth a?oiio aeoeeiia?ia. Ianeieueei nii?iui
e iayniui i?aaenoaaeyaony yoio aii?in, iiaeii noaeeo ii oiio, /oi, ii
neiaai E. E. A?naiueaaa, aio ; ii aieaa c?aeia ia-
noaeaeaiea aii?ina i?eaaei aai e i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio oaaaeaeaieth. Yoio ai-
i?in ianoaeaeaeny a iauai nia?aiee iaoa?ao?aneeo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
8 naioya?y 1876 a. ?aoeoaeueiui i?ioeaieeii oaeiai o/anoey aunooiee
A.Ae. Nianiae/, ii aeiaiaeu, eioi?ua ii i?eaae a caueoo naiaai acaeyaea,
iaaieueii iaiiieiatho ecaanoiia au?aaeaiea, /oi iie iiaeaea?aeeaatho oae,
eae aa?aaea iiaeaea?aeeaaao iiaaoaiiiai. Oae eae yoa ?a/ue y?ei au?aaeaao
acaeyae Nianiae/a ia aaeaieaoo?o, oi aa neaaeoao i?eaanoe caeanue iieiinoueth.
-Caia/aoaeueii, /oi eiaiii yoa ?a/ue, noieue cia/eoaeueiay ii naiaio niaea?-
aeaieth, ia aeeth/aia A.Ae. Nianiae/ai a nia?aiea aai ?a/ae, a eiai oae
ouaoaeueii iiaeia?aii ana, neacaiiia ei.

,

Aniiieiay, /oi ienae A. Ia?eia, iiaeii iiaeoiaoue, /oi ii o/anoaiaae a
iauai nia?aiee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, a eioi?ii iaeei ec naiuo auaeathueony
e aaoi?eoaoiaeoeo /eaiia aai oaaaeaeae naieo oiaa?euae, /oi ii naiiio no-
uanoao naiaio aaeaieaoneay i?ioanney neieuecea, /oi eiaiii a nouiinoe aa
oaeony i?aaie/aneia cei, e /oi caaea/a nineiaey iiaeao eeiieoueny oieueei e
oiio, /oiau yoi cei oiaeeoue. A /anoiinoe, nianai oae iaiinoeaeeii caia/aiea
E.Ae. Nianiae/a i oi, /oi, . Eae aea, n yoie oi/ee c?aiey, Nianiae/ ioeaieaae ecaeaiea naieo
noaeaaiuo ?a/ae, eioi?ua e aei neo ii? neoaeao ia?acoeii e oeieie aeey iaoae
aaeaieaoo?u? Ii, eiia/ii, yoa /anoiinoue – ie/oi a n?aaiaiee n iauei ai-
i?inii: n iaeiie noi?iiu, Niaao o?aaoao, /oiau a ea/anoaa /anoiiai eeoea
i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue ia niaa?oae iinooieia, iaaeiionoeiuo aeey aaeaieaoa,
Ae?oaie noi?iiu, A.Ae. Nianiae/ ianoaeaaao, /oi, aueaey ec noaea, i?enyaeiue
“”?iiue aeieaeai ia?anoaoue auoue aaeaieaoii, aeey oiai, /oiau, ii aiciiae-
iinoe, eieaeeciaaoue cei, oayuaany a i?ioannee aaeaieaoa.

183

Niaa?oaiii ioaeaeueii io anao yoeo oaeoia e ie a eaeia n?aaiaiea n
ieie ia eaeao aunooieaiea I.O. A?iiieoeeiai ni noaoueae . Oieueei /oi caaaeeioe?iaaiiue ia auai?ao a iineianeee Niaao
aianoa ni naieie eieeaaaie, I.O. A?iiieoeeee aunooiee n ?aceeie ?a-
ciaea/aieyie iineianeiai nineiaey. Ii ia noaaeo ieeaeiai iauaai aii?ina,
ia aeaeaao ieeaeeo auaiaeia, iai?ioea, ii inoaaony, aeiaieuenoaoaony ecia?a-
aeaieai caeoeeniie aeecie iineianeie aaeaieaoo?u, iaaeiyy aa a e?aeiae
iaaeeo?aoiinoe, a ionoonoaee o iaa eaeeo au oi ie auei eioa?ania, e?iia
iaoa?eaeueiuo. Aunooieaiea A?iiieoeeiai ano?aoeei ai?y/ee ioii? ia no?a-
ieoeao , auynieaoaai ia-
oianoioth caiaeue/eainoue aaoi?a, ii a Iineaa noaouey yoa i?iecaaea, eiia/ii,
ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea. Niaao iio?aaiaae yaee A?iiieoeeiai a canaaeaiea
aeey aea/e iauyniaiee, eiai ec aaeaieaoia ii eiae a aeaeo a naiae noaouea.

A?iiieoeeee ioeacaeny aeaoue iauyniaiey, cayaea, /oi o?ia ec ninoaaa
iuiaoiaai Niaaoa aeieaeiu naie oi?ioi ciaoue, i eii eaeao ?a/ue. Iinea
ooiaea A?iiieoeeiai ?aoaii auei i?eaea/ue e aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaai-
iinoe Ieaaaei, a Ieaaaei e nai yaeeny a Niaao e i?eciae, /oi i?e ia?a-
aiai?ao n iaeiei ec iaaeiyaiuo ii aaieianeiio aeaeo, au?aceaoei aeaeaiea
i?eaeaneoue a caueoieee I.O. A?iiieoeeiai, O.I. Ieaaaei aio caiaoee,
/oi . Iinea yoiai Niaao
?aoee A?iiieoeeiai e aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia i?eaeaeaoue .

17. ?ACOEUeOAOU

Iieiaeaiea aaeaieaoo?u, oaeei ia?acii, ?enoaony aanueia oyaeaeui. Iia
ia eiaea ieeaeie iii?u e ni anao noi?ii ioe?uoa auea iaiaaeeai. Ia?aaeiaay
i?anna io?aeeanue io aaeaieaoo?u iinea oiai, eae, ii au?aaeaieth Uaae?eia,

, 1875, ? 32. – I?ei. aao.

, 1876 a., 13, 20. Oaeueaoiiu A. Ia?eiaa oiaea naeaeaeenue i?aaeiaoii
ianoaeaeaiey ni noi?iiu Niaaoa. Iiaiaeii iineoaeeei cayaeaiea a nia. Niaao iaeiiai i?enyaeiiai ii-
aa?aiiiai, i?ineaoaai Niaao oeacaoue ia iiaeiaiuo eeoe e eo aeaenoaey e. oaeei ia?acii,
?aciaea/eoue aaci?aanoaaiiua iinooiee oaeeo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eeai aicaoaeeoue i?aneaaeiaaiea
i?ioea Ia?eiaa e aacaou>. Niaao inoaaee cayaeaiea aac iineaaenoaee, iaoiaey, /oi o?aaiaaiea naaaeaiee
iaoaeiaii, a aicaoaeaeaiea i?aneaaeiaaiey iaaiciiaeii, ca ionoonoaeai eiie?aoiuo oeacaiee, e /oi ai-
iaua aicaoaeaeaiea i?aneaaeiaaiey ca iaaeaaii?eyoiua iocuau niaa?oaiii ianiaianoii n aeooii aeay-
oaeueiinoe anaai nineiaey, caeioa?aniaaiiiai a naiaiaeiii ianoaeaeaiee anao i?iyaeaiee iauanoaaiiie
aeecie, a a oii /enea e aeayoaeueiinoe naiiai nineiaey. – I?ei. aao.

aeo?a acaoioiaaeanue i?ioea iiaee ia/aoe e iiaeaeaea auoue iacaae-
ae Ae1. aa aiooaiee e eiio?iey. A yoii ioiioaiee, ai?i/ai, aaeaieaoo?a
a\yea o/anoue iiauo noaeia aiiaua. Oae, A. Ia?eiao ianoie/eai oea-
aa\e. /oi aai noaouee iai?aaeaiu ia noieueei i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u, neieueei
oea anae noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu. Oi/ii oaeei aea oa?aeoa?ii ioee/aaony
aiaieoa noeoioai?aiea Iae?aniaa –
n ecaanoiui /aoaa?inoeoeai:

E niae?aa aiii?a? iaoia?aiiue,
Aineeeoeae iie i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue:
: , e, II-AEAeEIIIO, yoi e auei i?e/eiie, /oi Iae?ania ia?aoee ia iaai aie-
i – !!?ei aai~[.

ioiineoueny e ae?oaei io?aneyi iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; ii i?e iaeiaiee
yoie aiciiaeiinoe, aaeaa ee aeaai?acoiii iai?aaeyoue no?aeu naoe?u e oeai-
ci?neoth oa?oeo ia iaeei einoeooo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo>.

Oi aea naiia ioiaoee e A.O. Eiie a naieo : .

E iaaea?ii a iaeiie ec naieo canoieueiuo ?a/ae a 1874 a. A.Ae. Nianiae/
ii iiaiaeo yoeo ia i?ae?auathueony iaiaaeie caiaoee: .

Ia ioaeii iiyniyoue, /oi oaeia ioiioaiea auei eae iaeuecy aieaa ia ?oeo
?aaeoeee, eioi?ay ana auoa iiaeieiaea aieiao e nin?aaeioi/eaaea naie neeu
eiaiii ia iiauo noaeao e, eae auoa oeacaii, i?aaeaea anaai ia aaeaieaoo?a. A
i?e oaeii iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueiii ioiioaiee iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey e aaeaiea-
oo?a, ?aaeoeee aeaaaee aiciiaeiinoue acyoue aa, oae neacaoue, aieuie ?oeaie.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ioe?uoea iiauo Niaaoia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo auei
caaea?aeaii, e naiua /oaeiaeuiua neooe noaee auno?i ?ani?ino?aiyoueny.
.

I?aaaea, 6 iay 1874 a. ninoiyeinue, iaeiiaoe, ioe?uoea oa?ueeianeiai Ni-
aaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Ii a aeaeaa?a oiai aea aiaea iineaaeiaaei Au-
ni/aeoaa iiaaeaiea i a?aiaiiii i?einoaiiaeaiee o/?aaeaeaiey Niaaoia
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e ia?aaea/a ooieoeee Niaaoia Ie?oaeiui Noaeai,
aaeaeo oiai, /oi .
O e ooaa?aeaeaao ioeoeeaeueiue enoi?e/aneee i/a?e Ieienoa?noaa, ii ia-

ae yoi niioaaonoaiaaei aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iiaeii noaeeoue ii oiio, /oi
iinoaiiaeaiiuo iaoa?ao?aneei Niaaoii ca 8 eao ii?aaeaeaiee i ia?ao
neaiee oieueei a iaeiii neo/aa Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa oneeeea iaeacaiea i?e-
aoeaeiiio iiaa?aiiiio (aianoi auaiai?a ii?aaeaeeea cai?auaiea ioi?aaea-
iey iaycaiiinoae a oa/aiea o?ao ianyoeaa), caoi a iaeiii neo/aa cia/eoaeueii
niya/eea . Aaeaa ee, iaeiaei, o?aaoaony i?eaaaeaiea i?aeoe/aneeo aeieaca-
oaeuenoa, oae eae ec ae?oaiai ioeoeeaeueiiai aeieoiaioa, a eiaiii: ec yanoaoao, /oi i?einoaiiaeaiea auei aucaaii io/anoe eneeth/e-
oaeueiuie niia?aaeaieyie iieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, io/anoe aea iaoaeiano-
aaie, naycaiiuie n ioe?uoeai Niaaoia a yoeo ianoiinoyo, a eioi?uo /enei
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo auei a oi a?aiy aanueia iacia/eoaeueii .

Yoei aea iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueiui ioiioaieai e aaeaieaoo?a iauyniyaony,
/oi oiiieiaaoeany oiaeaoaenoaa Niaaoia ia onoaiiaeaiee i?aaeoniio?aiiiai
noaeaaiuie onoaaaie eiiieaeoa, iaeciaiii ioeeiiyaoeany Ieienoa?noaii
THnoeoeee, iieo/eee iaiaeeaeaiiia ?ac?aoaiea. Eiiieaeo aue onoaiiaeai
caeiiii 25 iay 1874 aiaea, ii a iaai aeeth/aiu e nicaeaiiua yoei caeiiii
/anoiua iiaa?aiiua.

Ec aeaeii, /oi inoaaeaiea ia?yaeo
n i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?ie i?aaeieo oiaeaoaaa ii aeaeai ii?aaaeuaaeinue iia-
naieai, auneacuaaaoeiny i?e ninoaaeaiee noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu: , n. 142. – I?ei. aao.
Nianiae/ A.Ae. , n. 9. – I?ei. aao.
A?naiueaa E.E. Oeac. ni/., n. 61. – I?ei. aao.

, n. 134. – I?ei. aao.
Caeinoaoai yoo nnueeo V N.O Ieaoiiiaa, ,

ei. n. 48. – I?ei. aao.
O?oaeu eiiennee E.A, Io?aaueaaa. O. 3. n. 3

I?ei. aao.

aa?eoaeae aac anyeie caueou. Yoei oiaeaoayi auee iaycaiu: noaeaaiua
ianoa – iannith eeoiaai o?oaea, eioi?ue i?eoiaeeeinue oiio?aaeyoue ia
?ac?aoaiea iainiiaaoaeueiuo oiaeaoaenoa e ia /oaiea iai?anii enienaiiuo
eenoia aa?aiaie aoiaae, a iauanoai – aicieeiiaaieai iiiaeanoaa aeae
naiiai niiieoaeueiiai naienoaa, eioi?ua ieeiaaea ia auee au ia/aou, anee
au eeoea yoe ia oaa?yee a aiciiaeiinoe naiuo iainiiaaoaeueiuo i?aoaicee
e ia aiaeaeaee oai a iai?aniia nooyaeie/anoai. Aeey oaeeo iiaa?aiiuo
i?aaioa enea ninoaaeyea ianoiyoaeuenoai ii/oe aoi?inoaiaiiia, a aeaaiith
noi?iiith aeaea auei iieo/aiea aeaiaaeiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca naie o?oae.
Aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeiaiuo eeoe, ia i?aiaa?aaaaoeo eiiaaea e ninoaaeaieai
iiaeeiaeiuo aeieoiaioia, neoaeeea ia?aaeei iai?aiaeieeiui i?aiyonoaeai
e ieii/aieth aeaea ie?ii, iioiio /oi iiaa?aiiue iaia?aae oaa?ye naiaai
eeeaioa a auea?uoa aeaea aac anyeeo onooiie. Iaeiiaoe, /anoi oaeie oi-
aeaoae, iaienaa io eiaie iaeiie noi?iiu i?inueao, aicaoaeaeathuoth aeaei,
yaeyeny ia noaeiaiai?aiea a ea/anoaa iiaa?aiiiai i?ioeaiie noi?iiu; au-
aaee aeaaea i?eia?u, /oi /anoiua oiaeaoae yaeyeenue a noae a iao?acaii aeaea
e aeicaieyee naaa iaoianoiua eee inei?aeoaeueiua auoiaeee>.

Oai ia iaiaa, aii?in ia oi?acaeiaiee yoie aaeaieaoo?u e ia ino-
uanoaeaiee ia/ae, aicaauaiiuo Noaeaaiuie Onoaaaie, ia aicieeae a
Ainoaea?noaaiiii Niaaoa. I?aaaea, Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao ieiioiaeii
caia/aao, /oi /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ieacaeinue iaaeinoaoi/iui.
Ii, i/aaeaeii, ia a yoii nouanoaaiiay i?e/eia, eai oioy ooo aea eii-
noaoe?oaony, /oi a noieeoeao e io/anoe a ai?iaeao, aaea iaoiaeyony noaeaaiua
iaeaou, einoeooo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iieo/ee iaaeeaaeauaa ?acaeoea,
oai ia iaiaa e caeanue eiiieaeo onoaiiaeai ia aue. Oi/ii oae aea inoaaeaii
auei aac aieiaiey oiaeaoaenoai iaoa?ao?aneiai Niaaoa i ia?ani?ino?a-
iaiee i?aaee i /anoiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa-
?aiiuo. A ia yoii aiiaua ie iaeii-
ai neiaa ia oiiieiaaony.

Iaaei, iaeiaei, eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi e a aeaiiii neo/aa i?aaeoaeuenoai a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iie?aeinue ia iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, eioi?ia aanueia ii-
?aaeaeaiii i?iaeieaeaei auneacuaaoueny i?ioea aaeaieaoneie iiiiiieee. A
1873 a. iineianeia th?eaee/aneia iauanoai ia o?ao canaaeaieyo ianoaeaeaei
aeieeaae i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai I.AO Nieiaueaaa: Ianiio?y ia ianoiyoaeueioth caueoo i?e-
nyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie i?eioeeia i?eaeeaae?iaaiiinoe, th?eaee/aneia ia-
uanoai i?eciaei, /oi iai?eaeeaae?iaaiiay aaeaieaoo?a i?e onoaiiaeaiee
a caeiiao ia?aciaaoaeueiiai oeaica e aa?aioee, iaania/eaathueo aa iacaae-

iaoue e naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, iaeaieaa niioaaonoaoao oeaeyi i?aainoaeey .
I e yoio acaeyae i?aaenoaaeyao, ii-aeaeeiiio, eiii?iienn. Iauanoaaiiia
?oea auneacuaaeinue aiiaua i?ioea anyeeo noaniaiee a auai?a iiaa?ai-
ae oe ia noi?iio yoiai acaeyaea noae . Eiaaea ” ii iiaiaeo caeiia i /anoiuo iiaa?aiiuo caiaoeee,
/oi ii yaeyaony i?yiui ?acoeueoaoii ianinoiyaoeony i?aaeiieiaeaiee i ni-
neiaee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e iauyniyaony eciaiaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaai-
iuo acaeyaeia a iaaeaaii?eyoioth aeey aaeaieaoo?u noi?iio, oi ai?y/i ainnoae i?ioea yoiai, ianoaeaay, /oi iiaue caeii aeaao
i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui i?eaeeaaeth, i eioi?ie iie e ia/oaoue ia niaee, e
/oi i?enyaeiay aaeaieaoo?a ieeiaaea, eiia/ii, ia caaoaeao oao oneoa, eioi?ua
ae ieacae iuiaoiee ieieno? thnoeoeee . A /ai aea, iaeiaei, iiaeao caeeth-
/aoueny i?eaeeaaey? nai i?eciaao, /oi ia i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo aiceiaeaii iiiai iaycaiiinoae, eioi?ua eiiiaine?othony
.
Ii yoi i?aeiouanoai ia inouanoaeaii, e iiiaea naaaeouea e aeinoieiua
eeoea, ia aeaeay iineoue oyaiou caaiey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, inoathony
n?aaee /anoiuo oiaeaoaaa. Iieiaeaiea aaeaieaoo?u, oaeei ia?acii, aanueia
iacaaeaeiia, ii oai ia iaiaa oniao?eaaao i?eaeeaaeth
a oii, /oi /anoiui iiaa?aiiui i?aaeinoaaeyaony aanoe aeaea eeoue a oao
noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo, io eioi?uo iie eiatho naeaeaoaeuenoai. Iiyoiio oy-
aeoueany aoaeoo ioioiaa ia?auaoueny e i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui, ia noaniai-
iui oa??eoi?eaeueii, e ionthaea – , eioi?ia au?aceony a
oii, /oi .

Ai?i/ai, aeey oiai, /oiau yoi cei ineaaeoue, iaoae
aanueia i?inoia n?aaenoai, e a caeeth/aiea naieo caia/aiee aeaao i?aeoe/aneia
oeacaiea: . Aacaoa
oae aieony aeaaea i?ec?aea iiiiiieee, oaeei iaia?aiineiui ae eaaeaony
, /oi iia ia noaniyaony ioe?uoi ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue iaoiae caeiia.

, I?ioieie canaaeaiey a

. 1874, 1-2 ei. – I?ei. aao
, “Iineianee? Aaaeiiinoe>, 1874, Oa 162. – I?ei. aao.
“Noaeaaiie Aanoiee>. 1874. ? 146. – I?ei. aao.

o. 289 \/?. noae. ono. – .

( oaeaiiue Aanoiee>. \? 137. – I?ei. aao.

Ia ioaeii, eiia/ii, i?eaaaeyoue, /oi niaao ieacaeny
aanueia ia ?oeo. Aiae nionoy oa aea aacaoa iiaea oaea eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi a
noaeao noaee aanueia /anoi iiyaeyoueny iieiua oi?aaeythuea eiaieyie e
aeaeaie oyaeoueony. Noaeaaiua ianoa ono?aiyee oaeeo iiaa?aiiuo io aaaeaiey
aeae… aeaeay i/enoeoue iaoo /anoioth aaeaieaoo?o. No?iaue, ii caeiiiue
ia?ac aeaenoaee noaeaaiuo iano aucaae oee?eoey? ieieno?a thnoeoeee, io 7 iay
1875 a., n i?aaeeiaeaieai noaeai aea?aeaoueny aiciiaeii oe?ieiai oieeiaaiey
e ia noaniyoueny aunooieaieai oi?aaeythueo . Eia/a aiai?y, noaeai ?aei-
iaiaeiaaeinue ia i/aiue no?iai ianoaeaaoue ia .

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ianoiua noaeu iaia?oaeeee aieueooth nienoiaeeoaeue-
iinoue a i?enaiaiee caaiey /anoiiai iiaa?aiiiai. Iiyoiio aeaaea , oae ?aoiaaaoee ca nienoiaeeoaeueiinoue, oae eae , eioi?ay ni no?aoii ni?aoeaaao: , – caoai noae aeaeiaaoueny, /oi a /anoiua iiaa?aiiua
i?ioiaeyo naiua aaca?aiioiua yeaiaiou, eioi?ua a?icyo ia?aeeciaaoue ana
i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea iiaiai caeiia> .

, 1876, ? 6. – I?ei. aao.
*?acau/aeii eo?ueaciue ia?ac/ee iauaaoaeueneiai ioiioaiey e /anoiie aaeaieaoo?a i?aaenoaa-
eyao neaaeothuee : (Neaaeotho iiaeiene). Iiaeeeiiue iiaeienai
naiuethaeanyoueth aeaoiy eeoeaie e canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaai iiiiuieeii i?enoaaa o?aoueaai noaia Iiaeeaaneiai
oacaea. – I?ei. aao.

IV. EOIAE IA?AIAI
AeAAAeOeAOEIssOEEAOEss

18. I?E*EIU IAAeIAIEUeNOAA
AAeAIEAOO?IE

. Oae aiai?ee A.Ae. Nianiae/ ia aaeaieaoneii iaaaea 1876 a. A
nionoy aua aeaa aiaea, ii eiinoaoe?iaae, /oi .

Iu ieaea oaeaeei, ianeieueei yoa oaa?aiiinoue A.Ae. Nianiae/a iea-
caeanue i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie. Ii, ai anyeii neo/aa, i?eie?aiea yaeeinue
oaea caiicaeaeui. . Ia o?oaeii iaeoe e i?e/eio yoiai
ia?aniieiaeaiey, iia aiana e ia ne?uaaaony. . N ae?oaie
???iu, e aaeaieaou i?eciathony, /oi eo iiaaaeaiea ia iiaei ia aicaoaeeoue
“aeiaieuenoaa aeanoe. , n. 15. – I?ei. aao.

Iai aea, n. 17.- I?ei aao.

. 1885. n. 59. – I?ei. aao.

191

noae oaeaeia, eioi?ua oineotho ii au?aaiiie o ieo ec ianoe aeiau/a. Iu
i?eoeenue ia ii i?aao anae oa?enaeneie neiaaiaa, iu noaee einoueth a ai?ea

ia iaeiie aunieiiinoaaeaiiie iniau, yoe iniau ioioii au nuaee ian, ii

1 i

ia eacao – oaeaaeoueny> . Ai anyeii neo/aa, iiiuoee i?iaeioeoue io a?a-
iaie aei a?aiaie aeaeaeenue. A naiai ecaanoiii aeiaaieea Ieeeoaiei ni-
iauaao, /oi i?aaenaaeaoaeyi noaeia auei aeaii oaeiia iiaaeaiea oaeaeyoue
aaeaieaoia, eioi?ua ii/aio-eeai ia i?aayony aaeieieno?aoeee. Ii neiaai
, neeueiiai i?ioeaieea aaeaieaoo ioaeii i/aiue iia-
naoueny, eai oaeie i?ioeaiee iiaeao aeiaeoueny e aunueee aaeaieaoa e ca-
noaaeoue aai i?ae?aoeoue i?aeoeeo. Iniaaiii iianii aanoe aeaea e?anoueyi,
eai yoi aoaeao ecia?aaeaii, eae aicaoaeaeaiea eee eae iiaeno?aeaoaeuenoai
e aieiaieyi. Aacaoa ooo aea i?eaiaeeo neo/ae n aeaoa?eiao?aneei aaeai-
eaoii, eioi?ue aue i?aaeai aeaaea noaeo e i?eaiai?ai eacaineie Noaeaaiie
Iaeaoie, ii canei I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao ioiaiee ana i?iecaiae-
noai. Oaeea neo/ae ano?a/aeenue ia oieueei a caoieonoiii oiaaea Aeaoa-
?eiao?aa, ii e a naiii Iaoa?ao?aa. Ia iauai nia?aiee 14 ai?aey 1891 a.
. Iaeiaei, naii nia?aiea a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiie oaeie ia?u
i?aaeeiaeeei .

Naiui e?oiiui aeoii, /?aaaoui na?ueaciuie iineaaenoaeyie, ieacaeinue
ii?aaaeaiea Aa?u Canoee/, no?aeyaoae a iaoa?ao?aneiai iaa?-iieeoeiaen-
oa?a O?aiiaa. Aeaei neooaeinue a 1878 a. a iaoa?ao?aneii Ie?oaeiii Noaea,
iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii A.O. Eiie. Aa?a Canoee/ auianai aue ii?aaaea-
oaeueiue aa?aeeeo i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae. Ii?aaaeaieth yoiio a iaiaeie
noaiaie niinianoaiaaea caueoa a eeoea auaoaai oia. iaa?-i?ieo?i?a
I.A. A\aenaiae?iaa. , n. 14. – [??ei- aao.
Ni.; E. A. Aannai. -Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia>, n. \~>\. – I?ei. aa!I.
. Ii-

aea Canoee/, ii neiaai eiycy Iaua?neiai”, i?iecaaei iio?ynathuaa
ceaiea e ioeaieaaeinue, eae . Iiyoiio
o/an ii ieii/aiee aeaea ieieno? thnoeoeee a?ao Iaeai aian a Ainoaea?-
oaaiiue Niaao caeiiii?iaeo i cia/eoaeueiii nie?auaiee eiiiaoaioeee
aea i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae. 9 aaaonoa 1878 a. niioaaonoaothuee caeii
ae ecaeai , e eiycue Iaua?neee a naieo niiauaao, /oi
aeaeii aue iiiyo oae, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai ia aeiaa?yao aa?iiiiaeaeaiie/aneie
ae?aeaiiinoe ia oieueei iauanoaa, ii e noaeaaiiai aaaeiinoaa. Ii iaeiia?a-
iaiii n yoei caeiiii?iaeoii, eae au ia?i/ii aeey oiai, /oiau iaiiiieoue
i nayce noaeueau aaeaieaoo?u n noaeueaie noaea i?enyaeiuo, auei aianaii ie-
ieno?ii thnoeoeee aua iaeii i?aaenoaaeaiea i iiae/eiaiee i?enyaeiuo iiaa-
?aiiuo iaaeci?o Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee. I?iaeo i?aaeiieaaae ?ani?ino?a-
ieoue ia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, a aeaea a?aiaiiie ia?u, aeaenoaey 1117 no.
II o. 1 /. Naiaea Caeiiia, ecae. 1876 a., i?aaeinoaaeythuae ieieno?o thnoeoeee
i?aai eeoaoue /anoiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?aaa oiaeaoaenoaa ii /oaeei aeaeai . A
eaaeaeoth aeaiioth ieiooo e aac anyeeo iauyniaiee ieieno? thnoeoeee eiae
au aiciiaeiinoue eeoaoue caaiey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai: eia/a aiai?y,
aaeaieaoo?a noaaeeanue a iieioth caaeneiinoue io ieieno?a.

Auei niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi i?iaeo Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee aucuaaaony
iieeoe/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie; aeinoaoi/ii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi
ii i?aaeeaaaeny a aeaea a?aiaiiie ia?u, aucuaaaiie, neaaeiaaoaeueii, en-
eeth/eoaeueiuie oneiaeyie iiiaioa. A iaaeaeo oai, a niia?aaeaieyo ieieno?a
thnoeoeee ie neiaii ia oiiieiaaony ia yoeo i?e/eiao iaaeiaieuenoaa aaeai-
eaoaie, auaeaeaathony eneeth/eoaeueii oa oeacaiey, eioi?ua oaea ciaeiiu
iai ii oeeoe?iaaiiie auoa eeoa?aoo?a. I?aaenoaaeaiea a Ainoaea?noaaiiue
Niaao, aeinaea a ia/aoe ia iiyaeyaoaany, eiaao iiyoiio aieueoie eioa?an .
Iii aeaneo oae:

, n. 15. – I?ei. aao.
, , o. V, n. 402, 403. – I?ei. aao.
. Ni. iith eieao , n. 168. (Aannai E.A. – I?ei. nino.). – I?ei. aao.

1\ae ecaanoii, a ecaeaiee Naiaea Caeiiia 1876 aiaea Noaeaaiua Onoaau ia?anoie nouanoaiaaoue
eae oeaeueiu] e iainiaeaiiue iaiyoiee. Iie auee ?acaeaeaiu ia /anoe e ?aciauaiu ii ioaeaeueiui
TT Naiaea Caeiiia. O/?aaeaeaiea noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee ieacaeinue ai 2-i oiia n?aaee ae?oaeo o/-
?aaeaeaiee aoaa?ineeo. Iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ai?y/i ainnoaei i?ioea oaeiai oie/oiaeaiey caeiiiaea-
i iaiyoieea 60-o aiaeia, e a neaaeothuai ecaeaiee Noaeaaiua Onoaau aeeth/aiu auee a iniaue
– ~- I?ei. aao.
I?aaenoaaeaiea 21 ai?aey 1878 a.. ca ? 7517. – I?ei. aao.

noaaeoaeae, aac oniio?aiey, eiaee a aeaeo iaeaieaa aeaenoaeoaeueiui ia?acii
ia?aaeeoue iauanoai, aaa?ythuaa nei eeoeai caueoo naieo /anoiuo eioa?ania
ia noaea io aiciiaeiuo ceioiio?aaeaiee aeiaa?eai, iaia?oaeaiea eieo, ii
iniaiio naienoao oiiiyioouo ioiioaiee, anaai aeinooiiaa e eaa/a aeey naieo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae icia/aiiiai nineiaey. Aianoa n oai, oaeiaay i?aaiecaoeey
noaeaaiie caueou, n onoaiiaeaieai oaniie acaeiiie nayce iaaeaeo iiaa?ai-
iuie, auea iai?aaeaia e iaania/aieth a ninoaaa eo iinoiyiiiai i?aiaea-
aeaiey aeaaiiaia?aiuo e aeia?iniaanoiuo ia/ae, i?eoii ia oieueei a eniie-
iaiee iaycaiiinoae yoiai caaiey, ii e a /anoiie, aianoaeaaiie aeecie ii-
aa?aiiuo. Aeinoeaeaiea neo oeaeae, iaoneiaeeaay oniaoiinoue e iieueco
aeayoaeueiinoe ei?ii?aoeee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, caaenaei, iaeiaei, a naith
i/a?aaeue, io oiai, ianeieueei o/?aaeaeaiea yoi oniaei au ia ia?auo aea ii?ao
i?eaea/ue iaiaoiaeeiia aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauanoaaiiie iio?aaiinoe /enei
aeinoieiuo aeayoaeae ia iii?eua aaeaieaoo?u e ia?aciaaoue, oaeei ia?acii,
a n?aaea naiae aeinoaoi/iia aieueoeinoai eeoe, i?aanoaaiiua ea/anoaa eieo
iiaee au ia naiii aeaea neoaeeoue ?o/aoaeuenoaii a i?aaeeueiii e niioaao-
noaaiiii iacia/aieth naai o/?aaeaeaiey aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee iiaai.

E niaeaeaieth, ie iaeii ec neo iaeeaeaaoeony aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee
nouanoaiaaiey i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?u, o.a. ie /eneaiiinoue aa i?aaenoaae-
oaeae, ie iai?aaeaiea, ath onaiaiiia, ia inouanoaeeenue a oii aeaea, eae
yoi i?aaenoaaeyeinue aeaeaoaeueiui.

Ca ana a?aiy iinea ioe?uoey iiauo noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee a ie?oaao
?acee/iuo noaeaaiuo iaeao /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ca eneeth/aieai
noieeoe e a. Oa?ueeiaa, oioy e i?aauoaei oeacaiioth caeiiioth ii?io 20 /a-
eiaae, ii?aaeaeaiioth aeey cayaeaiey oiaeaoaenoa ia ioe?uoee Niaaoia, ii
ieacuaaeinue aeaeaei ia noieue cia/eoaeueiui, /oiau aiciiaeii auei i?eciaoue
aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieei e?oa eeoe, ec n?aaeu eieo i?aaenoiyei i?iecaiaeeoue ec-
a?aiea /eaiia Niaaoa, a iniaaiiinoe, anee i?eiyoue ia aeae, /oi ec iauaai
/enea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a eaaeaeii ie?oaa eeoue iaiueoay /anoue eo
i?iaeeaaao a ianoa iaoiaeaeaiey Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, eiei ii?aaeaeyaony e
ianoi i?aauaaiey Niaaoa. A nayce n yoeie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie iaaeinoaoi/-
iinoue iaeiaiueoaai /eneaiiiai i?aaeaea, i?e eioi?ii oniio?aieth oieueei
aeaaaeoeaoe eeoe i?aaeinoaaeyeinue ia?aciaaoue ec naay ioaeaeueioth ei?ii?aoeeth,
ioaaonoaaiioth ca naie aeaenoaey eeoue i?aae eca?aiiuie ath aea /eaiaie aa,
ia iiaea ia i?aaenoaaeoue na?ueaciuo cao?oaeiaiee i?e ?ac?aoaiee oiaeaoaenoa
i aeaeueiaeoai ioe?uoee Niaaoia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, aaeaeo /aai e iin-
eaaeiaaei Auni/aeoaa Aai Eiia?aoi?neiai Aaee/anoaa iiaaeaiea 5-ai aea-
eaa?y 1874 a. i a?aiaiiii i?einoaiiaeaiee o/?aaeaeaiey neo Niaaoia.
Ii aua iaiaa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiith i?aaenoaaeyaony oa noi?iia aeayoaeue-

i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ioeaiea e cia/aiea eioi?ie iaia?oaeeaathony
iynn\iio?aiey ioaeaeueiuo aeaenoaee i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai nineiaey. Iaeue-
ia i?eciaoue, /oi ioee/eoaeueiui i?eciaeii, oa?aeoa?ecothuei iuia
iiaaeaiea aieueoeinoaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, yaeyaony ioithaeue ia i?a-
aiiinoue eca?aiiiio aeaeo e aai caaea/ai, caeeth/athueiny a niaeaenoaee
aanoi?iiiaio ?ane?uoeth enoeiu a aeaeao oaieiaiiai i?aainoaeey e a io-
iiaiei o?aaothueo caueou eioa?ania eiouanoaaiiuo; iai?ioea oiai, yoi
i?ecaaiea i?aaenoaaeoaeae /anoiuo eeoe ia noaea eae au aiana oo?a/aii a
ciaiee aieueoae /anoe i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e, aianoi oiai, aunooieee
iinoaiaiii, ana n aieueoae i/aaeaeiinoueth, oeaee eneeth/eoaeueii aeaiaaeiie
oeaeeau, no?aieaiea e eioi?ui ia inoaiaaeeaaaony ie ia?aae eaeeie i?aa-
noaaiiuie niia?aaeaieyie ie i?e auai?a eeeaioia, ie i?e oiio?aaeaiee
n?aaenoa caueou. Oaeie ia?ac aeaenoaee, a?aie/auee aanueia /anoi n ii-
nooieaie e?aeia iaaeaaiaeaeiuie e iaaeia?iniaanoiuie, inoaaony, iaeiaei,
aaciaeacaiiui e iaoeiaeiui aeey i?aneaaeiaaiey aaeaeo eneoniuo i?eaiia
iaoiaea iiaa?aiiuie caeiia a oua?a aai niuneo e i?aaeiacia/aieth. Ii-
aeiaiua iiaoaeaeaiey e i?eaiu, iai?aaeaiiua iooai anaaiciiaeiiai caoai-
iaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea, e ii?aaaeaieth ianiiiaiii aeiiaiuo eee aeaaea
niciaaoeony a i?anooieaiee eeoe, ia iiaee, a iaeioi?ie noaiaie, ia iiaei-
?aaoue aeiaa?ey e naiiio noaeo e nicaeaee i?aaenoaaeaiea i noaeaaiii caueoieea,
eae i iaaiiii oe?uaaoaea anyeie iai?aaaeu e i?anooieaiey. Oi aea ia-
i?aaeaiea, i?ienoaeathuaa ec iauyniaiiuo auoa iiaoaeaeaiee, i?iyaeyaony
e a oaeeo aeaeao, a eioi?uo, ii-aeaeeiiio, iao ianoa eaeei-eeai ee/iui
?an/aoai iiaa?aiiiai, eae, iai?eia?, a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aanieaoiie ca-
ueou; ii e a yoeo aeaeao ia?aaeei iaoa?eaeueiue ?an/ao yaeyaony eeoue aieaa
ooii/aiiui e iai?aaeaiiui e ?anoe?aieth aaeaieaoneie i?aeoeee, iooai
ecaanoiinoe, i?eia?aoaaiie oniaoiinoueth, eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aiaoiei
aeaneii noaeaaiie ?a/e, caaaaeiii eiaeiie e iani?aaaaeeeaie ii niaea?aeaieth
naiaio e ii ianoiyoaeuenoaai aeaea, oi?ioi ecaanoiui caueoieeo, ii ia
anaaaea aeinooiiui ioaeeea.

Iacaaeneii, iaeiaei, io aeaenoaee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ii eniieiaieth
iaycaiiinoae eo caaiey, iaeuecy ia inoaiiaeoueny e ia oii, /oi a /anoiie,
aianoaeaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaeioi?uo ec ieo auee oniao?eaaaiu iinooiee,
aiieia iaaeinoieiua eee aea, ai anyeii neo/aa, iai?eee/anoaothuea icia-
/aiiiio caaieth. Aaeaeo oaeeo aeayiee, oioy e ia aini?auaiiuo iiae no?aoii
oaieiaiie ea?u, ii ianiaeaniuo n /anoiinoueth, eeoei, eo naaa aeicaieeaoaa,
ia iiaeao inoaaaoueny a n?aaea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ia iaiiny a?aaea ?a-
iooaoeee yoiai nineiaey. Iaaeaeo oai, ia anaaaea aiciiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue e
ia oaa?aeia i?eiaiaiea naieie Niaaoaie i?aaeinoaaeaiiie ei aeanoe e oaea-

eaieth iiaeiaiuo eeoe ec /enea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Niia?aaeaiey nee
oaaaeaeatho a oii, /oi auei au iieacii aeiionoeoue o/anoea aunoae aaeieie-
no?aoeaiie, ii noaeaaiiio aaaeiinoao, aeanoe a iaaeci?a ca i?enyaeiuie ii-
aa?aiiuie, n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ieieno?o thnoeoeee i?aaa eneeth/aoue ec ic-
ia/aiiiai nineiaey oaeeo eeoe, a ioiioaiee eioi?uo yoa ia?a ieacaeanue
au ioaeiith e, iaeiaei, inoaeanue au ii/aio-eeai iai?eiaiaiiith.

Ana eceiaeaiiua auoa ianoiyoaeuenoaa i?eaiaeyo e caeeth/aieth i iaia-
oiaeeiinoe ouaoaeueiiai ia?aniio?a, caeiiiaeaoaeueiui ii?yaeeii, ia?aiia-
/aeueii ecaeaiiuo i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iinoaiiaeaiee, a aeaeao i?a-
aeeueiiai e, aianoa n oai, oe?ieiai e oniaoiiai ?acaeoey aeayoaeueiinoe
oiiiyiooiai nineiaey, eaeie aii?in oaea e ?anniio?ai ni anath iiae?iaiinoueth
a Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee. Ii oae eae aianaiea au?aaioaiiuo ii naio
i?aaeiaoo iiiaineiaeiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee a Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao e ?an-
niio?aiea eo caeiiiaeaoaeueiith aeanoueth ia iiaeao iineaaeiaaoue a i?iaeie-
aeaiea oaeouae nannee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa, oi eacaeinue au iaiaoi-
aeeiui, a aeaea a?aiaiiie ia?u, aeey oneeaiey iaaeci?a ca i?enyaeiuie ii-
aa?aiiuie, ?ani?ino?aieoue ia ieo iuia aea aeaenoaea noaouee 16 Auni/aeoa
ooaa?aeaeaiiuo 25 iay 1874 a. i?aaee i eeoeao, eiathueo i?aai auoue ii-
aa?aiiuie ii noaeaaiui aeaeai, a eiaiii i?aaeinoaaeoue ieieno?o thnoeoeee
i?aai eneeth/aoue ec /enea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo oaeeo eeoe, eioi?ua, ii
eiathueiny ianiiiaiiui naaaeaieyi, iaia?oaeeaatho i?aaeinoaeeoaeueiue

ia?ac aeaenoaee, ia niioaaonoaothuee caaieth i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai>.

Eoae, ai anai i?aaenoaaeaiee iao aeaaea e iaiaea ia eaeia-eeai iaaei-
aieuenoai aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie aunooieaieyie aaeaieaoia. Ii i?aaenoaa-
eaiea yaii eaii?e?oao oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua. Iu oaea ciaai, ec ioeoeeaeueiuo
enoi/ieeia, /oi i?einoaiiaeaiea ioe?uoey Niaaoia iauyniyaony iieeoe-
/aneeie i?e/eiaie, a i?aaenoaaeaiea nnueaaony ia iaaeinoaoi/iinoue /enea
iiaa?aiiuo. Aeaeaa, i?aaenoaaeaiea oaa?yao, /oi a Ieienoa?noaa oaea ?ac-
?aaioai i?iaeo ?aoi?iu i?aaiecaoeee aaeaieaoo?u, iaaeaeo oai eae a aeae-
noaeoaeueiinoe ie/aai ia auei naeaeaii. Ii oai ethaiiuoiaa, /oi, ne?uaay
enoeiiua iioeau, i?aaenoaaeaiea oe?ueinue ca iaaeiaieyie, eioi?ua iiaeii
auei /a?iaoue iieiie i?eai?oiae a eeoa?aoo?a. E ioaeii eeoue oaeeaeyoueny,
eae oaeiaii ieacaeinue aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa eniieueciaaoue eeaa?aeueiua iaiaaeee
ia aaeaieaoo?o a oeaeyo enei?aiaiey aa iacaaeneiinoe, o.a. oie/oiaeaiey
naiie nouiinoe aa.

Aaeeinoaaiiui aeiaiaeii i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u, eioi?ue ia ano?a/aeny
auoa a nnueeao ia eeoa?aoo?o, yaeyaony oeacaiea ia i?eaiu, iai?aaeaiiua
ia ii?aaaeaiea ianiiiaiii aeiiaiuo eee aeaaea (!) niciaaoeony a i?a-
nooieaiee eeoe. N o?oaeii aa?eony oaia?ue, /oi ieieno? thnoeoeee iia aiaiyoue

ianoiyoaeuenoai a aeio aaeaieaoo?a. Ii aeaeueoa i?eaeaony oaaaeeoueny, /oi
o aii?in oi e aeaei noaaeeny ia i/a?aaeue. Iiea aea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
aeanue niiaa noaeueaa ?onneie aaeaieaoo?u oanii nieaoaaony n noaeueaaie noaea
iyaeiue. Aii?in ia ii?aaaeaiee niciaaoeony iiaenoaeeiuo noae aiaaui
“i(c ii ioiioaieth e yoiio einoeoooo e aei neo ii? ia iiaeao n/eoaoueny
./aoaeueii ?aoaiiui, aucuaay io a?aiaie aei a?aiaie ao?th iaaiaeiaaiey
i?ioea noaea iauanoaaiiie niaanoe.

I?aaenoaaeaiea ieieno?a thnoeoeee ia eiaei, iaeiaei, oniaoa a Ainoaea?-
a-aaaiiii Niaaoa. Iii ano?aoeei, – aiai?eo , –
nouanoaaiiua aic?aaeaiey, e i?aaenoaaeaiea auei aica?auaii ieieno?o thn-
oeoeee. Yoi oai aieaa caia/aoaeueii, /oi, eae oaea caia/aii auoa, ae?oaie
caeiiii?iaeo – ia ecuyoee iaeioi?uo ainoaea?noaaiiuo e aeieaeiinoiuo
i?anooieaiee ec eiiiaoaioeee noaea i?enyaeiuo, oioy e n iaeioi?uie niya-
/aieyie, aue i?eiyo. Ii a aeaiiii neo/aa ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo oeaeueth e
n?aaenoaii auei neeoeii ?aceoaeueiui. *ai ona?aeiaa a?ao Iaeai noa?aeny
aeieacaoue, /oi ii caaioeoueny i aicauoaiee i?aanoaaiiiai o?iaiy aaeaiea-
oo?u, oai ?ac/a aunooiaea aanieiaeiinoue i?aaeeaaaaiiai n?aaenoaa. Aeinoa-
oi/ii aaaeue auei aniiiieoue, /oi aaeaieaoo?a iieo/eea naiioi?aaeaiea oieueei
a o?ao ie?oaao, a ai anao inoaeueiuo e aac oiai iiae/eiaia iaaeci?o ie?oaeiuo
noaeia, ioithaeue, iaeiaei, ia niinianoaiaaaoaio aicauoaieth aa o?iaiy. I/a-
aeaeii, a?ao Iaeai ia ?aoaeny ?aciaea/aoue ia?aae Ainoaea?noaaiiui Niaaoii
naie enoeiiua iiaoaeaeaiey. A a Ainoaea?noaaiiii Niaaoa ia?aciaaeanue oee-
oaaeaeue Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia. Caeanue, aaea a yoi a?aiy oaea canaaeaee iiiaea
iiaeueiua oai?oeu yoiai iaiyoieea, anoanoaaiii, oiaee oeaieoue cia/aiea aai
e any/anee iaa?aaaee aai /enoioo.

19. IOIIOAIEA IAAENO?AOO?U E AAeAIEAOO?A

Ae?oaie oaeie oeeoaaeaeueth – e io/anoe ii oie aea i?e/eia – aue I?a-
aeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao, eioi?ue a naieo ?aoaieyo a oi aea a?aiy i?aaeeueii
?acaeaae iniiaiua ia/aea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia. A /anoiinoe, /oi eanaaony
aaeaieaoo?u, I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao a naieo ?aoaieyo a oi aea a?aiy

N. 134. A oieueei /oi iiyaeaoainy ioeoeeaeueiii ecaeaiee (Iao-
?a?.. 1914, a 2 oiiao) A.Aanueeianeee ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi .
( 1- II. n. 273). Anee yoi oae, oi a?. Iaeai iiiaeny, oae neacaoue, ia oaei/eo naiaai nianoaaiiiai ca-
“”””/y. /oi i?iaeo ?aoi?iu oaea aioia. Eae ooaa?aeaeaao aeaeaa ioeoeeaeueiia ecaeaiea, i?e aeinaaea ia
” IUI1 Auni/aeoa iiaaaeaii 4 ia?oa 1878 a. onei?eoue i?aaenoaaeaiea caeiiii?iaeoa.., aeaau ai-
“I~” ioeaaeo(-euenoai caeiiiuie n?aaenoaaie i?ioea ceioiio?aaeaiee aaeaieaoo?u. – I?ei. aao.

ouaoaeueii iaa?aaae aa iacaaeneiinoue e naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e ci?ei noiye
ia no?aaea aa?aioee, eioi?ua auee onoaiiaeaiu noaeaaiuie onoaaaie aeey
oiai, /oiau i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua oaeiaeaoai?yee i?aaeuyaeyaiui e iei
o?aaiaaieyi. Oae, a 1879 aiaeo i?aae iauei nia?aieai eannaoeeiiiuo aea-
ia?oaiaioia iinoaaeai aue aii?in, iiaeeaaeao ee iaaeaeiaaieth Noaeaaiie
Iaeaou iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia ioeaca ecaanoiiio
eeoeo a i?eiyoee aai a /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a neo/aa, anee oaeiaie
ioeac iniiaai ia ianoaeaeaiee nia?aiiuo naaaeaiee ioiineoaeueii ee/iuo
ea/anoa yoiai eeoea (380 no.O/?.noae.ono.). Yoio aii?in, eae ecaanoii, ?ac-
?aoai aue ooaa?aeeoaeueii naieie Niaaoaie e ia aicaoaeaeae niiiaiee, iiea
oaeoe/anee Noaeaaiua Iaeaou inoaaeyee aac iineaaenoaee i?eiineiua ia
ioeac Niaaoa aeaeiau. Ii a 1878 aiaeo iaoa?a. Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa ioiaieea
iaeii ec oaeeo iinoaiiaeaiee Niaaoa, e oiaaea nineiaeth noaei ynii, eaeay
iianiinoue aio oa?iaeaao. Oai ia iaiaa, e oiaaea aua a n?aaea Niaaoa iaoeenue
/eaiu (A.I. Oo?/aieiia) , aeieacuaaaoea, /oi ioeac ii 380 no. O/?. noae.
ono. iiaeeaaeeo iaaeaeiaaieth. Ii 5 iiya?y 1878 a. ninoiyeinue ao?iia iauaa
nia?aiea, eioi?ia iinoaiiaeei iaaeaeiaaoue ?aoaiea Noaeaaiie Iaeaou.
I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao (?aoaiea 1879 a. ? 14) ?aoeoaeueii noae ia
noi?iio aaeaieaoo?u e ?acuyniee, /oi yoe iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoia iaaeaei-
aaieth ia iiaeeaaeao, a a 1885 a. (?aoaiea ? 13) aiiaue naiui eaoaai?e-
/aneei ia?acii yoio acaeyae naie iiaeoaa?aeee. Oi/ii oae aea aanueia ?aoe-
oaeueii I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao ia?aaeaeae o?aaiaaiea 354 no. O/?. noae.
ono. i aunoai th?eaee/aneii ia?aciaaiee. Ec yoiai i?aaeea, – aiai?eo
Naiao, – ia aeiioneaaony ieeaeeo ecuyoee, oioy au e a iieueco eeoe, i?i-
neoaeeaoeo ecaanoiia /enei eao eaiaeeaeaoaie ia noaeaaiua aeieaeiinoe e
/eaiaie noaeaaiuo iano (?aoaiea 1882 a. ? 23). Yoio acaeyae oi/ii oae
aea aue iaiaeiie?aoii iiaeoaa?aeaeaai (1885 a. ?14 e ae?.). A i?ioeaiii-
eiaeiinoue Niaaoai, eioi?ua, eae auoa oeacaii, aeiioneaee i?eiaiaiea ia-
eaa/eoaeueiuo i?aaee 19 ieoya?y 1865 a. e i?e aeaenoaee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia,
I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao ?acuyniee, /oi i?aaeea yoe iiaoo eiaoue i?e-
iaiaiea eeoue i?e aaaaeaiee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia; ii ioe?uoee aea iiauo
noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee, ie?oaeiua noaeu, aeaenoaothuea ia i?aaao Niaaoia,
(?ao. 1885 a. ? 14). I?a-
aeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao auneacaeny i?ioea niaiauaiey i?enyaeiuie iiaa-

A.I. Oo?/aieiia iieaaae, iaeiaei, /oi oioy Iaeaoa e ai?aaa ?anniao?eaaoue aeaeiau, ii io-
iaiyoue iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoa ae ia neaaeiaaei au, oae eae iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoa ia iioeae?othony. –
I?ei aao.
E?iia oiai, ?aoaiea auei ii?ioanoiaaii e i?ieo?i?ii Iaeaou. – I?ei. aao.

ie aeieaeiinoe ii/aoiiai ie?iaiai noaeuee, eai yoi i?ioeai?a/eei au
aiaaieth iacaaeneiinoe (?ao. 1878 a. ? 24). Oaeie aea caaioie i iaae-
aeuai ninoaaa nineiaey aeuoeo ?aoaiea 1882 a. ? 23, eiei iiaeoaa?ae-
c i?aaeeueiinoue ioeaca a ca/eneaiee a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua /eiiaieea
aeeaoe/aneiai ioaeaeaiey Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee. Aanueia ianoie/eai
aeao. ?acuyniyao, /oi iaeiaeaiea noaeaaiuie ianoaie aeenoeeieeia?iuo
oaeoee ia aaeaieaoia iiaeao ninoiyoueny ia eia/a, eae n niaethaeaieai
aeae?aeaeea, onoaiiaeaiiiai aeey aeae, iiaeeaaeaueo aeenoeeieeia?iiio i?iec-
aiaenoao (?aoaiea 1878 a. ? 48, 1879 a, ? 61). E ia?aaeaeaieth naiinoi-
yoaeueiinoe nineiaey iai?aaeaiu ?acuyniaiey, /oi ia?aaiaea i?enyaeiuo ii-
aeiiaiiuo ec iaeiiai ie?oaa a ae?oaie caeii ia ciaao e /oi i?e oaeii ia?aoiaea
i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue aiiaue aeieaeai auoue i?eiyo Niaaoii ia iauai in-
iiaaiee (?aoaiea 1881 a. ? 33), /oi oi/ii oae aea ia eiaao iaycaoaeueiiai
cia/aiey aeey Niaaoa ooaa?aeaeaiea eeoea a caaiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai
Ieienoa?noaii THnoeoeee ii a?aiaiiui i?aaeeai 19 ieoya?y 1865 a., anee
yoi eeoei auauei ec nineiaey e caoai aiciaiiaeyao naia oiaeaoaenoai i
i?eiyoee (?aoaiea 1882 a. ? 20). Eiaaea a eiioea ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia
ia/aeenue aiiaiey ia aa?aaa, e iaeia noaeaaiay iaeaoa a 1889 a., o.a. ii/oe
/aoaa?oue aaea nionoy iinea aaaaeaiey Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, ioeacaeanue i?e-
aanoe i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai e i?enyaa ,
oi I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao (ii Niaaeeiaiiiio I?enoonoaeth) ?acuyniee,
/oi Iaeaoa ia eiaao ieeaeiai i?aaa ioeacuaaoue a i?eaiaea e i?enyaa e
oniao?eaaoue i?aiyonoaea a iaonoaiiaeaiee iniaie oi?iu (Oeac 1889 a.
? 285). Caeii 20 iay 1885 a., ia?aie/eaoee noaeaeneoth ianiaiyaiinoue,
einioeny aaeaieaoo?u a oii niunea, /oi ia ?aoaiey noaeaaiuo iaeao ii
aeenoeeieeia?iui aeaeai ioiuia ia i?eieiaeenue aeaeiau. Iieuecoynue yoei,
iaeaou ia?anoaee ninoaaeyoue iioeae?iaaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey. Ii I?aaeoaeue-
noaothuee Naiao ?acuyniee, /oi yoi i?ioeai?a/eo aeooo Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia,
e iio?aaiaae eceiaeaiey iioeaia (Oeac 1889 a. ? 380).

Auee, eiia/ii, ionooieaiey io iauae oaiaeaioeee, – ia ieo iai i?e-
aeaony inoaiiaeoueny ieaea, – ii iauay oaiaeaioeey, au?aaeaiiay a eceiaeai-
iuo ?aoaieyo, ianiiiaiii, niioaaonoaiaaea iniiaiui ia/aeai Noaeaaiuo
Onoaaia e i?aaenoaaeyea eo aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea. Ii eiaiii iiiai/eneai-
iinoue yoeo ?aoaiee, i?aiiaeaiea ?acuyniaiee /a?ac iauaa nia?aiea ean-
naoeeiiiuo aeaia?oaiaioia aeieacuaaao, /oi ia i?aeoeea Noaeaaiua Onoaau
i?eiaiyeenue iai?aaeeueii, /oi ii/aa iiae ieie /anoi eieaaaeanue, a oii
oaieea, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ia eioi?ii aicaeaeaioo aue einoeooo aaeaieaoo?u.
Eia/a iii, ianiiiaiii, e ia iiaei auoue. Eai iniaaiii iinea ciaia-

ieoiai caeiia 20 iay 1883 a., eiaaea noaeuee aeieaeiu au ii/oanoaiaaoue, /oi
e iiae ieie naieie ii/aa oaea ianeieueei iieieaaaeanue, ?aoaiey I?aae-
oaeuenoaothuee Naiaoa ia iiaee eiaoue oaeiai aaoi?eoaoa, eae ?oeiaiaeyuea
oeacaiey Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee. Iauee oii ioiioaiee noaea e aaeaieaoo?a
onoaiaaeeaaeny ii eaia?oiio Ieienoa?noaa, a eaia?oii yoio, eae iu ciaai,
cao/ae e?aeia iaae?oaeaethaii. Aeaenoaoy a ea/anoaa Niaaoia i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, ie?oaeiua noaeu aeaeaei ia ioee/aeenue oie no?iainoueth o?aai-
aaiee, eioi?oth i?iaiaeee I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao a naieo ?aoaieyo.
Oae, iai?eia?, a eacaineii noaeaaiii ie?oaa ie?oaeiua noaeu ii ioiioaieth
e aaeaieaoo?a aeaenoaiaaee, eae a?aiaiiua eiieoaou i i?enyaeiuo iiaa?ai-
iuo, e ii oeacaieth Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue iaeaa/e-
oaeueiuie i?aaeeaie 19 ieoya?y 1865 a., a ia o?aaiaaieyie Noaeaaiuo On-
oaaia. Iiiuoea ia?ineiai Ie?oaeiiai Noaea ainnoaiiaeoue aeaenoaea caeiia
eii/eeanue iaoaea/ae. Eacaineay Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa ioiaieea aai iinoaiia-
eaiea, niioaaonoaothuaa, eae oaea ecaanoii, iicaeiaeoaio ?acuyniaieth Na-
iaoa, e i?aaeienaea i?eiaiyoue iaeaa/eoaeueiua i?aaeea. A ia/aoe oi e aeaei
ano?a/athony oeacaiey ia oi, /oi ie?oaeiua noaeu i?eieiatho a i?enyaeiua
iiaa?aiiua eeoe, ia iieo/eaoeo th?eaee/aneiai ia?aciaaiey e aiiaua ia
oaeiaeaoai?ythueo o?aaiaaieyi caeiia. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi iaeii ec oaeeo
niiauaiee a iiaeienaii
/eaiii noaea, oa?aeoa?ii iioiio, /oi, eae oeacuaaaony a ae?oaii ianoa, ?an-
niio?aiea aii?inia, eanathueony aaeaieaoo?u, a canaaeaieyo iaueo nia?aiee
ie?oaeiuo noaeia ?aneaeuaaao ninoaa eo e anaaaea aucuaaao iniaua iiaiey.

Niaaou i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eae oaea ecaanoii, ouaoii oiaeaoaeno-
aiaaee i ia?ani?ino?aiaiee ia iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?aaee
25 iay 1874 a., a na?aoianeay Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa oioae?eeanue ?ani?ino?aieoue
yoe i?aaeea e ia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ?acuyniea, /oi aia ie?oaa iaeaou,
i?e eioi?ie i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue ninoieo, ii iiaeao aanoe aeaei ia eia/a,
eae acyaoe ca 75 ?oa. naeaeaoaeuenoai ia aaaeaiea aeae .

Ia?aeeaeueii n yoei ?acaeaaeinue i?aiaa?aaeaiea e iaaeiaa?ea e aaeai-
eaoo?a. A Ia?ie, i?e ono?ienoaa caea noaeaaiuo canaaeaiee, i?aaenaaeaoaeue
ioeacaeny iinoaaeoue o?eaoio aeey aaeaieaoia, e ei i?eoeinue iieoiaoue aa
ia naie n/ao. A eiiioiineii Nuacaea ie?iauo noaeae ia noaayo aaeaieaoai

Ai?i/ai, Ieienoa?noai naii eeoue iiae/eiyeinue aeaaeaieyi, eioi?ua iaeciaiii ia iaai iea-
cuaaeenue. Oae. iai?., E-I, Iaaieia, a auoiinoue ieieno?ii thnoeoeee, cayaee a ?a/a.o naieo, ia?a-
uaiiuo e Niaaoai i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, /oi ii aanneeai ionoiyoue aaoiiiieth aaeaieaoo?u, ianiio?y
ia naoea ni/oanoaea. (

, 1882 a., .? 190. n. 311.) – I?ei. aao.

, auneooaoue ii yoiio iiaiaeo oaeeaeoaeueiua noaeaeaiey.

A 1885 aiaeo, /eoaai iu aeaeueoa, a Eeaaa aicieeei aeenoeeieeia?iia
i?aneaaeiaaiea 26 iiaa?aiiuo. Aeaei ia/aeinue n oiai, /oi, eae cayaeyee
aacaou, a oa/aiea aeaoo aeiae iiae?yae, 4-ai e 5-ai ia?oa yoiai aiaea, a noaeaaiuo
canaaeaieyo ii 1-io a?aaeaeaineiio ioaeaeaieth, i?aaenaaeaaoee /eai noaea Aea-
eeeneee e nai i?aaenaaeaoaeue Naao?ia, inoaiaaeeaay i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
a eo cayaeaieyo noaeo, aeiaaee naith ?aceinoue a ia?auaiee aei e?eea: . Yoe oaeou ia iiaee ia ia?aoeoue aieiaiey eeaaneeo i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, oai aieaa, /oi iie ia ia?auo ii?ao naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ano?a-
oeee naiia a?oaia ioiioaiea e naaa e iaiiia?iua noaniaiey a caueoa ni
noi?iiu noaea. Nia?aaoenue e ianoaeea ana oaeou iaii?iaeueiuo ioiioaiee
noaea e aaeaieaoo?a e aeaeay ono?aiaiey eo ie?iui iooai, eeaaneea iiaa-
?aiiua ninoaaeee /anoiia ienueii a. Naao?iao, iiaeienaiiia 26 eiaiaie,
a eioi?ii, ?acuyniyy ioiioaiey aaeaieaoo?u e noaeo, ii noaeaaiui onoaaai,
e oeacuaay ia ianiia?aciinoue n ieie oiai iieiaeaiey, a eioi?ia iie ii-
noaaeaiu, i?ineee ono?ieoue yoi iieiaeaiea e eo/oaio. Naea?aeaiiinoue e
oia?aiiinoue yoiai ia?auaiey ia i?eaaea ie e /aio. A. Naao?ia, i?eaeaa
yoiio ienueio ioeoeeaeueiia cia/aiea, ia?aaeae aai a noae (eae ecaao), a noae,
iaoiaey iaeioi?ua au?aaeaiey a ienueia iai?eee/iuie aeey naay (eae noaea),
ninoaaee oeaeue iaaeieoaeueiue aeo e, oa?iaeay noaeii, iio?aaiaae io i?i-
oanoaioia iauyniaiee. Neo/eeinue, – aiai?eo a. Aeaaeeie?ia, – ia/oi au-
niei ianiia?aciia. .

Ia/aeueiaa anaai, /oi a.a. i?aaenaaeaoaee ieneieueei ia noaniyeenue i?i-
yaeyoue naie ioiioaiey e aaeaieaoo?a ioaee/ii. Oa?ueeianeee Niaao iinoa-
iiaee aeiaanoe aei naaaeaiey Noaeaaiie Iaeaou i iai?aaeeueiii aicaoaeaeaiee
aeenoeeieeia?iiai aeaea i?ioea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai a ioaee/iii noaeaa-
iii canaaeaiee. Niaao i?aaeeueii oeacae, /oi i?e oaeii ii?yaeea aicaoaeaeaiey
aeia?ia eiy aaeaieaoa ioaee/ii iiaeaa?aaaony niiiaieth, i?aaeaea /ai ii iiaeao
i?aaenoaaeoue naie iauyniaiey e ii?aaaeaiey . A


?anneacuaaaony, /oi a canaaeaiee eacaineie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou a Oea?aai-
eieoaenea i?aaenaaeaoaeue iio?aaiaae, /oiau i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue aeii?a-
oeaae naeaeaoaey-eni?aaieea noiy. Ia ii/aa oaeiai ioiioaiey i?iec?anoaee
naiua o?iaeeeaua ?acoeueoaou. ?anneacuaaao, /oi a
Iiaie Eaaeiaa, eiaaea i?ieo?i? iiaeiyeny n ianoa, /oiau aiai?eoue, i?enyae-
iua canaaeaoaee anoaee aianoa n iei; a a ae?oaii oacaea N.-Iaoa?ao?aneie
aoaa?iee, eiaaea iinea i?ieo?i?a anoae caueoiee, iaeei ec i?enyaeiuo ca-
naaeaoaeae e?eeioe aio: .

Aue aua iaeei niaoeeaeueiue enoi/iee, ieiaeeaoee iaaei?acoiaiey iaaeaeo
iaaeno?aoo?ie e aaeaieaoo?ie, yoi – aeanyoei?ioeaioiue nai?, i eioi?ii
oaea i?eoiaeeeinue aiai?eoue auoa. A ainueieaeanyouo aiaeao aceiaiea yoiai
nai?a ia oieueei a oao ie?oaao, aaea nouanoaiaaee Niaaou, ii e aiiaua a
Eiia?ee oaeoe/anee i?ae?aoeeinue. Yoi i?iecioei eae-oi iacaiaoii, naii
niaith. Eae aiai?eony, iai?eia?, a iiene a?oeaa iineianeiai Niaaoa, aeai-
iua, eiathueany a a?oeaa, ia iicaieytho ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, ii/aio i?a-
e?aoeeinue aceiaiea 10% nai?a, e eae iii i?ae?aoeeinue. Ii oai ?ac/a
a?inaaony a aeaca eneeth/eoaeueiay ianoie/eainoue, eioi?oth i?iyaeyee ia-
eioi?ua noaeu. Oae, a 1889 a. neiae?neee Noae ca oeeiiaiea io ieaoaaea
nai?a i?eaiai?ee o?ao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e eeoaieth i?aeoeee ia o?e
ianyoea. A aeaeiaa naiae a eacaineoth Noaeaaioth Iaeaoo i?enyaeiua iiaa-
?aiiua nnueaeenue ia oi, /oi a ae?oaeo ie?oaao aceiaiea nai?a aeaaii i?a-
e?aoeeinue, /oi e Neiae?neee Noae ia au?aaioae ieeaeeo i?aaee, /oi, ioiya
eieae aeey caiene aeae, ii eo ia aica?aoee i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui e iaoae

Iaeaeeineee II.A. Oeac. ni/.. n. 248. – I?ei. aao.

. 1882, E? \\. – I?ei. aao.
“Noaeaeiay iacaoa>. 1882 a. IC. – I?ei. aaii.

aiciiaeiui aanoe caiene e aeaoue io/ao. Ii ana yoe aeiaiaeu oaaaeeee Iaeaoo
ui, a oii, /oi iaeacaiea aeieaeii auoue niya/aii aei auaiai?a, a o?aaiaaiea
ae?a aeieaeii auoue inoaaeaii a neea.

Naie ii naaa yoe oaeou, eioi?ua acyou iaoaea/o ec o?iieee oiaaeaoieo
aecao iiaee au eiaoue nei?aa oa?aeoa? aiaeaeioe/aneee. Anee au eiee/anoai
aeeo oaeoi?ia auei aeaaea cia/eoaeueii oaaee/aii, oi e oiaaea eo iiaeii
aeaeae au, iiaeaeoe, o?aeoiaaoue aeaaea eae eneeth/aiea. Ii oaea oiaaea yoe
aecou neoaeeee eeoue eeethno?aoeeae e iauei auaiaeai, eioi?ua aeaeaeenue
aanueia ii?aaeaeaiii. A iaeiii ?aoaiee iauaai nia?aiey eannaoeeiiiuo aea-
ia?oaiaioia I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa (1879 a. ? 4) oeeoe?oaony ?a-
oaiea Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, niaea?aeauaa oaeeaeoaeueiia i?eciaiea, /oi i?e-
nyaeiay aaeaieaoo?a iieuecoaony . Ia-
/aoue ia oieueei eiinoaoe?iaaea ?iciue iaaeaeo iaaeno?aoo?ie e aaeaieaoo?ie,
ii ianoie/eai oeacuaaea ia oyaeaeia iieiaeaiea iineaaeiae. . Aua
a 1876 aiaeo oae, iai?eia?, ecia?aaeaeinue iieiaeaiea aaeaieaoa a caueoao
ii iacia/aieth: . A ae?oaii aeo?iaea
iu /eoaai oi aea naiia: . Ii iiaiaeo aeaea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai Na?aa?aieeiaa, iaaeiya-
oaainy a iaoaaaeaiee e noaeo e i?eaiai?aiiiai e naieaeiaaiiio a?anoo,
ienae, /oi .

a yoi ni-

“TH?eaee/aneay Eaoiienue>.. 1890, aaaono, n. 87. – I?ei. aao

neiaea, aiieia iiae/eiaiiia ae eeoei, iia yaeoueny iaee/eoaeai no-
aeaeneiai i?iecaiea eee iaciaiey oiai, /oi noae aeieaeai ciaoue. Anee
ei anaio yoiio i?eaaaeoue /oanoai caaenoe, eioi?ia o iiiaeo yaeyaony i?e
niia?aaeaiee i i?aaeiieaaaaiuo (a i?iaeioeee yoei eiaiai i?e-
iyoi iacuaaoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ca o?oae) iiaa?ai-
iiai, i?aauoathueo aeaeiaaiea /eiiaieea V eeanna, oi oiaaea aoaeoo aiieia
yniu i?e/eiu oie a?aaeaeaaiinoe, i eioi?ie oiiiyiooi auoa>.

I?ioanni? Oieieoeeee i?eienuaaao eciaieaoaany ioiioaiea e aaeai-
eaoo?a neaainoe niciaiey iauanoaaiiiai iacia/aiey caueou iaoae noaeaa-
iie i?aeoeeie: .

I?e oaeeo acaeiiioiioaieyo aeanoue ia oieueei ia caaioeeanue ia oe-
?aieaiee e ?acaeoee ia/ae nineiaiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, ii /?acau/aeii
iiaeic?eoaeueii ioiineeanue ei anyeiio i?iyaeaieth nineiaiie aeecie. Aei
eaeie iaei/iinoe nioneaeanue yoa iiaeic?eoaeueiinoue, aeaeii ec oiai, /oi a
1883 aiaeo Ieienoa?noai THnoeoeee iaiaeeaeaiii caeioa?aniaaeinue aeaee-
ioaeie iaoa?ao?aneiai Niaaoa , e Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa i?eneaea Niaaoo cai?in,
ia eaeii iniiaaiee aeaeeioaea nouanoaoao. Iaeuecy oaea?aeaoueny, /oiau ia
i?eaanoe niia?aaeaiee, aunoaaeaiiuo Niaaoii a naiai iauyniaiee. Ia-
eaiay yeaiaioa?iinoue eo a?aie/eo ni ne?uoui ecaeaaaoaeuenoaii iaae cai?i-
nii. Niaao iauyniyao, /oi -, 44. 45. – I?ei. aao.
A iineianeii Niaaoa oiaea nouanoaiaaea aeaeeioaea n naiiai iniiaaiey, ii a aeaeao a?oeaa
iao oeacaiee, /oiau eioa?an Ieienoa?noaa einioeny e iineianeie aeaeeioaee. – I?ei. aao.

ic aiaeaiiuo ia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e eo Niaao, e naiue niinia en-

aeaaiey neo iaycaiiinoae, oeacaiiue a caeiia, iiaeaeee ca niaie ia-
aeaeaeeiinoue i?eia?anoe aeey nineiaey ia oieueei eieae caeiiia a niano-
?iii niunea, ii e iieiia nia?aiea caeiiia, nia?aiea ocaeiiaiee, ecaeaiea
?annoaeaeaiee, ia eieo Noaeaaiua Onoaau iniiaaiu, nai?iee eannaoeeiiiuo
aeuaiee, a oaeaea ni/eiaiey, eceaaathuea yoio iaoa?eae a aieaa eee iaiaa
nenoaiaoe/aneie oi?ia, a ?aaii o/aiua ni/eiaiey th?eaee/aneiai niaea?aea-
iey. A neeo oaeie anoanoaaiiie, naiei caeiiii aucaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe,
o/?aaeeeanue i?e Niaaoa aeaeeioaea> .

Yoei ioaaoii eioa?an e aeaeeioaea aue en/a?iai, e nouanoaiaaiea aa
auei nianaii. Ii caoi Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa caeioa?aniaaeanue Eiienneae ii-
iiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, nouanoaiaaaoae e oiio a?aiaie oaea
ieiei 10 eao. A 1882 a. Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa iio?aaiaaea io Niaaoa naaaeaiee
a ?acuyniaiea oao iniiaaiee, ii eioi?ui o/?aaeaeaia e aeaenoaoao Eiienney.
A naiai ioaaoa, aeaiiii iinea aoi?e/iiai o?aaiaaiey Noaeaaiie Iaeaou,
Niaao iaiiiiee, /oi Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa naia n/eoaea iieiaeaiea iiiiuieeia
iaii?iaeueiui e a 1872 a. i?aaenoaaeea a Ieienoa?noai THnoeoeee oiaea-
oaenoai Niaaoa ia eo i?aaiecaoeee. .
Oai ia iaiaa, Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa i?eciaea nouanoaiaaiea Eiiennee ia-
i?aaeeueiui. Ii oae eae ia?aciaaiea Eiiennee naiei Niaaoii i?eienu-
aaaony eeoue /anoiiio niaeaoaieth iiiiuieeia, ia eiathuaio ioeoeeaeueiiai
cia/aiey, oi Iaeaoa ia iinyaioea ia nouanoaiaaiea Eiiennee, ?acuyniea,
iaeiaei, /oi, anee Niaao iaoiaeeo Eiienneth iieaciie, ii iaycai aiciaiiaeoue
naia oiaeaoaenoai ia ecaeaiee niioaaonoaothueo i?aaee a iaaeeaaeauai ii-
?yaeea . Yoi ioiioaiea Noaeaaiie Iaeaou oai aieaa oa?aeoa?ii, /oi ca
aiae aei i?eaaaeaiiiai cai?ina, a 1881 a., ninoiyeinue ?aoaiea I?aaeoaeueno-
“ssn> Naiaoa ii iauaio nia?aieth, eioi?ia ii iiaiaeo i?iaeoa iaeaca
aa?oaaneiai Ie?oaeiiai Noaea ?acuynieei, /oi a eca?aiee i?enyaeiuie
??”uie iniaie eiiennee aeey iaeaa/aiey niioaiee noaea n i?enyaeiuie

a -“aeeineee I.A. Oeac. ni/., 231. – I?ei. aao.
Iaeaaeeineee I.A. Oeac. ni/., 68. – I?ei. aao.

iiaa?aiiuie e aeey eo/oaai inouanoaeaiey i?aaa iaaeci?a n aai noi?iiu
ca eo aeayoaeueiinoueth iao ie/aai i?ioeaicaeiiiiai.

20. NOAEAIEA I?AA CAUEOU

Iinoaiaiii iaino?yynue, yoe iaii?iaeueiua ioiioaiey iieo/eee naia
iaeaieaa y?eia e aanueia ao?iia au?aaeaiea a ciaiaieoii caeeth/aiee ec-
aanoiiai iaa?-i?ieo?i?a I.A. Iaeethaeiaa ii aeaeai Iaeueieoeeeo e Nae-
?eaeiaa. A yoie ?a/e e?enoaeeeciaaeanue any oa iaeeiue iaaeiaieuenoaa aaeai-
eaoo?ie, eioi?ay eiieeanue aiaeaie. Iaeei ec naiuo aeaeiuo ?onneeo th?enoia
I.A. Iaeethaeia, ia/aaoee naith ea?uea?o n caeeth/aiey a Iao?iiaaeianeie
e?aiinoe ii iaaeiaieth a ainoaea?noaaiiii i?anooieaiee e eii/eaoee aa
aee?aeoi?ii aeaia?oaiaioa iieeoeee, ioa?inee ana oneiaiinoe, eioi?uie on-
iauaeenue anyeea aunooieaiey i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u, e iinoaaee aii?in ?aa-
?ii. Eae oaea neacaii, iiaiaeii e yoiio iineoaeeei aeaei Iaeueieoeeeo, ia-
aeiyaoeony a i?enaiaiee noii iineianeiai Ainieoaoaeueiiai aeiia, e Nae-
?eaeiaa, iaaeiyaoaainy a i?enaiaiee noii eeaaneiai ai?iaeneiai iauanoaa
acaeiiiai e?aaeeoa. Noae i?enyaeiuo a iaieo neo/ayo auian ii?aaaeaoaeueiue
aa?aeeeo, i?eciaa oaeo i?enaiaiey aeaiaa. Yoe aeaea aicaoaeeee ia?iiioth
nainaoeeth. Eaoeia aue oiaaea ia aa?oeia naiaai iiaouanoaa e ianoie/eai
o?aaiaae oie/oiaeaiey . Eiaaea aeaei i?e oaeeo oneiaeyo ia?a-
oei a Naiao, I.A. Iaeethaeia, a ea/anoaa iaa?-i?ieo?i?a, iioae iaano?a/o
yoei iaiaaeeai e a /?acau/aeii iaiuuaiiie ?a/e, ia?aiieiaiiie aeaeae-
neeie oeeoaoaie, i?eciaaae ni?aaaaeeeainoue ia?aeaiee ia noaeaaioth ?aoi?-
io, eca?auaiioth, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie, caueoie: .

?a/ue I.A. Iaeethaeiaa i?iecaaea ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea, eioi?ia ioithaeue
ia auei ineaaeaii ?a/ueth caueoieea iaeiiai ec Iaeueieoeeeo, A.Ae. Niani-
ae/a . Aeaaea iai?ioea, A.Ae. Nianiae/, a naith i/a?aaeue, eae au iioae ia-
ano?a/o iaiaaeeai ia e i?eciae, /oi . Iaeiei
ec n?aaenoa ea/aiey A.Ae. Nianiae/ i?aaeeaaae eciaiaiea a ninoaaa i?enyae-
iuo canaaeaoaeae. . Oaeei ia?acii, aianoi iaae-
eaaeauaai ioii?a iaiaaeaieyi ia aaeaieaoo?o, A.Ae. Nianiae/ nai iiaenoaaee
noae i?enyaeiuo iiae oaea?, niiaa iaiiiiea, /oi noaeueaa yoeo einoeoooia ia-
eciaiii nieaoaaony e ia?ae?aueaaaony. A iaaeaeo oai, ianeieueei aue oiaaea
iaiaoiaeei ioii? ?a/e I.A. Iaeethaeiaa, aeieacuaaao niaa?oaiii eneeth-
/eoaeueiia aunooieaiea anao, auaoeo i?aaenaaeaoaeyie iaoa?a. Niaaoa i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. A aacaoa iaia/aoaii auei ienueii ca iiae-
ienyie Aeieo?ey Noaniaa, Eiinoaioeia A?naiueaaa, Aeaaeeie?a Nianiae/a,
Aeaenay Oieianeiai e Aeeueaaeueia Ethnoeoa, eioi?uo iauaaeeieei eiaiii
oi, /oi ana iie auee (a iineaaeiee a iiiaio iaienaiey ienueia ninoiye)
i?aaenaaeaoaeyie Niaaoa. A yoii enoi?e/aneii aeieoiaioa aaoi?u aai aiai?yo:

1 ,
) -/ii. – onoaiiaeaiiue ii?yaeie, niinia.

a/ue A.Ae. Nianiae/a ii aeaeo Iaeueieoeeeo auea iioaeeeiaaia, iai?eia?, a eieaa . E.. 1991.

“aeo?iae A?aaeaeaineiai i Oaieiaiiai 1 1?aaa, oaeinoiaa-
Ioeoeeaeueiia ecaeaiea, . __ “Noaeaaiua Onoaau ca yI eao”. O. II. n. 619. – I?ei. aao

, aaeaeo eceeoanoa e ceioiio?aaeaiee neiaii, eioi?ua naaa, aoaeoi
au, iicaieyao caueoa ii oaieiaiui aeaeai, i?e/ai i?aaeeaaae ia?u e oiio,
/oiau naiaiaeu aeaenoaey aa ia?aie/eoue e iinoaaeoue a ecaanoiua, aanueia
oaniua, ?aiee. A. Iaeethaeia ia n/ae aiciiaeiui ii aeaeo Iaeueieoeeeo, ca
ionoonoaeai c i?ioieiea noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey cayaeaiey noi?ii i ceioiio-
?aaeaiee i?ioeaieeia neiaii, enneaaeiaaoue, i?aaeeueiu ee oeacaiey eanna-
oeeiiiuo i?ioanoa e aeaeiau ia yoe ceioiio?aaeaiey, ii, aeiioneay, /oi
iie auee, iaiauay aii?in e nnueaynue ia naia, aeaiiia aua a aeaeaa?a 1883
aiaea, caeeth/aiea ii aeaeo E?iiooaaeoneiai aaiea, ii inaaoee yoio i?aaeiao
oaeei ia?acii, /oi ceioiio?aaeaiey caueou ninoaaeytho anee ia eneeth-
/eoaeueioth, oi aeaaioth i?e/eio /anoiuo ii?aaaeaoaeueiuo i?eaiai?ia i?e-
nyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae, i?e onoaiiaeaiee eie aea, /oi ii?aaaeuaaaiua niaa?-
oatho aeaenoaey, a eioi?uo iaaeiythony, a ?aaii e ianooieaiey, aoaeoi au,
oiai , eioi?ue niaoaao o/?aaeaeaiey, iiaeiaii oiio, eae,
ii i?eaiaeeiui i?aoi?ii neiaai Eieae Auoey, anaie?iue iioii eno?aaeye
n eeoea caiee ana aeeaia, io /aeiaaea aei neioia, aaaeia e ioeoe iaaaniuo.

Aeia caueou, ii neiaai a. Iaeethaeiaa, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iia ia
aeaeaao ioee/aoue i?aaiai io aeiiaaoiai, /oi . Ii iiaieth a. Iaeethaeiaa, noi?iia
ia noaea ia iiaeao auoue aeaii . Naiaiaea caueou, ii i?aaeiieiaeaieyi a. Iaeethaeiaa, naiaeeony e
neaaeothuei aeaenoaeyi, aia eioi?uo ana inoaeueiia ae cai?auaii: ioeaiea
neeu e cia/aiey oeee i?ioea iiaenoaeeiiai, ?acuyniaiea oao caeiiia, ei-
oi?ua i?eiaieiu e aeia iiaenoaeeiiai, ioeaiea ianoiyoaeuenoa, oiaiueoath-

niya/athueo eee oie/oiaeathueo ii caeiio ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Caueoa

ueo,

aeii auoue cai?auaii , e iii?i/eaaoue aeaenoaey eeoe, e noaeo ia
aeiaiiuo, eee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aeanoae, eaeiaua aeaenoaey, – . A. Iaeethaeia

oaaaao /oi anee aoaeao caaaaeai, a i?aaeiieaaaaiii ei aeooa e iai?aaeaiee,
ecaanoiue ii?yaeie, e ianoiyoaeuenoaa iii?aayony, oi ieioao noaeaaiue iioii,
” ia?aaa?iaony i?a/iay no?aieoea Eieae Auoey, e oneuoeony iaiiieiath-
uee aean Ainiiaea, eiie aeaaiaano: .

Ianeieueei iaee/aiea ceioiio?aaeaiee neiaii ioiineeinue a ?a/e a. Ia-
eethaeiaa e ia?aco aeaenoaee caueou ii aeaeo i Iaeueieoeeeo, ianoieueei e
aic?aaeaiey i?ioea yoie ?a/e oianoiu auee au oieueei ia noaea e oieueei
a canaaeaiee ii naio aeaeo. Ii, ninoaaeyy a noi?iia anyeea eiie?aoiua
oaeou e noiaey n oaeoe/aneie ii/au, a. Iaeethaeia iaiauaao iaaeiaiea,
ii?aaeaeyao aiiaua aeayoaeueiinoue caueou ii anaaaea aiciiaeiui, ii ia ni-
noaaeythuei iauaai i?aaeea, oeeiiaieyie io caeiiiiai ii?yaeea, aiceaaaao
ia caueoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca e ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi oieueei
ii iaeiaeaiee ia iaa ocaeu ?acaeanony aeaaiaano iiaie e eo/oae aeecie.
A?ioaiiua ei neiaa ia?aoee a ia/aoue, a eioi?ie iie e noaayo aaaeiue
iauanoaaiiue aii?in, ia iiaeeaaeauee inoaaeaieth aac ioaaoa, aeaau ec naii-
ai iie/aiey ethaeae, ia ?acaeaeythueo acaeyaeia a. Iaeethaeiaa, iaeuecy auei
auaanoe i?ioea ieo oiai caeeth/aiey, /oi ei Ianai niicaiiiaa oiniaiea . Ian
ia iiaeao inoaiiaeoue niia?aaeaiea, /oi iaeaeoony, iiaeao auoue, ethaee, ei-
oi?ua iaciaoo ian iaaiiaaa ?ai (iioi yea . Iu ia?aiinei aii?in n ii/au
ee/iie ia iauanoaaiioth e n/eoaai aeieaii cayaeoue, /oi ia aa?ii, aoaeoi
au caueoa ii oaieiaiui aeaeai oieueei e aeaeaao, /oi ?anieiaao ia e?anoa
e aiieao ia ioiouaiee ae aa Aa??aau, /oi aeaei noaea e i?aaaeu ia iiiai
auea?aei au io oiai, anee au naiaiaea caueou auea iinoaaeaia a ?aiee,
ia/a?oaiiua a. Iaeethaeiaui, i?e onoaiiaeaiee eioi?uo i?iiaea au, a nou-
iinoe, anyeay naiaiaea caueou; iaeiiaoe, /oi ia?oaeiua n?aaenoaa, oa iaae?acu
e i?eaeeaaiey, eioi?ua i?aaeeaaaao a. Iaeethaeia, ia niiniaiu ie a iaeaeoae
noaiaie niaeaenoaiaaoue icaei?iaeaieth noaeaaiiai i?aaiecia, anee au auee
onoaiiaeaiu eaeea-eeai iaii?iaeueiinoe a ioi?aaeaieyo i?aainoaeey. A?[
iiiniec ii aaUeec , – neacae a naiae ?a/e a. Iaeethaeia; iu ?aoaainy oaia?ue
ia?aoeoue i?ioea iaai yoi iieiaeaiea, eae iaithaeiino?ia i?oaeea.

i a}, – i?aoi?u a caoeoo naiaai aeiia (aeaa).
e
o. – anaio anoue i?aaeae.

I?aaeaea anaai iu aic?acei i?ioea iaia?aiiiai, oiio?aaeyaiiai a. Ia-
eethaeiaui e, oae neacaoue, iiae/a?eeaaaiiai ei au?aaeaiey: . A ia?iiiii aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa caueoa auaaao ii iacia/aieth;
iia oaeay aea iauanoaaiiay aeieaeiinoue, eae e oa ae?oaay, eioi?ay ai o?ai-
oeocneie nenoaia i?ioeanna eiaioaony iiiiiciaaa ?eUe/a . Anee a iauae ianna
caueo auaaao iaeioi?ue i?ioeaio caueo ia ii iacia/aieth, oi yoei in
eciaiyaony oa?aeoa? ooieoeee, ii eioi?iio i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua nii?e-
/eneythony e noaeaaiiio aaaeiinoao. Iai iaecaanoii, anoue ee ia?aeaiey ia
yoi nineiaea, /oi iii aieueoa ?aaeaao e ai?y/aa ionoaeaaao eioa?anu eeeaioia
ii niaeaoaieth, iaaeaee ii iacia/aieth. Iai?ioea oiai, caueoa noaayony
a iniaoth aeio oieueei eceeoiyy aa ai?y/iinoue, no?aieaiea ii?aaaeuaaoue
ai /oi au oi ie noaei. Eiia/ii, yoa ai?y/iinoue iiaeao i?aacieoe ia?o, ii
anee iouiaony na?aea/iia ?aniieiaeaiea e aeaeo, oi o o?aaothueo caueo ia
aoaeao aeiaa?ey e caueoieeai, ie caueoiee ia aoaeao eiaoue aiciiaeiinoe
ii niaanoe neacaoue, /oi ii oiio?aaee ana n?aaenoaa aeey aeinoeaeaiey oie
aaeeinoaaiiie oeaee, ?aaee eioi?ie caueoa onoaiiaeaia, o.a. aeey iaeaa/aiey
o/anoe iiaenoaeeiiai. Caueoiee ia noaeuey, ii ia auaeaao oiai, /oi i?ieciineo,
ca aaconeiaioth enoeio, ii /anoi ia aieai a eca?aiee iaaeeaaeauae ii/au
aeey caueou. Iinoaaeaiiue iaae aeaoo iaiae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iiae iianaieai
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca n?aaenoaa, eioi?uie ii ?aniieiaeeo i?enyaeiuo a iieueco
iiaenoaeeiiai, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?aae naiath niaanoueth, eioi?ay aoaeao aai
oi?aeaoue, /oi ii ia oiio?aaee anao nee naiaai oaaaeaeaiey ia eniieiaiea
naiaai i?yiiai aeieaa, caueoiee, i?e oaeii iaanoanoaaiiii noieeiiaaiee
iaycaiiinoae, anaaaea auaa?ao iaeii: ii anaaaea i?aaeii/oao i?aauoaiea aac-
aeaenoaeth, iioiio /oi i?aauoaiea iii?aaeii, e iaeaeao i?ioeaiaan e ioii?
e a iaaeiaiee i?ieo?i?neith aeanoueth, e a cae?aaii niunea e aeeoaeneie
iiuoiinoe i?enyaeiuo, iaaeaeo oai eae oiouaiea e aacaeaenoaea caueou
iaeni?aaeiu, oae eae ieeiio ia aeaii a aeaea ainiieiyoue, /oi oiouaii
caueoith. Aeiionoei, /oi caueoa iinoaaeaia a i?aaeeaaaaiua a. Iaeethaeiaui
?aiee. Ae ia aoaeao aeaii . Caiaoei, /oi iia iaecaaaeii oieueei oi e aeaeaao, /oi , a i?anooiii ee iii eee ia i?anooiii – yoi aua aii?in, eioi?ue
?aoaaony oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aoaeao i?iecianaii, ia iniiaaiee i?eaiai?a
i?enyaeiuo, ?aoaiea noaea. Aei yoiai ia noaea iao ie ,
ie , a anoue oieueei eeoei,
iiaouaa auoue ii?aaaeaiiui; iao ie /a?iiai, ie aaeiai, aeayiea ia n/eoaaony

Eao. – neoaa iauanoaa.

iicaieaiiui, ie i?anooiiui, a i?ienoiaeeo ?acai?, eaeiai iii ea/anoaa.
(aeaec caueoa a aiciiaeiinoe oeacuaaoue ia ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia i?aaeaiiuo

eo eee e i?aaiia aeanoe ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ?aaiyaony ioeaco a i?aainoaeee.
Iu nnueaainy ia ianiaoiia /enei aeae i i?anooieaieyo ii aeieaeiinoe, a
eioi?uo iiaenoaeeiue – iiae/eiaiiia eeoei ii?aaaeuaaaony oieueei oai, /oi
aeae aeaenoaiaae, eae canoaaeee aai aeaenoaiaaoue ia i?eaeaeaaiua e noaeo aai
ia/aeueieee, a eioi?uo caueoa neoaeeea neoaeao ainoaea?noao e iauanoao,
canoaaea i?iieeiooue eo/ naaoa a oaiaiue naiuo aeeeeo i?aaia e ii?yaeeia,
ia?acothueo ii/ao, ia eioi?ie ia iiaeao ia au?anoaoue i?anooieaiea.

Iaeiiaoe, iu i?inoi cao?oaeiyainy o?acoiaoue au?aaeaiea: ?anieiaoue
caeii. Eiaaea a iauaaeeoee aiai?yo i ?anieiaiee O?enoa, oi iiae yoeie
neiaaie iaueiiaaiii ?acoiatho iaeniieiaiea eee ia?ooaiea caiiaaaeae
O?enoiauo, eee aeo?iia eo enoieeiaaiea e i?eiaiaiea. A yoii niunea
iaeaieueoaa /enei ?anieiaiee i?eoeinue au ia aeieth noaeia, eioi?ua, aeae-
noaoy niaeanii naiaio iacia/aieth e oieeoy caeii, oi aai noaeeaatho, oi aai
?anoyaeaatho, e /anoi aeieaeiu ionooiaoueny io naeaeaiiuo eie aea ?acuyniaiee.
Anee aea iiae ?anieiaieai caeiia iiieiaoue aai enneaaeiaaiea ii enoi/ieeai,
ioeaieo aucaaaoeo aai i?e/ei e iineaaenoaee, naiaiaeiia e?eoe/aneia e iaio
ioiioaiea, oi iiaeiaiia ?anieiaiea ia oieueei ia i?anooiii e ia aeieaeii
auoue cai?auaii, ii iii, iai?ioea oiai, aanueia aeaeaoaeueii. Iai iaiyoai
iaeei ienaoaeue, eioi?ue, iiaeii neacaoue, aeeaie ieoee ia inoaaee a oeaeuo
?acaeaeao iaoaai oaieiaiiai eiaeaena e aaiiye aaicaeue ca aaicaeai, ?anieiay
iaeio noaoueth yoiai eiaeaena ca ae?oaith. Yoio ienaoaeue – I.A. Iaeethaeia,
aaoi? /aou?ao oiiia . Ni?aoeaaaony, iaoaeaee caueoa aoaeao cai?auaii i?eaiaeeoue i?i-
noi-iai?inoi auaea?aeee ec o/aaieea a. Iaeethaeiaa?

Iinoa?aainy iiaeaanoe e neacaiiiio iaie eoiae. Ia?aay e i?yiay iay-
caiiinoue caueou ninoieo a oii, /oiau ioianoenue e naiae caaea/a i?eeaaeii
e na?aea/ii, oiio?aaeyy ana n?aaenoaa oia e oaaaeaeaiey e iaeaa/aieth o/anoe
caueuaaiiai. Ii naiaio iacia/aieth caueoa ai?aaa i?aaeeaaaoue oieueei oi,
/oi ?aniieaaaao a iieueco iiaenoaeeiiai. I?aanoaaiii iia iaycaia, eiia/ii,
aea?aeaoueny eae iiaeii aeeaea i?aaaeu, auoue ii aiciiaeiinoe ene?aiiath, ii
ieeaeeo iieiaeeoaeueiuo i?aaee ia yoio n/ao i?aaeienaoue ae iaeuecy, – ana
neo io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ea/anoa caueoieea e io aai /oouey e oaeoa. Ana
i?ieciineiia caueoieeii iaoiaeeony iiae eiio?ieai ioaaonoaaiiiai ca cei-
oiio?aaeaiey caueoieea neiaii i?aaenaaeaoaey, eioi?ue iaycai iaaethaeaoue,
iiu a ?a/ao noi?ii ia auei ooeaiey ?aeeaee, eieaaaiey i?aanoaaiiinoe,
“iaaeaiee ia iniiau ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy. Niiiaaaainy, auaaee ee ii-
?ue/? neo/ae: anee auaaee, oi e?aeia ?aaeei. E?iia oiai, i?aaenaaeaoaeue

21

ia aeieaeai aeiioneaoue ie a?oauo e ?aceeo iaiaaeie ia eeoea e o/?aaeaeaiey,
ie i?yiiai io?eoeaiey iaycaoaeueiinoe aeaenoaothuaai caeiia, – aia yoeo
i?aaeaeia caueoa naiaiaeia. I?aaeienuaaoue ae ieai aeaenoaee, aiooaoue ae,
eaeia aeieaeii auoue aa niaea?aeaiea, ?aaiineeueii oie/oiaeaieth aa naiaiaeu,
iaeiaeaieth ia iaa eaiaeaeia. Inoaiaony io iaa oieueei aeaei?aoeey, a aeaeno-
aeoaeueiinoe i?aai aoaeao ao?ioe?iaai, a io aai aanneeey nai noaeaaiue i?-
aaieci naeaeaaony o?iiathuei e oaa/iui. Aieueoay /anoue i?aaenaaeaoaeueno-
aothueo inoaioony, iiaeao auoue, aa?iuie i?aaeiei, eo/oei i?aaeaieyi e
ia noaioo a?aoue caueoo a oenee, ii aoaeoo, eiia/ii, e oaeea, eioi?ua cai?aoyo
ecuyniyoue caeiiu, i?yii ia ioiinyueany e aeia iiaenoaeeiiai, e ineaaeyoue
niia?aaeaieyie noaiaiue i?anooiiinoe io oneiaee aai ianoaiiaee, – neiaii,
i?aa?aoyo caueoo a aanniaea?aeaoaeueiue ia?yae. Enoi?ey caueou iiaaaeao
e oaeie aea ao?ioee iaaeiaiey, eioi?ia noaiao aeaeiaui e /ai-oi e?aeia
nooei. Oaea iuia caiaoii oauaaiea a i?ieo?aoo?a oao aeenoaoaeueiuo oa-
eaioia, eioi?ua aa a i?aaeiaa a?aiy oe?aoaee. Aeoiaai, /oi yoe aanueia
aa?iyoiua ?acoeueoaou i?aaeeaaaaiiai ia iineoaeeee au e iiauoaieth cia-
/aiey e e i?ineaaeaieth Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia 20-ai iiya?y 1864 aiaea, ei-
oi?ua a. Iaeethaeia iacuaaao e a ei-
oi?uo oniao?eaaao ii oo aea naioth iuneue, eioi?ay aoaeoi au aeaeiaeanue e
ia ciaiaie nayouo Ee?eeea e Iaoiaeey, – iauaaeeiaiea ?one. Caiaoei,
/oi aiia?aaeaiea aaoi?a oaeaeei aai a noi?iio. Oioy nayoua Ee?eee
(oi. 869) e Iaoiaeee (oi. 885) auee nia?aiaiieeaie i?eoanoaey aa?yaia,
ii iie ia auaaee ia ?one e ia eiaee i iae ieeaeiai iiiyoey. Eo aiin-
oieuenoai ioiineeinue aiiaua ei anaio ieaiaie neaayineiio.

A. Iaeethaeia ia inoaaony aa?ai naiiio naaa a naiae ?a/e ii aeaeo Iaeue-
ieoeeeo. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi noaeaaiia neaaenoaea aeieaeii auoue iai?aaeaii
e ?ane?uoeth iaoa?eaeueiie enoeiu, ninoaaeythuae nayoay nayouo oaieiaiiai
i?ioeanna, a iaaeaeo oai, /oi aea n/eoaao ii ei?aiiui ia?ooaieai caeiia
e ai eiy /aai aeiiiaaaony ii eannaoeee? I?i/oaiey a canaaeaiee oie eee
ae?oaie aoiaaeee, eiathuaeny a aeaea, ni?ina i?iecaiaeeaoaai neaaenoaea nea-
aeiaaoaey, i?i/oaiey iiaiey, aeaiiiai aia noaea e aani?enyaeii oiaa?euaie
iaeiiai ec iiaenoaeeiuo i aai oi?ioeo i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoaao. Yoi oaeie
oi?iaeeci, eioi?ue noa?aaony ia?aie/eoue enoi/ieee enneaaeiaaiey enoeiu,
a neaaeiaaoaeueii ecaea/ue ec aeaiiuo aeae iaeie oneiaiua ?acoeueoaou>.

Iu i?eaaee ienueii i?aaenaaeaoaeae Niaaoa oeaeeeii, ianiio?y ia ia-
eioi?oth aai ?anoyiooinoue, iioiio /oi a iai eioa?anii e aaaeii ana, aieioue
aei aiaoiae noi?iiu. Caeanue, a yoii noieeiiaaiee, i?iecioei eae au ?a-
oeoaeueiia n?aaeaiea iaaeaeo i?ioeaieeaie e caueoieeaie aaeaieaoo?u. Eoi
aea inoaeny iiaaaeeoaeai? Ianiiiaiii, ienueii aa. i?aaenaaeaoaeae Niaaoa

?\i eniieueciaaei neaaua ianoa caeeth/aiey e aanueia ouaoaeueii ane?uei
iai/eneaiiua i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?uie caeeth/aiea eciaeeoao. Ii aeey
an oaia?ue ciaiaiaoaeueiui e eioa?aniui i?aaenoaaeyaony ia niaea?aeaiea,
naiue oaeo yoeo i?ioeai?a/ee, eioi?ua iaiueoa anaai naienoaaiiu auee
oeiio e aaniiuaaeiiio oio I.A. Iaeethaeiaa. Aua aieaa ciaiaiaoaeueii,
/oi. eae oeacuaaaony a ienueia, I.A. Iaeethaeia ia n/ae aeaaea ioaeiui ii
aeaeo Iaeueieoeeeo, ca ionoonoaeai a i?ioieiea noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey caya-
\aiee noi?ii i ceioiio?aaeaiee i?ioeaieeia neiaii, enneaaeiaaoue, i?a-
aeeueiu ee oeacaiey eannaoeeiiiuo i?ioanoa e aeaeiau ia yoe ceioiio?aa-
eaiey. Ii aeaeaao naie ?aoeoaeueiua auaiaeu a i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi yoe
ceioiio?aaeaiey auee. Ionthaea ioaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi aeaei Iaeueieoeeeo
auei eeoue iineaaeiae eaieae, ia?aiieieaoae /aoo oa?iaiey iaaeno?aoo?u
e i?ieo?aoo?u. Ioiioaiea e aaeaieaoo?a ianoieueei i?i/ii ii?aaeaeeeinue,
/oi iaa?-i?ieo?i? n/eoaao eeoiei enneaaeiaaoue, i?aaeeueiu ee oeacaiey
eannaoeeiiiie aeaeiau e i?ioanoa. Yoe oeacaiey aaconeiaii niaiaaeatho n
aai i?aaenoaaeaieai ia iau/iii iiaaaeaiee aaeaieaoo?u ia noaea e iioiio
iie ca?aiaa eaaeoony aio i?aaeeueiuie. Aeaei Iaeueieoeeeo neoaeeo oieueei
iiaiaeii, /oiau auneacaoue ana, /oi aeaaii iaeiieeinue. Anee aeaaea a aeaea
Iaeueieoeeeo e ia auei oao ia?ooaiee, ia eioi?ua oeacuaatho eannaoeeiiiua
i?ioano e aeaeiaa, ana ?aaii: ii iauaio i?aaeeo, aaeaieaoo?a aaaeao naay
oae, /oi ioaeii onoaiiaeoue i?aaeaeu caueou, iaeiaeeoue ia iaa ocaeo. Aeiea-
cuaaoue, /oi iiaaaeaiea aaeaieaoo?u oaeiai eiaiii, i?eaiaeeoue eiie?aoiua
aeaiiua – iaa?-i?ieo?i?o i?aaenoaaeyaony aanoeaeueiui, a aai aeacao yoi
?anieo iiiiieo.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?aaenaaeaoaee Niaaoa, ioaa/ay ia caeeth/aiea iaa?-
i?ieo?i?a, n oaeie aea oaa?aiiinoueth e noieue aea aiiaeeeoe/anee ooaa?aeaeatho,
/oi anee e auaaee neo/ae ia?ooaiey caueoieeaie naieo iaycaiiinoae, oi
yoe neo/ae auaaee e?aeia ?aaeei. Ii iu . Iiyoiio ienueii ianoaeaeaao i?aaeeiaeaiea I.A. Iaeethaeiaa ia n
oi/ee c?aiey eiie?aoiuo oneiaee, a n auniou iaueo caaea/ caueou, e,
anoanoaaiii, i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi anyeia noaniaiea caueou, nauoa oea-
caiiie a noaeaaiuo onoaaao ia?u, aoaeao iaeiaeaieai ia iaa eaiaeaeia. Ii
ienueii niaa?oaiii eaii?e?oao oi iano?iaiea, eioi?ia noieue ao?ii i?i-
yaeeinue a ?a/e I.A. Iaeethaeiaa e eioi?ia noiaei aeaaea oaeiai neeueiiai
aeanoyuaai th?enoa aiaea/ue a oaeea i?ioeai?a/ey. Aio ii/aio aii?in i
oii, eoi iiaaaeee a ioia/aiiii nii?a, aiana e ia noaaeeny, ii-aeaeeiiio.
i Ienueii e caeeth/aiea ia ano?aoeeenue iaaeaeo niaith, e iiaeii eeoue eii-

– iaonecannoiue oaeo.

noaoe?iaaoue, /oi ienueii i?aaenaaeaoaeae i?ioei nianai iacaiaoii, e ie a
eaeia n?aaiaiea aeaenoaea aai ia iiaeao eaeoe n aia/aoeaieai, i?iecaaaeaiiui
aunooieaieai I.A. Iaeethaeiaa.

21. IIIEAEAIEA I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI
O?IAIss A NAssCE N IAUEIE ONEIAEssIE

Ooaa?aeaeaiea ienueia, aoaeoi au neo/ae ia?ooaiey aaeaieaoaie i?ioan-
neiiaeueiie yoeee a ?a/ao naieo ninoaaeytho eneeth/aiea, ia iiaei ia aucaaoue
i?ioanoa, iioiio /oi oaeoe/anee oaeea neo/ae noaiiaeeenue ana aieaa /ano-
iuie e, aeaaiia, aieaa y?eeie, aicieeay a oaeeo aeaeao, a eioi?uo aunooiaee
ei?eoae aaeaieaoo?u. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue i aeaea Eaoooaeiaa, oaaeiaa-
/aiiii a eieaa A.O. Eiie . Eaoooaeia e ae?oaea ia-
aeiyeenue a oii, /oi ooaeee ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiia ienueii, naeaiiia aeey ioi?aaee
a Aa?eei, e ainiieueciaaeenue niaea?aeaueieny a iai oeaiiinoyie ia
120 ouny/ ?oaeae. Iaeiei ec caueoieeia aunooiee I.I. Ooaeineee, e
?a/ue aai auea iino?iaia oae, /oi, ii neiaai A.O. Eiie, aeaaaaoaai a
ea/anoaa iaa?-i?ieo?i?a caeeth/aiea a I?aaeoaeuenoaothuai Naiaoa, iia
. A.O. Eiie iaoiaeeo ii iiaiaeo yoie ?a/e,
/oi aeaeiaaeny, /oi caueoieeo auei iauyaeaii oieueei i?aaei-
noa?aaeaiea ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi aii?in i i?aaeeueiuo i?eaiao oaieiaiie
caueou a i?aeoeea ?onneie aaeaieaoo?u aua iaei ?ac?aaioai.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue I.A. Iaeethaeiao, A.O. Eiie, aaniiuaaeii ca-
eeaeiea iiaaaeaiea caueoieea, ia ?aoaeny aeaeaoue eaeea-eeai auaiaeu i
caueoa aiiaua. Ii oaeea neo/ae ia?auaee ia naay, eae aeaeii ec i?eaa-
aeaiiuo neia, iauanoaaiiia aieiaiea e neoaeeee iaennyeaaiui enoi/ieeii
aeey aeaeia ia iaaeaiea o?iaiy aaeaieaoo?u. Iaeiaei naiue ino?ue iiaiae
aeey oaeeo aeaeia aeae iineianeee Niaao, eioi?ue a ioeoeeaeueiii aeieoiaioa
nai auneacae, /oi . Iu nae-
/an oaeaeei, /oi noaeaeaiey yoe, eioi?ua auee ai?y/i iiaeoaa/aiu anae i?an-
nie, auneacaiu auee a ?acaa? ai?ueau Niaaoa n nineiaeai, eioi?ia ii

eao. – aieia anao i?ioea anao

Eao. – aieia anao i?ioea anao.
> , 1889, 5. – I?ei. aao.

, 1889, ei. 3, n. 169. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao iineianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1889-1890 a., n. 14. – I?ei. aao.

215

i?aaenoaaeye. Ii io yoiai noaeaeaiey ia oieueei ia oa?ytho a naiai cia/aiee
a, iai?ioea, noaiiayony e naie ii naaa aeieacaoaeuenoaii auneacaiiuo a

ieo iuneae. Eai, anee aeiionoeoue, /oi Niaao iaeuaeii aicaae ia nineiaea
oaeia iaaeiaiea eee aeaaea oieueei naonoee e?anee, oi oaeia ioiioaiea iaaeaeo
Niaaoii e nineiaeai aeaenoaeoaeueii aiieao i caaaaiee /oanoaa /anoe e
aeieaa.

Eae iaiyeenue a yoii iai?aaeaiee i?aau ia i?ioyaeaiee a?aiaie, iiaeao
eeethno?e?iaaoue niiinoaaeaiea oaeeo aeaoo oaeoia: a io/aoa ca 1876 aiae
iineianeee Niaao . I?ioiaeeo aeanyoue-aeaaiaaeoeaoue eao, e a 1889 a.
ioiaoee oaeie oaeo, /oi
Niaaoa ioaee/ii iaeiaaeaeu iicaieee naaa ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a iaua- noaaiiii iiaiee aaeaieaou e ?inoiaueee noiyo ia iaeiie i?aanoaaiiie au- nioa>. Yoio neo/ae oaea ia oieueei ia ioia/ai iniai a io/aoa, ii aiiaua
Niaao ia i?eaeae aai ca yoi e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iiyoiio a iaeiii aeaiiii
oaeoa aeo?iae aeaeeo iai?aeiaeiia aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi a nineiaee aea-
eaei ia ana aeaaiiieo/ii.

I?e iaee/iinoe oaeeo aeaiiuo oaia?ue i?aaenoaaeyaony iayniui, ii/aio
i?aaenaaeaoaee Niaaoa, ni/oy ioaeiui aunooieoue i?ioea caeeth/aiey
I.A. Iaeethaeiaa, oae eaaei ooee io eiie?aoiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa e ia?aaaee
nii? ia oai?aoe/aneea iiceoeee, aianoi oiai, /oiau ainiieueciaaoueny neo/aai
e ia?aoeoue aieiaiea, a eaeeo oneiaeyo aaeaieaoo?a ?aaioaao, e eae yoe
oneiaey aeieaeiu aeeyoue ia aa o?iaaiue. A a yoii iai?aaeaiee oaea iaeiieeny
cia/eoaeueiue iaoa?eae. A iaeiie ec canoieueiuo ?a/ae naieo A.Ae. Nianiae/
oae ecia?aaeaao ninoiyiea i?aainoaeey a oi a?aiy: . Yoi eaoaai?e/aneia ooaa?aeaeaiea A.Ae. Nianiae/a iie?a-
einue, eae ecaanoii, ia aanueia nieeaeiua iniiaaiey . Ii caeanue aeaaea iaaaaeii,
ianeieueei oaeia ooaa?aeaeaiea niioaaonoaiaaei aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aaaeii io-
iaoeoue eiaiii yoo eaoaai?e/iinoue ooaa?aeaeaiey, cayaeaiiiai a ?a/e ia ai-
aeiaii iaaaea aaeaieaoia. Ionthaea, ai anyeii neo/aa, aannii?ii auoaeaao,
/oi i?aaenoaaeaiea i oaeii ninoiyiee i?aainoaeey ninoaaeyei ceiao aeiy, e
/oi naie aaeaieaou oae aai ioeaieaaee. I?aaeeueia ee iiaeiaiay ioeaiea eee
iai?aaeeueia, ai anyeii neo/aa oaeia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia iiaei, i/aaeaeii, ia
ieacuaaoue neeueiaeoaai aeeyiey ia i?ioanneiiaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue aaeai-
eaoo?u, ii?aaeaeyoue oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniaaiii neeueii aeeyiea aeieae-
ii auei neacaoueny a oao ie?oaao, aaea ia auei Niaaoia. .

Caia/aoaeueii i?e yoii, /oi aeey iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey a oeaio?a aie-
iaiey inoaaaeny aii?in i aiii?a?a. oaa?ye, iai?eia?, /oi aeaaiia
iniiaaiea iane?uaaaiiai iauanoaaiiiai iaoaeiaieuenoaey aaeaieaoaie eaaeeo
a oi?ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey o?oaea aaeaieaoia, oi?ia, eioi?ay aeieaeia, a eiioea
eiioeia, ieacaoue ?anoeaaathuaa aeeyiea. A iaaeaeo oai aii?in i aiii?a?a
anee e i?aaenoaaeye aeaenoaeoaeueii na?ueaciue aii?in aeey aaeaieaoo?u, oi n
oi/ee c?aiey aai iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. , i?eaeaeoee
e naaa oaeia aeaaeiia aieiaiea, aannii?ii ninoaaeye eneeth/aiea. A iauai,
nineiaea oa?iaei iaoa?eaeueioth ioaeaeo. . A aacaoao i?aaeeaaaeinue auaeaaaoue iiniaea ii-
iiuieeai ec aniiiiaaoaeueiuo eann. Naiia o/?aaeaeaiea anyeiai ?iaea eann
e oio iai?a?uaiue eioa?an, eioi?ue nineiaea e iei i?iyaeyei, oaeaea

Eao. – i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo.

Nianiae/ A.Ae , n. 49. – I?ei. aao.

Ni. iith eieao .Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia>, aeaaa . (E.A. Aan-
“” – I?ei nino.). – I?ei aao.

neoaeeo ii?iaa?aeaieai oiaey/aai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia eneeth/eoaeueiii aeaai-
iieo/ee aaeaieaoo?u. I oii aea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao e aii?in i niaianoeoaeuenoaa
caaiey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai n naiuie ?acee/iuie caiyoeyie, eioi?ue
ana a?aiy inoaaaeny aieueiui e ceiaiaeiaaiui aii?inii, A 1887 a., iai?e-
ia?, iineianeee Niaao iinoaiiaee nicaaoue iauaa nia?aiea aeey ianoaeaeaiey
aii?ina i niaianoeoaeuenoaa, aeey ono?aiaiey .

A ?acineaiiie iiaanoea aiai?eony: .

Anee au, oeacuaae Niaao, aii?in oae oieueei i oii, /oiau ia i?ee?uaaoue
caaieai i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai iinoi?iiieo i?ioannee, oi nineiaeth ia
o?oaeii auei au ni?aaeoueny n oaeei iaaeaeaoaeueiui yaeaieai. Ii eca?aiiay
aeey ?ac?aaioee aii?ina eiienney aeieaeia auea iio?aoeoue ia yoi aeanyoue
canaaeaiee e a ?acoeueoaoa no?anoiuo nii?ia i?eiyoue aanueia inoi?iaeioth
?aciethoeeth, eioi?ay aeaneea, /oi anyeia iinoi?iiiaa caiyoea aeey i?enyae-
iiai iiaa?aiiiai, ?iiythuaa aai aeinoieinoai e nineiaioth /anoue, eee ii-
aouaa ieacaoue aeeyiea ia noaiaiue aeiaa?ey e oaaaeaiey e iaio ni noi?iiu
iauanoaa, ia aeiioneaaony. Anyeia iinoi?iiiaa caiyoea a aeaea neoaeau, ca-
iyoey eee ?aianea, eeoathuaa i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai iacaaeneiinoe eee
aai aeaeiaiai a?aiaie, ia aeiioneaaony. Yoi iinoaiiaeaiea iaaieueii iaii-
ieiaao neiaa Ai?aoeei a : . Aeey oiai, /oiau au?aaioaoue ?aciethoeeth,
eioi?ay anaaaea ninoaaeyea ioi?aaioth oi/eo a iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe
Niaaoia, iaca/ai auei o?aoeoue 10 canaaeaiee. ssnii, iaeiaei, /oi n niaian-
oeoaeuenoaii iaeuecy auei oae i?inoi ni?aaeoueny, /oi iii yaeyeinue i?aaie-
/aneei ?acoeueoaoii noaiiaeaoaeny ana aieaa oyaeaeith ai?ueau ca nouano-
aiaaiea.

Ethaiiuoiue i?eia? niaianoeoaeuenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao o/anoea i?enyae-
iiai iiaa?aiiiai a o?oiia aeoa?ia. A 1886 a. i?aaenaaeaoaeue ayoneiai Ie-
?oaeiiai Noaea ia?aoeeny e i?aaenaaeaoaeth iineianeiai Niaaoa n eiioeaeai-

aeaeiui cai?inii ioiineoaeueii aiciiaeiinoe oaeiai niaiauaiey: . I?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa ?ac?aoee yoio
aeii?in io?eoeaoaeueii, eai, . Ae?oaie neo/ae aunooieaiey aaeaieaoa a
ea/anoaa aeoa?a ioia/ai a (1887 a. ? 45), eioi?ay
aiciouaaony oai, /oi oa?ueeianeay Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa eneeth/eea ca yoi ii-
iiuieea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ec nineiaey.

Ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea aiiaua ea?aea, ianiiiaiii, aanueia cia/eoaeueioth
?ieue a aeecie nineiaey. A Iineaa, iai?eia?, iaeii ec iaueo nia?aiee auei
nicaaii aeey ianoaeaeaiey aii?ina, i?e eaeeo oneiaeyo i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue
iiaeao i?eiyoue e naiaio i?iecaiaenoao aeaei, eioi?ia aae aai eieeaaa. A a
Iaoa?ao?aa iaeeaeaiioth iieaieeo aucaae iinooiie i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai
Oieaau, eioi?ue ienueiaiii i?aaeeiaeee naie oneoae aaeaieaoa iooeo oaeoie
Na??u Aaeea?, eaeiaia aeaei, eae ecaanoii, a naia a?aiy iaaeaeaei i/aiue iiiai
ooia. Ii?aaaeuaaynue, i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue Oieaaa nnueaeny ia i?eia?
Ieaaaei, eioi?ue a i?ioeanna Ethoi?e/neeo e?anoueyi ia oieueei acye ia naay
eieoeeaoeao caueou, ii e ?anoiaeu ii niaea?aeaieth iaaeiyaiuo a oa/aiea o?ao
iaaeaeue i?ioeanna . Ii yoi iauyniaiea oieueei neeueiaa ?aciaeaei iieaieeo, i?e-
/ai, iaeiaei, aii?in ianoaeaeaeny ia n oi/ee c?aiey i?eioeeieaeueiie ianiec-
ia?eiinoe iaieo i?ioeannia, a eeoue n oie, /oi .

Oii?iie ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea, aicaoaeaeaaiie iaaeinoaoeii n?aaenoa,
niioonoaiaaei aacaeaeuea, aanoeaeueiia oaoaiea ii niaaoneei iiiauaieyi e
noaeaaiui eoeoa?ai. Ii-aeaeeiiio, yoi aacaeaeuea i?eieiaei ii?ith oa?i-
aeathuea ?acia?u. Iineianeee Niaao auioaeaeai aue iinoaaeoue ia ianoae-

A , n. 266.). – I?ei. aao.

aeaiea iauaai nia?aiey aii?in i aeiiouaiee oaoiaoiie ea?u a iiiauaieyo
Niaaoa e ?ac?aoeoue aai iieiui cai?auaieai. Eaaei naaa i?aaenoaaeoue,
eaeie iiaaeueiue oa?aeoa? i?eiyea yoa ea?a, anee Niaaoo i?eoeinue aia-
oeaaoueny e auianoe aaniethoiia cai?auaiea. Nineiaiay aeeciue iaaeaea e
caie?aea. Iauea nia?aiey oioy e niae?aeenue, iacaaeneii io onoaiiaeai-
iiai caeiiii neo/ay aeey eca?aiey Niaaoa, ii /ai aeaeueoa, oai ana ii?a-
aeaeaiiaa aanaioaeci noaiiaeeny o?iie/aneie aieaciueth, a caiyoey nia?aiee
naiaeeeenue a nouiinoe e iioaoiineiio e naiii/euaieth, oaaeiaa/aiiiio
Uaae?eiui. Oae, iai?eia?, oaea ioia/aiiia aeaei Ianyiieeiaa neoaeeei
iaenoiueiie oaiie aanieiaeiuo ?acaiai?ia. Ia iaeiii ec iaueo nia?aiee
A.Ae. Nianiae/ i?eaeaoae iieii/eoue aaneiia/iua e oyainoiua nii?u, aic-
ieeoea ec aeaea Ianyiieeiaa, e A.I. Oieianeee i?aaeeiaeee .

Aua aieaa y?eee neo/ae iiaeii ioiaoeoue a Iineaa, aaea ia nia?aiee
1890 a. caoae ?acaiai? i eaeeo-oi nieneao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ia/a-
oaaoeony a io/aoao Niaaoa. Iaeei ec i?aoi?ia cayaee, /oi ii ia iaoae a
io/aoa Niaaoa iinoaiiaeaiey ia oie/oiaeaiee iaueo nieneia i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, ninoaaeaiiuo i?aaeiei Niaaoii. I?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa Oaiaaa
iauyniee, /oi oeacaiiua nienee eiaee, ii aai iiaieth, ia aiieia i?eee/iua
au?aaeaiey, e ii ee/ii ?anii?yaeeeny ia ecuyoee eo ec ia?auaiey. Ae?oaie
i?aoi?, iaoiaey, /oi a nieneao, i?iiouaiiuo oeaico?ie, ia iiaei auoue ia-
i?eee/iuo au?aaeaiee, i?eciaaae ecuyoea eo a. Oaiaaaui iai?aaeeueiui.
O?aoee iauyniee iaia/aoaiea i?aaeieo nieneia iaaeiniio?ii ni noi?iiu
i?aaeiaai Niaaoa, i?ioea /aai aic?acee auaoee i?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaa-
oa a. Ei?naeia. A. Oiaeia ianoaeaae ia oii, /oiau a iaueo nieneao i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aa?aeneea eiaia ia/aoaeenue aac ia?auaiey eo a ?onneea.
Ii i?aaeeiaeaieth i?aaenaaeaoaey, i?aiey i nieneao i?ae?auaiu. Oae eci-
a?aaeaao io/ao oiae yoiai nia?aiey. O?oaeii aeaaea iiiyoue, i /ai nianoaaiii
eaeao ?a/ue. Ii iaeii ianiiiaiii, /oi no?aiiia e caaaaei/iia niaea?aeaiea
yoiai aeeniooa aanueia iaei niioaaonoaiaaei oe?aieaieth i?anoeaea nineiaey.

Aiiaua, i?anoeae yoio, ianiiiaiii, iaaeae ana ieaea. Iu oaea ciaai,
ii i?eaaaeaiiui oeeoaoai ec ainiiieiaiee E.E. A?naiueaaa, n eaeeie /oa-
noaaie anooiaee a ?yaeu aaeaieaoo?u ia?aua aeayoaee noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu.
Eia/a iiaeoiaeeee e yoiio a ?anniao?eaaaiua aiaeu. aiai?eei i/aiue iiiai, ii

a iaeioi?ua ia inoaaeyee iaiy a iieia. Ea?uea?a aaeaieaoa eacaeanue
o ian a ?innee neeoeii aaaeiie e?aneaie e iauanoaaiiui cia/aieai.
* ?iaio oiaeaeaiey ii aeaeai oiaea ianeieueei niouae iaiy>. Eoae, anee a
?ae a?aiy i?ecaaieth aaeaieaoa aioiau auee anai iiaea?oaiaaoue, oi oaia?ue
oeaeoi ec aanueia caiaoiuo aaeaieaoia i?eciaao, /oi ii iioae a aaeaieaoo?o
niiiaaniaea. Yoi eciaiaiea iano?iaiey aanueia yanoaaiii neacuaaaony ia
ia/ao A.Ae. Nianiae/a, i?ieciineiuo ei ia aiaeiauo iaaaeao i?enyaeiuo
ae?a?aiiuo. A 1878 a., a ?acaa? aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aiiaiee i?ioea aaeai-
ea.oo?u, A.Ae. Nianiae/, iaiaeay ia i?iaeo oi?acaeiaiey naiinoiyoaeueiie
aaeaieaoo?u, aiai?ee: iiae ei?iiith. Ieeiaaea aua ia ai?aeeeny y aieueoa
oai, /oi i?eiaaeeaaeo e nineiaeth iaoa?ao?aneie aaeaieaoo?u, /oi iinayoee
naay yoie iiaeueiie iuia i?ioannee e aeaaea, /oi yoa i?ioanney ia?aoaaony
iuia a iiaea; anoue iiaeu, eioi?ua /anoiaa /eiia, i?aeaiia, ciaeia ioee/ey…
Anee au ian aeaaea ?aneanne?iaaee, aii?aee iiei i?aaeaeaeaieyi, oi au
ciaaoa, /oi eiiaaea nia?oue ii/aoiaa anyeiai nouanoaiaaiey. ss iiaeieiath

aino ca noieeinoue, ca iaoa ae?oaeiia ionoaeaaiea naiaiaeiiai neiaa a ?innee,
eioi?iai iu yaeyainy iuia aeaaiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie> . A 1886 a. Nia-
niae/ oniao?eaae aeaaioth iianiinoue ianoiyuae ieioou a 1.aa(iieo oiiaa e
i?ecuaae e i?ioeaiaeaenoaeth yoie iianiinoe. A a 1891 a., aiai?y i iiae-
aioiaeoaeueiuo ?aaioao ii ?aoi?ia aaeaieaoo?u e ooaa?aeaeay, /oi i?eai-
oiaeyaiue iaae ia iaieaeaony aac eaiee aeaaoy, A.Ae. Nianiae/ i?iaicaeanee
oino ca oniaoe e inouanoaeaiea yoeo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ?aaio, iioiio /oi
. Ii ooo aea A.Ae. Nianiae/ i?eaaaeyao, /oi .

Aiae?ia, ?aaeoaeiia iano?iaiea niaieeinue aeoaieei oiuieai, thiioaneee
caaei? onooiee ianoi noa?/aneie onoaeinoe, e a?aae?iaaiea iiaeie i?aa?a-
oeeinue a aeiiiaaoaeuenoai oe?aieoue naia ioeoeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea. Ii aua

iaiaoaeueiaa eiiaoe oeeoe?iaaiiie ?a/e. Oaaai. oioaaa – yoe neiaa, eae
?aiueoa oeacae e nai Nianiae/, iie?uaatho oeaeoth iieino ?onneie aeecie.

Ea?aa/aaneee I.I. , n. 8. – I?ei. aao.

Nianiae/ A.AeiCanoieueiua ?a/e.>, n. 42. – I?ei aao.

– ioa?ao?iea e aeecie, i?anuuaiiinoue.

Yoi aue eicoia ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia, i?ioea eioi?iai aunooiee E.Ae. Ea-
aaeei a naiae eieaa . *oiau n?aco ioaeaoue naaa io/ao a
cia/aiee aai, aeinoaoi/ii i?eaanoe ia iaiyoue oio oaeo, /oi aaeeeee ienaoaeue
caiee ?onneie i?eian naie ooaeiaeanoaaiiue aaiee a aea?oao i?iiiaaaee ia-
i?ioeaeaiey ceo, e aeaaea Naeoueia (1886 a.), aaea e
aiaaoayi, eie?iaaeai, eaeanoieeii?aaeoaeyi… aicaanoeeiooueeinianaieth.
Ei anai Uaae?ei iaoiaeeo oaia?ue ii?aaaeaiea a oii, /oi iie – ethaee aaea
naai e aeooii aaea naai ?oeiaiaeyony> , Iaeuecy iiyoiio oaeeaeyoueny, anee
oioae?aiiue iiuoii A.Ae. Nianiae/, ia neeiia aeiae naieo, iiei?ii ii-
aoi?yao eicoia aaconuo thiioae ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia, eioi?ui E.Ae. Ea-
aaeei noa?aeny ?acuynieoue oo?a/aiiue eie niune aeecie.

I/aaeaeii, ioia/aiiua auoa yaeaiey iaoiaeeeenue a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
nayce n iaueie oneiaeyie ?onneie aeecie. Ieioue io ieioe, e?iaue io e?iae
iauanoaa, aaeaieaoo?a ia iiaea, eiia/ii, nio?aieoue a naaa neeo nii?ioea-
eaiey, neiiaiioth ?aaeoeeae, e o?iaaiue aa noae iiieaeaoueny. Caaeneiinoue
yoa oaea iiieiaeanue e a oi a?aiy. Auyniaieth caaeneiinoe a cia/eoaeueiie
ia?a niinianoaiaaea ?aaeoeeiiiay i?anna, eioi?ay, iiae aeaaiui ?oeiaiae-
noaii I.I. Eaoeiaa, niaoeeaeece?iaaeanue a iaiaaeeao ia noaeaaiia aaaeiinoai
aiiaua e ia aaeaieaoo?o a /anoiinoe. Iiae/a?eeaay ianiioaaonoaea noaeaaiie
?aoi?iu anaio ainoaea?noaaiiiio no?ith, Eaoeia a iaeiie ec naieo noaoae
n?aaiee . Oae eae i?e yoii Eaoeia iieueciaaeny ia?iiiui aeeyieai,
e iaiaaeee aai i?eia?aoaee oa?aeoa? aanueia ?aaeueiie oa?icu, oi /oanoai-
aaeanue aeeaaeoay iio?aaiinoue a ia?aaeaeaiee iaioeaieiuo aeaa, eioi?ua i?e-
ianee ?innee Noaeaaiua Onoaau. Yoa iaiaoiaeeiinoue canoaaeyea aeoaaea
aaeoiaoueny a i?e/eio ie?oaeathueo yaeaiee e i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaoue eciee-
?iaaiiinoe iaiaaeie ia aaeaieaoo?o, eca?auaieth ia?niaeoeau, eioi?ia aei-
ioneaee Eaoeia e ae?oaea. Iiyoiio, n iaeiie noi?iiu, A.Ae. Nianiae/ ni?a-
aaaeeeai oeacuaae, /oi iu no?aaeaai ia eae /eaiu ei?ii?aoeee, a eae /eaiu
oiai aaeeeiai oeaeiai, a eiai iu ooiiaai, eae eaiey a ii?a . A n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, iu /eoaai, /oi , e a aaeaieaoo?a en/aciao caaua/eainoue /anoe e aeieaa>.

, ecae. oia. , o. IV, n. 283. – I?ei. aao.
Nianiae/ A.Ae. , n. 31. – I?ei. aai.

Aeaeae?aaeay i?ioea iaiauaiee eae Iaeethaeiaa ioiineoaeueii aaeaieaoo?u.
” Nianiae/a ioiineoaeueii noaea i?enyaeiuo, oeacu-

/oi . Iaeei ec iaeaieaa ?aoeoaeueiuo iaee/eoaeae
iaaeinoaoeia iaoae aaeaieaoo?u, auaoee i?ieo?i? I.I. Iaieineee, au-
oeniyy, ioeoaea eaeao aa aeaii?aeecaoeey, caia/aao, /oi i?e/eia iaeia e oa aea.
/oi aeey anaai iauanoaa, – .

Iniaaiii aea oa?aeoa?ia noaouey a. Aeeueneiai, eioi?ue aeieacuaaao, /oi
aaeaieaoo?a iiaeieiaaony iaae iauei o?iaiai, /oi e iae i?aaeuyaeythony en-
eeth/eoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, /oiau iia a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeanue
ia oieueei caeiiii, ii e ia/aeaie i?aanoaaiiinoe e yoeee. A iaaeaeo oai,
aii?in i oii, /oi oaeia yoeea, noieo ii-i?aaeiaio ioe?uoui. . Caeinoaoy ec eieae
Eaaaeeia iienaiea neo/ay ioeaca E.I. Oienoiai io eniieiaiey iaycaiiinoae
i?enyaeiiai canaaeaoaey, a. Aeeueneee aiai?eo, /oi .
Iiioey?iiio a oi a?aiy aaoi?o ia i?eoiaeeei, eiia/ii, a
aieiao, /oiau aai a?ioth?a, noaaeaoay naaa caaea/ae ai?ioueny n ainiiaenoai-
aaaoei oiaaea i?aanoaaiiui aac?acee/eai e i?iaoaeeoue eioa?an e ethaiaue e
eaeaaeai, iiaea iieo/eoue oaeia enoieeiaaiea e iineoaeeoue iii?ie aeey aeiea-
caoaeuenoaa iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe yoe/aneeo ia/ae. Ii ii yoiio e iiaeii noaeeoue
i neea ?aaeoeee, aea?iiaa eioi?ie ana iiaee ia?aiieioue ae ia iio?aao .

, 1884. ei. 5, n. 110. – I?ei. aao.

. 1890, o. VI, ei. 1. – I?ei. aao.

Ioaeii aua iaiai?eoue, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?enyaeiay aaeaieaoo?a ianea ia naaa ioaaono-
“” e ca /oaeea a?aoe. . E aei?aoi?iaiiui aeaeueoeai,
oei ia yoi caiyoea ioeoeeaeueiue iaoaio ii caeiio 24 iay 1874 a., i?eniaaeeieeenue ai iii-

Iaeaieaa y?eei i?eia?ii caaeneiinoe aaeaieaoo?u io iaueo oneiaee
auei aioenaieoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, ia/aaoaany a aaeaieaoo?a e eiioeo ?ac-
ae?aaiiai ia?eiaea. A oa/aiea iaeioi?iai a?aiaie eeaa?aeueiay ia/aoue (ia-
i?eia?, ) io/anoe naia ia /oaeaea auea aioenaieoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee;
a a ia?aie iieiaeia ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia a i?ia?anneaiuo i?aaiao ia/aoe
ii aa?aeneiio e ii iieueneiio aii?ino ano?a/athony e?aeia ?aaeoeeiiiua
noaeaeaiey . Aua a 1881 a. A.Ae. Nianiae/ iia eiinoaoe?iaaoue ia oiaa?e-
uaneii iaaaea, /oi . Ii cao/eo oaea ae?oaay iioea, eiaaea, ianeieue-
eeie aiaeaie iicaea, oio aea i?aoi? a oao aea oneiaeyo nnueaeny, eae ia
, ia eca?aiea a Niaao
Aeaenaiae?a sseiaeaae/a Ianniaa?a, .

Naia ii naaa yoa nnueea eaaeaony niaa?oaiii iaiiiyoie, eai A.Ae. Nia-
niae/ ooo aea iaiiieiaao i i?aaa Ianniaa?a ia ii/aoiia ianoi a Niaaoa.
Ioaeii, iaeiaei, i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea, /oi eca?aiea Ianniaa?a aucaaei
ianoiyuoth ao?th. Aeaei aeioiaeeei aei oiai, /oi ec-ca eca?aiey iaeiiai aa?ay
o?aaiaaee oie/oiaeaiey ei?ii?aoeaiuo i?aa nineiaey . Onooiay yoiio aeaa-
eaieth, iuneue, au?aaeaiiay A.Ae. Nianiae/ai, ia/eiaao aanueia nouanoaaiii
aa?uee?iaaoueny, A ia?eiaee/aneie i?anna ?acaeathony aeaeiau ia Niaaou i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eioi?ua ia noaayo ieeaeeo i?aa?aae iaieuao aa?aaa.
. Ooo anoue e oaoa?u, e
aa?ae, e oeuaaia, e oioeu, e aaeeei?innu. Ieeoi ae?oa ae?oaa ia iii?aeaao,

aeanoaa ionoaaiua aiaiiua e noaeaaiua i?enoaau, iinea ?aciuo iai?eyoiinoae ii neoaeaa, ?aianeaiieee
e i?ioi?aiaaaoeany eoioeu, iai?aeoeeiaaaoeany a aaaeaiee nianoaaiiuo aeae. aue aeaaea iiaa?aiiue
ec eaeaaa, /oi iaia?oaeeeinue a iaeiii iaeeii oaieiaiii i?ioeanna i iai naiii. – I?ei. aao.

Enoi?ey ?onneie eeoa?aoo?u, ecae. oia. , o. IV, n. 47. – I?ei. aao.
Nianiae/ A.Ae. , n. 28. – I?ei. aao.
Oai aea, n. 2y. – I?ei. aao.

, , 1888, ei. 6. n. 87. – I?ei. aao.
. 1891, aaa., noaouey A?aoeeaineiai. – I?e.\1. aao.

-?e ii acyo, eai ?iaeaeai, eeoue au oyioe eyieo, eeoue au aue noa?a-
?aaioieeii. Ana ooo iaeeiaeiau, ii yoie iaeiie ia?a ioeaieaaaony
,oeaeueo ?aaioiee ioiineoaeueiiai oiai, /aai ii noieo> . Ii a 1889 a. Nia-
e/ oaea ia ee/eony eeaa?aeeciii nineiaey, a, iai?ioea, oeacuaaao ia
/oi .

Yoi cayaeaiea e neoaeeo i?aaeeneiaeai e . Ianoiyoaeuenoai yoi ya-
“ae/aaony a . A.Ae. Nianiae/ ii?aaaeuaaao Niaao, ei-
oi?ue ieeaeeo ia? ia iia i?eiyoue, ii iia eeoue ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia
iianiinoue, i?eaaaey a io/aoa oeeo?u ?inoa aa?aaa a nineiaee. Iaeiaei i?eiyoue
ia?u iaiaoiaeeii, e yoa iaycaiiinoue eaaeeo ia iauai nia?aiee. Iaaei yoe
ia?u . I?eiyoea ia? A.Ae. Nianiae/ aioia ionoaeaaoue , eai “. Aeey oiai, /oiau
yoiai ia neo/eeinue, i/aaeaeii, ioaeii inoi?iaeii auieaniooue aiaeo e ia iaan-
iieieoue ?aaaiea. A iioiio iaaei onoaiiaeoue i?ioeaio, e ii aeieaeai auoue
onoaiiaeai i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Anee yoiai ia naeaeaoue, .

Oaeiai aea iai?aaeaiey a iauai aea?aeaeny e , eioi?ue
ia eanaeny aii?ina ii nouanoao, a ii?aaaeuaae Niaao oai, /oi ii ia ai?aaa
i?eieiaoue ieeaeeo ia?aie/eoaeueiuo ia?, e iaaeayeny, /oi onoaiiaeaiea i?i-

oeaioiie ii?iu aeey aa?aaa a aeiiaceyo e oieaa?neoaoao iiaeao ieacaoue iiiiuue
a niunea i?aaeioa?auaiey iianiinoe iaieuaa aa?aaa a aaeaieaoo?o.

A Iineaa aioeaa?aeneia aeaeaeaiea ia/aeinue n?aaee iiiiuieeia i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. A 1887 a. Eiieoao iiiiuieeia ia?aoeeny a Niaao n
cayaeaieai, a eioi?ii oeacuaaao ia neeueiue i?eeea eeoe aa?aeneiai ieaiaie
a aaeaieaoo?o . A 1883 a. ioiioaiea iiiiuieeia aa?aaa e iiiiuieeai ia

i-
i -“ania1/ A.Ae. , n. 43. – I?ei. aao.

Oai aea. n. 52-54. – I?ei. aao.
Aanoiee Aa?iiu>, 1889 a., ei. 5. – I?ei. aao.
Eiieoao a oi a?aiy ninoiye ec neaaeothueo eeoe: i?aaenaaeaoaeue A.O. Aaoaea?, oia. i?aaenaaeaoaey

Oa?ania, /eaiu – Einoaiaoeeee, Naciiia, Iiniaeia, Oeeia, Iaoiia, Einniae/. –
E?ei. aea?

aa?ayi ninoaaeyei 3%, a 1886 a. – 11% e a 1887 a. – 17%. Enoiaey ec
oiai, /oi a ethaii ?onneii o/?aaeaeaiee, a oai aieaa a ?onneie i?enyaeiie
aaeaieaoo?a, aaeaeo naiiai naienoaa, oa?aeoa?a e caaea/ yoiai einoeoooa, ia-
aeaeaoaeueii /?acia?iia neiieaiea ia?onneiai yeaiaioa, e /oi oi?iaeueiua
naaaeaiey, niiauaaiua i iiiiuieeao aa?ayo, ia yaeythony oi/iui iieaca-
oaeai eo i?aanoaaiiiai iaeeea aaeaeo e?aeiae caieiooinoe e aioo?aiiae
nieeaea?iinoe aa?aeneiai ieaiaie, Eiieoao cai?aoeaaao o Niaaoa i nii-
niaao ono?aiaiey iaii?iaeueiiai e iaaeaeaoaeueiiai yaeaiey. Yoi cayaeaiea
iaiaeiie?aoii ?anniao?eaaeinue a canaaeaieyo Niaaoa, ii, a eiioea eiioeia,
auei niyoi n i/a?aaee. A iaeiii ec iaueo nia?aiee (28 yiaa?y 1890 a.)
A. N. Oiaeia iiaeiye aii?in e ianoaeaae ia oii, /oiau a iaueo nieneao
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aa?aeneea eiaia ia/aoaeenue aac ia?auaiey eo a
?onneea.

Anee e yoiio aua i?eaaaeoue, /oi iaeioi?ua noaeaaiua ianoa (iai?eia?,
nia. Noiee/iue ie?iaie Nuacae) i?ae?aoeee auaea/o aa?ayi naeaeaoaeuenoa ia
i?aai aaaeaiey aeae, oi iiaeii n/eoaoue aannii?iui, /oi aeey ecaeaiey caeiia 8
iiya?y 1889 a. ii/aa auea a aeinoaoi/iie ia?a iiaeaioiaeaia. Yoio caeii, eae
ecaanoii, ia onoaiaaeeaae ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?ioeaioiiai ioiioaiey eii?iaeoeaa
e ei?aiiiio ianaeaieth. Ieienoa?noai THnoeoeee ia i?aieioei ainiieueci-
aaoueny neo/aai, /oiau ?anoe?eoue aeene?aoeeiiioth aeanoue ieieno?a, ii ii no-
uanoao iiaue caeii, i/aaeaeii, iaoiaeeeny a niioaaonoaee n iac?aaoeie e
a?iiei naay cayaeyaoeie oa/aieyie. Iaei oiai. Eae oieueei caeii iiyaeeny,
oiiiyiooue iineianeee Eiieoao aioae a Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo n
cai?inii, eae onoaiiaeoue i?aaeaeu i?eiaiaiey caeiia. Ii iiaieth Eiieoaoa,
. AEaeaiea Eiieoaoa ia
inouanoaeeinue. Niaao iioae yoei aeaeaieyi iaano?a/o, ii a ae?oaie oi?ia,
e oieueei eeoue 20 eao nionoy, a 1913 aiaeo, I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao, ii
eieoeeaoeaa iuiaoiaai ieieno?a thnoeoeee, ?acuyniee caeii eiaiii a oii niun-
ea, eae yoi i?aaeeaaae iineianeee Eiieoao.

22. ?IEUe NIAAOIA E EO IOIIOAIEA
E NINEIAETH

Aeaeueiaeoaa oa/aiea aa?aeneiai aii?ina a aaeaieaoo?a iioei oaea ii
?oneo niaaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a iioiio, i?aaeaea /ai i?iaeieaeaoue eceiaeaiea

aeae?eiaoee, iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue, eaeiaa aiiaua auea aeayoaeueiinoue
Aiioe a yoio ia?eiae, eaeiai onoaiiaeeinue acaeiiioiioaiea Niaaoia e
ainAIaoey. Ia/aaoaany a aaeaieaoo?a ?anneiaiea ia iiaei ia iiaeeyoue ia
ae ioiioaiey. Oaea a i?aaeuaeouae aeaaa auei oiiiyiooi, /oi a 1875 a.
Iineianeee Niaao aue iaiiaeai n?aco aanue, aei aaeeiiai /aeiaaea. A Ia-
oa?io?aa a ?a/e ia iaaaea 1876 a. A.Ae. Nianiae/ aeaeiaaeny, /oi Niaao
naieie aaeaieaoaie i?aneaaeiaaeny. , – e?e/ao i?aaeeaaaoaee n i?a-
aie noi?iiu. , – e?e/ao iii?aeaoaee n eaaie noi?iiu… Anee au
iu aan iineooaeenue, oi aaaii ninei/ee au n ?aeuenia> . A o?e aiaea nionoy,
aueaey ec ninoaaa Niaaoa e iaioonoaoy aai, A.Ae. Nianiae/ iiyniye, eae
ioaeii aeaenoaiaaoue, /oiau ia ninei/eoue n ?aeuenia, . Yoio eicoia i?eoaeny, ii-aeaeeiiio, eae ?ac ii iea/o eca?aiiiio
i?aaio nineiaey. Niaaou i/aiue ouaoaeueii caaioeeenue i /enoioa nineiaey
e ai anao iai?aaeaieyo i?eieiaee ia?u aeey yoiai. A 1884 a., iai?eia?,
iineaaeiaaei ?acuyniaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa (? 7), /oi eeoea,
oaeiaeaoai?ythuea onoaiiaeaiiui a caeiia o?aaiaaieyi, iiaoo auoue i?e-
ieiaaiu a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, anee iie a oa/aiea iyoe eao caieiaeenue
noaeaaiie i?aeoeeie, oioy ia a ea/anoaa iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?ai-
iuo, a eeoue a ea/anoaa iiaa?aiiuo ii noaeaaiui aeaeai. Eiaaea a neaaeothuai

aea aiaeo aeaa eeoea ia yoii iniiaaiee ia?aoeeenue n i?inueaie i ca/eneaiee
eo a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, oa?ueeianeee Niaao iaoae, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea
Naiaoa ia ?aaiineeueii caeiio, eioi?ue iii ia iiaeao ie eciaieoue, ie
?ieoue. A caeii, eae auyniyaony a /?acau/aeii ianoiyoaeueiii ii?aaea-
eaiee Niaaoa, noaaeo iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai iyoeeaoiee noaae. Aeiionoeoue
ionooieaiea io yoiai ?aoeoaeueii iaaiciiaeii, eai oiaaea oi?acaeieeanue au
i?aanoaaiiay naycue nineiaey n aai aoaeoueie /eaiaie, e iii iiiieiyeinue
iuei yeaiaioaie, /oaeaeuie oiai iai?aaeaiey, eioi?ia au?aaaouaaaony a ni-

i Nianiae/ A.Ae. , n. 15. – I?ei. aao.
Uei aea. n. 22 – I?ei. aao.

neiaee a niioaaonoaee n oaie i?aanoaaiiuie caaea/aie, aeey eaeeo iii ni-
caeaii a noaeaaiuo onoaaao 20 iiya?y 1864 a. Oae ioianny Niaao e naiaoneiio
?aoaieth, e caia/aoaeueii, /oi e Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa niaeaneeanue n yoei
acaeyaeii.

Ii iniaaiii aaaeiui n ?anniao?eaaaiie oi/ee c?aiey aeieaeii auoue
ioiioaiea Niaaoa e iaycaiiinoyi i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai. E caeanue eia-
aony neo/ae, ieeaeeo niiiaiee ia inoaaeythuee ioiineoaeueii oa?aeoa?a
aeayoaeueiinoe Niaaoia. A ia/aea ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia a Iaoa?ao?aneii
ie?oaeiii noaea onoaiiaeeanue i?aeoeea iacia/aoue iaeiiai e oiai aea iiaa-
?aiiiai caueoieeii ia iaeei e oio aea aeaiue ii ianeieueeei aeaeai. Iaeiei
i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui aicaoaeaeai aue aii?in, ianeieueei oaeay i?aeoeea
i?aaeeueia. Niaao iaoae, /oi . Eacaeinue au iiyoiio,
/oi auaiae iai?aoeaaaony nai niaith. Iaeiaei, Niaao iaoiaeeo, /oi aii?in
?aoaaony ia yoeie aeiaiaeaie. Ie eioa?anu i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuaai, ie
oaeianoaa i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ia iiaoo auoue auaeaeioou ia ia?aue
ieai. ?aoathuei, ii iiaieth Niaaoa, yaeyaony oi, ia iiaeao ee oaeie
niinia caueou io?aceoueny a?aaeii ia eioa?anao iiaenoaeeiiai? . Oae ?annoaeaeae Niaao,

aec caoai aii?in aue ia?aaeai ia ianoaeaeaiea iauaai nia?aiey i?e-
“io iiaa?aiiuo”, caeanue ?acaeaeny eeoue iaeei aiein a iieueco oiai, /oi
oeiie oi/ee c?aiey iiaue niinia iacia/aiey ia caueou ai?acaei oaeiaiaa.
i-iaeiaeaiea Niaaoa aa?iooueny e i?aaeiaio ii?yaeeo iaeia?aii auei iauei

caeaieai aac eciaiaiee e i?eiyoi i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothueie a oaieiaiuo
aeaeaaeaieyo e eniieiaieth. Yoio neo/ae iiaeao neoaeeoue y?eei iieacaoaeai,
auniei noiye o?iaaiue iiieiaiey naieo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaycaiiinoae.
A niioaaonoaee n yoei Niaao ianoie/eai ?acuyniye, /oi i?enyaeiue ii-
aa?aiiue iaycai aei canaaeaiey iai?aiaiii aeaeaony n iiaenoaeeiui, caueoa
eioi?iai aio ii?o/aia, eae au ie i?aaenoaaeyeinue aeaei yniui e ianeiaeiui
ii aeaiiui i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey …

Ia?yaeo n yoei ioaeii ioiaoeoue iaoeinieoaeueioth no?iainoue a ioiioaiee
e ia?ooaieyi i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aeieaa. Iaoa?ao?aneee e oa?ueeianeee Ni-
aaou ?acuynieee, /oi aeaaiinoue ia i?eiaiyaony e aeaenoaeyi eee oiouaieyi
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, iiaeeaaeaueo aeenoeeieeia?iui acuneaieyi, /oi
aicaoaeaeaiiua aeenoeeieeia?iua i?iecaiaenoaa ia iiaeeaaeao i?ae?auaieth
ca i?eie?aieai, /oi aeenoeeieeia?iia i?aneaaeiaaiea ia iiaaoaaony oaieia-
iui i?aneaaeiaaieai e aicaeaenoaeai i?aaenaaeaoaey , /oi aeenoeeieeia?iay
aeanoue Niaaoa ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia iinooiee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ni-
aa?oaiiua eie aei anooieaiey a nineiaea . Ioiaoei aua aanueia ?ani?i-
no?aieoaeueiia oieeiaaiea 400 no. O/?. noae. ono. , cai?auathuae i?enyae-
iiio iiaa?aiiiio neoiaoue oyaeau aeiaa?eoaeae. Niaao iaoae, /oi, oioy a
caeiia iao i?yiiai cai?auaiey i?enyaeiiio iiaa?aiiiio anooiaoue a eaeea-
eeai naeaeee ii eiouanoao n eeoeii, ii?o/eaoei aio aaaeaiea naiaai aeaea,
ii oa niia?aaeaiey, eioi?ua iineoaeeee iniiaaieai i?e onoaiiaeaiee i?a-

Iaeaiineee I.A. Oeac. ni/.. n. 392, 393. – I?ei. aao.
25 ai?aey 1882 a. – I?ei. aao.

Iaeaeeineee I.A. Oeac. ni/., n. 391. Iineianeee Niaao ?ac?aoee yoio aii?in io?eoeaoaeueii
a aeaeo IONOONOAEss i?yiiai caeiia, eioi?ue i?yii iaycae au iacia/aiiiai caueoieea e neacaiiiio
aeaenoaeth, – I?ei. aao.

Ie?oaeiua noaeu, aeaenoaoy a ea/anoaa Niaaoia, aea?aeaeenue eae ?ac i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai acaeyaea.
1 ae, eeaaneee Ie?oaeiie NOAe iinoaiiaee i?ae?aoeoue aeenoeeieeia?iia i?iecaiaenoai ca i?eie?aieai
i?ioe (, 1881, 231). – I?ei. aao.

Nia/aea iaoa?ao?aneee Niaao ?ac?aoee aii?in yoio io?eoeaoaeueii. Iineianeee Niaao i?i-
o aea?aeaoueny oaeiai acaeyaea, aeaeay eeoue i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea ia aoaeouaa a?aiy. – I?ei. aao.

No. 400 O/?. noae. ono. – I?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui cai?auaaony iieoiaoue eee eiui ia?acii
?aaoue i?aaa naieo aeiaa?eoaeae ii eo oyaeaai eae ia naia eiy, oae e iiae aeaeii i?eia?aoaiey
?Oio eeoe Ana naeaeee oaeiai ?iaea i?eciathony iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie e iiaeaa?aatho iiaa?aiiuo
?iinoe ii iinoaiiaeaieth eo Niaaoa>.

aee no. 400, iiaoo eiaoue i?eiaiaiea a aieueoae /anoe neo/aaa, eiaaea naeaeea
ii eiouanoao niaa?oaia i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui n eeoeii, eioi?ia ii?o/eei
aio aaaeaiea naiaai aeaea . Oi/ii oae aea, aaeaeo iaoaeianoa e aiciiaeiinoe
ia?aeaiee i?e iieo/aiee iiaa?aiiui aeiaa?aiiinoe io aeaoo eeoe, ninoiyueo
ae?oa e ae?oao a iieiaeaiee i?ioeaieeia, oioy au ia ii iaeiiio e oiio aea
aeaeo, a n?aaea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?eiyoi ca i?aaeei aeaaaoue naiia
oe?ieia oieeiaaiea 402 no. O/?. noae. ono.”, cai?auathuae auoue iiaa?aiiui
iaaeo nii?yueo noi?ii.

I?aaiecaoeey iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ii-i?aaeiaio ninoaa-
eyea i?aaeiao iai?a?uaiuo caaio aeey Niaaoa. Eia/a iii e ia aeieaeii auoue,
eai aii?in ia i?aaiecaoeee iiiiuieeia ninoaaeyao, i/aaeaeii, iniiaiie
aii?in aeecie nineiaey. Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiaiii iiyoiio, eiaaea ia-
/aeny ?aniaae a nineiaee, i?aaiecaoeey iiiiuieeia iineoaeeea, oae neacaoue,
aeaaiui oaao?ii aieiu. Eanaynue aeaiiiai aii?ina, iu n?aco ieoiaainy a
naioth aouo ai?ueau, ?acaee?aaoae a yoio ia?eiae nineiaea.

Eae oeacaii a i?aaeuaeouae aeaaa, oaea ia ia?auo ii?ao iaoaeianoaa
ee/iiai iao?iiaoa oniaee y?ei neacaoueny. Iaaeaeo iao?iiaie e iiiiuieeaie
ia auei onoaiiaeaii i?aaie/aneie nayce, e i?aeoe/aneie iiaeaioiaee iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, eae oiai o?aaoao caeii, ia noua-
noaiaaei. *ai aeaeueoa oei, /ai aieueoa oaaee/eaaeinue eiee/anoai i?enyae-
iuo iiaa?aiiuo e iiiiuieeia, oai ?ac/a noaiiaeeanue io/oaeaeaiiinoue eo.

Caeii 25 iay 1874 aiaea, a nayce n oiiiyiooui ?aoaieai I?aaeoaeue-
noaothuai Naiaoa, ?acuynieaoei, /oi noaae iiiiuieea i?enyaeiiai iiaa-
?aiiiai ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui aeey i?eiyoey a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua,
nicaeae iiaue niaeaci aeey iieiaeaaee i?ioiaeeoue yoio noaae a ea/anoaa /ano-
iiai iiaa?aiiiai, naiaiaeiiai io anyeeo nineiaiuo noaniaiee. . Eae iiaeii aeaeaoue, iai?eia?, ec oiiiyiooiai oaea i/a?ea
I.I. Ea?aa/aaneiai , iiaeiaiay iuneue aeaaea ia i?eoiaeeea a aieiao. Ia-
i?ioea, eiaiii iinea ecaeaiey caeiia 1874 a. n?aaee naieo iiiiuieeia
ii?aaeaeeeanue iuneue i iaiaoiaeeiinoe onoaiiaeaiey nineiaiie nayce e n?aaee

ooieeia, i caiaia oaeoe/anee ionoonoaothuaai ee/iiai iao?iiaoa ni-
?u,oe,” A 1876 a., – iiaanoaoao Iaeaeeineee , – a n?aaea iiiiuieeia
yiuo iiaa?aiiuo aicieeea iuneue ia ono?ienoaa th?eaee/aneeo eii-
iaioeei n oeaeueth oai?aoe/aneie e i?aeoe/aneie iiaeaioiaee eo e i?ioan-
aeiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe e e aeinoeaeaieth acaeiiiai naeeaeaiey iaaeaeo /ea-
ae ei?ii?aoeee iin?aaenoaii niaianoiuo caiyoee. Iuneue yoa iiyaeeanue,
“ae?iui ia?acii, iioiio, /oi iiiaea iiiiuieee, i?e cia/eoaeueiii ei-
ee/anoaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e /anoiuo oiaeaoaaa, a ia?aia a?aiy ii
anooieaiee a nineiaea eiatho aanueia iaei noaeaaiuo aeae e eeoaiu n?aaenoa
i?eia?aoaoue iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aoaeouae eo aaeaieaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe naa-
aeaiey iooai noaeaaiie i?aeoeee. Niaao, eae ooaa?aeaeaao Iaeaeeineee, nai
niciaaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiyoue eaeea-eeai ia?u aeey i?aeoe/aneie iiae-
aioiaee e iioiio i/aiue ioioii iioae iaano?a/o aeaeaieth iiiiuieeia.
*eaiu Niaaoa i?eiyee o/anoea a ninoiyaoainy nia?aiee, ia eioi?ii auee
au?aaioaiu niioaaonoaothuea i?aaeea.

Nouiinoue i?aaee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a i?aaiecoaiuo th?eaee/aneeo
aanaaeao /eoathony ?aoa?aou ii ?aciui aii?inai i?aaa e noaeii?iecaiaenoaa,
e caoai i?ienoiaeyo i?aiey, /oi ninoaaeaiea ?aoa?aoia e iinauaiea aanaae
yaeyaony aeey iiiiuieeia iaycaoaeueiui, e /oi iie o/anoaotho i?e iin?aaenoaa
naiae eiiennee a eca?aiee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aanaae. Eae oeacaii a i?ioieiea
iauaai nia?aiey 30 iay 1877 a., i?ioea iaeioi?uo ioieoia au?aaioaiiuo
i?aaee auee naeaeaiu aic?aaeaiey, ii ana aea iie auee i?eiyou e oio/an
noaee aeaenoaiaaoue.

A Iineaa iinea ecaeaiey caeiia 1874 a. Niaao iinoaiiaee, /oi iiiiu-
ieee iieo/atho naeaeaoaeuenoaa io noaeaaiuo iano ia eia/a, eae ii niioaiee
neo iineaaeieo n Niaaoii ia eo aeaaiiaaeaaeiinoe, a Niaao, a naith i/a?aaeue,
niineony n oaie i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie, i?e eioi?uo iie ninoiyo ii-
iiuieeaie. E i?aaiecaoeee aea nineiaey i?enooieaii auei a 1877 a. ii
eieoeeaoeaa auaoaai i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa A. E. Oaiaaaa . A iauynieoaeueiie
caienea Niaao oeacuaaao, /oi .

Iaeaeeineee I.A.. oeac. ni/., n. 434. – I?ei. aaea.

. Caeeth/aiea niI. Niaaoa ii i?iaeoo iieiaeaiey i iiiiuieeao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, n. 22.
Ea?aa/aaneee I.I.. (, n. 2~>.)- I?ei. aao.
ii eieoeeaoeaa A.E. Oaiaaaa a /enei iiiiuieeia caienaeenue oiaaea oaea aanueia iiioey?iua
i?ioanni?a Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa: A.A. Aieueoeaa. I.I. Eiaaeaaneee. N.A. Io?iioeaa.
E *oi?ia, E.E. ssiaeoe (TH?eaee/aneay Eaoiienue, 1882 a., 49). A aanaaea ni iiie I.I. Eiaa-
ei-eeee caiaoee, /oi, i?eaeaoay eo anooieoue a nineiaea. A.E. Oaiaaa eiae oeaeueth iiaeiyoue i?anoeae
nineiaey. – I?ei. iao

neaaea. I?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua cayaeytho Niaaoo i i?eiyoee eie a iiiiu-
ieee oaeeo-oi iieiaeuo ethaeae, eioi?ua iioii aiana ia ?aaioatho n ieie>.
Eiinoaoe?oy caoai, /oi i?eieiaaoeany i?ioea oeeoeaiiai iiiiuie/anoaa
ia?u ie e /aio ia i?eaiaeeee, e /oi i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua ii-i?aaeiaio
ia caieiathony naieie iiiiuieeaie, /oi iiiaoaoue yoiio iao aiciiaeiinoe
Niaao i?eoae e oiio oaaaeaeaieth, /oi aio iaiaoiaeeii acyoue a naie ?oee
e naiia i?eaioiaeaiea iiiiuieeia a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, onoaiiaea
eaeie-ieaoaeue ii?yaeie aeey oi?aaeiaiey eo a noaeaaiie i?aeoeea. Au?aaioea
i?aaee auea ii?o/aia Niaaoii a iiya?a 1877 a. eiiennee, eioi?ay caaa-
aeuaaea aeaeaie eiinoeueoaoeee iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?e ie-
?iauo o/?aaeaeaieyo. Eiienney auno?i au?aaioaea i?iaeo naiioi?aaeaiey
iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iiae aa?oiaiui iaaethaeaieai Niaaoa.

A /anoiinoe, iiieii ?acaeaeaiey ia a?oiiu aeey oi?aaeiaiey a no-
aeaaiie i?aeoeea, Eiienney iaia/aea iaycaoaeueiia o/anoea a eiinoeue-
oaoeee. Niaao iaoae, /oi o/?aaeaeaiea e i?aaiecaoeey ioaeaeueiiai naii-
noiyoaeueiiai iauanoaa iiiiuieeia ia iiaeao auoue aeiiouaia. *oi aea
eanaaony i?aaeiieiaeaiiie ?aaiou a eiinoeueoaoeee, Niaao auneacae, /oi
.
Aianoi yoiai Niaao i?eiye iaoa?ao?aneea i?aaeea i aeaeaiee ia a?oiiu.
Eaaeaeay a?oiia ecae?aao naiaai nae?aoa?y, a ec nae?aoa?ae ninoaaeyao
eiieoao , eioi?ue niiauaao Niaaoo naaaeaiey i iinooiathueo a iiiiu-
ieee e i iineaaeieo, iinooiathueo a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, e i anyeii
ia?ooaiee iiiiuieeii aai iaycaiiinoae .

A aeaeueiaeoai i?aaeea i eiioa?aioeeyo e aanaaeao iiaeaa?aaeenue ii/oe
aani?a?uaiui eciaiaieyi e i?iaeoai eciaiaiee. Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, eioa-
?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi a Iineaa a 1883 aiaeo eiieoao cayaee Niaaoo i aeaeaiee
iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aanoe oaieiaiua aeaea ii iacia/aieth
noaea. Niaao ?aoee ia?aaeaoue cayaeaiea iiiiuieeia i?aaenaaeaoaeth noaea e
i?ineoue aai i iin?aaenoaa a yoii aeaea ia?aae Ieienoa?noaii. Ie io/aou,
ie aeo?iaeu canaaeaiee ia oiiieiatho i aeaeueiaeoae noaeueaa yoiai cayaeaiey.
Aiaeii iicaea eiieoao, i?iaeoe?oy ?yae eciaiaiee a nouanoaothueo i?aaeeao
eiinoeueoaoeee iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?e iineianeii Ie?i-

Ia?aia canaaeaiea eiieoaoa ninoiyeinue iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii A.E. Iaiaaaa 20 aeaeaa?y
1878 a. A ia?aie eaaeiao aioee: A.A. Aeaeaiieena. A.A. Aoaaaa. AeI. Aeia?ioioia. Ae.A. Iaiaeaeueo-
oai. Oe.E. Eueaiae/-Eino?eoea. I.I. Ooaiieneee. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao iineianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo 1877-78 aa., n. 5-21. – I?ei. aao.

i-ueaaea, iaiaoee iaycaoaeueiinoue caiyoey a eiinoeueoaoeee, ii iayca-
aeinoue auea ioaa?aiooa iauei nia?aieai, eioi?ia aeaaea ia noaei 06-
eao-ue aeaoaeae i?iaeoa . Iaaeaeo oai, ana i?iaeou eciaiaiee aiineeenue
aeio /oi aanaaeu oee ieioi, iaei iinauaeenue e ia aeinoeaaee oao oeaeae,
-?iiua auee ei iinoaaeaiu. Oae, a 1880 a. i?eoeinue oiaiueoeoue ia ii-
aeaeiio /enei a?oii, iioiio /oi eo ieacaeinue neeoeii iiiai . A oii aea aiaeo , i?eoeinue aiiaue i?enooieoue e ia?a?aaioea
i?aaee eiioa?aioeee .

Ia/aoue i?eienuaaea iaoaea/o eiioa?aioeee iaoiaeiio auai?o oai. A
Iineaa ia eiioa?aioeeyo oaiu /enoi ioaeeoeenoe/aneea, iai?eia?: aiiaiey
ia iiaue noae, aeeyiea caeiiia i aaaeiuo ia iaoia?eci ii ?aaIAo. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, ioia/aeanue ?acieoea a iinauaaiinoe eiioa?aioeee. A?oiiu, ?o-
eiaiaeeiua a Iaoa?ao?aa Ianniaa?ii e Aa?a?aeii, iinauaeenue ona?aeii (ia
eaaeaeiai iiiiuieea 27 iinauaiee, a ae?oaeo a?oiiao oieueei ii naie) .

Oae aeaei oyioeinue aei eiioea ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia, e ai ana yoi a?aiy
aii?in ia i?aaiecaoeee iiiiuieeia ii/oe ia noiaeee n i/a?aaee . Iinea
ecaeaiey caeiia 8 iiya?y 1889 a. a nayce n ?acaeaoeiny oiaaea aioenaie-
oe/aneei aeaeaeaieai aii?in n?aco iieo/ee ae?oaia iai?aaeaiea. Niaaou ia
oieueei ia i?eiyee ia?, /oiau ineaaeoue aeaenoaea yoiai caeiia, ii, iai?ioea,
iuoaeenue eniieueciaaoue aai eae iiaeii oe?a. Oeaio? oyaeanoe nin?aaeioi/eeny
ia ai?ueaa n oeeoeaiui iiiiuie/anoaii. I?iaeo i?aaee, au?aaioaiiue
nia. Niaaoii a 1889 a., o?aaiaae, /oiau i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue eiae ia
aieaa iaeiiai iiiiuieea, /oiau, iiieii iiiiue iao?iio, iiiiuiee e
naiinoiyoaeueii caieiaeny i?aeoeeie, e a nayce n yoei, /oiau eeoea ia-
o?enoeaineeo aa?ieniiaaaeaiee, anee ia iieo/ao onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiii
8 iiya?y 1889 a. ?ac?aoaiey ia aaaeaiea /oaeeo aeae a oa/aiea o?ao eao ni
aeiy iinooieaiey a iiiiuieee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eneeth/aeenue ec

Io/ao eiiennee iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1884-85 aa., n. 9-10, –
I?ei aao.

Iaeaeeineee I.A.. oeac. ni/., n. 99. 101. – I?ei. aao.

A nayce n ianoaeaeaieai i?aaee i eiioa?aioeeyo, a iaeiii ec iaueo nia?aiee iaoa?ao?aneie
aaeaieaoo?u (26 iiya?y 1880 a.) aiciee aii?in ia ecaeaiee naiaea iaueo i?aaee e iau/aaa aaeaieaoo?u.
aoaa nia?aiea aaeeiiaeanii iaeia?eei yoo iuneue e eca?aei eiienneth ec 7 /aeiaae iiae i?aaenaaea-
noaii A.Ae. Nianiae/a (ec Aieiaoianeiai, Ethnoeoa, Ianniaa?a, Iioaoeia. ?eooa?a e Ooeia). A
canaaeaieyo II e 29 ai?aey eiienney ooaa?aeeea i?ia?aiiu aeey niae?aiey iaoa?eaeia e iaia/aiiiio
?OEO, ?acineaea i?ia?aiio ae?oaei Niaaoai, ii a aeaeueiaeoai ieeaeie aeayoaeueiinoe eiienney ia
“?”>oi. Nai?iee oae e ia aue ecaeai. (Iaeaeeineee, n. 308). – I?ei. aao.
“AEo?iae A?aaeaeaineiai e Oaieiaiiai I?aaa>, 1887. ei. 9. n. 1.- I?ei. aao.

nineiaey iiiiuieeia . A iauai nia?aiee 4 oaa?aey 1890 a., ianoaeaeaaoai
nia/aea aii?in i i?aaenoiyaoai /anoaiaaiee 25-eaoey Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia
i?iaeo i?aaee iiaeaa?any aeanoi/aeoae e?eoeea. Ca eneeth/aieai oieueei
A..E. Ooeia, ie iaeiiai aieina ia ?acaeaeinue a iieueco iiauo i?aaee.
A.Ae. Nianiae/ iaoiaeee ei?aiiie iaaeinoaoie a niaoaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aii?ina n aii?inii ia i?aaiecaoeee einoeoooa, eaeiaia niaoaiea e iaeiaeeei
naie ioia/aoie ia i?iaeo i?aaee. Iacaaeneii aea io yoiai, ei?aiiie aeaoaeo
caeeth/aaony a ia?aoiaea io nineiaiiai iao?iiaoa e ee/iiio. Ninoaaeoaee
Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, ii-aeaeeiiio, aeaeaee i?eaeaoue aaeaieaoo?a oeaoiaia ono-
?ienoai, iinoaaeoue iiiiuieea e iao?iio a iieiaeaiea o/aieea e ianoa?o.
Niaao, a ia?aia a?aiy naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, niciaaay ianinoiyoaeueiinoue oea-
oiaiai ia/aea e ?oeiaiaenoaoynue, eae i?eia?ii, ono?ienoaii aaeaieaoo?u
ai O?aioeee, ai anao naieo i?iaeoao i?aaiecaoeee einoeoooa iiiiuieeia
i?iaiaeee eaeath noaaea e eeoue a iineaaeiaa a?aiy noae ia oi/eo c?aiey ee/iiai
iao?iiaoa, iaei ano?a/athuaai ni/oanoaey a nineiaee.

Ianiio?y ia yia?ae/aneoth caueoo A.I. Aa?a?aea e iniaaiii A.I. Ethn-
oeoa, aeieacuaaaoaai, /oi iiniaoiinoue au?aaioee i?aaee iaiaoiaeeia
aaeaeo a?iiaaeiiai iaieuaa iieiaeuo ethaeae a nineiaea iiiiuieeia, ni-
a?aiea iiaeaaeythuei aieueoeinoaii (103 i?ioea 25) ?aoeei ecuyoue aii?in
yoio ec aaaeaiey Niaaoa e eca?aoue iniaoth eiienneth aeey au?aaioee i?iaeoa
iiauo i?aaee. Eiienney au?aaioaea e neaaeothuaio aiaeo iiaue i?iaeo,
i?aaenoaaeythuee oeie/iue ia?ac/ee eiii?iienna. I?aaeeiaeaiiia Niaa-
oii o?aaiaaiea io eiiaa?oea i?aaenoaaeaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaa ioiaiaii, ii ii
enoa/aiee iyoeeaoiaai n?iea i?aauaaiey a iiiiuieeao Niaao ianoaeaeaao
i?e/eiu iaia?aoiaea a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua e iiaeao io/eneeoue oaeiaia
eeoei ec iiiiuieeia. Aeaiieeia ia/, oaeei ia?acii, iaae eii?iaeoeaie i?i-
aeieaeae aenaoue. ?aaiui ia?acii, eiio?iaa?ca ee/iiai e nineiaiiai iao-
?iiaoa i?eie?aia oae, /oi . Yoio
i?iaeo oiaea ia iieo/ee aeaeueiaeoaai aeaeaeaiey. Ii oaea ia aue i?aaenoaaeai
ia ?anniio?aiea iauaai nia?aiey aaeaeo aicaoaeaeaiiiai a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii
ii?yaeea aii?ina i iieiii i?aia?aciaaiee iieiaeaiey iiiiuieeia i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo .
Ioaa?aiooua iaoa?ao?aneei iauei nia?aieai i?aaeea iaoee aeeaie

. a iineianeii Niaaoa , eioi?ue eo oeaeeeii aini?eiye e onoaoaee

eo oai, /oi iineaaeiei ioieoii iiauo i?aaee ioiaiee ana i?aaeea
aeaaeueii iiiiuieeia, ecaeaiiua Niaaoii aei naai. A iauynieoaeueiie
enea e i?aaeeai Niaao e oiio?aaee oo ciaiaieooth o?aco i iaaeaiee e
iaee/aiee nineiaey, eioi?ay i?eaaaeaia auoa e eioi?ay, eae oiiiyiooi,
iioea aoeyoue ii anae ia?eiaee/aneie i?anna.

I?e/eio iaaeaiey nineiaey Niaao aeaeeo a oii, /oi aei oao ii? ainiiae-
noaiaaea eiaeiay oi/ea c?aiey ia iiiiuieeia, eae ia nineiaea. Iaaeaeo
oai ii iiaieth Niaaoa, caaiea iiiiuieea ia iaicia/aao i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
e iniaiio nineiaeth iiaa?aiiuo, iii ia i?aaeiieaaaao naiinoiyoaeueiie i?ae-
oeee, a, iai?ioea, o?aaoao ?aaiou o i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai iiae aai ?o-
eiaiaenoaii. Neiaii, oi/ea c?aiey ee/iiai iao?iiaoa aeieaeia auoue i?iaa-
aeaia aei eiioea. *oi eanaaony ioiioaiey e aa?ayi, oi . Iiyoiio Niaao ia iiaeao
, anee iie ia
eiatho ?ac?aoaiey ieieno?a thnoeoeee ia noaeaaiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai, eai
naiia caaiea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai aiineaaenoaee yoeie eeoeaie iiaeao
auoue iieo/aii n aai aea ?ac?aoaiey. Aio ii/aio i?aaeea e o?aaotho i?aae-
noaaeaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia aaaeaiea aeae. Ii, i?eciaaay oi?aaeiaiea no-
aeaaiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa oneiaeai ciia ea iii iaaeeaaeauaai noaaea ii-
iiuieea, Niaao, iaeiaei, aeiaieuenoaoaony oieueei i?aaenoaaeaieai ?ac?aoa-
iey ia iieo/aiea naeaeaoaeuenoaa, ioithaeue ia o?aaoy, /oiau a oa/aiea noaaea
iiiiuiee iai?aiaiii oi?aaeiyeny a aaaeaiee noaeaaiuo aeae.

Au?aaioaa yoe i?aaeea. Niaao aianoa n oai iinoaiiaee aaanoe eo a
aeaenoaea iaiaaeeaiii. Yoi e auei naeaeaii, i?e/ai i?aaeea ia auee aeaaea
?acineaiu iiiiuieeai, oae /oi iie ociaaaee i nouanoaiaaiee oaeeo i?aaee
eeoue ec iinoaiiaeaiey ia eo io/eneaiee.

Eae oaea oiiiyiooi auoa, a naiii Niaaoa i?aaeea aucuaaee ?aneie.
A.I. I?aeaaaeueneee auoae ec ninoaaa Niaaoa, a i?aaenaaeaoaeue e iaeei ec
/eaiia (N.A. Aethiaioaeue) inoaeenue i?e iniaii iiaiee, a eioi?ii, ia
iniiaaiee iiae?iaiuo noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo, aeieacuaaee, /oi iiiiuieee
aiieia niiniaiu iieueciaaoueny i?aaeinoaaeaiiui ei i?aaii noaeaaiiai i?aae-
noaaeoaeuenoaa, e eeoaiea eo yoiai i?aaa ia iaoiaeeo naaa ieeaeiai ii?aa-

Io/ao nii. Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo 1888-1889 aa.. n. 23, 24. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao ni6. Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1888-1889 aa., n. 19-23. – I?ei. aao.
I?aaenaaeaoaeue iineianeiai Niaaoa Ae.A. E?theia ia?aoeeny e i?aaenaaeaoaeth ni6. Niaaoa n ienue-
iii i i?enueea i?aaee, a ioaao ia /oi e aue i?eneai i?iaeo yoeo i?aaee. – I?ei. aao.

Niaao ninoiye a oi a?aiy ec i?aaenaaeaoaey A.A. E?theiaa, oia. i?aaenaaeaoaey I.A. Ei?naeiaa
e /eaiia – N.A. Aethiaioaey, A.A. Eaiaeea?a, E.O. Iaiae?i. A.A. Iina. A.A. Ino?ianeiai e
AE? I?aeaaaeueneiai. Iineaaeiee a nayce n ecaeaiiuie Niaaoii i?aaeeaie i iiiiuieeao auoae ec
ninoaaa Niaaoa. – I?ei. aao
Eii?. — iai?aiaiiia oneiaey.

aeaiey a i?aaeoanoaiaaaoae eo aeayoaeueiinoe ca noieue aeieaee ia?eiae a?aiaie.
Iiyoiio iie ?aoeoaeueii i?ioanoiaaee i?ioea oaeie nei?iiaeeoaeueiie ca-
iaiu i?aaee, aeieai aeaenoaiaaaoeo, e o?aaiaaee iacia/aiey eiiennee aeey
ia?aniio?a i?aaee n oai, /oiau ?aaioa e caeeth/aiea aa auee i?aaenoaaeaiu
ia oniio?aiea Niaaoa.

A nineiaee iiaua i?aaeea aucaaee aeieaoth e aeanoieoth ai?ueao. Oeaeue
?yae iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?eian aeaeiau a Noaeaaioth Ia-
eaoo ia eo io/eneaiea, ae?oaea iaaeaeiaaee i?aaeea 3 ia?oa 1890 a. ii
nouanoao. Oaeea aea aeaeiau auee i?eianaiu iiiaeie i?enyaeiuie iiaa-
?aiiuie (a oii /enea N.A. Io?iioeaaui e A.I. I?aeaaaeueneei). Noaeaaiay
Iaeaoa oaeiaeaoai?eea oieueei ia?aua aeaeiau e oi ii /enoi oi?iaeueiui
iniiaaieyi, aaeaeo iaeno?aaiaaiey iauyniaiee io io/eneaiiuo. Iinea yoiai
Niaao eno?aaiaae iauyniaiey e aoi?e/ii iinoaiiaee ia io/eneaiee. AEa-
eiau ia i?aaeea 3 ia?oa n oi/ee c?aiey eo niaea?aeaiey Iaeaoa inoaaeea
aac iineaaenoaee, ia n/eoay naay eiiiaoaioiie ?anniao?eaaoue eo ii nouanoao.
Ii?aaeaeaiea Iaeaou, ii-aeaeeiiio, auei iaaeaeiaaii a Naiao, eai ai
eniieiaiea Oeaca Niaaeeiaiiiai I?enoonoaey Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa aiiaue
aioea a ?anniio?aiea aeaeiau e, ianoaeea i?aaeea ii nouanoao, i?eciaea
eo niioaaonoaothueie o?aaiaaieyi caeiia. Ia yoi ii?aaeaeaiea aiiaue auea
i?eianaia aeaeiaa a I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao eiycai A.E. O?oniaui,
eioi?ay auea ?ac?aoaia Niaae. I?enoonoaeai oieueei a 1895 a. . A ?aoaiee
naiai I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao ioiaiee ana oa ioieou i?aaee 3 ia?oa,
eioi?ua aucuaaee iaaiaeiaaiea a nineiaee, a eiaiii: cai?auaiea naii-
noiyoaeueiie i?aeoeee (eae i?ioeai?a/auaa i?aaeeo 406 no. O/?. noae.
ono.), cai?auaiea eiaoue aieueoa iaeiiai iiiiuieea (eae iiaouaa auoue on-
oaiiaeaiiui oieueei a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea) e o?aaiaaiea i?aaeaa?e-
oaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey iaeiiai ec ianoiuo noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee ia iieo-
/aiea naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia i?aai oiaeaeaiey ii /oaeei aeaeai (eae ia i?aaenoaa-
eythuaa niaith iai?aiaiiiai oneiaey aeey anooieaiey a iiiiuieee
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai). Yoi ?aoaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa aanue-
ia aaaeii aua iioiio, /oi caeanue aia?aua auei i?eciaii i?aai iaaeci?a
Niaaoia ca iiiiuieeaie.

Iiieii iaaeaeiaaiey, oio/an iinea ecaeaiey i?aaee cia/eoaeueiay a?oiia
iiiiuieeia (76 /aeiaae) ia?aoeeanue e Niaaoo n oiaeaoaenoaii i i?ein-

Ii iaeii ec i?aaenoaaeaiiuo iauyniaiee ia noaiiaeony a i?eioeeieaeueioth iiiiceoeeth i?aaeeai
3 ia?oa, a ana aeaeiaueee nnueathony ia iainaaaeiieaiiinoue ia ecaeaiee i?aaee e ia iaaiciiaeiinoue
IIEO*EOUe naeaeaoaeuenoai ia aaaeaiea aeae aaeaeo caeiia 8 iiya?y 1889 a. – I?ei. aao.

Nai?iee Niaaeeiaiiiai I?enoonoaey I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, ecae. 1896 a., n. 338. –
I?ei. aaii.

oeaeaeaeaiie i?eaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea i?aaee 3 ia?oa, eae ?iiythueo aeinoi-
oeoenoai iiiiuieeia e niaa?oaiii ?ac?ooathueo eo iaoa?eaeueiia aeaai-
noiyiea. Cayaeaiea ?aoeoaeueii ii?iaa?aaao ?aceoth e?eoeeo aeayoaeueiinoe
iiiiuieeia, aeaaaaioth iauynieoaeueiie caieneie e i?aaeeai. A?oiiiaua
caiyoey, aeayoaeueiinoue eiinoeueoaoeee i?e Ie?iaii Nuacaea, ooieoeeiie?i-
aaiea e?oaeea oaieiaiuo caueoieeia aeatho aeinoaoi/ioth aa?aioeth inaa-
aeiieaiiinoe iiiiuieeia. Ii ieeaeiai oniaoa cayaeaiea ia eiaei. ?aci-
ethoeey Niaaoa ii iiaiaeo yoiai oiaeaoaenoaa ioee/aaony aieueoie eaeiie/-
iinoueth: ca ninoiyaoeiny 3 ia?oa iinoaiiaeaieai, oiaeaoaenoai iiiiuieeia
inoaaeoue aac iineaaenoaee.

Aneaae canei, 54 i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo (n?aaee ieo Ae.E. Iaayaeiineee,
eiycue O?onia, Ae.I. Aeia?ioioia) iiaeaee cayaeaiea i nicuaa /?acau/aeiiai
iauaai nia?aiey aeey ianoaeaeaiey i?aaee 3 ia?oa. Niaao (i?ioea aieina
i?aaenaaeaoaey, inoaaoaainy i?e iniaii iiaiee) ioeacae a nicuaa nia?aiey
ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi nia?aiey iiaoo nicuaaoueny aeey ianoaeaeaiey aii?inia
ia ?aoaiiuo, a yoio aii?in oaea ?aoai. Ia aeeaeaeoai i/a?aaeiii nia?aiee
aue naeaeai cai?in Niaaoo, ii eaeiio iniiaaieth ii ioaa?a i?inueao i nicuaa
iauaai nia?aiey. Cai?in aucaae aanii?yaei/iua i?aiey. A iinea yoeo i?a-
iee nia?aiea i?enooieei e auai?ai Niaaoa, eioi?ue e aue aua?ai a oii
aea ninoaaa, o.a., n iaeiie noi?iiu, ana i?aaeiaa aieueoeinoai, a n ae?oaie,
e A.A. E?theia (niiaa i?aaenaaeaoaeue) e N.A. Aethiaioaeue, iaeciaiii in-
oaaaaoeany i?e iniaii iiaiee. Eeoue aianoi auauaoaai A. I?aeaaaeueneiai
aue eca?ai iiaue /eai A.E. Naeoueia, eae aoaeoi ia?i/ii aeey oiai, /oiau
caiyoiaoue ?aiooaoeeth nineiaey.

Ioaeii aea auei oae neo/eoueny, /oiau aei ieii/aiey n?iea eca?aiey
A.E. Naeoueia ioeacaeny io naiaai caaiey /eaia Niaaoa, a nionoy iaaeaeth,
6 ia?oa 1892 a., a Niaao auei iiaeaii cayaeaiea ca iiaeienueth 44 i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo n i?inueaie nicaaoue iauaa nia?aiea, oae eae i?anooieaiey, i?i-
ecaiaeeaoeany a oa/aiea ?yaea eao Naeoueiaui, noaayo aii?in: eiaai ee
iu aeaei a aeaiiii neo/aa n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie aieaciaiiuie yaeaieyie,
eee aea i?e/eia aieacie e?iaony aeoaaea. Nicua iauaai nia?aiey iioeae-
?oaony oai, /oi . Ia yoio
?ac aeaeaiea iiaeienaaoeo auei oaeiaeaoai?aii, e nia?aiea nicaaii ia 10 iay
1892 a., ii iii ia ninoiyeinue ca iai?eauoeai aeinoaoi/iiai /enea /eaiia.
A aua aiae nionoy, iinea oiai eae oiaa?euai i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa aianoi
I.A. Ei?naeiaa eca?ai aue A.I. I?aeaaaeueneee, ia?aue neiaeee n naay
e caaiea /eaia Niaaoa. Yoio oaeo oiaea aucaae ?aneie n?aaee Niaaoa. Niaao
ia iaoae aiciiaeiui eniieieoue i?aaeeiaeaiea iaeioi?uo /eaiia ia?aoeoueny
e I.A. Ei?naeiao n i?inueaie i acyoee ia?aoii ioeaca, eai ia yoii ioeaca
aeieiaeaii auei oaea iauaio nia?aieth. Ii /aou?a /eaia Niaaoa (A.A. Ea-
iaeea?, A.A. Eaoeia, A.A. Ino?ianeee e N.E. Oeeaoia) a iniaii iiaiee,
iiaeaiiii eie, iaoiaeeee, /oi aunoaaeaiu oieueei oi?iaeueiua iioeau io-
eaca, eioi?ua, aaeaeo caneoa I.A. Ei?naeiaa, ia aeieaeiu ea?aoue ?aoathuae
?iee.

*oiau caeii/eoue eceiaeaiea yoie ai?ueau, inoaaony aua oiiiyiooue, /oi
a cayaeaiee, iiaeaiiii Niaaoo i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui Nieiaueaaui e iiae-
ienaiiii 98 iineianeeie e eiiai?iaeieie i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie
(a oii /enea N. Oeeaoiaui, A.N. Oiaeiaui, A. Ieeieueneei), aai aaoi?u
e au?aaeatho iaaiaeiaaiea ii iiaiaeo oiai,
/oi .

Yoa aeanoieay ai?ueaa, ?acua?aaoayny ia oaeii ianoa, eioi?ia aeieaeii
auei n/eoaoueny iai?eeiniiaaiiui aeey eaaeaeiai aaeaieaoa, i?eaeaeea e naaa,
eiia/ii, iauanoaaiiia aieiaiea. Iia?aiaiiay ia/aoue i?eiyea ai?y/aa
o/anoea a ino?ie aioo?aiiae ?ani?a e, a naith i/a?aaeue, oiaea ?aneieieanue
ia aeaa, ai?i/ai, aanueia ia?aaiua eaaa?y. e i?eaaonoaiaaee ecaeaiea i?aaee, a any inoaeueiay ia?eiaee/aneay
i?anna ioianeanue e iei io?eoeaoaeueii. I/aiue ethaiiuoioth iiceoeeth caiye
. Ii n/eoaao oaaee/aiea
/enea aa?aaa a aaeaieaoo?a iaii?iaeueiui: , 1889, ei. 6, n. 145. – I?ei. aao.

aeao-u oaeaioeeaaa, ciathuaa e aieiaoaeueiaa, anaie n?aaenoaaie ionoa-
atho eioa?anu aeiaa?eoaeae, ii ?acaa ?onneea aeiiaaou, /oi .

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, any i?anna iauyniyea yoio iiai?io io nineiaiiai iao-
aeoeae.i.a e ee/iiio e ia?ii?eyoey i?ioea aa?aaa iioeaaie eiieo?aioeee.
O?aaiaaiea niaeaney iao?iia ia aaaeaiea a?aaeaeaineiai aeaea auei aaaaeaii
iiae aeeyieai aaeoaoeee i?ioea aa?aaa. Iniaaiii ianoaeaae ia yoii oo-
aa?aeaeaiee aeo?iae a oeaeii ?yaea noaoae. . .
AEo?iae ii yoiio iiaiaeo aniiieiaao, /oi ai a?aiy aieiu a iaeiie aia?e-
eaineie aaaaie eniaineea aeanoe iiaaneee eaeueaeienoia-iao?inia o?ai-
oeocneiai noaeia, ii naeaeaee iaaeienue i?e yoii: .

Naiia ia/aeueiia – eiaiii oi, /oi Niaao ia iinooiee i?yii e ioe?i-
aaiii, a auioaeaeai aue ne?uoue enoeiiue iioea. Aio ii/aio, eae au ie
ioiineoueny e i?ienoiaeeaoae ai?ueaa e ia /ueth au noi?iio ie noaoue, nai ii
naaa oaeo oaeie iaaeaeioniaiie ai?ueau e oao i?eaiia, eioi?ua ioneaeenue
a oiae, aannii?ii, eiia/ii, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?aaeeueiinoe oeeoe?iaaiiiai
ooaa?aeaeaiey iauynieoaeueiie caienee, /oi nineiaea iaeue/aao.., /oanoaa
/anoe e aeieaa, iiiyoey i ii?yaei/iinoe, i a?aieoeao aeicaieaiiiai, i?eioeeiu
iauanoaaiiiai neoaeaiey caauaathony. E, iiaoi?ei aua ?ac, aieueoa anaai
ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea, /oi ai?ueaa ?acua?aeanue ia aii?ina ia i?aa-
iecaoeee iiiiuieeia. Eae caia/aao iauynieoaeueiay caienea e i?aaeeai
1890 a., aii?in i iiiiuieeao – aii?in aoaeouiinoe nineiaey i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, any aoaeouiinoue a?ioaia auea a io/eio no?an-
oae ec-ca a?aiaiiuo e iaeeeo iiaoaeaeaiee. Oaeay ai?ueaa ioee/aaony oai.
/oi io iaa iaeeiaeiai no?aaeatho eae iiaaaeeoaee, oae e iiaaaeaeaiiua, e ?aiu,
eioi?ua iaiinyony ae?oa Ae?oao a iueo aeoau, inoaaeytho iacaaeeaathuea
?oaoeu, eioi?ua ioiuia oaea aoaeoo iuoue ai anyeoth iaiiaiaeo.
Oaeei ia?acii, aii?in ia i?aaiecaoeee iiiiuieeia, aii?in no?iai ni-

, “Aanoiee Aa?iiu>. 1890, .? 3. – I?ei. aao.
-, ?onneay Iuneue>, 1890. ei. 4. n. 210. – I?ei. aao.

“?onneay Iuneue>, 1888, 3. (O?. – . – I?ei. nino.).
?ei. aaAai

239

neiaiue e nei?aa oaoie/aneee, iaaeaee i?eioeeieaeueiue, ieacaeny ia eeiee
iaeiaiueoaai nii?ioeaeaiey aeeyieyi oeeoeu. Caeanue eiaiii caaao

A.Ae. Nianiae/a Niaaoo – aethnoe iaoeinieoaeueii /enoioo i?aaia – iiae-
aa?any oyaeaeui eneooaieyi. Oai aieaa neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, /oi i?e auoiaea
ca oio eoa, ia eioi?ii , ?aca?iae aeieaeai
aue noaiiaeoueny aua aieaa caiaoiui. Oneiaey, a eioi?uo i?ioaeaea ni-
neiaiay aeeciue, ia aeaaii?eyonoaiaaee iinoaiiaea e ?acuyniaieth iaueo
iniiaiuo aii?inia, eioi?ua, eae iu aeaeaee, inoaeenue ia?aoaiiuie e iaie-
aeaiiuie e eioi?ua ieiaeeee iaaei?acoiaiey e io?aaeaeenue ia anae nineiaiie
aeecie. Iiyoiio oaeea aii?inu e ia iiaeieiaeenue. Anee aea eiie?aoiua
ianoiyoaeuenoaa auaeaeaaee eo ia i/a?aaeue, iaecaaaeii aicieeaee aioo?aiiea
o?aiey. Aeaaea eae-oi no?aiii oaia?ue aiai?eoue, /oi iaeei ec oaeeo aii?inia
iinoaaeea nia?oue Aaiaaoou. .

Yoio neo/ae – /?acau/aeii y?eee eiaiii iioiio, /oi, eacaeinue au,
ieeaeiai ioiioaiey nia?oue Aaiaaoou e noaeueaai ?onneie aaeaieaoo?u eiaoue
ia iiaeao. Iiyoiio aanueia eioa?anii i?aaenoaaeoue aai a oii naiii ecei-
aeaiee, eaeia aeaii aio auei a naia a?aiy. Aio eae yoa iaiaueiiaaiiay
enoi?ey caienaia a aeo?iaea Niaaoa io 23 aeaeaa?y 1882 a.

I?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa aeieiaeee ieaeaneaaeothuaa: 21-ai naai aeaeaa?y ii
iieo/ee io i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai A.I. Oea/aaa ienueii n ecaauaieai,
/oi a yoio aeaiue a eiiiaoa Niaaoa i?aaeiieaaaaony niaauaiea i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo ii aii?ino i iinueea a Ia?eae oaeaa?aiiu n au?aaeaieai
niaieaciiaaiey ii neo/ath nia?oe Eaiia Aaiaaoou. Nia?aaoeieny caoai
i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie auneacuaaeinue aeaeaiea, /oiau oaeaa?aiia auea
iineaia io eiaie n.-iaoa?ao?aneie ei?ii?aoeee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, e
eiaiii i?aaenoaaeoaeai aa. Niaaoii i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai ii, i?aaenaaeaoaeue, i?inee /eaia Niaaoa A.E. Ooeia naeaeaoue ?anii-
?yaeaiea i nicuaa anao /eaiia Niaaoa a yeno?aiiia canaaeaiea a oio aea
aeaiue, a 8 /. aa/a?a, a eaa?oe?a i?aaenaaeaoaey. Ooaea i?eauei oanoue /eaiia
Niaaoa: N.A. Aiae?aaaneee, A.I. Aa?a?ae, A.ss. Ianniaa?, N.N. Nieieia,

Nianiae/ A.Ae. “Canoieueiua ?a/e>, n. 35. – I?ei. aao.

Aaiaaooa Eaii Ieoaeue (1838-1882) – ecaanoiue o?aioeocneee aaeaieao, iieeoe/aneee e
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue. A 1881-1882 a. i?aiuea?-ieieno? e ieieno? eiino?aiiuo aeae O?aioeee.

iycue A.E. O?onia e A.E. Ooei. Iacaaeneii io oiai, I.A. Iioaoei i?e-
ia eiy i?aaenaaeaoaey ienueii, a eioi?ii, cayaeyy i iaaiciiaeiinoe
ae?iiueioue a yeno?aiiia canaaeaiea Niaaoa, eceaaaao, /oi niaeanai ia iinueeo
“aiaoi au?aaeaieai niaieaciiaaiey ia oo?aoa Aaiaaoou, ii aeaeae au
ecaaaiooue a iae anyeie, ii aiciiaeiinoe, iieeoe/aneie ie?anee e i?yiuo
o?aaeaiee i iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iieieiiai. I?e ianoaeaeaiee i?aae-
eiaeaiiiai aii?ina iiaiey i?enoonoaiaaaoeo ?acaeaeeeenue: 4 /eaia
(N,.A. Aiae?aaaneee, A.I. Aa?a?ae, N.N. Nieieia e A.E. Ooei) i?eciaaaee
aeaeaoaeueiui iineaoue a Niaao ia?eaeneeo aaeaieaoia, e /eneo eioi?uo i?e-
iaaeeaaeae Eaii Aaiaaooa, io eiaie n.-iaoa?ao?aneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo oaeaa?aiio n au?aaeaieai niaieaciiaaiey ii neo/ath aai nia?oe.
E yoiio iiaieth i?eniaaeeieeny aiineaaenoaee e eiycue A.E. O?onia, aeaa
aea /eaia (A.I. Ethnoeo e A.ss. Ianniaa?) i?eciaaaee iinueeo oaeaa?aiiu
io eiaie Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iaaiciiaeiith, oae eae yoi ni-
noaaeyei au iieeoe/aneoth aeaiiino?aoeeth; anooieaiea aea ia iooue iieeoe-
/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeey nineiaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e aai i?aaenoa-
aeoaey, Niaaoa, auei au iacaeiiii e iaaeaeaoaeueii. E yoiio ii, i?aaena-
aeaoaeue, i?eaaaee, /oi iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa i iinueea i?aaeeiaeaiiie
oaeaa?aiiu aei oiai iai?aaeeueii, ii aai iiaieth, e auoiaeeo ec noa?u aea-
yoaeueiinoe Niaaoa, /oi ii i/aiue cao?oaeieeny au eniieieoue oaeia iinoa-
iiaeaiea e iiaeienaoue oaeaa?aiio. Caoai oaeaa?aiia auea ninoaaeaia e
iiaeienaia iyoueth /eaiaie Niaaoa: N.A. Aiae?aaaneei, A.I. Aa?a?aeii,
N.N. Nieieiaui, eiycai A.E. O?oniaui e A.E. Ooeiui, ionueeo oaea-
a?aiiu i?eiye ia naay A.E. Ooei, eioi?iio iia ooo aea auea ia?aaeaia,
iinea /aai Aiae?aaaneee e O?onia ec canaaeaiey oaeaeeeenue. Aei cae?uoey
canaaeaiey auei oneiaeaii, /oi ioiineoaeueii anaai i?ienoiaeeaoaai a ca-
naaeaiee A.E. Ooei, aianoa n iei, i?aaenaaeaoaeai, e A.ss. Ianniaa?ii,
ia?aaiai?eo n /eaiii Niaaoa I.A. Iioaoeiui. Aneaaenoaea yoiai icia-
/aiiua o?e eeoea ioi?aaeeenue e Iioaoeio e ii niaauaiee n iei iieaaaee
ioeiaeeoue ionueeo oaeaa?aiiu aei aeeaeaeoaai canaaeaiey Niaaoa, iacia-
/aiiiai ia naaiaeiyoaa /enei, n oai, /oiau ana /eaiu Niaaoa auee ianoi-
yoaeueii i?eaeaoaiu i?eauoue a yoi canaaeaiea e /oiau aii?in ia ionueea
oaeaa?aiiu aue aiiaue ianoaeaeai. A.E. Ooei, i?eciaaay, ni naiae noi?iiu,
iiaia niaauaiea ii yoiio i?aaeiaoo iieaciui, iaoae ioaeiui, i?aaeaa?e-
oaeueii ?aoaiey aii?ina, iinueaoue ee iaiaaeeaiii oaeaa?aiio eee i?ein-
“”aeoue aa ionueeo, ia?aaiai?eoue ia yoii n oiaa?euaie, iiaeienaaoeie
– 1 aeaa?aiia caoai ioineaia ia auea, e iioiio a ianoiyuai canaaeaiee

?oa iiaeeaaeeo ianoaeaeaieth aii?in ia ionueea aa. Io oiaa?eua i?aae-
– Niaaoa A.I. Oo?/aieiiaa iieo/aii naai /enea ienueii, a eioi?ii

ii ecaauaao, /oi a canaaeaiea Niaaoa i?eauoue ?aoeoaeueii ia iiaeao e i?ineo
i?e/eneeoue aai e i?ioeaieeai iinueee oaeaa?aiiu io Niaaoa e iniaaiii
ia?eaeneiio Niaaoo. Aeieeaae yoio A.E. Ooei aeiiieiee cayaeaieai, /oi
aii?in ia ionueea oaeaa?aiiu oaea ?aoai Niaaoii a canaaeaiee 21 aeaeaa?y;
iinoaiiaeaiea yoi ia iiaeao auoue ioiaiaii, a aiciiaeii eeoue ianoaeaeaiea
?aaeaeoeee e niaea?aeaiey oaeaa?aiiu. E yoiio i?eniaaeeieeny e /eai Niaaoa
A.I. Aa?a?ae. Caoai A.E. Ooei i?i/eoae i?iaeo aeo?iaea canaaeaiey Niaaoa
21 aeaeaa?y 1882 aiaea neaaeothuaai niaea?aeaiey: . I?iaeo yoio caoai aue
iiaeienai /eaiaie Niaaoa A.E. Ooeiui, A.I. Aa?a?aeii, N.N. Nieieiaui
e N.A. Aiae?aaaneei e a eiioea canaaeaiey ia?aaeai aianoa n auoaoiiiyiooie
oaeaa?aiiie, ninoaaeaiiith e iiaeienaiiith iyoueth /eaiaie Niaaoa 21 naai
aeaeaa?y I?aaenaaeaoaeth Niaaoa. Oaeaa?aiia yoa neaaeothuaai niaea?aeaiey:
.

E naio eiycue A.E. O?onia aeiaaaee, /oi oaeaa?aiia a oio aea aa/a?,
21-ai, ioineaia auea A.E. Ooeiui N.A. Aiae?aaaneiio i?e ienueia, a ei-

A oaeaa?aiia, iai?aaeaiiie a Ia?eae, aiai?eeinue i oii, /oi, iieo/ea ecaanoea i nia?oe aa-
eeeiai iao?eioa, caia/aoaeueiiai i?aoi?a Eaiia Aaiaaoou. aaeaieaou N.-Iaoa?ao?aa au?aaeatho en-
e?aiiaa niaieaciiaaiea ii neo/ath oo?aou, iiianaiiie aaeaieaoo?ie e o?aioeocneie iioanoaaiiinoueth.

oi?ii

A.E. Ooei i?aaeeaaae N.A. Aiae?aaaneiio e eiycth O?oniao iieacaoue
aeaea?eoaeueii oaeaa?aiio auaoaio /eaio nineiaey E. E. A?naiueaao, e
yi.aee ionueeo oaeaa?aiiu ioeiaeeoue aei 23 aeaeaa?y. Ec yoiai eiycue O?o-
ia ii aai cayaeaieth, caeeth/ee, /oi aii?in i oaeaa?aiia aua ieii/aoaeueii
oea ?aoai, e /oi iioiio A.E. Ooei e ia ioi?aaee iiie ii iacia/aieth.
??eaeo oaeiai iieiaeaiey aeaea e Aiae?aaaneee, e O?onia ie/aai ia aic?aaeaee
i?ioea ion?i/ee oaeaa?aiiu aei 23-ai aeaeaa?y. Naa?o oiai, i?aaenaaeaoaeue
aeieiaeee Niaaoo, /oi 22 naai aeaeaa?y iieo/aii a Niaaoa ecaauaiea eiiennee
iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, /oi a canaaeaiee aa 21 naai aeaeaa?y
ninoiyeinue neaaeothuaa iinoaiiaeaiea: . Aaeaeo eceiaeaiiiai, ia ianoaeaeaiea Ni-
aaoa i?aaenaaeaoaeai auee i?aaeeiaeaiu aeaa aii?ina: 1) neaaeoao ee a ianoi-
yuai canaaeaiee Niaaoa aiiaue ?anniio?aoue aii?in i iinueea oaeaa?aiiu
n au?aaeaieai niaieaciiaaiey ii neo/ath nia?oe Eaiia Aaiaaoou e 2) a
neo/aa ooaa?aeeoaeueiiai ?aoaiey ia?aiai aii?ina, neaaeoao ee iinueaoue
oaeoth oaeaa?aiio, io /ueaai eiaie e eiio.

Ia?aue aii?in aue ?aoai ooaa?aeeoaeueii oiaea iinea aanueia i?iaeie-
aeeoaeueiuo i?aiee. *oi aea eanaaony aoi?iai, iniiaiiai aii?ina, oi Niaao
iaoae, /oi .

Ia yoii aeaei, iaeiaei, ia eii/eeinue. Aneaaenoaea ia?aniio?a Niaaoii
iinoaiiaeaiey i iinueea oaeaa?aiiu, iaiueoeinoai, inoaaoaany i?e iniaii
iiaiee, neiaeeei n naay caaiea /eaiia Niaaoa. Oiaaea e ana aieueoeinoai
iiaeaei a ionoaaeo. Ii a iauai nia?aiee aieueoeinoai, ii naeaeaiiiio i?aae-
eiaeaieth, acyei naie ioeac iacaae, a o?e /eaia Niaaoa inoaeenue i?e naiai
e ia aeeaeaeoai iauai nia?aiee ana o?ia auee ia?aeca?aiu.

Oaeei ia?acii, ec-ca nia?oe Aaiaaoou ?ac?aceeny a iaoa?ao?aneii
nineiaee iauee e?ecen, eioi?ue, iaeiaei, ie/ai ia eii/eeny. Niaao inoaeny
a oii naiii aeaea, a eaeii ii aeaiiino?e?iaae naia aanneeea oi/ii e ii-
?aaeaeaiii ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i eiiiaoaioeee: naaiaeiy iyoueth aieinaie i?ioea
aeaoo aii?in ?aoai a iaeiii niunea, a caao?a aieinii i?aaenaaeaoaey oio aea
aii?in ?aoaaony a niunea i?ioeaiiieiaeiii.

\eaeo oai, e nineiaea ioianeinue e aeaeo yoiio ioithaeue ia eiaeeooa-
ioii iai?ioea, iii neeueii e aeieai aieiiaaeinue, e iaiaeiie?aoii ia iaueo
-oeeyo neuoaeenue iocaoee oie no?anoiie ai?ueau, eioi?ay aaeanue a Ni-
ya no?anoiinoue ia ia?aue acaeyae ia niioaaonoaiaaea nouiinoe nii?a,
Aaiaaooa aue ana aea aaeaieao, /oi e iiae/a?eeaaeinue a i?iaeoa oaea-
(1,1 Iiyoiio ia oae i?inoi auei oniio?aoue a au?aaeaiee niaieacii-
aiey aeaeaiea ono?ieoue iieeoe/aneoth aeaiiino?aoeeth. Ii, eae caia/aii a
aeoiiaea, A.I. Oo?/aieiia auneacuaae niaoeeaeueiia iaaeaeaiea iinueaoue
oaeaa?aiio ia?eaeneiio Niaaoo. Ionthaea neaaeoao caeeth/eoue, /oi nai ii
naaa neo/ae Aaiaaoou ia aicaoaeee au oaeeo no?anoae, /oi aii?in i iinueea
oaeaa?aiiu yaeeny eeoue iiaiaeii e ane?uoeth i?ioeai?a/ee, aeaaii iaei-
ieaoeony. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a oiiiyiooie oaea ?a/e naiae A.Ae. Nianiae/
aiai?ee, /oi aeaei ia a Aaiaaooa. . Ianeieueei eao iacaae A.Ae. Nianiae/ nai, eae iu ciaai,
?aeiiaiaeiaae Niaaoo ni?yoaoueny a ?aeiaeio naith, a oaia?ue, iai?ioea, ii
i?eaeaoae ia ?iaaoue e niaei ioeeeeaoueny ia i?ienoiaeyuea e?oaii niauoey.
Ec aeaeueiaeoeo neia oie aea ?a/e iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi aeaaiay i?e/eia
ioeaca io iinueee oaeaa?aiiu caeeth/aeanue a iianaiee iaaea/ue iaaeiaieue-
noai aeanoe ia Niaao. A.Ae. Nianiae/ oaaaeaeae, /oi yoi iianaiea iainii-
aaoaeueii. Anee . Iiaeii aeoiaoue iiyoiio, /oi no?anoiinoue aucuaaeanue ia naiei ii
naaa iianaieai aanieiaeiuo aeaiiino?aoeee, a oao iineaaenoaee, eioi?ua yoi
iiaeao iaaea/ue ia nineiaea, e aac oiai iaethaeiia. Eia/a aiai?y, nii? i
iinueea oaeaa?aiiu ii neo/ath nia?oe Aaiaaoou a nouiinoe naiaeeeny e
ii?aaeaeaieth eeiee iiaaaeaiey nineiaey aiiaua. E aio ia yoio-oi aii?in,
aicieeoee iiieii aiee Niaaoa, oae neacaoue, iaaycaiiue aio nia?oueth Aai-
aaoou, nineiaea ia aeaei ii?aaeaeaiiiai ioaaoa. Iinea ao?iuo i?aiee iii
eca?aei aanue i?aaeiee ninoaa Niaaoa, eae oao, eioi?ua auee i?ioea aea-
iiino?aoeee, oae e oao, eoi noiye ca iinueeo niaieaciothuae oaeaa?aiiu.

Ca eneeth/aieai oiaa?eua i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa A.I. Oo?/aieiiaa. – I?ei. aao.

Nianiae/ A,Ae “Canoieueiua ?a/e>, n. 35, 36. – I?ei. aao.

245

E a aeaiiii neo/aa iao iaaeiaiinoe caieiaoueny enneaaeiaaieai, eaeea
iioeau a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ?oeiaiaeeee aieueoeinoaii Niaaoa, ia aeaeaaoei
anooiaoue ia iooue aanieiaeiuo iieeoe/aneeo aeaiiino?aoeee. Ai?acaei aaaeiaa,
/oi iaeei ec iaeaieaa aeaeiuo /eaiia nineiaey, nai iaeciaiiue /eai Niaaoa,
iauyniee iiaoaeaeaiey naieo eieeaa iiieiaieai o?iaiy o?aaiaaiee e i?aaei-
noa?aaae io onooi/eainoe a oua?a ei?ii?aoeaiie /anoe. A oaeeo oaeoia,
aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaeiieyeinue ana aieueoa. A Aa?oaaa, iai?eia?, ia?aciaaia
auea eiienney i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a iiiiuue noaeo i?e i?eaia ei i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Eiienney ia?aciaaia auea, iaeiaei, ec i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, ia eca?aiiuo oiaa?euaie, a iacia/aiiuo noaeii. E i?enyaeiua
iiaa?aiiua niaeaneeenue i?eiyoue oaeia iacia/aiea. Ii ia i?aeoeea, aea-
aiaea?y yoie i?aaiecaoeee, aa?oaaneay eiienney anei?a iioa?yea aeiaa?ea
ni noi?iiu /eaiia ei?ii?aoeee. Aiciee aioaaiieci, eii/eaoeeny oie/oi-
aeaieai eiiennee.

A Eeaaa noae i?aaieciaae eiienneth ec o?ao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo,
ii ia iaycaiiinoue eo aiceiaeaii auei eneeth/eoaeueii niae?aiea ni?aaie
e aooanoiaaiea eaiaeeaeaoia a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua. Ianiio?y ia anth
uaeioeeainoue oaeeo iaycaiiinoae, i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua niaeaneeenue
ianoe eo, iiea ia noaee ?acaeaaaoueny ianoie/eaua ia?aeaiey, e /eaiu ei-
iennee, niciaa iaeiaeinoue naiaai iieiaeaiey, ioeacaeenue io i?aaeeiaeaiiuo
ei ?ieae.

Ii aannii?ii naiay y?eay oa?aeoa?enoeea iano?iaiey ioeoeeaeueiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aaeaieaoo?u, noaiaie niciaiey ath nianoaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa
niaea?aeeony a aeieoiaioa, ia eeoaiiii e aunieiiauanoaaiiiai cia/aiey.
Yoio aeieoiaio – ienueii i?aaenaaeaoaey oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiiai
iiaa?aiiiai N.O. Ii?ioeeia ia eiy i?aaenaaeaoaey iineianeiai Niaaoa
I.A. Ei?naeiaa io 2 iiya?y 1884 a. Iiaiaeii aeey iaienaiey ienueia ii-
neoaeeei iinauaiea ieieno?ii thnoeoeee oa?ueeianeeo noaeaaiuo onoaiiaea-
iee. Iaia?oaeaiiia a. ieieno?ii ioiioaiea e i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?a i?i-
ecaaei noieue neeueiia aia/aoeaiea, /oi, ii niaeaoaieth n oiaa?euaie naieie,
/eaiaie oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, N.O. Ii?ioeei
n/ae ioaeiui niiaueoue ae?oaei Niaaoai naaaeaiey ia yoii iinauaiee. Yoe
naaaeaiey eceiaeaiu ei a neaaeothuai ienueia ia eiy i?aaenaaeaoaey iineia-
neiai Niaaoa I.A. Ei?naeiaa.

. 1881. ? 231.

I?ei. aao.

n oaaaeaieai e caeiio e noaeo e naea?aeaiii e i?ioeaieeo. Einioaoenue iauaai
aii?ina ia i?aaiecaoeee nineiaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ieieno? auneacae
naia oaaaeaeaiea a i?aeiouanoaa niaaoneiai iaaeci?a iaae /eaiaie nineiaey
i?aae eiio?ieai iaae aeaenoaeyie eo ni noi?iiu ie?oaeiuo noaeia e niaeaeaiea,
/oi, aaeaeo ianoiuo e a?aiaiiuo oneiaee, cao?oaeiyaony ?ani?ino?aiaiea
ei?ii?aoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee ia eeaaneee, iaeanneee e ae?oaea ie?oaa.

A ioaao ia yoi i?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa, i?iny i/ieno?a i?eiyoue yecaiiey?
io/aoa i niaaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe ca enoaeoee aiae, neacae aio ianeieueei
neia, a eioi?uo aeaaiaea?ee aai ca ieacaiiue Niaaoo e iieoaaneei oiaa-
?euai i?eai, ca ni/oanoaea e Niaaoo e aeiaa?ea e nineiaeth; iauyniee,
/oi aeeaeaeoaa ciaeiinoai n aeayoaeueiinoueth Niaaoa, iniaaiii a aeaeao aeen-
oeeieeia?iuo, niiniaii oe?aieoue aeiaa?ea i?aaeoaeuenoaa e iauanoaa e ni-
neiaeth e e aai ei?ii?aoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee.

A iineaaeothuae, aeiaieueii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie aanaaea n ieieno?ii, ain-
iieueciaaaoenue aai ni/oanoaaiiui iocuaii ioiineoaeueii inoi?iaeiiai i?e-
aia iiauo /eaiia a nineiaea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, i?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa
auneacae ieieno?o aeaeaiea nineiaey aeaeaoue iieiaeaiea iiiiuieeia i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?aaieciaaiiui iiae eiio?ieai Niaaoa ioiineoaeueii
i?eaia e aeayoaeueiinoe iiiiuieeia n inaiaiaeaeaieai eo io iiae/eiaiey
caeiio i /anoiuo iiaa?aiiue. Auneacaa aioiaiinoue iaaeoiaoue aicaoaeaeai-
iue iaoei cayaeaieai aii?in i iiiiuieeao e ioianoenue n iieiui aie-
iaieai e iiaieth ii yoiio i?aaeiaoo iaoaai Niaaoa, ieieno? caiaoee, /oi
iaauaoue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ie/aai ia iiaeao aaeaeo iauaai cia/aiey aii?ina.

Iinea oiai, iinaoea eaaeiao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ieieno?, ?aaee
/eaiia nineiaey, ia i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e Niaaoo, iiaoi?ee a naeaoie oi?ia
naie iocua i aeayoaeueiinoe Niaaoa e /eaiia nineiaey, auneacaiiue Niaaoo.

I?e i?iuaiee n ieieno?ii ia aiecaea (a oea?neeo eiiiaoao) ?yaeii n
iaaeno?aoo?ith iaeaou caiyee ianoi Niaao e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea /eaiu ni-
neiaey. Neacaa ianeieueei i?iuaeueiuo neia noaeueyi e i?ieo?i?ai, ieieno?
i?eaeeceeny e a?oiia iiaa?aiiuo e cayaee, /oi ana neiaa ni/oanoaey e
aeiaa?ey, neacaiiua ei aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai, ioiinyony e e i?enyaeiuo ii-
aa?aiiuo, eioi?ua, a aeacao ieieno?a, aoiaeyo a ninoaa iaeiie naiuee –
/eiia noaeaaiiai aaaeiinoaa. A ioaao ia yoi i?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa aeaaiaea?ee
ieieno?a ca aai ioiioaiea e nineiaeth e cayaee, /oi ieacaiiue ieieno?ii
i?eai aoaeao ioia/ai a eaoiienyo Niaaoa, eae iiai?ioiue ioieo a noaeueaao
ei?ii?aoeee e eae ia/aei eo/oeo, aieaa naaoeuo aeiae ei?ii?aoeaiie aeecie
nineiaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. I/aaeaeii, – neacae i?aaenaaeaoaeue Ni-
aaoa. – aeey ian ieiiaaei o(? a?aiy, eiaaea nouanoaiaaiea ei?ii?aoeaiie

aeaaiicaoo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iiaeaa?aaeinue niiiaieyi a naiii Ie-
ienoa?noaa THnoeoeee.

Ieieno? ioaaoee, /oi anee au aicieeaee iianiinoe aeey nineiaiie i?-
aeaeoeaoeee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, oi io?aiie aeey iaa aoaeao neoaeeoue aea-
yoaeueiinoue Niaaoa, ninoiyuaai ia aunioa naie caaea/e>.

I?i/oy yoi ienueii, oii eioi?iai aeaeaao aiieia ii?aaeaeaiioth iocueo,
iaaieueii caaeaaoueny aii?inii: /oi aea neo/eeinue, /oi canoaaeei a. i?aaena-
aeaoaey oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa aeaeeoueny naieie aia/aoeaieyie n iineianeeie
eieaaaie e eceaaaoue eo a noieue ecuneaiiuo au?aaeaieyo? *oi, nianoaaiii,
ioe?uei iiai?ioiue ioieo a noaeueaao ei?ii?aoeee e iaaeaaeaeo ia eo/oaa
aoaeouaa? Ia iaeioynue, ieieno? thnoeoeee cayaee, /oi aai acaeyaeu ia caaea/e
aaeaieaoo?u aeecee e acaeyaeai iaa?-i?ieo?i?a Iaeethaeiaa, a i?ioea yoeo
acaeyaeia, eae oaea auoa oeacaii, ?aoeoaeueii i?ioanoiaaee ana auaoea
i?aaenaaeaoaee iaoa?ao?aneiai Niaaoa. Ii a. ieieno? i?iyaee ei??aeoiinoue
a ee/iuo ioiioaieyo, – aaeaieaoo?a auea i?aaenoaaeaia aio ?yaeii n ia-
aeno?aoo?ie, – e aeey N.O. Ii?ioeeia aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue aeaaea oi ia-
noiyoaeuenoai, /oi a Iieoaaa ieieno? aanaaeiaae n iaaeno?aoo?ith iicaea,
/ai n aaeaieaoo?ie. Niia?acii naiei acaeyaeai, a. ieieno? ie/aai ia iaauae
aaeaieaoo?a a niunea eciaiaiey aa iieiaeaiey. Niaao, ai?i/ai, e i?inee
ia i/aiue iaeii. Ii caoi ieieno? iaeia?ee aeayoaeueiinoue Niaaoa, e yoiai
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau a iinauaiee ieieno?a oniio?aoue eneeth/eoaeueiua ia-
noiyoaeuenoaa, i eioi?uo ioaeii aeiaanoe aei naaaeaiey oiaa?euae. Ana yoi
auei au niaa?oaiii iaiinoeaeeii, anee au iu oaea ?aiueoa ia neuoaee
io A.Ae. Nianiae/a ecuyaeaiey oaeiaieuenoaey ii iiaiaeo i?aaenoiyuaai oe-
?aieaiey iaoaai cia/aiey a ioeoeeaeueiuo noa?ao.

23. AIAAUA AII?INU
AAeAIEAONEIE I?IOANNEE

Oeacaiiua oneiaey, i/aaeaeii, aanueia iaei aeaaii?eyonoaiaaee auyn-
iaieth iniiaiiai aii?ina i nouiinoe e i?aaeaeao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaea/.
Ii-i?aaeiaio aii?in yoio oi e aeaei noaaeeny aeeciueth ia i/a?aaeue, ii ?aoaiea
aai ia iiaeaeaaeinue aia?aae. *oanoaoaony, iai?ioea, eaeay-oi aaniiiiuiinoue.
A oeeoe?iaaiiie oaea noaouea Iaieineiai a /enea i?e/ei, iauyniythueo

N.O Ii?ioeee anooiee a aaeaieaoo?o ec i?ieo?aoo?u a 1867 a.. a a 188/ a. auoae ec ninoaaa,
IIEO aeieaeiinoue /eia Noaeaaiie Iaeaou. A.O. Eiie n/eoaao Ii?ioeeia oe?aoaieai enoi?ee
?ONNEIE aaeaieaoo?u. (Iooeu e aeaoe noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu>, n. 2). – I?ei. aao.

aeaii?aeecaoeeth aaeaieaoo?u, oeacuaaaony e ia oi, /oi aaeaieaoo?a ioaeii
oaa?a/ueny io iiaeaiaeiuo eaiiae, oai aieaa, /oi e aacioiineoaeueii o?oaeii
a aaeaieaoneie i?ioannee ?aniiciaoue a?aieoeo iaaeaeo aeicaieaiiui e iaaei-
caieaiiui. Auoiaeeo, oaeei ia?acii, /oi aaeaieaoo?a ecia/aea i?enou i?-
aaie/aneee ii?ie, e /oi ouaoii auei au iuoaoueny auynieoue nouiinoue
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaea/. E anee ia?aoeoueny e i?aeoeea Niaaoia, oi i?e
naiii aieiaoaeueiii aiaeeca aa o?oaeii iaeoe ?oeiaiaeyuoth eeieth.

Oa?ueeianeee Niaao, iai?eia?, auneacae, /oi i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue
aeieaeai oeeiiyoueny io oaeiai aeaenoaey ii aaaeaieth aeaea, eioi?ia ii ianoo
aai eniieiaiey ia niioaaonoaoao aeinoieinoao caaiey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?ai-
iiai . Aiaeiae/iia aeaei aicieeei a Iineaa ii iiaiaeo oiai, /oi i?enyaeiue
iiaa?aiiue caueuae niaea?aeaoaeueieoeo aeiia oa?ieiinoe ii iaaeiaieth aa
a e?aaea a yoii aeiia. A /anoiinoiii nia?aiee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo au-
?aaeaeinue iiaiea, /oi o/anoea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a yoii i?ioeanna auei
ianiaeanii n aeinoieinoaii eo caaiey e ?iiyei /anoue nineiaey. Niaao, aneaae-
noaea yoiai, iinoaaee ia naia ?ac?aoaiea aii?in, aeieaeai ee iiaa?aiiue
i?iyaeyoue ?acai?/eainoue i?e i?eiyoee oaieiaiuo aeae. Aaeaeo nouanoai-
aaiey caueou ao iAenii , Niaao ioaa/aao ia yoio aii?in eaoaai?e/anee oo-
aa?aeeoaeueii, i?e/ai iaeiei ec aeiaiaeia aunoaaeyaony, /oi . Ii i?eciaaay aiieia ia/aea ?acai?/eainoe, Niaao
a ?anniao?eaaaiii iiaaaeaiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ie/aai i?aaeinoaee-
oaeueiiai ia oniao?eaaao, ?ac i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue cayaeyao, /oi caueuae
ii oaaaeaeaieth a iaaeiiaiinoe iaaeiyaiie. Oaeei ia?acii, iinoaaeaoe
aii?in i ?acai?/eainoe e ooaa?aeeoaeueii ?aoea aai, Niaao iineianeee ie-
/aai i?aaeinoaeeoaeueiiai ia iaoiaeeo a oii, /oi, ii iiaieth oa?ueeianeiai
Niaaoa, ?iiyao /anoue nineiaey. Ii iaeiiio aeenoeeieeia?iiio aeaeo Noaeaaiay
Iaeaoa auneacaea, /oi aeia?iniaanoiue iiaa?aiiue ia iiaeao i?eiyoue ia
naay aaaeaiea aeaea, ia iciaeiieaoenue n iei i?aaeaa?eoaeueii, e /oi iaeuecy
i?eieiaoue ia naay caueoo, ia ?acaeaeyy iiaiey iiaenoaeeiiai i aai iaae-
iiaiinoe, e iieo/aoue aiii?a? ca iaoaeaaoothny caueoo. Enoiaey ec yoiai,
Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa iacia/eea iiiiuieeo i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai aanueia

?a/ue oea i i?iecaiaenoaa eniieieoaeueiuo aeaenoaee a aeiia oa?ieiinoe. – I?ei. aao.
Aao. – ii iaycaiiinoyi, ii aeieaeiinoe.

?iaia iaeacaiea. A I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao ai anao yoeo aeaenoaeyo
ia iaoae ?aoeoaeueii ie/aai i?aaeinoaeeoaeueiiai e iiaeeaaeauaai acuneaieth.

Oaeeo i?eia?ia iiaeii iaeoe i/aiue iiiai, ii ana yoi ioaeaeueiua /anoiua
neo/ae. Ia ii/ao iauoth ia?aianai aue nii? aeaeii i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai
Eioaeoeeiai, iaaeaeaaoei a naia a?aiy i/aiue iiiai ooio. A.A. Eioaeoeeee
aunooiee a naieaeanyouo aiaeao a noaea n o/anoeai i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae
caueoieeii auaoaai iiiiuieea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai I.Yeueeeia, ia-
aeiyaoaainy e i?eciaiiiai aeiiaiui a oii, /oi, naeeceaoenue n aaeiaie
Iiiiaie, n eioi?ie acaeiii niaeaneeny anooiaoue a a?ae, e aoaeo/e, oaeei
ia?acii, aa aeaieoii, 1) auiaiee o iaa iaiaiii 15 ouny/ ?oaeae, ia caai
eaeiauo aeaiaa iaaeaeo iei e Iiiiaie caeeth/aii auei a oi aea a?aiy ii-
oa?eaeueiia oneiaea, a caoai Yeueeei auiaiee o Iiiiaie oi oneiaea n iaae-
ienueth ath a iieo/aiee aoaeoi au aai ieaoaaea, e 2) oaaaeee Iiiiao ia?aaeaoue
aio i?eiaaeeaaeauee ae aeii ii aacaeaiaaeiie eoi/ae e?aiinoe. Oae oi?io-
ee?iaai aue aa?aeeeo i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae. Ia iniiaaiee yoiai aa?aeeeoa
Ie?oaeiie Noae i?eaiai?ee Yeueeeia e ii?aaeaeaiiiio iaeacaieth. Ii ean-
naoeeiiiie aeaeiaa A.A. Eioaeoeeiai i?eaiai? Noaea aue ioiaiai ca ia-
i?aaeeueiui i?eiaiaieai ea?aoaeueiiai caeiia, e aeaei aica?auaii a Noae
aeey iinoaiiaeaiey iiaiai i?eaiai?a. Ie?oaeiie Noae aiiaue i?eaiai?ee
Yeueeeia e iaeacaieth, ii oaea ii ae?oaie noaouea. A. A. Eioaeoeeee aiiaue
i?eian eannaoeeiiioth aeaeiao, e I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao aiiaue ioiaiee
i?eaiai?, oeacaa ia yoio ?ac a iioeaao, /oi a aeayiee, iienaiiii a aii?inao
i?enyaeiui canaaeaoaeyi, iao i?eciaeia oaieiaii iaeacoaiiai aeayiey.
Iinea yoiai Ie?oaeiie Noae inaiaiaeee Yeueeeia io anyeiai iaeacaiey. Ii
ii ieii/aiee oaieiaiiai aeaea iiaa?aiiue Iiiiaie, i?enyaeiue iiaa?ai-
iue I?aeuineee, i?aaeuyaee e Yeueeeio, eioi?ue o iaai e ninoiye iiiiu-
ieeii, o?e enea a a?aaeaeaineii noaea: 1) i acuneaiee n iaai 15 ouny/ ?oaeae.
caiyouo o Iiiiaie ii iioa?eaeueiiio oneiaeth. Yoio ene ieii/aoaeueiui
noaeaaiui ?aoaieai oaeiaeaoai?ai; 2) ia oie/oiaeaiee eoi/ae e?aiinoe ia
aeii. A enea yoii ?aoaieai Noaeaaiie Iaeaou Iiiiaie auei ioeacaii, e
3) i acuneaiee n Yeueeeia 15 ouny/ ?oaeae, eioi?ua ii, ai a?aiy i?iec-
aiaenoaa aeaea, i?eciae naay iaycaiiui aica?aoeoue Iiiiaie aneaaenoaea aea-
oaaie iieoiee o iaa aeiia. A yoii enea Iiiiaie oaeaea auei ioeacaii.

Ii anai eneai, a ea/anoaa iiaa?aiiiai ioaao/eea, aunooiae A. A. Eio-
aeoeeee, ia eioi?iai aai i?ioeaiee, i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue I?aeuineee,
e iiaeae, a eiioea eiioeia, aeaeiao a Niaao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, iaaeiyy
aai a oii, /oi ii aa?ao ia naay aaaeaiea caaaaeiii iaaeia?iniaanoiuo aeae.
Niaao iaoae, /oi ie a i?eiyoee Eioaeoeeei caueou a oaieiaiii noaea, ie
a niiniaa aa aaaeaiey ia auei ie/aai caneoaeeaathuaai ii?eoeaiey. Ii a

a?aaeaeaineii noaea aeaei oaea oei i oii, ecaea/ao ee Yeueeei auaiaeo ec
naieo aan/anoiuo iinooieia, ainiieuecoaony ee ii ?acoeueoaoaie naiaai ii-
oaiie/anoaa . E oioy Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa i?eciaea eoi/oth aeaenoaeoaeueiie,
ii ec oiai, /oi iaaeia?iniaanoiua, oioy e oi?iaeueii i?aaeeueiua oiaeaoaenoaa
oaeiaeaoai?ythony noaeaie, ia neaaeoao, /oiau aaeaieaou iiaee eo iiaeaea?aee-
aaoue. . Niaao iaoae iiyoiio, /oi Eioaeoeeee caneo-
aeeaaao naiiai no?iaiai acuneaiey, e cai?aoee aio ioi?aaeaiea iaycai-
iinoae iiaa?aiiiai a oa/aiea o?ao ianyoeaa.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, e Yeueeei i?eian a Niaao aeaeiao ia I?aeuineiai,
iaaeiyy aai a oii, /oi ii ia oieueei i?aneaaeiaae aeaeiaueea, auaoaai
iiiiuieea naiaai, oaieiaiui ii?yaeeii, ii niiauee noaeaaiiio neaaeiaa-
oaeth i aai ionoonoaee ec aeiia ai a?aiy aeiiaoiaai a?anoa; acya o neaaeiaaoaey
ienueii e eaa?oaeueiiio, ?acuneae aai e ioaac a eaa?oe?o e inoaaaeny nai
a iiiauaiee aeai?ieea, iiea ninoaaeyee aeo ia ionoonoaee a?anoiaaiiiai.
Niaao i?eciae e yoe aeaenoaey iai?aaeeueiuie. Eai anee Niaao ia iiaeao
iiiaoaoue oiio, /oi eeoue a ?aaeeeo neo/ayo iaaeaeo i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie
e iiiiuieeaie nouanoaotho aeeceea ioiioaiey, oi, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii
ia iiaeao oa?iaoue, /oiau i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue n/eoae naay ai?aaa i?a-
neaaeiaaoue /aeiaaea, eioi?ue oieueei /oi aue aai iiiiuieeii e eioi?iai
ii aeieaeai aue iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oioy au i?eia?ii e niaaoaie. I?eciaa oea-
caiiua iinooiee I?aeuineiai , Niaao
oai ia iaiaa iaoae aiciiaeiui e iaio, iioiio
/oi ii aue oaaaeaeai, /oi caueuaao iaiaioooth, iaeaeaiioth aeaiueio, e
iioiio ia?aie/eeny iauyaeaieai I?aeuineiio auaiai?a.

Ia iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoa iaieie i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie i?eianaiu
auee aeaeiau a Noaeaaioth Iaeaoo e i?ioano i?ieo?i?ii, o?aaiaaaoei
oaaee/aiey iaeacaiey Eioaeoeeiio e oiaiueoaiey iaeacaiey I?aeuineiio.
A Noaeaaiie Iaeaoa aeaei Eioaeoeeiai aicaoaeeei aua aieaa e?oiiia ?ac-
iiaeanea. Iaeei /eai iieaaae iiaeaa?aiooue Eioaeoeeiai auaiai?o, iaeei –
aini?aoeoue aio ioi?aaeaiea iaycaiiinoae i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai a oa/a-
iea iaeiiai aiaea, o?ia iieaaaee ooaa?aeeoue ia?o iaeacaiey, iaeiaeaiioth

Neiai iioaiie/anoai oiio?aaeaii caeanue, i/aaeaeii, a aeeoaeneii niunea, a ia a th?eaee/aneii,
eai, eae caia/aii auoa. I?aa. Naiao ia oniio?ae iioaiie/anoaa a aeayieyo Yeueeeia. – I?ei. aao.

/- aeaoii. Ec inoaeueiuo naiue /eaiia noiyee ca inaiaiaeaeaiea Eioaeoeeiai
o aeenoeeieeia?iiai i?aneaaeiaaiey aaeaeo ionoonoaey a aeaiiii neo/aa eaeiai
iuei oi ie auei ia?ooaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aeieaa, a ainaiue /eaiia ia-
noaeaaee ia eneeth/aiee Eioaeoeeiai ec nineiaey. Oaeei ia?acii, aieina
aaciaaeaaeii ?acaeeenue, ii iineaaeiaa iiaiea, nia?aaoaa ioiineoaeueiia aieue-
uinoai, ainoi?aeanoaiaaei. A iioeaao Noaeaaiie Iaeaou oeacuaaaony, /oi
.

Eioaeoeeee, eneeth/aiiue Iaeaoie, i?eian aeaeiao I?aaeoaeuenoaoth-
oaio Naiaoo, eioi?ue a ?aoaiee 1879 a. ? 1 ii iauaio nia?aieth 1-ai
e eannaoeeiiiiai aeaia?oaiaioia, i?eciae, /oi ieeaeiai ia?ooaiey Eio-
aeoeeee ia aeiionoee. Ii iiaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, aeey ii?a-
aeaeaiey oao ia/ae, eioi?uie aeieaeia ?aaoee?iaaoueny i?ioanneiiaeueiay aea-
yoaeueiinoue aaeaieaoa i?e i?eiyoee e aaaeaiee a?aaeaeaineeo aeae, neaaeoao
eiaoue i?aaeaea anaai aaeaeo, /oi anyeee nii? i i?aaa a?aaeaeaineii iiaeeaaeeo
aaaeaieth noaea, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a i?eiaiaiee caeiia,
ii?aaeaeythuaai eae naiia i?aai, oae e niinia oaeinoiaa?aiey aai aeaenoae-
oaeueiinoe.

Eoae, o?e eiiiaoaioiuo o/?aaeaeaiey: Niaao, Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa e I?a-
aeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao ieacaeenue a ?aceii ?aciiaeanee iaaeaeo niaie ii
iniiaiiio aii?ino aaeaieaoneie i?ioannee – eaeea a?aaeaeaineea aeaea
iiaeii i?eieiaoue e eae eo aeieaeii aanoe . Oi, /oi Niaao n/eoaao, i?eiaiyy

aeneiaeueioth no?iainoue, caci?iui, a Iaeaoa eaaeeoeoee?oaony eae niaa?-
“iaiii aan/anoiia e iioiio iaaeiionoeiia aeey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, –

I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao ia oniao?eaaao a yoii ?iaii ie/aai i?aae-
oaeeo-aeueiiai. ssnii, oaeei ia?acii, /oi o ian naiua eiiiaoaioiua o/-
ae?aeaiey ia iiaoo i?iaanoe a?aieoeo iaaeaeo aeicaieaiiui e iaaeicaieaiiui
a aaeaieaoo?a.

A nouiinoe, ii?aaaeaoaeueiue i?eaiai? Naiaoa ai?acaei iai?eyoiaa aeey
i?anoeaea aaeaieaoo?u, iaaeaee iaaeieoaeueiue aa?aeeeo Niaaoa e Iaeaou.
Aeaei. iineoaeeaoaa i?aaeiaoii iaaeiaiey i?ioea A. A. Eioaeoeeiai, ii anae
ianoaiiaea naiae ianoieueei , /oi iii naii ii naaa auecuaaao
/oanoai a?acaeeainoe e oai naiui iiauoaao o?aaiaaoaeueiinoue a ioiioaiee
aaeaieaoa. Yoa o?aaiaaoaeueiinoue a ?aoaieyo Niaaoa e Noaeaaiie Iaeaou
oi?ioee?iaaia a noieue iaueo au?aaeaieyo, /oi ieeaeeo aic?aaeaiee ie n
eaeie noi?iiu ia iiaeao auoue naeaeaii. Ii caoi eaaeaeue iiaeao aeiaeeoue
a iiiyoey – /anoiinoue, aeia?iniaanoiinoue, iioaiie/anoai – naia niano-
aaiiia niaea?aeaiea, aanueia ?aciiia?aciia. Oaeei ia?acii, iioeae?iaea
Niaaoa e Iaeaou a nouiinoe ie e /aio ia iaycuaaao.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii ioiioaieth e ?iee noaea yoe ii?aaeaeaiey noieue
aea iani?aaaaeeeau, neieue e inei?aeoaeueiu. Aaaeue a naiii aeaea. Niaao e
Iaeaoa aeiioneatho, /oi noaeaaiia ?aoaiea iiaeao naieoeeiie?iaaoue i?eia-
?aoaiea eiouanoaa, aeinoaaoaainy aan/anoiui iooai, aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue ain-
iieueciaaoueny ?acoeueoaoaie iioaiie/anoaa. Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa onoaiaaee-
aaao, /oi , eioi?ie aeieaeai iiae/eiyoueny noae,
iiaeao iie?uaaoue eaeeaua e iaaeia?iniaanoiua o?aaiaaiey e i?yii ia/anoiia
aeayiea. Ii anee au yoi oae auei, oi /ai aea iiaue noae ioee/aeny au io
noa?iai noaea? ?acaa oi, /oi ooaa?aeaeaao Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa, ia anoue a nou-
iinoe iiaoi?aiea i?eaaaeaiiiai auoa aineeeoeaiey Aenaeiaa, /oi noa?ue
noae ia aeaaae ie i?aaa, ie aiciiaeiinoe auynieoue nouiinoue aeaea.

Oaeie auaiae auoaeaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec niia?aaeaiee Niaaoa e No-
aeaaiie Iaeaou. Iai?ioea, ?aoaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, ii?aa-
aeuaathuaa A.A. Eioaeoeeiai, noieue aea iani?aaaaeeeai, neieue e inei?ae-
oaeueii aeey aaeaieaoneiai nineiaey. I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao i?eciae, /oi
A.A. Eioaeoeeee ia/aai i?aaeinoaeeoaeueiiai i?ioea naiae i?ioannee ia ni-

Ii oaa?aieth 1 ? Aeaeaioiaaa, . ( iiyaeeny i/aiue oai-
eue iae?ieia, a eioi?ii oeacuaaeinue, /oi eiy Eioaeoeeiai caa?ucaeaaee
a?ycueth eeoa?aoo?iua i?eoainoie, ii . Eiaiii yoa i?yiioa

Noaeaaiay Aacaoa-. 1884 a.. a. 22. – Eioa?aniia ainiiieiaiea i Eioaeoeeii nio?aieeinue a
?a/ao A. /1. Nianiae/a. Ia nuacaeu th?enoia i 18/6 a. Eioaeoeeee “iaeei oieueei iaeeiaoaiae oeiiioae
i ia?eaiaioa?ecia, i eiinoeoooeee, yi ioc ia-eoath ni noi?iiu nuacaea ioaieinea. Iu ioianeenue e
iaio io?eoeaoaeueii, iaoiaeeee neiaa aai eaaeiaaniuie. (Nianiae/ A.Ae. . Oi/ii oae aea e Ae.E. Iaayaeiineee, aua-
oee iiiiuiee Eioaeoeeiai, a naiae iaaea?iaiie ?a/e, a caoai e a noaouea,
eanaynue aeaea Yeueeeia, caiaoee, /oi .

Oaeei ia?acii, aii?in niiaa aue iinoaaeai ?aa?ii, e ia naeaeaiiue
a ia/aoe aucia ai?y/i ioeeeeioeny aaoi?eoaoiue a oi a?aiy ioaeeoeeno
A?. Aeaeaioeaa. Ii i?i/ae ii yoiio aii?ino aeieeaae a iaeiii ec canaaeaiee
a?oiiu iineianeeo iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, caoai iaia/aoae
aai a e, iaeiiaoe, a 1886 a. auionoee ioaeaeueiie a?i-
oth?ie. auaea?aeaaoae ianeieueei ecaeaiee . Naia eceiaeaiea A?. Aeaeaioeaa
ia/eiaao n ia/aeueiiai i?eciaiey, /oi .

A yoii aieueoii aii?ina A?. Aeaeaioeaa ioiaaeaauaaao aeey naiaai en-
neaaeiaaiey eeoue n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueooth iaeanoue. Aai caaea/a caeeth/aaony
a oii, /oiau ?ac?aoeoue: .
*oiau oi?inoeoue naith caaea/o e ono?aieoue nii? i oii, aeieaeai ee aaeaieao
,
A?. Aeaeaioeaa aua aieaa noaeeaaao aii?in: . Oeaio? oyaeanoe, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaaeeo a i?eciaea caaaaeiiinoe. , – aiai?eo ii.

A ioaao A?. Aeaeaioeaao, Ae.E. Iaayaeiineee auionoee a?ioth?o iiae
aua aieaa a?iieei iacaaieai: . Caeanue ii

Eiaaony a aeaeo oeac. ni/.. Aaaeaiea iai?aauo aeae…>
~~ ,\aia. – ioaea/aiii, aiiaoa: naii ii naaa.
Iaayaeiineee Ae-E . I., 1886 a. – I?ei. aao.

cayaeyao, /oi aai iae?ieia Eioaeoeeiio ia iiaeaaae iiaiaea noaaeoue oa ai-
i?inu, eioi?ua A?. Aeaeaioeaa auaeaeioe, /oi ii, Iaayaeiineee, niaa?oaiii
oae aea niio?eo ia aii?in i caaaaeiiinoe, eae e A?. Aeaeaioeaa. .

Caeanue, eiia/ii, iao ieeaeiai eioa?ana auyniyoue, aiae ee A?. Aeaeaioeaa
a iaaei?acoiaiea, eee aea Ae.E. Iaayaeiineee iainoi?iaeii au?aceeny. Oaeo
oio, /oi, eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiuo oeeoao, ie iaeaeoaai ?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo
nii?yueie ia auei, ai acaeyaeao ia aeaiiue aii?in iie yaeyeenue aaeeii-
iuoeaiieeaie. Iiyoiio iieaieea, eacaeinue au, ooo e aeieaeia auea aea-
aiiieo/ii caeii/eoueny. A a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoi ia oieueei ia i?eaiaeeo
e i?eie?aieth i?ioeaieeia, ii, iai?ioea, eo acaeiiia iaeanoi/aiea i?e-
ieiaao i?yii oa?iaeathuea oi?iu, e iie ieacuaathony ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
eiioeao i?aaa e ii?aee. Ii iiaieth Iaayaeiineiai, ?aoaiea Naiaoa ii
aeaeo Eioaeoeeiai i?aaenoaaeyaony caia/aoaeueiui eae ii yniinoe e ii?aaea-
eaiiinoe i?eioeeiia, ei onoaiaaeeaaaiuo, oae e ii niioaaonoaeth aai n
aeooii e iieiaeaieai oiai i?aaie/aneiai caeiia, eiei o/?aaeaeaeny o ian
einoeooo i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?u . A A?. Aeaeaioeaa iieaaaao, /oi yoi ?a-
oaiea aea?oao aaeaieaoai naiaiaeo io i?aanoaaiiuo iaycaiiinoae e iiaei
au iieiaeeoue eiiaoe no?aieaieth aiaeai?eoue a nineiaee /oanoaa i?aaaeu e
/anoe .

I/aaeaeii, iiyoiio, /oi ?aciiaeanea auoiaeeo aeaeaei ca i?aaeaeu aeaea
Yeueeeia e ane?uaaao aeoaieoth ?acieoeo a iniiaiuo acaeyaeao ia caaea/e
aaeaieaoneie i?ioannee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, A?. Aeaeaeoeaa ia niaeanai n oaeei
?acee/aieai i?aanoaaiiinoe a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie. Nnu-
eaynue ia neiaa Eaaaeeia, aaoi? ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi i?aanoaaiiinoue – iaeia,
e iiyoiio aianoi iino?iaiiiai Naiaoii caeaiey i?aaeeaaaao naith eiino?oe-
oeeth. .

Eaoaai?e/iinoue yoeo noaeaeaiee ia niioaaonoaoao eo yniinoe. Aaeaa ee
A?. Aeaeaioeaa eiae a aeaeo o?aaiaaoue io aaeaieaoa ?ane?uoey noaeo eioeiiuo
noi?ii aeaea naiaai aeiaa?eoaey, anee yoi ?ane?uoea a?aaeeo aio. A?. Aeaeai-
oeaa o?aaiaae, ii-aeaeeiiio, oieueei oiai, /oiau aaeaieao ioeacaeny io oaeiai
aeaea, eioi?ia aucuaaao noieeiiaaiea caeiia ni ni?aaaaeeeainoueth. A oaeii
neo/aa, iaeiaei, iaynii, a /ai caeeth/aaony oneoaa i?aainoaeeth. A naiia
aaaeiia, eiia/ii, a oii, /oi, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, noieeiiaaiea caeiia ni
ni?aaaaeeeainoueth. A oaeii neo/aa, iaeiaei, iaynii, a /ai caeeth/aaony oneoaa
i?aainoaeeth. A naiia aaaeiia, eiia/ii, a oii, /oi, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, noiee-
iiaaiea caeiia ni ni?aaaaeeeainoueth eaaeeo a i?e?iaea a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo
ii?i, eioi?ua auee e anaaaea aoaeoo aieaa eee iaiaa oi?iaeueiu. Ionthaea
auoaeaei au, /oi e iiceoeey aaeaieaoa i?aaie/anee aeieaeia auoue aeaieno-
aaiiie. Ii /a?ac ianeieueei no?aieoe aaoi? aniiieiaao, /oi .

Eoae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, a?aaeaeaineea caeiiu iaanaaaea ia?a/aiu auoue
oi?iaeueiuie, a n ae?oaie – oaea 2000 eao iacaae oi?iaeeci onooiee ni?a-
aaaeeeainoe. N iaeiie noi?iiu, oieueei aaeaieao iiaeao ieacaoue i?aainoaeeth

Iaayaeiineee Ae.E. ; n. 18, 19. – I?ei. aao.
Oai aea, n. 39. – I?ei. aao.
Aeaeaioeaa A.. oeac ni/.. n. 19. – I?ei. aao.

i “oi – caeii no?ia, ii yoi caeii.
, Aeaeaioeeiaa A.. oeac ni/., n. 17. – [!?ei. aao.

i”) eia?ee aa?: aeiaa?/eai, /enoina?aea/ii, aac anyeiai oiunea.

aio iaeiiio aeinooiioth oneoao i?eie?aiey caeiia ni ni?aaaaeeeainoueth, a n
ae?oaie – I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao, aii?aee ianoiyieyi aaeaieaoa, ia-
?aeeciaae iaiai.

Aua oa?aeoa?iaa aeey A?. Aeaeaioeaaa aai niiinoaaeaiea ?aoaiey Naiaoa
ii aeaeo Eioaeoeeiai n ae?oaei ?aoaieai ii aeaeo Aa?eneaaneiai (?ao. 1881 a.
? 49), eae i?ioeai?a/auei ia?aiio. Ia aoiaey a ianoiyoaeuenoaa yoiai
aeaea, aeinoaoi/ii oeacaoue, /oi Aa?eneaaneee oioy e /anoiue iiaa?aiiue,
a aeaiiii aeaea aunooiee ia eae iiaa?aiiue, a io naiaai eiaie. Neaaeiaa-
oaeueii, a aeaea ia aicieeaei aiana aii?inia i ?iee aaeaieaoa, e Naiao au-
neacae, /oi .

Anoanoaaiii, /oi i?e oaeie iaii?i/iinoe iiceoeee, Ae.E. Iaayaeiineiio
ie/aai ia noieei auaeoue ec iaa naiaai i?ioeaieea, ioiaoeoue i?ioeai?a/ey,
a eioi?ua ii aiaaeaao. Ii, a naith i/a?aaeue, e Ae.E. Iaayaeiineee ieeaeiai
yniiai ioaaoa aeaoue ia iiaeao. Oae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aio i?aaenoaaeyaony,
/oi . A iaaeaeo oai, ii-
aeaeeiiio, nai Iaayaeiineee ia naiaiaeai io oao aea i?aaie/aneeo niiiaiee.
. Iiyoiio e Iaay-
aeiineee niaeaoaaony ia eiii?iienn. . Oaea/ii ane?uaay i?ioeai?a/ey A?. Aeaeaioeaaa, nai Ae. Ia-

Iaayaeiineee Ae.E. Oeac. ni/., n. 26. – I?ei. aao.
Oai aea, n. 12. – I?ei. aao.
O?. – a?aoneia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea.

iie ia cao?oaeiyaony ni/aoaoue iieioth naiaiaeo a auai?a aeae n naiui
aeei/eaui eiio?ieai Niaaoa e iauaai nia?aiey.

Iu ioia/aai ana yoe neaaua noi?iiu iaieo i?ioeaieeia ia aeey oiai,
ia/ii, /oiau anooiaoue n ieie a caiicaeaeoth iieaieeo, a aeey oiai, /oiau
caoo ia eaeii iaaunieii o?iaia noiyee eo/oea i?aaenoaaeoaee iunee
niaoeeaeenou aii?ina. Eai, anee A?. Aeaeaioeaa aue naiui iiioey?iui
e y?eei au?aceoaeai eeaa?aeueiiai oaaeiia, e ni/eiaiey aai auaea?aeeaaee
ii ianeieueei ecaeaiee, oi Ae.E. Iaayaeiineee aue iaeiei ec iaeaieaa oaa-
aeaaiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aaeaieaoneiai nineiaey e aeieaia a?aiy ninoiye i?aae-
naaeaoaeai iineianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo .

Iieaieea Aeaeaioeaaa n Iaayaeiineei aucaaea ia?iiiue eioa?an ia
oieueei a th?eaee/aneie, ii e a iauae i?anna. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ia inoaeinue
aeo?iaea, eioi?ue ia auneacaeny au ii iiaiaeo auoaaeoeo a?ioth?. Oio
?i?eii ?aoeoaeueii noae ia noi?iio Aeaeaioeaaa e i?ioea Iaayaeiineiai,
ia eioi?iai ni anao noi?ii iinuiaeenue a?iiu e iieiee. Aei /aai aicaoaeaeaii
auei i?ioea iaai iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, iiaeii noaeeoue ii oiio, iai?eia?,
/oi , aic?aaeay i?ioea nnueee Iaayaeiineiai ia noau-
aeoeaiinoue iiiyoee i?aanoaaiiinoe, /anoiinoe e o.ae., caia/aao, /oi . , – caeeth/aao aeo?iae naie iocua . Oieueei oeacae, /oi ?ac?aaioea aii?ina a a?ioth?a Aeaeai-
oeaaa ia niioaaonoaoao aaaeiinoe caaea/e, oae eae Aeaeaioeaa ioaeaeuaaaony
iaueie ianoaie. Ii, ni naiae noi?iiu, aeo?iae ia auyniyao, eaeiaa aeieaeia
auoue i?aaeeueiay iinoaiiaea aii?ina, a ia?aie/eaaaony eeoue iieaieeie n
Aeaeaioeaaui. Oae, Aeaeaioeaa i?eaiaeeo a i?eia? iani?aaaaeeeaiai aeaea,
io aaaeaiey eioi?iai aaeaieao aeieaeai oeeiieoueny, ioeac iaieiaoaey io oieaou
iaaiiie ieaou ii ionoonoaeth ienueiaiiiai aeiaiai?a, oioy aaeaieaoo iaie-
iaoaeue i?eciaeny, /oi ii ieaoo aeaenoaeoaeueii aeieaeai. iae?ieiaa I.A. Oaneaiei oeacae, /oi . N eca?aieai Ae.E
a /eaoeu N.iaaoa ia/aeny ia?aeii a aeayoaeueiinoe Niaaoa (. 1907, ? 41). – I?ei. oo.

-. -?onneay Iuneue>. 1886, 8. – I?ei. oo.
Ao?/ae A?aaeaeaineith e Oaieiaiiai I?aaa>. 1886, ? 6. – I?ei. aao.

oaoioaoeony aeae, /oi ii aioia e iaauaao oieaoeoue yoo noiio aiineaaenoaee
aac noaea, a aeaeaao eeoue ecaaaiooue iiene, i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa e ?aci?aiey
naiaai aiacaea. E oiaaea aaeaieao ai?aaa ioeacaoue a iiiiue? Iai eaaeaony,
/oi a iineaaeiai neo/aa aicieeaao oaea nii?iue aii?in. I?enyaeiue ii-
aa?aiiue, oaeei ia?acii, ec aaeaieaoa i?aa?auaaony a eaeiai-oi noaeueth
aeey iaeieaoieo>.

Aiiaua, i?eoiaeeony eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi ai anao iocuaao ie/aai, e?iia
au?aaeaiey neiiaoee eee aioeiaoee, ia eiaaony. E eeoue a iaeiie caiaoea
noaaeony aii?in ia?iiiie aaaeiinoe. Aaoi?, ne?uaoeeny iiae inaaaeiieiii
Aiiiiaiaa , iinea aanueia iiae?iaiiai aiaeeca anao niia?aaeaiee Iaayaeii-
neiai, oae oi?ioee?oao naie iunee: naaiaeiy iiaoo naea-
eaoueny caao?a. E eiaaea aniiiiyo yoi, oiaaea iieioo, /oi aaeaieao,
ia aeacao eioi?iai i?ioiaeeo yoio iaeciaiiue i?ioeann i?aaa, ia iiaeao e
ia aeieaeai caaeio?eoue eo e aeaeaoue, eoaea aai aua?ineo iiaay aieia; oiaaea
iieioo, /oi oa naiaiaea, eioi?ay aeaia aio caeiiii a ioee/ea io noaeuee, e
aeaeaao aeey iaai aua aieaa, /ai aeey iineaaeiaai, aiciiaeiui acaaoeaaoue e
ioeaieaaoue eioa?anu, iieuecothueany caueoie e oieueei acuaathuea e iae;
onei?youe ii?aaeaiea iaeieo e iiaeaioiaeyoue iiaaaeo ae?oaeo; oiaaea iieioo,
/oi aaeaieao ia aacaeooiay iaoeia, ia oi eieani, eioi?ui ainnueathony ia
iaai eeoaeneea iieeoau, a enoeiiue oai?aoe i?aa. E eiaaea yoi iieioo,
oiaaea ia neaaeoo aieaa, /oi aaeaieao ia /oi eiia eae iin?aaeiee; oiaaea ia
noaioo aieaa oaeeaeyoueny, ii/aio io aaeaieaoa e noaeuee iiaeii o?aaiaaoue
iaecia?eii aieueoa, /ai io i?inoiai a?aaeaeaieia; oiaaea ia aoaeoo iianaoueny,
/oi aaeaieaoo, aaeioiiaeaiiiio oai?/aneeie th?eaee/aneeie eaeayie, i?aae-
eiaeao
Caeiiiaeaoaeue, ii naiae i?e?iaea, oai?aoe eoieoaoi?; ii neeiiai ia auoiaeeoue
ec naiaai eia?oiiai iieiaeaiey e aeaeaoue, iiea ia ?acaeaaeoony iaeooathuea
aicaeanu, ciaouea aai ia iiiiuue. A aei oao ii?, iiea ii iiaeuiao naith
aaee/aaoth ?oeo, aeieaeiu iiiiaaoue noaeuee e aaeaieaou. Ia aoaeue aaeaieaoia

iaoe, aeey eioi?uo a. Iaayaeiineiai (o.a. iii?inoo
aeaeaeaenoaii, eoeueoii noaoae) ia en/a?iuaaaony eaeay i?aaa, /eioaaie

iin aue au aua e iiiuia aii?inii; iu ia auee au iaeaioia yiioe
?oeaeaiiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ca ian/anoey n ?aai/eie e
ae Anee au iiaieueoa aueaei oaeeo aaeaieaoia e noaeae, iu aac niaeaenoaey
oeiaeaoaey i?eia?aee au einoeooo ninaaeneiai i?aaa, i eioi?ii iaoa
aeiiiaeaoaeuenoai eiaao neaaia iiiyoea; iieo/eee au aieaa oiieea i?ei-
oeei,; ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aeiaiai?ioth aeio; aeiaeoiaeenue au aei caueou o?a-
oueeo eeoe i?aeiouanoaaiii ia?aae nianoaaiieeaie, iaoee au oeaio iaeio-
uanoaaiiuo i?aa; inaieeenue au n eaeaae iaeacaiey a a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa;
noaee au ?acee/aoue a iaonoieea yeaiaio oo?aoa io ?aaiioeaiiinoe oauoeia.
Iu aiai?ei i niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe aaeaieaoia e noaeae iioiio, /oi a
yoie ae?oaeaneie ?aaioa caeia i?aaiaiai i?ia?anna. Oiio, eoi, eae a. Ia-
ayaeiineee, ia iuneeo aaeaieaoa eia/a eae oiaeaoaai ca eaeea-ieaoaeue a?i-
oaaua eioa?anu aeiaa?eoaey, neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi ia a o?a/iii iaea/aiee
aeieaeia i?ioaeaoue aeayoaeueiinoue aaeaieaoa, a a ian?aaiaiii aieueoae ia?a a
oeoe eaaeiaoa: anee au aaeaieaou aieaa i?aaeoi?aaeaeaee i?ioeannu, /ai io-
oaeenue a ieo, iauanoaaiiay ?ieue aaeaieaoia auea au ia oa, /oi oaia?ue. Ii
oiaaea e eieaeea a. Iaayaeiineiai auea au iaaiciiaeia>.

Iunee aaoi?a au?aaeaiu n iaaeinoaoi/iie io/aoeeainoueth. O?oaeii oyn-
ieoue naaa, eiaao ee aaoi? a aeaeo aiceiaeeoue ia iaycaiiinoe aaeaieaoa iiiiuue
neaaaeoaio i?ioea neeueiaeoaai, eee aea aaeaieao aeieaeai aiiaua niinia-
noaiaaoue onei?aieth iaieioaiie iiaaaeu oiai eee ae?oaiai oa/aiey. Ii-ae-
aeeiiio, noaey ii aai iaaiaeiaaieth i?ioea a?ioth?u Iaayaeiineiai, aaoi?
eiae a aeaeo eiaiii ia?aia. A aeaeueiaeoai iu oaeaeei, /oi yoi iiaeaeaiea
aaoi?a noaei iieo/aoue i?aeoe/aneia inouanoaeaiea. Ii nae/an ioaeii io-
iaoeoue, /oi, ii eaoaai?e/aneiio ooaa?aeaeaieth aaoi?a, caeiiiia?iinoue ia
aeieaeia neoaeeoue aaeeinoaaiiui ia?eeii aeey aaeaieaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iaei oiai! Aaoi? ioiineony e caeiiiia?iinoe n iane?uaaaiie e?iieae,
eae e aoeaiaaenoao, eoeueoo noaoae. Aaeaieao aeieaeai caiaiyoue caeiiiaeaoaey,
eioi?ue iiniaaaao neeoeii iaaeeaiii ca o?aaiaaieyie aeecie, e i?enii-
niaeyoue aeaenoaothuaa i?aai e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi nioeeaeueiiai oeeaaea.

Yoe noaeaeaiey yaeythony ioaieineii oe?ieiai oa/aiey, iiyaeaoaainy a
ainueieaeanyouo aiaeao e o?aaiaaaoaai, /oiau, ioeacaaoenue io /?acia?iiai
i?eno?anoey e eiaeea, ai /oi au oi ie noaei eniieiyoue caeii oae, /oiau
ii niaiae n ?acoiiie e ni?aaaaeeeaie ii?iie, eiiaiaioiie niioaaonoaai-
iiio yaeaieth aeecie. Yoi oa/aiea, neeaaynue n iooiuie iioieaie, i?ina-

, 1886. 9. – I?ei. aao.

“iie – ia?ie aieueiuo ethaeae, ia iiianoiuo caieyo.

/eaaaoeieny, eae aeaeii ec auoai?eaaaeaiiuo neia A.Ae. Nianiae/a, a iaoa
i?aainoaeea, iaiineei aeanoi/aeoea oaea?u ia/aeo caeiiiinoe e. a eiioea
eiioeia, niaa?oaiii ?anoaoaei aai. Iaeaieaa iieiui e y?eei au?aceoaeai
e eaeaieiaii oa/aiey aue A.E. Ai?iaeeianeee, eioi?ue a eieaa naiae
i?iiiaaaeiaae, /oi, ioe?ua enoeiiue niune caeiia, noaeuey,
eiia/ii, iaycai iiae/eieoueny aai aaeaieth, oioy au aeaaea iii i?aaenoaaeyeinue
noaeuea iani?aaaaeeeaui. Ii (!) anee iuneue caeiia inoaaony aeey noaeuee ana-
oaee iayniie (a yniinoue e iayniinoue, eae oeacuaaao aaoi?, iiiyoey noau-
aeoeaiua), oi noaeuey aeieaeai ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny e niia?aaeaieyie ni?aaaae-
eeainoe . Oaeei ia?acii, ia ianoi caeiia noaaeony naia nianoaaiiia i?aae-
noaaeaiea i ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Yoi oa/aiea i?eianei iai ninaaeneia i?aai e ae?oaea einoeooou, i ei-
oi?uo aiai?eo Aieiaiaa, ii aianoa n oai iu iieo/eee, aianoi oioy au
e i/aiue ieioeo caeiiia, ?acuyniaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, a cia-
/eoaeueiie ia?a oi?acaeieaoea O oii e Oeiaeaiea i iaeacaieyo e ia aeaaoea
ieeaeie oaa?aeie iii?u aeey th?eaee/aneeo ioiioaiee. ?ac noaeuey aeieaeai
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny ia oieueei caeiiii, ii e niia?aaeaieyie i ni?aaaaeee-
ainoe, eioi?ua o eaaeaeiai iiaoo auoue naie, oai naiui oie/oiaeaaony aaae-
iaeoay iniaaiiinoue noaeaeneie aeayoaeueiinoe – aa iiaecaeiiiinoue, onoo-
iathuay naia ianoi i?iecaieo e oniio?aieth.

Yoio oa?aeoa?iue yieciae aanueia y?ei inaauaao aeaaeueiua ?aceaaathuea
aeeyiey, iiae eioi?uie i?ioaeea aeayoaeueiinoue aaeaieaoo?u. Eae aacio?aaeii,
a naiii aeaea, /oi aaeeinoaaiiay iiiuoea inaiaiaeeoueny io iaueo o?ac, ei-
oi?uie ano?a/aia auea iieaieea, e aeaoue iinoaaeaiiiio aii?ino eiie?aoiia
niaea?aeaiea, i?aa?aoeeanue a i?iiiaaaeue aacoaea?aeiiai iiii?ooiecia, ni-
noaaeyaoaai, ai?i/ai, naioth caiaoioth /a?oo ainueieaeanyouo aiaeia. Eae
au ie ioeaieaaoue iiceoeee yoeo aaoi?ia, e anee aeaaea aac anyeeo iaiai?ie
niaeaneoueny n

, /oi Ae.E. Iaayaeiineee caae
aaeaieaoo?o ia neieueceee iooue, oi, ai anyeii neo/aa, iaaei i?eciaoue, /oi,
aeaeay oaea?aeaoue io yoiai iooe, Aiiiiaiaa nai oieeae nineiaea a aacaeiiioth
i?iianoue.

Ana neacaiiia aeaeaao eoiae ia?aiai aeaaaeoeaoeiyoeeaoey noieue aea i?i-
nouie, neieue e aacio?aaeiuie. Aaeaieaoo?a ieaaea e ie a /ai ia ano?a/aea
iiaeaea?aeee. Iai?ioea, iiieii iaueo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee, io eioi-
?uo, eae au?aceeny Nianiae/, aaeaieaoo?a no?aaeaea, eae /anoue oeaeiai, iia
iiaeaa?aaeanue aua niaoeeaeueiui aeaaeaieyi, aeaenoaiaaaoei ?acee/iui ia-
?acii e naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaaoei i ianiioaaonoaee iiauo noaeaaiuo onoaaia

ia oieueei ainoaea?noaaiiiio no?ith, ii e iauaio eoeueoo?iiio o?iaith. Auei
? eiia/ii, i?ioeaianoanoaaiii, anee au aaeaieaoo?a inoaeanue /oaeaea ie-
ioaeathoei aeeyieyi. Ii aaaeii, /oi a n?aaea naiiai nineiaey i?ienoiaeeea
iaonoaiiay ai?ueaa, /oi iii ioaeaaaei naaa io/ao a ie?oaeathueo oneiaeyo
e niciaaaei iaiaoiaeeiinoue ai?ioueny n ieie.

Aeaaaeoeaoeiyoeeaoiaa nouanoaiaaiea Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia aicaoaeeei n?aaee
aaeaieaoo?u aii?in ia iciaiaiiaaiee yoiai thaeeay. A Iaoa?ao?aa a iauai
nia?aiee eca?aia auea eiienney iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii A.Ae. Nianiae/a,
eioi?ue i?aaeeiaeee iciaiaiiaaoue 25-eaoea ono?ienoaii eiieo?na ia ni-
/eiaiea ii enoi?ee noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu a ?innee. Ethaiiuoii, /oi ?aiee
ni/eiaiey auee /?acau/aeii noaeaiu e ia?aie/aiu iaeiie enoi?eae No-
aeaaiuo Onoaaia, eae caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai iaiyoieea, o.a. aac iauynieoaeueiiai
eceiaeaiey ia?aiai, eioi?ui iie iiaeaa?aeenue aiineaaenoaee. Auaiaea io
oaeiai noaeaiey caeeth/aeanue, ii iiaieth eiiennee, a oii, /oi eia/a, . Eae ynii neuoaony caeanue iocaoee oao niia?aaeaiee, eioi?ua i?e-
aiaeeeenue i?ioea iinueee oaeaa?aiiu ia?eaeneiio Niaaoo! Iaeiaei oa?ue-
eianeee Niaao, e eioi?iio iaoa?ao?aneee ia?aoeeny n i?aaeeiaeaieai o/a-
noaiaaoue a yoii i?aaei?eyoee, ia?aoee aieiaiea, /oi a oaeii aeaea ni/eiaiea
ia niioaaonoaoao iaia/aiiie oeaee ii/oeoue iaiyoue eniieieaoaainy 25-eaoey,
oae eae ii caeeth/aieth eiiennee auoiaeeo, /oi eiaiii yoiai 25-eaoey ea-
naoueny e ia ioaeii. Ii yoi aic?aaeaiea, iainii?eiia naii ii naaa, e aeaao
iniiaaiea i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi naiia aieueoaa, ia /oi eiienney iiaea ?a-
oeoueny, yoi iaieoe iie/aieai i?iecaaaeaiiua eneaaeaiey Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia
e i?ioanoiaaoue aicaaee/aieai iaiyoieea a aai ia?aiia/aeueiii aeaea. Ni-
ioaaonoaaiii n yoei, oa?ueeianeay aaeaieaoo?a ia i?eiyea i?aaeeiaeaiey naiaai
Niaaoa i ?anoe?aiee ?aiie i?aaeeiaeaiiiai ni/eiaiey aeeth/aieai a iaai
anao iineaaeiaaaoeo eciaiaiee e au?aceea yoi eeoue eae iiaeaeaiea . Iin-
eianeee Niaao ioianny eia/a e iaoa?ao?aneiio i?aaeeiaeaieth. Niaao ia
aeae aio ieeaeiai oiaea, a eiaaea caoai iaoa?ao?aneee Niaao i?eneae cai?in,
i?aaeiieaaatho ee iineianeea oiaa?eue i?eiyoue o/anoea a yoii aeaea e ia

Ni. E.A. Aannai. Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia, n. 216. – I?ei. e?o.

-o/ao oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo 1890–91 aa.. n. 1/-19 – I?ei. aao.

eaeeo oneiaeyo, oi iineianeee Niaao iinoaiiaee: . Cayaeaiee io i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, – i?eaaaeyao canei Io/ao, – ii yoiio i?aaeiaoo
a Niaao ia iinooiaei. I?aaeiieiaeaiea iaoa?ao?aneie aaeaieaoo?u oae e
inoaeinue iainouanoaeaiiui. Ii iineianeay aaeaieaoo?a ecaeaea ei aeith
25-eaoey Nai?iee iaoa?eaeia, ioiinyueony aei nineiaey i?enyaeiuo ii-
aa?aiiuo ie?oaa iineianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou.

V. I?IAEOU ?AOI?IU
AAeAIEAOO?U

24. NIAAUAIEA 1890 a. E EIIENNEss 1896 a.

E eiioeo ia?aiai aeaaaeoeaoeiyoeeaoey iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaaaeaiey ?aoi?i a
aaeaieaoo?a i?aaenoaaeyeanue niaa?oaiii aannii?iie. Iaaieueii aniiieiaaony
i?e yoii cayaeaiea ioeoeeaeueiiai , naeaeaiiia aua a
naiii ia/aea aaaaeaiey noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu ii iiaiaeo iaiaaeie ia aaeaieaoo?o.
. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, n naiiai ia/aea i?a-
aeoaeuenoai io/aoeeai niciaaaei, eaeiai aeieaeii auoue ioiioaiea e aiiaue ni-
caeaiiiio einoeoooo, A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea, eae eceiaeaii auoa, aaeaieaoo?a
ia oieueei ia i?eaeaeea e naaa caaioeeaiai aieiaiey, ii e oa oiaeaoaenoaa,
eioi?ua aicaoaeaeaee Niaaou, nenoaiaoe/anee inoaaeyeenue aac oaeiaeaoai?aiey.
Eiaaea caoai a 1876 a. Ieienoa?noai THnoeoeee aianei i?iaeo oie/oiaeaiey
iacaaeneiinoe aaeaieaoo?u, oi a i?aaenoaaeaiee naiai iii oeacuaaei, /oi o
iaai eiaaony aeinoaoi/iue iaoa?eae aeey ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoa ?aoi?iu e /oi
i?aaeeaaaaiay ia?a aiineony, eae iaioeiaeiay, a ea/anoaa a?aiaiiie. Iu oaea
ciaai, /oi i?iaeo a?aoa Iaeaia ia ano?aoee ni/oanoaey e aue acyo Ieien-
oa?noaii ia?aoii, ii ia aeey oiai, /oiau aianoi a?aiaiiie e neo/aeiie ia?u
?ac?aaioaoue i?iaeo ?aoi?iu. Iaeiieaiiue iaoa?eae i?iaeieaeae iieieoueny
a iaae?ao eaioeaey?ee, e eeoue e 1885 aiaeo Ieienoa?noai THnoeoeee ieii/aoaeueii
. Aeey yoiai auea o/?aaeaeaia Eiienney

\, i,. ” TT “?””?>””> au.? o/?aaeeoue a Iineianeii oieaa?neoao.
IOI.E. Aeia?ioioiaa. – I?ei. aao.

Ueuni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiay Eiiinney e\y ia?aniio?a caeiiiiieiaeaiee ii noaeaaiie /anoe. Iau-
“T/oa.o/iy caienea e O/?aaeaeaieth noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee, o. III, n. 7. – I?ei. aao.

iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii auaoaai iaa?-i?ieo?i?a Ia?aiai Aeaia?oaiaioa
I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa A.A. Aa?aeiiaa. Ii iaa?-i?ieo?i? anei?a aue
iacia/ai oiaa?euai ieieno?a iooae niiauaiey, e yoiai ieacaeinue aiieia
aeinoaoi/iui, /oiau aii?in i ?aoi?ia niiaa aue ioeiaeai a aeieaee yuee.
Ion?i/ea aii?ina ia iiiaoaea, , i?einoaiiaeoue i?eai eeoe iao?enoeaineeo aa?i-
eniiaaaeaiee a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua. A iinea yoiai auee aiciaiiaeaiu a
Ieienoa?noaa ?aaiou ii ia?aniio?o aeaenoaothueo ocaeiiaiee i iiaa?aiiuo
ii noaeaaiui aeaeai.

Niiaa a 1890 a. auea o/?aaeaeaia Eiienney iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii aee-
?aeoi?a Ia?aiai Aeaia?oaiaioa E?anianeiai. Yoa Eiienney aeiaaea naith
?aaioo aei eiioea, ninoaaea iieiue i?iaeo eciaiaiee a i?aaeeao noaeaaiuo
onoaaia i iiaa?aiiuo. Nionoy aua o?e aiaea yoio i?iaeo, n iaeioi?uie
iacia/eoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie, aue aianai ieieno?ii thnoeoeee I.A. Ia-
iannaeiui a Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao. Ii caeanue niiaa iiaoi?eeanue i?aaeiyy
enoi?ey. Nionoy aeaa iaaeaee iinea aianaiey caeiiii?iaeoa I.A. Iaiannaei
aue caiaiai I.A. Io?aaueaaui ia iinoo ieieno?a thnoeoeee, e yoiai oai
aieaa ieacaeinue aeinoaoi/iui, /oiau aianaiiue i?iaeo ia iieo/ee aeaeue-
iaeoaai aeaeaeaiey. Ii aue acyo ia?aoii e a ea/anoaa iaoa?eaea ia?aaeai
a Iniaoth Eiienneth ii ia?aniio?o caeiiiiieiaeaiee ii noaeaaiie /anoe,
Yoa Eiienney oiaea oniaea caeii/eoue naie ?aaiou. A ioiioaiee ?aoi?iu
iieiaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u ia o?aaiaaeinue, i?aaaea, ieeaeiai o?oaea, iioiio /oi
Eiienney i?inoi ia?aienaea, aac anyeeo nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee, oiiiy-
iooue i?iaeo Eiiennee I.A. E?anianeiai. Nionoy ii/oe 10 eao, a 1904 a.,
i?iaeou, au?aaioaiiua Eiienneae, auee i?aaenoaaeaiu a Ainoaea?noaaiiue
Niaao, ii anei?a iinea yoiai i?iecioei eciaiaiea a iieeoe/aneii no?ia,
e ?aoi?ie?iaaiiue Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao aica?aoee a Ieienoa?noai
ana iaoiaeeaoeany o iaai caeiiii?iaeou. I?iaeo ?aoi?iu aaeaieaoo?u aeaeue-
iaeoaai aeaeaeaiey ia iieo/ee.

Niioaaonoaaiii oaeiio ecoieoaeueiiio oa/aieth aeae, oiiiyiooay iau-
ynieoaeueiay caienea eiinoaoe?oao, /oi ana, /oi auei naeaeaii ii ioiioaieth
e aaeaieaoo?a, caeeth/aeinue a ecaeaiee caeiia i /anoiuo iiaa?aiiuo () e ai a?aiaiiii i?einoaiiaeaiee a oii aea aiaeo o/?aaeaeaiey
Niaaoia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo oai, aaea iie ia auee ioe?uou. (Ii yoa
ia?a, ai anyeii neo/aa, ia iiaea niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth aaeaieaoo?u,
eai ath oieueei . )
Aio e ana. . Aeinoaoi/ii niiinoaaeoue ioeoeeaeueiia cayaeaiea i oii, eae nea-
aeiaaei ioiineoueny e einoeoooo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, n yoei ioeoeeaeueiui
i?eciaieai a oii, /oi auei a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe naeaeaii, – e ieeaeeo
canei auaiaeia aeaeaoue oaea ia ioaeii, iie iai?aoeaathony naie niaie.

Au?aaioaiiua i?iaeou ia iieo/eee, oaeei ia?acii, ieeaeiai i?aeoe-
/aneiai cia/aiey. Ii n enoi?e/aneie oi/ee c?aiey iie i?aaenoaaeytho ia-
?iiiue eioa?an e iiaoo i?ieeoue y?eee naao ia noaeueau ?onneie aaeaieaoo?u.
I?aaeaea anaai, ioaeii caeanue ioiaoeoue, /oi, ianiio?y ia yia?ae/iua iaiaaeee
ia oi?acaeiaiee aaeaieaoo?u, i aica?auaiee e i?aaeiei ii?yaeeai ?acaiai?a
oaea ia iiaeieiaeinue. Iai?ioea, iauynieoaeueiay caienea n/eoaao ioaeiui
oaa?eoue, /oi eiienney .

A yoie iaiai?ea i nio?aiaiee eeoue aiciiaeiie iacaaeneiinoe e ca-
eeth/aaony oeaio? oyaeanoe i?aaei?eiyoie ?aoi?iu. I?eieiay enoiaeioth
oi/eo noaeaaiuo onoaaia, eiienney, iaeiaei, ooo aea i?eaaaeyao, eae au a
ecaeiaiea eo ninoaaeoaeae, /oi .

Caeanue, a nouiinoe, iauynieoaeueiay caienea iiyoue a?inaao oyaeeee oei?
ieienoa?noao, eai ana yoe iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe iao?oaeii aaaeue auei ono?aieoue.
Niaaou, eae ecaanoii ec i?aaeuaeouaai eceiaeaiey, ia ?ac aicaoaeaeaee ni-

. Ii,
aica?auaynue aiiaue e yoei ia?ai>, eioi?ua, eae oaea neacaii,
ia eiaee ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e ono?aiaieth caia/aiiuo iaaeinoaoeia , iaeue-
cy iaieoe aii?ina, eaeay aea naycue nouanoaoao iaaeaeo iaia?oaeaiiuie ia-
aeinoaoeaie (iao?aaoee?iaaiiinoue iiiiuie/anoaa, ei?ii?aoea-
iiai ono?ienoaa e iaii?aaeaeaiiay ia?niaeoeaa eiiieaeoa) e ianiioaaono-
aeai einoeoooa iaoeeiiaeueiui iniaaiiinoyi.

Aaaeue anee ana yoe aeaaiua ia/aea auee inoaaeaiu a ia?ac?aaioaiiii
aeaea, oi ionthaea e ?iaeaeaeanue aiciiaeiinoue i?eniiniaeoue eo, eae iiaeii
iieiaa, e iaoeeiiaeueiui iniaaiiinoyi e aeaenoaeoaeueiui iio?aaiinoyi i?a-
ainoaeey. Aaaeue i?e oaeie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe en/acaea anyeay ii/aa aeey ia-
niioaaonoaey. Inoaaei, iaeiaei, a noi?iia yoe iaaeioiaiey e iiiuoaainy
auynieoue, /oi eiienney I.A. Io?aaueaaa e niaauaiea I.A. E?anianeiai
n/eoaee nouanoaaiiuie iaaeinoaoeaie noaeaaiuo onoaaia e eae iie iaia-
?aaaeenue eo eni?aaeoue. Ia ia?aii ianoa noaaeony aaaeay i/a?/aiiinoue ei?-
ii?aoeaiiai ono?ienoaa. Nio?aiaiea nineiaiie i?aaiecaoeee ia aicaoaeaeaei
ieeaeeo niiiaiee. Ia iiaei auoue ieeaeeo eieaaaiee a auai?a, aaeaeo
oiai, /oi . Ii, iiieii
yoeo iaueo niia?aaeaiee, auee aua e ae?oaea, aanueia eioa?aniua, eioi?ua,

Ni?aaaaeeeai caia/aao I.I. Aeiaaa?, /oi caeii i /anoiuo iiaa?aiiuo .

Anee oae, oi, eacaeinue au, inoaaony ana nio?aieoue a ianoiyuai aeaea,
ioiaiea, iaeiiaoe, a?aiaiiia i?einoaiiaeaiea ioe?uoey Niaaoia. Niaaua-
iea e oaeiio auaiaeo e i?eoiaeeo e iinoaiiaeyao ioe?uoue Niaaou iiana-
ianoii (ca eneeth/aieai Aa?oaaneiai e Oeoeenneiai noaeaaiuo ie?oaia,
aaea aii?in iaoiaeeony a caaeneiinoe io ), ii, aianoa n oai, niaauaiea a naiii ei?ia eieaaeao i?eioeei
naiioi?aaeaiey. Iaaea?ii A.Ae. Nianiae/ a ?a/e naiae aiai?eo: . E aeae-
noaeoaeueii, auyniea ia?iiiia cia/aiea aaeaieaoneiai naiioi?aaeaiey e ?a-
oeoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai iaaeci?a Niaaoia i?aae aicaeaenoaeai ie?oaeiuo
noaeia, niaauaiea oai ia iaiaa aiineo nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey. Oioy, eae
iu oieueei /oi aeaeaee, Niaaou ioiinyony aanueia uaiaoeeueii e i?eiyoeth
a /enei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, oai ia iaiaa i?iaeo i?aaeinoaaeyao i?i-
eo?i?neiio iaaeci?o i?aai i?ioanoiaaoue i?ioea iinoaiiaeaiee Niaaoa i
i?eiyoee. ,
Niune yoiai iiaiaaaaeaiey nai niaith ?ane?iaony, anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, /oi i?ieo?i?neee iaaeci? oaea e oaia?ue o/anoaoao a i?e-
iyoee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ie?oaeiuie noaeaie, e, iaeiaei, yoi ia aa-
?aioe?iaaei iaaeeaaeauaai ninoaaa aaeaieaoo?u. A n ae?oaie, iaaei aea iiiieoue,
/oi i?iaeo aianoa n oai i?aaeeaaaao ioianoe e /eneo i?aiyonoaee aeey anooi-
eaiey a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua ninoiyiea iiae aeaniui iaaeci?ii iieeoeee,
eai . Ionthaea niaa?oaiii ynii, a eaeii iai?aaeaiee aeie-
aeai aue aeaenoaiaaoue iaaeci? i?ieo?i?a.

Iaia/ay iianaianoiia ioe?uoea Niaaoia, niaauaiea I.A. E?anianeiai
onoaiaaeeaaei oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo iie aeieaeiu auoue ioe?uou. Aeey yoiai
o?aaoaony, /oiau iauaa /enei iiaa?aiiuo a ie?oaa noaeaaiie iaeaou aei-
noeaaei 60 /aeiaae, e /oiau a naiii ai?iaea, aaea ioe?uaaaony Niaao, eiaee
aeeoaeuenoai ia iaiaa 20 iiaa?aiiuo. I?e yoeo oneiaeyo Niaao aeieaeai
auoue ioe?uo. Ii ieieno? thnoeoeee I.A. Iaiannaei eciaiee iinoaiiaeaiea
niaauaiey a oii niunea, /oi i?e oeacaiiuo oneiaeyo Niaaou ioe?uaathony
ii i?aaeeiaeaieth ieieno?a thnoeoeee, a Eiienney I.A. Io?aaueaaa
nio?aieea yoi iinoaiiaeaiea, .
A oae eae, a neo/aa ionoonoaey , aeaeiaaoueny ieeoi ia oiie-

1 ,_- .
-\ai1. – iiiny aeaiaeoeaa, aea?u i?eiinyueo.

A Eiiennee 11.A. Io?aaueaaa aieueioenoai (a oii /enea o/anoaiaaaoea i?enyaeiua iiaa?ai-
iua) auneacuaaeinue i?ioea inouanoaeaiey oaeiai i?aaeeiaeaiey – I?ei. ieo.

ae/ai. oi oaeoe/anee ioe?uoea Niaaoia noaaeony i?inoi a caaeneiinoue
aeia?iai aeaeaiey a. ieieno?a.

Neeueiue iiae?ua nineiaiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe iaiineony i?aaeiieiaea-
ieai ia ecuyoee ec eiiiaoaioeee Niaaoia oae iacuaaaiuo n1a1ii.c niaeEaina,
o.a. i?inooieia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, niaa?oaiiuo ai a?aiy noaeaaiuo
canaaeaiee. Iniiaaiea aeey aicaoaeaeaiey aii?ina iineoaeeei oi niia?aaeaiea,
/oi .
Aieueoeinoai a niaauaiee anoaei ?aoeoaeueii i?ioea yoiai, i?eaiaey, iaaeaeo
i?i/ei, e oaeia niia?aaeaiea, /oi iiaeiaiay ia?a i?eaaea au e oiaeaieth
aaoi?eoaoiinoe Niaaoa. Ieieno? thnoeoeee, iaeiaei, niaeaneeny n iaiueoei-
noaii e aian a naia i?aaenoaaeaiea i?aaeei (no. 371 ), niaeanii eiaio,
noaeaaiui ianoai, a canaaeaieyo eieo aeiiouaii auei , i?aaeinoaaeyeinue eeai iaeaaaoue aeenoeeieeia?iua acun-
eaiey ia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eeai, aeey aieaa no?iaeo iaeacaiee, ni-
iauaoue ia ?anniio?aiea Iniaiai I?enoonoaey Noaeaaiie Iaeaou.

A Eiiennee I.A. Io?aaueaaa aii?in yoio aue aicaoaeaeai niiaa, e caeanue
aieina aanii?yaei/ii ?acaeeenue: iaeia /anoue (a oii /enea O.I. Ieaaaei e
A.Ae. Nianiae/) noiyee ca auaeaeaiea niaiiia nOaeEaina e ca ia?aaea/o eo ia
?anniio?aiea noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, aeaa /eaia noiyee ca iaiaaeeaiiia ?an-
niio?aiea eo i?enoonoaeai oiai noaea, a canaaeaiee eiaai aeiiouaii auei
ia?ooaiea e, iaeiiaoe, aieueoeinoai noiyei i?ioea aeeth/aiey oaeiai iiaiai
i?aaeea, oeacuaay, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, /oi iiiaieaoiee iiuo ia iaia?oaeee
ie iaeaeoeo iaoaeianoa nouanoaothuaai ii?yaeea. Oaeei ia?acii, e a aeaiiii
neo/aa, ii oeacaieth naieo /eaiia eiiennee, i?aaeiieiaeaiey i?iaeoia ii-
neee yaii oaiaeaioeeiciue oa?aeoa?, e ai anyeii neo/aa ioithaeue ia auee
aucaaiu iaia?oaeaiiuie oa/aieai a?aiaie iaaeinoaoeaie.

Ia iaiaa ethaiiuoii no?aieaiea eciaieoue ii?yaeie auai?a Niaaoa. Ni-
Uiea iaoiaeeei, /oi aaeaaiaeiia aiciaiiaeaiea ninoaaa eiaao oi iaoaeia-
noai. /oi iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiue n?ie iieiiii/ee ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoe in-
“”oaeueii iciaeiieoueny n i?eaiaie aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa a yoii o/?aaeaeaiee,

272

a oaeaea n iau/ayie e aicc?aieyie nineiaey. A oa/aiea aiaea i?enyaeiue
iiaa?aiiue, eca?aiiue a /eaiu Niaaoa, oieueei /oi oniaao i?eia?anoe
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iaai ciaiey e iiuoiinoue, a iaaeaeo oai a yoi a?aiy n?ie
aai iieiiii/ee oaea enoaeaao, e ia aai ianoi iiaeao auoue eca?aii ae?oaia
eeoei.

Yoi niia?aaeaiea eiaao, iaeiaei, /enoi aano?aeoiia cia/aiea. Niaauaiea
ooo aea eiinoaoe?oao, /oi i?aeoe/anee . Iaeiaei, yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ia oaaaeaeaao Niaauaiea. Ii aai
iiaieth, , a
iioiio i?iaeo iinoaiiaeyao, /oi auai?u i?ienoiaeyo aaeaaiaeii, ii n ai-
ciaiiaeaieai anyeee ?ac iieiaeiu aai ninoaaa. Eiienney I.A. Io?aaueaaa,
i?eieiay yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea, i?eaaaeyao ei anai i?eaaaeaiiui ?annoaeaea-
ieyi, eioi?ua iia aeineiaii iiaoi?yao, aua e nnueeo ia eieao A?naiueaaa
. Ii eiaiii ec yoie eieae e
aeaeii, /oi iinoiyinoai iaia?oaeeaaeinue ia oieueei a iineaaeiaa a?aiy, a
anaaaea.

Ai anyeii neo/aa, ionoue yoi iiaia i?aaeei aiieia ?acoiii e aiieia
oeaeaniia?acii. Iaeii ioaeii i?eciaoue, /oi e yoi eciaiaiea ioithaeue ia au-
cuaaeinue auynieaoaeny iicaeiaeoae i?aeoeeie e ianiioaaonoaeai iniaai-
iinoyi iauanoaaiiiai neeaaea e ia?iaeiiai auoa ?innee, e o.i.

Caeanue aea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue e oaeoth iaeeoth, ii oa?aeoa?ioth iiae?ia-
iinoue. Onoaiaaeeaay aeenoeeieeia?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue Niaaoia i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo. Niaauaiea aianoa n oai . Ni-
aauaiea iaoiaeeo iaiaoiaeeiui i?eiaieoue yoi i?aaeei e e Niaaoai i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo.

Aaeaieaoo?a, iniaaiii iineianeay, i?ioanoiaaea i?ioea yoiai i?aaeii-
eiaeaiey, iaoiaey, /oi i?e oaeeo oneiaeyo aeayoaeueiinoue Niaaoa aeieaeia ?ac-

Eae oaea ioia/aii auoa, oaeay oaiaeaioeey iaia?oaeeeanue ia oieueei a iineaaeiaa a?aiy, a n
naiiai ia/aea nouanoaiaaiey Niaaoa. Iieiia iaiiaeaiea ninoaaa neo/eeinue iaeei ?ac a Iineaa. –
I?ei aao.

Nnueea, ii-aeaeeiiio, ioeai/ia. Iacaaiiia ni/eiaiea i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia A?naiueaao. a Iaea-
eeineiio I.A. – I?ei. aao.

aeooueny. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ii aeieaeai aoaeao eniieiyoue aieth nineiaey, n
aeoe __ i?aaeienaiea aeanoe. Iaaeaeo oai, a iauynieoaeueiie caienea e
aeiaeo iao ie aaeeiiai oeacaiey, /oiau eciaiaiea nouanoaothuaai ii?yaeea
aeaeci?a auoaeaei ec aeaenoaeoaeueiie iio?aaiinoe.

Ii anee aeaaea inoaaeoue a noi?iia yoe i?eioeeieaeueiua aic?aaeaiey,
?a\oe niaeaneoueny n onoaiiaeaieai aeenoeeieeia?iiai iaaeci?a ca Niaaoii,
oi iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi, ii iiaieth Niaauaiey, ii ioiioaieth e Niaaoai
i?aai aeaeaoue i?aaeinoa?aaeaiey e caia/aiey neaaeiaaei au i?aaeinoaaeoue ia
I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaio Naiaoo, a iniaui i?enoonoaeyi Noaeaaiie Iaeaou.

N yoie aea oi/ee c?aiey ioaeii ?anniao?eaaoue e i?aaeeiaeaiea i?iaeoa
aeiiieieoue nenoaio aeenoeeieeia?iuo acuneaiee onoaiiaeaieai aeaiaaeiiai
oo?aoa. Eai niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueii oeacuaaee ana o/anoaiaaaoea a niaa-
uaiee i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, /oi cia/aiea anao ia? acuneaiey, onoaiia-
eaiiuo a 368 no. O/?. noae. ono., iniiauaaaony ia aaoi?eoaoa i?aanoaaiiiai
inoaeaeaiey. Aeaiaaeiue aea oo?ao i?eiaaeeaaeeo e eaoaai?ee iaeacaiee, ia
cao?aaeaathueo /oanoaa /anoe e naiiethaey e aeaenoaothueo, aeaaiui ia-
?acii, neeith naycaiiuo n iei iaoa?eaeueiuo eeoaiee. A eiiennee
I.A. Io?aaueaaa aieueoeinoai ioaa?aaei yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea, iaoiaey, /oi on-
oaiiaeaiea oo?aoa iiaaei au e oiaeaieth i?aanoaaiiiai aaoi?eoaoa Niaaoa,
a eioi?ii e caeeth/aaony aioo?aiiaa iniiaaiea aicaeaenoaey aai ia nineiaea.

I?e ianoaeaeaiee aii?ina i cai?auaiee niaianoeoaeuenoaa iaycaiiinoae
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai n ninoiyieai ia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa, aniuoioe
noa?ue nii?, ia aeiionoeoue ee ecuyoey a iieueco i?ioanni?ia e i?aiiaeaaa-
oaeae th?eaee/aneeo iaoe. I?e ninoaaeaiee noaeaaiuo onoaaia ca aeiiouaiea
oaeiai ecuyoey auneacaeinue eeoue iaiueoeinoai. Oaia?ue a Niaauaiee
I.A. E?anianeiai e Eiiennee I.A. Io?aaueaaa aii?in aue ?aoai ii/oe
aaeeiiaeanii, i?e/ai ecuyoea ?ani?ino?aiaii e ia /eiiaieeia aaeieieno?a-
oeaiuo aaaeiinoa ii noaeaaiie /anoe. A Niaauaiee i?ioea yoiai auneacaeny
iaeei oieueei i?aaenaaeaoaeue oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa, N.O. Ii?ioeei, a a Ei-
iennee – naiaoi? I.I. O?aeaa? e i?aaenaaeaoaeue iaoa?ao?aneiai Niaaoa
A.I. Ethnoeo. A iaaeaeo oai, /oiau ioeaieoue cia/aiea aaiaeeiiai ecuyoey,
aeinoaoi/ii oeacaoue, /oi niaiauaiea n icia/aiiuie aeieaeiinoyie caaiey
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, , aeiioneaaony ia eia/a,
eae n ?ac?aoaiey neoaeaaiiai ia/aeuenoaa. Ii, eae oeacaii a caia/aieyo
nia. i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, .

*oiau caeii/eoue auyniaiea iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee i?iaeoia, iaiaoiaeeii
inoaiiaeoueny aua ia aeiiouaiee a aaeaieaoo?o eeoe iao?enoeaineeo eniiaa-

aeaiee. Oioy iauynieoaeueiay caienea e oeacuaaao, /oi yoi aii?in /anoiue,
ii ii eiaiii e noiye a oeaio?a aieiaiey. Ianiio?y ia i?inoioo naith,
aii?in aucaae na?ueaciia ?aciiaeanea e a Niaauaiee I.A. E?anianeiai,
e a Eiiennee I.A. Io?aaueaaa. Ia iaeiie noi?iia e a Niaauaiee, e a
Eiiennee noiye A. I. Ethnoeo – a iieiii iaeeii/anoaa, aeieacuaay, /oi
iaoa?-
ao?aneeo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Ii iiaiaeo oeacaiey ia ?anoeaaathuaa
aeeyiea aa?aaa aiai?yo: .

Iineianeay aaeaieaoo?a a naieo caia/aieyo niaa?oaiii iaioea aii?in
ia ia?aie/aieyo aa?aaa. Ii-aeaeeiiio, yoi yaeeinue ?acoeueoaoii eiii?i-
ienna, eai a /a?iiaeeao, nio?aieaoeony a , eiathony

i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeoue Niaaoai oiaiueoaoue aei iyoe i?ioeaioia ia?aie-
/eoaeueioth ii?io e aeaaea nianai aini?aoeoue i?eai aa?aaa.

Ia?aoiaeiui ioieoii io iieeoe/anee oaiaeaioeeiciie /anoe i?iaeoia e
aeaeiaie noi?iia yaeeny aii?in i ?acaeaeaiee aaeaieaoneiai nineiaey ia aeaa
eeanna (aoinaic a[ aVIea5, Ueaioiaiaac aini ciiiniiiac) . Aii?in yoio, eae ec-
aanoii, iiaeieiaeny e i?e ninoaaeaiee Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, ii ia inoaiiaee
ia naaa na?ueaciiai aieiaiey; a Niaauaiee I.A. E?anianeiai ii oaea e
ia aicieeae, a a Eiiennee I.A. Io?aaueaaa yoio aii?in iinoaaeai aue
A.Ae. Nianiae/ai, ii e caeanue ia aucaae ni/oanoaey. E A.Ae. Nianiae/o
/anoe/ii i?eniaaeeieeenue: naiaoi?u I.E. AEaeaoianeee, A.O. Eiie e
A.E. Ai?iaeeianeee, niaeaoaaoeany, /oi eniieiaiea noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee
ia aeieaeii aoiaeeoue a e?oa iaycaiiinoae i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Ii ana
inoaeueiua i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?eniaaeeieeenue e aieueoeinoao Eiien-
nee, iieaaaaoaio, /oi . Eaeiaa au ie auea naia ii naaa oeaiiinoue
anao yoeo niia?aaeaiee, ethaiiuoii, /oi iie nianai ia ano?a/athony n aei-
aiaeaie, i?eaiaeeiuie noi?iiieeaie ?acaeaeaiey nineiaey. Aeey iineaaeieo
iniiaaieai neoaeeea oaa?aiiinoue, /oi oaeia aeaeaiea iineoaeeo e iiaeiyoeth
aaeaieaoo?u . A oae eae yoi-oi e ninoaaeyei, ii neiaai iauynieoaeueiie
caienee, iniiaioth caaea/o Eiiennee, oi iaaeinoaoi/iinoue i?eaaaeaiiuo /enoi
i?aeoe/aneeo, aeeoaeneeo niia?aaeaiee iiaeao n/eoaoueny aannii?iie.

A nayce n aeaeaieai nineiaey ia aeaa eeanna, noieo e aii?in ia i?aaiecaoeee
iiiiuie/anoaa. Caeanue, eae ecaanoii, a Noaeaaiuo Onoaaao inoaaaeanue 1aUee1a
aaaa , a i?aeoeea ana a?aiy eieaaaeanue iaaeaeo ia/aeaie ee/iiai e nineiaiiai
iao?iiaoa. A ainueieaeanyouo aiaeao i?eioeei ee/iiai iao?iiaoa noae iaea?-
aeeaaoue aa?o e iieo/ee iaeaieaa iieiia e iineaaeiaaoaeueiia au?aaeaiea a
iineianeeo i?aaeeao 3 ia?oa 1890 a., niaa?oaiii oi?acaeieaoeo anyeoth

Eiaaony a aeaeo aeaeaiea ooieoeee iaaeaeo aaeaieaoaie e iiaa?aiiuie {o?- e aiie.).
Iniaia iiaiea aeaoianeiai. Eiie, n. 201. – I?ei. aao.
Eao. – (aoea. – /enoay aeiua/ea) /enoue eeno. ia/oi /enoia, iao?iiooia.

aeaeaei\oi iiaeaioiaeo. Anoanoaaiii iiyoiio, /oi Niaauaiea e Eiienney
?aoeoaeueii noaee ia noi?iio ee/iiai iao?iiaoa, i?e/ai Eiienney
Io?aaueaaa, a ioee/ea io iauaai i?aaeea, ia ia?aie/eaaaony aini?iecaa-

oeai niia?aaeaiee, auneacaiiuo Niaauaieai I.A. E?anianeiai, ii i?i-
aeaeyao i?eioeeieaeueioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Niaauaiea aeiaieuenoaoaony oea-
caieai ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ecaaaaoue aiciiaeiinoe oeeoeaiuo ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie e eo iiiiuieeaie. Enoiaey ec yoiai,
Niaauaiea i?iaeoe?oao, a oeaeyo aieiaoaeueiiai iaaethaeaiey ca aeayoaeue-
iinoueth iiiiuieeia, aeiiouaiea ia aieaa iaeiiai iiiiuieea i?e i?enyaeiii
iiaa?aiiii, e eeoue a neo/aa iaoe?iie i?aeoeee, e eaaeaeue ?ac n iniaiai
?ac?aoaiey Niaaoa, – aeaoo. Eiienney Io?aaueaaa noaaeo aii?in ?aa?ii
e iaoiaeeo, /oi .

Ianeieueei yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea niioaaonoaiaaei ainiiaenoaiaaaoei acaey-
aeai, iiaeii aeaeaoue ec oiai, /oi n?aaee i?aaenoaaeoaeae aaeaieaoo?u a Ni-
aauaiee e a Eiiennee ia ?acaeaeinue ie iaeiiai aieina i?ioea ee/iiai iao-
?iiaoa. Iaeei oieueei N.O. Ii?ioeei iieaaae, /oi iaeneioi /enea ii-
iiuieeia, ca/eneyaiuo o iaeiiai e oiai aea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, eee
aiana ia aeieaeai auoue ii?aaeaeyai a caeiia, eee aeieaeai auoue iiauoai aei
o?ao, /aou?ao eee aeaaea aei iyoe. Iaeiaei, N.O. Ii?ioeei ioithaeue ia
inia?eaaao acaeyaeia niaauaiey ii nouanoao. Ii eeoue iieaaaao, /oi a ?iiI
e aeey anao neo/aaa iaaiciiaeii ?ac?aoeoue aii?in i oii, neieueeei iiiiu-
ieeai eaaeaeue i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue iiaeao aeaoue ?aaioo e aeey eaeiai
/enea ii iiaeao auoue aeaenoaeoaeueiui e iieaciui ?oeiaiaeeoaeai.

aeioiaeyo oieueei aei oie noaouee,
n eioi?ie ia/eiaaony o?aaoee?iaaiea iieiaeaiey iiiiuie/anoaa e, neaaei-
aaoaeueii, aii?ina i iao?iiaoa ia eanathony. Ii eiienney, eca?aiiay iauei
nia?aieai iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eaoaai?e/anee auneacaeanue
i?ioea ee/iiai iao?iiaoa. Ii aa iiaieth, i?ioanneiiaeueiia iao/aiea noa-
aea?ia eae i?aeoeea aaaeaiey aeae, oae e yoe/aneei i?aaeeai e iau/ayi
aaeaieaoo?u aeieaeii auoue i?aaieciaaii Niaaoii i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iii aeinooiii auei eaaeaeiio noaaea?o, iacaaeneii
io oiai, iaoae ee ii naaa ee/iiai iao?iia eee iao, e /oiau ?oeiaiaenoai
yoei iao/aieai, a oaeaea iaaethaeaiea ca aaaeaieai aeae iiiiuieeaie aic-
eiaeaii auei Niaaoii ia iniai eca?aiiuo, iiuoiuo /eaiia nineiaey, /oiau
iao/aiea yoi i?iecaiaeeeinue a iaaieueoeo a?oiiao iiiiuieeia e iineei,
aeaaiui ia?acii, i?aeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. I?e yoii aaaeii aua ioiaoeoue,

/oi, ioaa?aay i?aaeeiaeaiey i?iaeoa. Eiienney eiaiii e nnueaaony ia oea-
caiey iiuoa, eioi?ua, – ii oaa?aieth iauynieoaeueiie caienee, – neo-
aeeee aeey iaa iooaaiaeiie ieoueth. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iiiiuieeaie i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e eo ee/iuie iao?iiaie, – /eoaai iu caeanue, – a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeeoeaiu, yoi i?eciatho e aaoi?u i?iaeoa. A iauynie-
oaeueiie caienea ii yoiio iiaiaeo aiai?eony: . .

Oaeei ia?acii, ninoaaeoaee i?iaeoa i?eciaee, /oi i?eiaiyaoeany Ni-
aaoaie aei neo ii? ia?u e onoaiiaeaieth oaeoe/aneeo, a ia iieiuo, ioii-
oaiee iaaeaeo iao?iiaie e eo iiiiuieeaie, eae-oi: .

Oaeei ia?acii, e a aeaiiii neo/aa, eae au ie ioiineoueny e i?aaeeiaeaieyi
i?iaeoia, ai anyeii neo/aa, ioaeii i?eciaoue, /oi iie ia iniiaaiu ia oea-
caieyo iiuoa, eioi?ue nei?aa aeieaeii auei oieeiaaoue a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii

iai?aaeaiee. Onoaiaaeeaay ee/iue iao?iiao, i?iaeou, iaeiaei, ia eneeth-
/atho e a?oiiiauo caiyoee iiiiuieeia. Iauynieoaeueiay caienea Niaa-
uaiey i?yii aiai?eo ia iaycaoaeueiuo i?aeoe/aneeo caiyoeyo ii eco/aieth
i?aaa a th?eaee/aneeo eiioa?aioeeyo, eieiiiao e o.i. o/?aaeaeaieyo, eioi?ua
aoaeoo ia?aciauaaoueny i?e Niaaoao. Eiienney Io?aaueaaa aeaao aieaa aeooia
oeacaiea ia ,
aac anyeeo oiiieiaiee i eiioa?aioeee, eieiiia e o.ae.

Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi e Niaauaiea, e Eiienney niaa?oaiii en-
eeth/eee naiioi?aaeaiea iiiiuieeia, eioi?ia, iaeiaei, oniaei oaea ionoeoue
aeoaieea ei?ie. Iiyoiio eiienney iiiiuieeia a naieo caia/aieyo ia
i?iaeo niiaa iiaea nineaoueny ia oi, /oi .

I?ioea ee/iiai iao?iiaoa ?aoeoaeueii auneacaeanue iineianeay Eiien-
ney, iaoiaey, /oi iaeuecy noaaeoue a caaeneiinoue io ee/iiai oniio?aiey ii-
eo/aiea caaiey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai. Ee/iue iao?iiao, ii oaaaeaeaieth
Eiiennee, iiaeao iiaeaioiaeoue iiuoiuo aeaeueoeia e oiaeaoaaa, ii ii eeoue a
/?acau/aeiuo neo/ayo iiaeao iiaeaioiaeoue aaeaieaoa-th?enoa, eioi?ue nii-
niaai ioianoenue e eaaeaeiio aeaeo n i?eioeeieaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey, n iiie-
iaieai caaea/ iauanoaaiiiai neoaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u e onaieaoaai naaa ina
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeayoaeueiinoe i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai i?aaeea aaeaieao-
neie yoeee.

Iai?ioea, iao?ia?aaeneee Niaao, ianoaeaeay caeeth/aiea iiiiuieeia,
naiui ?aoeoaeueiui ia?acii auneacaeny ca ee/iue iao?iiao, eioi?ue io-
ithaeue ia iaia?oaeee naiae i?aeoe/aneie iai?eaiaeiinoe. Ee/iue iao?iiao,
eae ii i?iaiaeeony caeiiii?iaeoii, nouanoaiaae aei neo ii? eeoue a en-
eeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo, ii yoe eneeth/eoaeueiua neo/ae, iai?ioea, eiaiii
aeieacuaatho, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueiay niaianoiay ?aaioa iiiiuieea n iao?iiii
au?aaaouaaao ec iaai aaeaieaoa, aiieia i?eaioiaeaiiiai aeey naiinoiyoaeue-
iie aaeaieaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A iiiuoee, naeaeaiiua a iai?aaeaiee aaa-
aeaiey nineiaiiai iao?iiaoa, nei?aa auynieee, – eae oi auneacaii e ei-
ienneae i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eca?aiiie a eiioea 1883 a., – /oi ni-
neiaiue iao?iiao iiaaaeao e ?oeiaiaeeoaeuenoao aieaa i?ec?a/iiio, iaaeaee
aeaenoaeoaeueiiio. Oai ia iaiaa. Niaao ia noaiiaeony ia oo oi/eo c?aiey,
eaeie i?eaea?aeeaaeenue oiiiyiooua auoa i?aaeea 3 ia?oa 1890 a., ecaeaiiua
iineianeei Niaaoii. Niaao aiieia iiieiaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue nineiaiie i?-
aaiecaoeee iiiiuieeia, ainieoaiey eo a aeooa oiaa?euanoaa e nineiaiuo
o?aaeeoeee, e iieaaaao, /oi ee/iue iao?iiao ieneieueei ia aoaeao i?aiyono-

aiaaoue onoaiiaeaiith nineiaeai oaeeo ia?, eioi?ua i?aaeioa?aoyo i?aa?a-
uaiea iauanoaa iiiiuieeia a aeeaoueo naiath ioaeaeueiith aeeciueth aaee-
ie/iuo nio?oaeieeia naieo iao?iiia.

Nouanoaaiiia iiaiaaaaeaiea i?iaeoia, niioaaonoaiaaaoaa aaeeiiaeooii
auneacuaaaoeiny a ia/aoe iiaeaeaieyi, caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi noaae ii-
iiuieea oiaiueoaeny aei o?ao eao, e /oi iaaeaeo iiiiuieeaie e /anoiuie
iiaa?aiiuie i?iaiaeeeanue ?aceay a?aiue. Iiiiuieee inaiaiaeaeaeenue io iay-
caiiinoe auae?aoue naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia aaaeaiea aeae e iiae/eiyeenue eneeth/e-
oaeueii iaaeci?o e aeenoeeieeia?iie eiiiaoaioeee Niaaoa.

Ae?oaie i?aeoe/aneee aii?in, ia noiaeeaoee n i/a?aaee ai ana a?aiy
aeaenoaey noaeaaiuo onoaaia, caeeth/aeny a inouanoaeaiee aaeaieaoneie iiiiiieee a aeaea iauyaeaiey eii-
ieaeoa. . Ii i?ioei canei aua
15 eao, e Eiienney Io?aaueaaa n oaeei aea nie?aieai iiaoi?eea ana i?e-

?aeiiua naiiiaaeiaiey, /oi, iaeiaei, e ai?aaeue ia iiiaoaei ie/ai ia ii-
ae?aeuaaaiie iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe nio?aieoue anth naith neeo.

A Niaauaiee I.A. E?anianeiai ana aea auei aeaa /eaia, ainnoaaoea
iiioia eiiieaeoa ia oii iniiaaiee, eioi?ia aunoaaeyeinue aua ai a?aiaia
aeinoaaeaiey noaeaaiuo onoaaia, a eiaiii, /oi . Oioy Niaauaiea
oea niaeaneeinue n yoeie oa/aieyie e i?aaenoaaeei i?ioea ieo ianoiyoaeueiua
aic?aaeaiey, iaeiaei, iie, ii-aeaeeiiio, eiaee ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia onoa-
iiaeaiea ?acee/iuo iaiai?ie e onoaiiaeaiiiio eiiieaeoo. Iiiiiieey i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia aeaea ie?iaie iiaenoaeiinoe, ia
iaeioi?ua aeaea io?aieoaeueiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa e ia aeaea oi?iuaiiiai
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. E?iia oiai, cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ai e?oa eeoe, eioi?ui
e iinea onoaiiaeaiey eiiieaeoa oyaeoueany ai?aaa auaeaaaoue aeiaa?aiiinoe
ia aaaeaiea aeae.

A Eiiennee Io?aaueaaa ieeaeeo i?eioeeieaeueiuo ?aciiaeanee oaea ia

aicieeaei (inoaeinue oieueei iaeii ?aciiaeanea ii /anoiiio aii?ino i niiniaa
onoaiiaeaiey eiiieaeoa). Oai ia iaiaa. Eiienney aianea aua ianeieueei
iaiai?ie ai anao iai?aaeaieyo (ie?iaay iiaenoaeiinoue caiaiaia o/anoeiaie,
ai?acaei aieaa oe?ieie; eiee/anoai aeae io?aieoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oaa-
ee/aii; iaeioi?ua noaeaaiua aeaenoaey aeicaieaii niaa?oaoue ia oieueei /ano-
iui iiaa?aiiui, ii anai aiiaua eeoeai, eioi?ui ia aini?auaii auoue
iiaa?aiiuie ia noaea). A nayce n onoaiiaeaieai eiiieaeoa, i?iaeou aaiaeyo
iaycaiiinoe i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo caueuaoue iiaenoaeeiuo ii iacia/aieth
ia oieueei a ianoa iinoiyiiiai i?aauaaiey noaea, ii e i?e auacaeao aai aeey
?anniio?aiey oaieiaiuo aeae.

Any yoa iinoaiiaea aii?ina i eiiieaeoa, eae oaea caia/aii auoa, ia
aucaaea aic?aaeaiee e ni noi?iiu i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, /eaiia Niaa-
uaiey e Eiiennee. Ii /oi aua aieaa caia/aoaeueii – yoio aii?in ninoaaee,
iiaeaeoe, aaeeinoaaiiia eciaiaiea noaeaaiuo onoaaia, ii eioi?iio ieeaeeo
aic?aaeaiee ni noi?iiu nineiaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia iineaaeiaaei.
aiinyo eeoue iaeio iii?aaeo i auaea/a auacaeathuaio ia nanneth
caueoieeo i?iaiiia io eaciu, eai .

A caeeth/aiea aua iaiaoiaeeii inoaiiaeoueny ia aii?ina i aiciaa?aae-
Te i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eioi?ue, eae ecaanoii, iaiaei caieiae ia-

uanoaaiiia aieiaiea. Ii yoiio aii?ino iaaeaeo Niaauaieai e Eiienneae
eiaaony ia?iiiay ?acieoea. Niaauaiea ia?aie/eei naith caaea/o ia?aniio?ii
oaenu aiciaa?aaeaeaiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Aeaenoaothuea iinoaiiaea-
iey e ii?yaeie ninoaaeaiey e ecaeaiey oaenu, ii-aeaeeiiio, ieacaeenue ia-
i?eiaieiuie e iaei oaeiaiuie… I?aaeoniao?eaaeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue ni-
aeaniaaoue oaeno n eciaiythueieny iio?aaiinoyie aeecie, – no. 376 O/?.
noae. ono. iinoaiiaeyao i n?i/iii ia?aniio?a oaenu /a?ac eaaeaeua o?e aiaea.
Iaeiaei aeaaaeoeaoeeaoiaa nouanoaiaaiea aac eciaiaiey a?aiaiiie oaenu,
ninoaaeaiiie aeey ie?oaia noaeaaiuo iaeao n.-iaoa?ao?aneie e iineianeie
e ?ani?ino?aiaiiie ii ie?oaai inoaeueiuo iaeao, ai?aaeue aei ninoaaeaiey
iniaie oaenu aeey eaaeaeiai ie?oaa, a iieiie ia?a oeacaei ia iainouano-
aeiinoue oaeiai n?i/iiai ia?aniio?a. Aaeaeo yoiai, Niaauaiea i?eciaei
iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciui ecaeaiea iaeiie iauae oaenu, ooaa?aeaeaaiie a
iau/iii caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea, e ia ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie, a ai?aaeue
aei aa eciaiaiey.

*oi aea eanaaony Eiiennee I.A. Io?aaueaaa, oi iia iiaeiyea aii?in i
aiciaa?aaeaeaiee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia i?eioeeieaeueioth aunioo. Ai-
?acaei aieueoa, iaaeaee oaenie, Eiienney eioa?aniaaeanue niaeaoaieai aei-
aa?eoaey n iiaa?aiiui. . . Eai Eiienney iaoiaeeo,
/oi .

Oai?aoe/aneia e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea yoiai auaiaea niaa?oaiii noo-
oaauaaaony ia?aae nouiinoueth oao niia?aaeaiee, ia eioi?uo auaiae iniiaai.
Yoi aeaeaiea caaea/ caueou ii oaieiaiui e a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai, yoi i?i-
oeaiiinoaaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe aaeaieaoa ii a?aaeaeaineiio aeaeo – niaeae-

oaeth NOAeO a ?ane?uoee enoeiu, ninoaaeythuaio caaea/o aaeaieaoa ii oai-

“aeo aeaeo, ia iiaeao ia aucaaoue aeoaieiai iaaeioiaiey. “.

Ana, /oi caeanue neacaii, ninoaaeyao a nouiinoe o?theci, eioi?ue iiaeii
iaeoe a ethaii o/aaieea aeey nooaeaioia. Ii ioeoeeaeueiay iuneue canouea
ia iaeiii ianoa. A 1878 a. ieienoa?neia i?aaenoaaeaiea ene?aiii ecoieyeinue
oiio, /oi aaeaieaou caueuatho niciaaoeony iiaenoaeeiuo, a a 1900 a. iau-
ynieoaeueiay caienea, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyy oaieiaiua aeaea a?aaeaeaineei, o?a-
aoao oieueei aeey oaieiaiuo aeae niaeaenoaey noaeo a ?ane?uoee enoeiu.

I?aeoe/aneee auaiae ec yoeo oai?aoe/aneeo niia?aaeaiee caeeth/aaony
a cai?auaiee aeeth/aoue a aeiaiai?u i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo
oneiaey, noaayuea ?acia? aiciaa?aaeaeaiey a caaeneiinoue io i?eaiai?a,
eaeie ii aeaeo iineaaeoao.

Ae?oaia aanueia aaaeiia iiaiaaaaeaiea ninoieo a i?aaeinoaaeaiee Niaaoai
i?aaa oiaiueoaoue aei ?acia?a, ii?aaeaeaiiiai oaenie, oneiaeaiiia a aeiaiai?a
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea i?enyaeiiio iiaa?aiiiio ca aaaeaiea noaeaaiiai aeaea ai
anao oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aiciaa?aaeaeaiea yoi i?aaenoaaeyaony /?acia?iui,
ii ianiioaaonoaeth aai ie iniaui ciaieyi e iiuoiinoe i?enyaeiiai iiaa-
?aiiiai, ie neiaeiinoe e aaaeiinoe aeaea, n oai, /oiau oneiaey i iaonoieea,
eioi?ua iiaee au auoue caeeth/aiu a iaia?aiee oeeiieoueny io aeaenoaey
i?aaeea, eceiaeaiiiai a ianoiyuae noaouea, i?eciaaaeenue iaaeaenoaeoaeue-
iuie .
I?ioea yoiai ia/aea aiaoaoaeuenoaa ioaee/iie aeanoe a /anoii-i?aai-

-, Aeiaaa? I.\1. I/a?ee ia aaeaieaoo?a, n. 30. – I?ei. aao.
., Oieieeeee E.ss , n. 20. – I?ei. aao.

A i?aeoeea iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa a 1896 a. aue neo/ae, eiaaea Niaao, aia?aua ionooiea io
iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa a oneiaey i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee, iaoae aiciiaeiui o?acaoue auaiai?aiiue
“””? Ni. i?ioieie iaoaii nia?aiey 13 ai?aey 1896 a. – I?ei. aao.

285

aua ioiioaiey, eioi?ia ana oe?a i?iaeaaao naaa aei?iao a nia?aiaiiuo
a?aaeaeaineeo oeiaeaieyo, o?oaeii auei au aic?aceoue /oi-eeai ii nouanoao.
Ii ia oa?aeoa?ii ee. /oi yoi /oaeaeia iaoei a?aaeaeaineei caeiiai ia/aei
aia?aua e niaa?oaiii iainiaeaiii i?eiaiyaony a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo aae-
aieaoaie e eo aeiaa?eoaeyie? A iaaeaeo oai Eiienney n?aco caoiaeeo caeanue
oae aeaeaei, /oi i?aaeinoaaeyao Niaaoai ia?aie/eaaoue aeaenoaea caeeth/aiiuo
iiaa?aiiuie aeiaiai?ia i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee oaeaea e ii naiaio oniio?aieth,
aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, iinooieea ee ii yoiio i?aaeiaoo aeaeiaa io ca-
eioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe . Eiienney iaoa?ao?aneeo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo io-
ianeanue niaa?oaiii io?eoeaoaeueii e oaeie iinoaiiaea aii?ina ia aaeaieao-
neii aiii?a?a. Eiienney iaoiaeeea, /oi: . Ec i?e-
aaaeaiiuo niia?aaeaiee, anee au iie naie ii naaa auee i?aaeeueiu, aiciiaeii
auei au naeaeaoue oieueei iaeei, aiieia iaecaaaeiue, auaiae – aaconeiaiia
cai?auaiea i?eiyoey eaeiai au oi ie auei aiii?a?a ca oaieiaiua caueou
eee, ii iaiueoae ia?a, niaeaoaiey i oaeiaii. Anee aeayoaeueiinoue caueoieea
ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo en/a?iuaaaony ,
oi iao ieeaeiai iniiaaiey, /oiau caueoiee iieo/ae io iiaenoaeeiiai aiii?a?
ca auiieiaiea iaycaiiinoe, eioi?ay a iaeeiaeiaie noaiaie eaaeeo e ia no-
aeueyo, e ia i?ieo?i?a.

O?oaeii iiiyoue, ii/aio n yoie oi/ee c?aiey oneiaea caueoieea n iiae-
noaeeiui i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ca caueoo, o.a. , aacioiineoaeueii e enoiaeo, ia anoue oi?a i?aainoaeeai, e ii/aio
iii iieo/aao yoio oa?aeoa?, anee aiii?a? auaiai?ai oieueei ia neo/ae in-
aiaiaeaeaiey eee ii?aaaeaiey iaaeiyaiiai. Auneacaiiue a niia?aaeaieyo
Eiiennee acaeyae ia ?ieue caueoieea a oaieiaiii noaea no?aaeaao iaeiinoi-

Iaeiieaa ai?y/ei i?ioeaieeii aaeaieaoneeo aiii?a?ia aunooiee a Eiiennee A.E. Ai?iae-
eianeee, auaoee i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue, i eioi?ii oiiieiaeinue auoa a nayce n aeaeii Ianyiieeiaa-
Ii aeiioneae ii oaieiaiui aeaeai oieueei aeia?iaieueioth aeaaiaea?iinoue io iiaenoaeeiiai, ii aeaeai a?aae-
aeaineei – oieueei neiaaniua aeiaiai?u, ioithaeue ia iaania/aiiua eneaie. Aaeeinoaaiiay oi?ia noaea.
eaeay iiaeao auoue a yoeo neo/ayo aeiioneaaia, yoi noae o?aoaeneee. Ca i?iea?aiiia aeaei aiii?a?a ia
iieaaaaony, A?aaiaaiea aiii?a?a ca aaaeaiea i?iea?aiiiai aeaea noaoai i?aaeinoaeeoaeueii. –
1]?ei. aai\.

eiinoueth. Ia iiaeeaaeeo niiiaieth, /oi iiaenoaeeiue, i?eaeaoathuee naaa
,”ioeeea, icaai/ai i?aaeaea e aeaaiaa anaai oai, /oiau ia?aaeeoue naay io
aeie-aaeueiiai eee iaiiia?ii no?iaiai, oyaeeiai, iani?aaaaeeeaiai i?eaiai?a.
?aei iaaeiyaiue aiineo eee iaycoaony aianoe caueoieeo aiii?a?, oi ii aai
aecao ia eae aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca o?oae caueoieea , aacioiineoaeueii e o/anoe iiaenoaeeiiai, a eiaiii eae iaa?aaeo
ca ieacuaaaiia aio caueoieeii iie?iaeoaeuenoai, iiiiuue, o/anoea, ca caaioo
i aai ee/iie noaeueaa. I/aaeaeii, iiyoiio, /oi iiaenoaeeiue, niaeaoaynue ia oieaoo
caueoieeo aiii?a?a, aeaeaao yoi a iaaeaaeaea ia ii?aaaeaiea eee iaeaa/aiea naiae
o/anoe; iaueiiaaiii, anee ia anaaaea, yoo iaaeaaeaeo ieoaao e iiaeaea?aeaaao a
iaaeiyaiii e nai caueoiee. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi aiii?a? ii oaieiaiiio
aeaeo anaaaea ii/oe aeaaony e i?eieiaaony a ?an/aoa ia aieaa eee iaiaa aeaai-
i?eyoiue enoiae aeaea. Eiienney niaa?oaiii ?acioeanue n aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth,
cae?uaay aeaca ia oaeie aiieia ianiiiaiiue oa?aeoa? aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca
caueoo a oaieiaiuo aeaeao. Ii ?ac aa?ii, /oi aiii?a? ca oaieiaioth caueoo
aieueoath /anoueth anoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca niaeaenoaea aeaaii?eyoiiio enoiaeo
aeaea – neo/ae, eiaaea iaaeiyaiue e i?eaeaoaiiue ei ca aiii?a? caueoiee
n/eoatho iaaeaaii?eyoiue enoiae aeaea iaiiaeeaaeauei ieeaeiio niiiaieth e
niio?yo ia aeo caueou eeoue eae ia ecaanoiue ia?yae, o?aaoaiue niia?aaea-
ieyie yoe/aneiai, iieeoe/aneiai e o.i. oa?aeoa?a, n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeee, – oi
iao iniiaaiey aini?aoeoue ioe?iaaiiia, i?yiia niaeaoaiea i oii. /oi yoio
aiii?a? oiea/eaaaony aanue eee /anoueth ii ianooieaiee oiai eee eiiai aeaai-
i?eyoiiai enoiaea. O?aca i i?aae-
noaaeyaony ii iaiueoae ia?a ieiaeii iaaei?acoiaiey. Caueoiee, eoi au ii ie
aue, ia iiaeao oi?aiaaoue i?aainoaeeai, iioiio /oi ii e ia i?ecaai aai oai?eoue;
ii ia aeaao iaaeiyaiiio oiai eee ae?oaiai i?eaiai?a, a iinayuaao aio oieueei
naie o?oae, a?aiy, ciaiey e oaeaio, ca eioi?ue e i?eieiaao ecaanoiue aiii?a?.
N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiaenoaeeiue, i?eaaaay e iiiiue caueoieea, aiiny aio
oneiaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, a?yae ee iiaeao /oanoaiaaoue, aeoiaoue eee neacaoue,
/oi aai noaeueaa yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii oi?aa.

Anee enoiae aeaea e caaeneo a iaeioi?ie noaiaie io aeayoaeueiinoe ca-
ueoieea, io aai oiaiey, ciaiey, ona?aeey, e anee iaaeiyaiue ca yoo aeay-
oaeueiinoue iaycuaaaony ieaoeoue e oiea/eaaoue aiii?a?, oi i?aaeiaoii
oi?aa, – anee aiiaua aeiionoeoue oianoiinoue yoiai au?aaeaiey, – ieacu-
aaaony o?oae, a?aiy, ciaiey caueoieea, iiiiuueth eioi?uo iiaenoaeeiue ia-
aeaaony ono?ieoue naith noaeueao, ii ieeae ia yoa noaeueaa. Ii eae au oi ie
auei, anee auaiaa?eaaiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ii oaieiaiui aeaeai aeieaeii
n/eoaoue oi?aii i?aainoaeeai e noaeueaith iiaenoaeeiiai, oi yoi aeieaeii iaee-
iai eanaoueny eae aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, oneiaeaiiiai aacioiineoaeueii e en-

oiaeo aeaea, oae e oiai, eioi?ia auaiai?aii a caaeneiinoe io oiai eee eiiai
i?eaiai?a, oae eae iaaeiyaiue ieaoeo iioiio-, /oi ii iianaaony aeo?iiai
enoiaea e iaaeaaony, iin?aaenoaii caueou, aeiaeoueny enoiaea oi?ioaai. A oaeii
neo/aa iaaeeaaeaei au aini?aoeoue anyeia, eae i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia, oae e iinea-
aeothuaa, niaeaoaiea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai e iaaeiyaiiai ioiineoaeueii ai-
ii?a?a ca caueoo, o.a. i?eiyoue i?aaeeiaeaiea iaeiiai ec /eaiia Eiiennee, ec-
eiaeaiiia a i?ee. IV e o. III iauyni. caienee, n. 10 , Ii yoi iiaiea inoaeinue
iaeeiieei eae ai II Ioaeaea, oae e a iauai nia?aiee Eiiennee, e iii ia
o?aaoao na?ueaciuo aic?aaeaiee. Iai aaeaa ee ioaeii inoaiaaeeaaoueny a aii?ina
ia oianoiinoe oneiaey i aiii?a?a aiiaua ia noa?ii nii?a iaaeaeo i?eaa?aeai-
oeaie e i?ioeaieeaie nenoaiu, i?eiyoie ai o?aioeocneie aaeaieaoo?a. Eiienney
Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee aaeeiiaeanii onoaiiaeea aeiionoeiinoue niaeaoaiey i
aiii?a?a ii oaieiaiui aeaeai, noaei auoue, iia a yoii niaeaoaiee ia iaoiaeeo
ie/aai ianiaianoiiai n o?aaiaaieyie no?iaie yoeee, n /anoueth e aeinoieinoaii
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, a a oaeii neo/aa iia ia eiaea iiaiaea cai?aoeoue
oneiaey, noaayuea ?acia? aiciaa?aaeaeaiey a caaeneiinoue io aoaeouaai i?eai-
ai?a. Iaei oiai, oaeia cai?auaiea i?ioeaii anoanoaaiiiio ii?yaeeo aauae,
ianouiui iio?aaiinoyi aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie, yeaiaioa?iui o?aaiaaieyi
ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Anee aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ii oaieiaiiio aeaeo aeieaeii aoaeao ii
caeiio iacia/aoueny aacioiineoaeueii e enoiaeo aeaea, oi yoi aeieaeii i?eaanoe
e oiio, /oi aiii?a? ca caueoo aoaeao iiaeeaaeaoue iieaoa niieia aia?aae, i?e/ai
caueoiee aeieaeai aoaeao noa?aoueny iieo/eoue eae iiaeii aieueoa, oae eae ii
ieii/aiee aeaea ii ie/aai aieaa iaeeaeaoue ia ai?aaa. Ii yoi, i/aaeaeii, aoaeao
aanueia oyainoii aeey iaaeiyaiiai, a iiiaeo eeoeo e aiana aiciiaeiinoe i?e-
aeaneoue caueoieea. Aaaeue ia?aaeei iiaenoaeeiua, aei ieii/aiey aeaea ii?aaaea-
oaeueiui i?eaiai?ii, ia a ninoiyiee aeaoue caueoieeo neieueei-ieaoaeue ni?a-
aaaeeeaia eee aeaaea eaeia au oi ie auei aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, e eeoue a neo/aa
ii?aaaeaiey, eee ii inaiaiaeaeaiee, iie iiaoo eiaoue n?aaenoaa aeey oieaou ai-
ii?a?a. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, caueoiee, ai aieiaiea e aacauoiaeiinoe iieiaeaiey
iiaenoaeeiiai, oaaaeaeaiiue a aai i?aaioa e iaaeaynue ia aeaaii?eyoiue enoiae,
i?eieiaao ia naay caueoo n oai, /oi, ii ainiineaaeiaaiee aeaaii?eyoiiai
i?eaiai?a, ii iieo/eo oneiaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. ?ac cai?auaii aoaeao on-
eiaea ia oieaoa aiii?a?a a caaeneiinoe io aeaaii?eyoiiai i?eaiai?a, oi ai
anao iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo ieeaeiai niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo iiaenoaeeiui e caueoieeii
ninoiyoueny ia iiaeao. Ii aeaaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iaaeiyaiue a ninoiyiee
aianoe caueoieeo aiii?a?, oioy au i?eaiai? ieacaeny e iaaeaaii?eyoiui,
ii, aeaeay yoi ia oaeeo oneiaeyo, ieaoeo eae au ec no?aoa, /oi eia/a caueoiee

iieaeao, a ia a iaaeaaeaea, /oi caueoiee iinoa?aaony aai nianoe e. aianoa

oai. caneoaeeoue aeiiieieoaeueiue aiii?a?, eioi?ue ia o?oaeii e ia aeaeei
aeiaei au iacia/eoue e a aieaa cia/eoaeueiii ?acia?a. Ii, e?iia oiai, au-
iathuaai ec i?e?iaeu aauae iieiaeaiey, /oi anaaaea e anai eaa/a e i?eyoiaa
i?iecaanoe aieaa eee iaiaa cia/eoaeueiue ?anoiae a oii neo/aa, anee i?eaiai?
iineaaeiaae aeaaii?eyoiue, e iacaaeneii io iaiiaeeaaeauaai ie iaeaeoaio
niiiaieth oaeoa, /oi aanueia /anoi e a oaieiaiuo aeaeao eiouanoaaiiay ni-
noiyoaeueiinoue eeoea anaoeaei eee a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaeneo io enoiaea
aeaea, io oiai, ii?aaaeai ii eee inoaeaeai, aa?iaony ee ii e naiei iau/iui
caiyoeyi eee aea iaanaaaea eee ia a?aiy eeoai aiciiaeiinoe ?aaioaoue e i?e-
ia?aoaoue – iiieii anaai yoiai anoue niia?aaeaiea, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaa yaioth
iani?aaaaeeeainoue ianoaeaeaaiiai iinoaiiaeaiey.

Nouanoaoao oeaeue ?yae oaieiaiuo aeae, a eioi?uo i?eaiai? iaiin?aae-
noaaiii aea/ao ca niaith iineaaenoaey /enoi eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, a
aeaea e?oiiuo aeaiaaeiuo acuneaiee, eiiaaea ?aaiuo oeaeiio ninoiyieth; oa-
eiau aeaea i ia?ooaieyo onoaaia: ieoaeiiai, oaiiaeaiiiai, eaniiai, i acy-
oi/ie/anoaa e icaeieinoaa e o.i.; /anoi io i?eaiai?a ii aeaeo, ianiio?y ia
ionoonoaea a?aaeaeaineiai enea, ca aaaeaiea eioi?iai caueoiee iia au ii-
eo/eoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ii oaena, caaeneo ieii/aoaeueiia, aaniiai?ioiia ?a-
oaiea eiouanoaaiiiai nii?a – aeaea i iiaeeiaao aaenaeae, iaycaoaeuenoa e
aeieoiaioia, iiaoueo onoaiiaeoue i?aai ?iaenoaa, niaaeeiaiiiai n iei i?aaa
ia ianeaaenoai, i iiaeaeiaao cano?aoiaaiiiai eiouanoaa e o.i. Ai anao yoeo
neo/ayo iinoaaeaiea ?acia?a aiii?a?a a caaeneiinoue io eiathuaai iinea-
aeiaaoue i?eaiai?a a aeaeao oaieiaiuo, iaeuecy ia i?eciaoue noieue aea ni?a-
aaaeeeaui e caeiiiui, eae a aeaeao a?aaeaeaineeo>.

25. IOIIOAIEA AAeAIEAOO?U E I?IAEOAI

Iu ana a?aiy aiai?eee i aeaoo i?iaeoao – Niaauaiey E?anianeiai
e Eiiennee Io?aaueaaa. Ii, a nouiinoe, yoi – iaeei i?iaeo, eai, iiieii
aeaoo-o?ao aeaeueiaeoeo ionooieaiee io noaeaaiuo onoaaia, Eiienney Io?a-
aueaaa. nionoy 15 eao, aanueia aeia?iniaanoii ia?aienaea i?iaeo Niaauaiey.
1\ae oaea ia ?ac oiiieiaeinue, a iaieo neo/ayo a ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoia o/a-
noaiaaee i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua. Oieueei ii iaeiiio ioieoo – i iaaeiio-
uaiee a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua eeoe, ninoiyueo iiae aeaniui iieeoeaeneei

~)i e anoue ieaiya A..\.

I?ei. aao.

A ( iaaoaiea \1.A. E?anianeiai au\i i?eaeaoaiu: A.I. Aa?a?ae, A.Ae. Aa?ea. A.I. Ethnoeo.
Iceue.iiae?ie e N.O. Ii?i;eie. A Eiienneth auee i?eaeaoaiu I..A. Ei?naeia, A.A E?theia,
-“o. II.A. Iaeaeeineee, O.}-1 OI.eaaee e A.Ae. Nianiii/. – I?ei. oe>ii.

28

iaaeci?ii – ana i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua auee i?ioea yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.
Ii, iiieii yoiai, ia auei ie iaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ia ia iaoei au
naaa noi?iiieeia n?aaee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo.

Ca aeiiouaiea i?ieo?i?neiai i?ioanoa i?ioea i?eiyoey a i?enyaeiua
iiaa?aiiua (aeaaea ii iaoi?iaeueiui i?e/eiai) aioe?iaaee n iaiueoeinoaii
Iaeaeeineee e Ieaaaei, ca ecuyoea ec aaaeaiey Niaaoa oae iacuaaaiuo
niaiiia 5aeniiaina aioe?iaaee Ieaaaei e Nianiae/. Iie aea iiaeaaaee naie
aiein ca o/?aaeaeaiea iniauo i?enoonoaee noaeaaiie iaeaou aeey ?anniio?aiey
aeaeia ia aeaeiau Niaaoia. Ii eiaaea, canei, i?iaeo aue iioaeeeiaai, ii
iiaeaa?any aeanoi/aeoae, oie/oiaeathuae e?eoeea. A Iaoa?ao?aa auea ec-
a?aia iauei nia?aieai Eiienney , eioi?ay, eae oaea ioia/aeinue ii iiaiaeo
ioaeaeueiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee i?iaeoa, ?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aea ana no?aieaiey en-
eaceoue iniiaiua ia/aea noaeaaiuo onoaaia, e iauaa nia?aiea iaeia?eei ana
i?aaeiieiaeaiey Eiiennee.

A Iineaa i?iaeo nia/aea ?anniao?eaaeny a aaeaiany/iuo iaueo ni-
a?aieyo, a caoai auea eca?aia niaoeeaeueiay eiienney , eioi?ay a 1900 a.
i?aaenoaaeea a Niaao naie caia/aiey ia i?iaeo. Aeaeueiaeoaio ianoaeaeaieth
caia/aiey yoe ia iiaeaa?aaeenue e auee ia?aaeaiu Niaaoii iaiin?aaenoaaiii
a Eiienneth I.A. Io?aaueaaa. Niaeaoaynue ni anaie oaoie/aneeie ecia-
iaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie, eioi?ua a nouiinoe ocaeiiyee i?aeoeeo Niaaoia,
Eiienney ioaa?aaea ana i?eioeeieaeueiua eciaiaiey, eioi?ua i?iaeo ia-
ia?aaaeny i?iaanoe iiae oeaaii aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ia/ae noaeaaiuo on-
oaaia.

A yoii ioiioaiee aaeaieaoo?a io?aaeaea aanueia y?eia oa/aiea iauano-
aaiiie iunee. Oaeiai eiaiii auei ioiioaiea iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey e
io?aaueaaneiio i?iaeoo aiiaua. Ii iiaiaeo 35-eaoey Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia a
1899 a. ninoiyeinue a Iaoa?ao?aa oi?aeanoaaiiia canaaeaiea th?eaee/aneiai
iauanoaa, a eioi?ii ?a/e auee i?iecianaiu: E. E. A?naiueaaui, A.Ae. Nia-
niae/ai, E.ss. Oieieoeeei . Eae oaea oiiiyiooi auoa, Eiienney ?aoe-
oaeueii auneacaeanue ca iieioth caiaio ee/iiai iao?iiaoa nineiaiui, ca
iieiia aeeth/aiea iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a ninoaa nineiaey,
n iiae/eiaieai iaaeci?o e aeenoeeieeia?iie aeanoe Niaaoa e n i?aaeinoaaea-
ieai i?aaa aaaeaiey aeae ia a ea/anoaa /anoiuo iiaa?aiiuo, a eae eaiaeeaeaoia

a i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua. Aianoa n oai, iie?aynue ia aeieaieaoiee iiuo,
Eiienney ai?y/i auneacuaaeanue ca nio?aiaiea naiioi?aaeaiey iiiiuie-
aea Eiiennee iiiiuieeia aeieaeiu auoue ?anoe?aiu, a niunea i?aaeinoaa-
\aiey nineiaiiio i?aaio noaaea?ia cia/eoaeueiiai o/anoey eae ii aaaeaieth
naieo caiyoee, oae e ii iaaethaeaieth ca eniieiaieai iiiiuieeaie naieo
aeiycaiiinoae ii iiaeaioiaea e aaeaieaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe. E /eneo iaycai-
iinoae iiiiuieeia ioiineony oaeaea neooaiea iieiiai eo?na i?aaee i?i-
oanneiiaeueiie yoeee e nineiaiie enoi?ee, . *oi eanaaony i?i-
aeoe?iaaiiiai ia?aie/aiey i?eaia aa?aaa a iiiiuieee i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, oi eiienney iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, i?eniaaee-
iyynue e Eiiennee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, iaoiaeeea, /oi oaeia ia?aie/aiea
ia ii?aaaeuaaaony ie aeaiiuie, i?eaiaeeiuie a iauynieoaeueiie caienea e
i?iaeoo ieienoa?neie Eiiennee, ie oaeoaie ec aeecie nineiaey i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo e iiiiuieeia eo nia. ie?oaa. Iii i?ioeai?a/eo e iauaio
caeiio.

A iauai, oaeei ia?acii, ieacuaaaony, /oi ioiioaiea i?eaeaoaiiuo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae nineiaey, o/anoaiaaaoeo a ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa, nouanoaaiii
ioee/aaony io ioiioaiey naiiai nineiaey e oai eciaiaieyi Noaeaaiuo On-
oaaia, eioi?ua i?aaeiieaaaeinue aianoe.

A Eiienneth aioee: I.A. Ai?aiaa?a, E.I. Aeai/e/, I.A. Eaieai, I.A. Ei?naeia, A.A. Ia-
ca?aeoee, I.I. Oieoieeia e I.N. Oiaiia. – I?ei. aao.

A Eiienneth auee eca?aiu i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua A.A. Aeeaioe, I.N. Aieueaeaiaaeca?.
A.I. a?eia, E.A. Naen e E.I. Naoa?ia. – I?ei. aao.

A ninoaa Eiiennee aioee: I.A. Aa?aiooai, A.A. Aeaaiaauaineee. A.E. Aeie, I.E. Aueia,
I.A. Aaeueoa?, VI. I. Aeiaaa?, A.N. AiAueoea, A.E. Aa?ooi, A.A. Aeeiea, A.A. Aeaiueyiia, I.A. No?o-
aa. O.O. O?iceia? e I.A. Oieianeee. – I?ei. /ao.

VI. AOI?IA AeAAAeOeAOEIssOEEAOEA

26. IIAIA IANO?IAIEA E NEEA EIA?OeEE

Aeaaaeoeaoeiyoeeaoiee thaeeae i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?u niaiae n e?oiiui
e ?aoeoaeueiui ia?aeiiii a iauanoaaiiie aeecie ?innee. 1891 aiae noae
eoeueieiaoeeiiiui ioieoii ?aaeoeee. A yoii aiaeo ia ?inneth ia?ooeeny
neeueiue aieiae e yieaeaiey oiea?u. Oyaeaeua aaaenoaey iio?aaiaaee io ath-
?ie?aoee e?aeiaai iai?yaeaiey nee, /oiau oioue iaei-iaeuenee iaeaa/eoue
iaauiineiia iieiaeaiea aea?aaie. Ii aeanoue iaia?oaeeea ?anoa?yiiinoue e
aanneeea e ieacaeanue aiieia ianinoiyoaeueiie. Oai neeueiaa aeieaeii auei
aeaenoaiaaoue ia iauanoai c?aeeua oyaeaeiai ia?iaeiiai aaaenoaey. I?iiiaaaeue
iai?ioeaeaiey ceo, eioi?ie iauanoai iiei?ii ioaeaaaeinue, n?aco oo?aoeea
ana naia iaayiea. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue, /oi e E.I. Oienoie, ?aoeoaeueii
inoaeaeaaoee iiaeiia oaea/aiea noieiauie aeey aieiaeathueo, nai n aieiaie
ooae a yoi aeaei. Aei?iaith oeaiith eoieaii auei niciaiea, /oi iaeuecy neaeaoue
a eaeuea iiae aeueth, eae oa?aeoa?eciaae I.E. Ieoaeeianeee o/aiea
E.I. Oienoiai, /oi aanneeea aeanoe o?aaoao yia?ae/iie iauanoaaiiie
naiiaeayoaeueiinoe. Ia?aay aea iiiuoea a yoii iai?aaeaiee iaoeioeanue ia
i?aiyonoaey ni noi?iiu aeanoae, e ionthaea noaei ?anoe iiiiceoeeiiiia ia-
no?iaiea, eioi?ia iai?a?uaii iiaeieiaeinue ana auoa e, caoaaouaay iinoa-
iaiii ana aieaa oe?ieea neie iauanoaa, ia iiaei, eiia/ii, inoaoueny aac
aeeyiey e ia aaeaieaoo?o.

Naii niaie iiiyoii, iaeiaei, /oi aeeeoaeueiay ?aaeoeey oniaea iaeiieoue
neeo eia?oeee, oii?ii nii?ioeaeyaoothny iiaui iauanoaaiiui oa/aieyi.
Iac?aaaea, oaeei ia?acii, aioo?aiiyy ai?ueaa. A ioeoeeaeueiie aeecie ni-
neiaey eae aoaeoi ie/aai ia eciaieeinue. Iai?ioea, iii i?iaeieaeaei auno?i
eaoeoueny ii oai ?aeuenai, ia eioi?uo iaoiaeeeinue oaea iiiai eao. A iauai
nia?aiee 1894 a. a Iaoa?ao?aa i?eoeinue iiaeiyoue aii?in i aacoiiie aca?o-

ea?a a ea?ou, ?iiythuae aeinoieinoai nineiaey. Iiaiaeii iineoaeeea
a i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ni naiei ea?oi/iui ia?oia?ii a eeoaa.
ae ae?aen yoio aucaae no?anoiua i?aiey, i?e/ai iaeie iaoiaeeee, /oi oaeeo
ii?inia iaeuecy aicaoaeaeaoue a iaueo nia?aieyo, – eia/a i?eoeinue au
anoaeaeaoue e ?acia?u oiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuo iaieoeia eee ooaaeeaaiey ca
.oeiaie. Ae?oaea, oeacuaay, /oi ea?a a ea?ou iaaeaeo i?enyaeiuie ii-
aa?aiiuie i?eieiaao oa?aeoa? yieaeaiee, ?acei i?ioanoiaaee .
A ?acoeueoaoa nia?aiea aieueoeinoaii aieinia auneacaeinue i?ioea ianoae-
aeaiey aii?ina ia oaea/aiee ea?oi/iie ea?ie.

A ia/aoe noaee iiyaeyoueny aeanoieea iaioeaou ia nineiaea, i?e/ai
aaoi?u eo ia oieueei ia oe?uaaeenue ca inaaaeiieiaie, ii aeaiiino?aoeaii
i?eaaaeyee e naiae iieiie iiaeiene aua e oeacaiea ia naia caaiea i?e-
nyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai. A Iaoa?ao?aa oae iinooiee i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue
Ioeoeui. A 1894 a. ii iaia/aoae noaouee a , a caoai auionoee
eo ioaeaeueiie eieaie, eioi?ay . A Iineaa eae ?ac a yoi aea a?aiy aunooiee
n oaeei aea i?iecaaaeaieai i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue Niaieaa, Niaea?aeaiea
aai i?iecaaaeaiey ii?aaeaeyeinue a iaueo nia?aieyo eae ianeaeeueiia e ii-
?iia?aoe/aneia.

Oaea e naii ii naaa yaeaiea naiiiieaaaiey i?aaenoaaeyaony aeiaieueii
neiioiiaoe/aneei, ii aua aaaeiaa ioiaoeoue, /oi oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey aeae-
noaiaaee i/aiue neeueii ia i?enyaeioth aaeaieaoo?o, aa?iyoii, iioiio, /oi
iia ia iiaea ia n/eoaoueny n ioeeeeaie, eioi?ua ana iiaeiaiua iaioeaou
iaoiaeeee a iauanoaa. A Iaoa?ao?aa Niaao i?eaeae Ioeoeuia e aeenoeeiee-
ia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe e onoaiiaee, /oi oaeou, niiauaiiua Ioeoeuiui,
. Onoaiiaea yoe oaeou. Niaao
caoai ?acei ?aneieieny ii aii?ino, eae ioianoenue e aunooieaieth a. Ioe-
oeueiia. Iaiueoeinoai o?aaiaaei aai eneeth/aiey, a aieueoeinoai iieaaaei
ieeaeie aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aai ia iiaeaa?aaoue. Aua aieaa
no?anoii aii?in ianoaeaeaeny a ianeieueeeo iaueo nia?aieyo, ia eioi?uo

iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai auneacuaaaoeony noiyei ia oi/ea c?aiey iaiue-

oeinoaa, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, A.Ae. Nianiae/, ionoaeaaaoee acaeyae aieue-
oeinoaa Niaaoa, i?eaiaeee iaaeaeo i?i/ei e oaeie oaeo, /oi . Ia-
niio?y, iaeiaei, ia noieue ?aceee aucia, ianoaeaeaiea eioeeaeaioa Ioeoeuia
ie/ai ia eii/eeinue, i?aaenaaeaoaeue nia?aiey ioeacaeny noaaeoue ia aaeeioe-
?iaeo eaeea au oi ie auei aii?inu, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, e Niaao ioeacaeny
io aeaeueiaeoaai enneaaeiaaiey , eioi?ay eiaaony a iai-
oeaoao. . Oi/ii oae aea e a Iineaa
Niaaoo aeaeaeenue ianoie/eaua oi?aee a oii, /oi ii ?aaiiaeooii ioianny e
aunooieaieth iaioeaoenoa Niaieaaa, ii e caeanue ieeaeiai ii?aaeaeaiiiai
?acoeueoaoa ?acaiai?aie aeinoeaiooi ia auei.

Oa neea eia?oeee, i eioi?ie oiiiyiooi auoa, n iaeaieueoae ii?aaea-
eaiiinoueth aeieaeia auea anoanoaaiii neacuaaoueny ia i?aaenoaaeoaeueiii i?-
aaia nineiaey. Niaaoa, eioi?ue, ii naiiio iacia/aieth naiaio, yaeyaony
o?aieoaeai o?aaeeoeee. Iiyoiio /ai caiaoiaa i?iaeaaeinue iiaia oa/aiea,
oai ianoie/eaaa noaiiaeeanue neea eia?oeee e aeaeaea ana aieaa caiaoiia
iai?yaeaiea. Oae, auoa oaea auei oeacaii, /oi ecaeaiiua iineianeei Ni-
aaoii i?aaeea 3 ia?oa 1890 a. i iiiiuieeao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo auee
ioiaiaiu I?aaeoaeuenoaothuai Naiaoii ii aeaeiaa eiycy A. E, O?oniaa.
Ii iieo/aiee yoiai oeaca, a 1895 a. Niaao ianoaeee aii?in i i?eiaiaiee
caeiia 8 iiya?y 1889 a. e iiiiuieeai i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iao?enoe-
aineiai aa?ieniiaaaeaiey e ?ac?aoee aai io?eoeaoaeueii, iaoiaey, /oi ia?a-
ie/eoaeueiua caeiiu ia oa?iyo ?ai?ino?aieoaeueiiai oieeiaaiey . Oaeie
acaeyae aua a 1891 a., a naiue ino?ue iiiaio ?aaeoeee, auneacai aue iauei
nia?aieai aeaia?oaiaioia iineianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou. Ii nionoy ia-
neieueei ianyoeaa aii?in aue niiaa aianai ia ianoaeaeaiea Niaaoa, e Niaao
iaoae, /oi . Io-
nthaea auaiae, /oi ninoiyaoaany iinoaiiaeaiea ia aeieaeii noaniyoue Niaao,
eioi?ue ?ac?aoaao aii?in a eaaeaeii neo/aa ioaeaeueii. Inaiaiaeea naay,
oaeei ia?acii, io iinoaiiaeaiey, Niaao ?anniio?ae oanoue i?ioaiee i
ca/eneaiee aa?aaa a iiiiuieee e iinoaiiaee i?eiaieoue e iei caeii 8 ii-
ya?y 1889 a. Ia yoio ?ac i?e iniaii iiaiee inoaeenue Aethiaioaeue, E?theia,

Iauea nia?aiey 16 e 23 ai?aey 189 a. – I?ei. aao.
Nianiae/ A.Ae. , n. 63. – I?ei. aao.

Io/ao Niaaoa ca 1891-92 aa., n. 153. (I?e iniaii iiaiee, eae e ai anao i?aaeuaeoueo ?o/ayo,
inoaeenue o?e /eaia Niaaoa). – I?ei. aao.

]o[oeiei e Ieeieueneee, ii ia eiycue O?onia, eioi?ue oaea oniae naie acaeyae
eciaieoue,

Aua aieaa caiaoii oaeay ia?aiaia a oii aea iai?aaeaiee iaaethaeaeanue
ae iaoa?ao?aneii Niaaoa. A iauai nia?aiee 1893 a. . Aeaei caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi Niaao iinoaaee a aeio iaeiiio
ec iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo i?eiyoea iineaaeiei aaaeaiey aeaea
a iaueo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo ii iauae aeiaa?aiiinoe n i?aaii ia?aaei-
aa?ey, i?e ionoonoaee o iiiiuieea naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia i?aai aaaeaiey aeae e
iaaiciiaeiinoe iieo/eoue oaeia naeaeaoaeuenoai. Iinea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo
i?aiee ia aaeeioe?iaeo aue iinoaaeai aii?in, aeaeaoaeueii ee, /oiau Niaao
aian ia ianoaeaeaiea iauaai nia?aiey yoio aii?in. Aieueoeinoaii aieinia
iinoaiiaeaii i?ineoue Niaao aianoe aii?in ia ianoaeaeaiea iauaai nia?aiey
i?e iioeae?iaaiiii caeeth/aiee Niaaoa. Ii aianoi oiai, /oiau eniieieoue
o?aaiaaiea iauaai nia?aiey, Niaao a 1901 a. ecaeae oee?eoey?, eiei oioy
e ia cai?auae iiiiuieeai i?e oeacaiiuo oneiaeyo a?aoue aeiaa?aiiinoe
ia aaaeaiea aeae n i?aaii ia?aaeiaa?ey, ii iaoneiaeeaae yoi iieo/aieai io
aeiaa?eoaey iiaeienee a oii, /oi aio ecaanoii ia ionoonoaee o iiiiuieea
naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia aaaeaiea aeae. Yoio oee?eoey? aucaae ianoiyuoth ao?th a
nineiaee, aii?in aue iinoaaeai ia ianoaeaeaiea a iauai nia?aiee 28 ie-
oya?y 1901 a., e iinea iaeeaeaiiuo i?aiee, ianiio?y ia yia?ae/ioth caueoo
ni noi?iiu /eaiia Niaaoa, .

Oaeei ia?acii, iaaeaeo nineiaeai e aai eca?aiiui i?aaiii iaia/aeinue
ei?aiiia ?aciiaeanea, e iiaeii eaoaai?e/anee ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi Niaaou ia?a-
noaee au?aaeaoue aieth nineiaey. Yoa eieeecey i?eaaea e aeaeueiaeoae ia-
ii?iaeueiinoe. Oaea a i?aaeuaeouae aeaaa ii ioiioaieth e iineianeei ii-
?yaeeai i?eoiaeeeinue ioia/aoue, /oi Niaao ia?anoae nicuaaoue iauea nia?aiey
e aeaenoaiaae naiae aeanoueth. Oaia?ue ia iaueo nia?aieyo i?enyaeiuo ii-
aa?aiiuo Iaoa?ao?aneiai ie?oaa ii aae?ano Niaaoa ana /aua e /aua neu-
oaeenue oa aea iaaeiaiey.

Niia?acii n yoei e ioiioaiea e Niaaoai eciaieeinue. A ia?aia a?aiy,
eae auoa auei ioia/aii, iaiaaeee ia nineiaea iaeciaiii inoaiaaeeaaeenue
ia?aae aeayoaeueiinoueth Niaaoia. Oaia?ue, iai?ioea, iaaeiaieuenoai nin?aaeioi-
/eaaeinue eiaiii aie?oa yoie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iicaieth naaa i?eaanoe ec
” ?aaa> auaea?aeee ec oao noaoae, eioi?ua iia i?eoeinue ienaoue ii iiaiaeo
io/aoia Niaaoia. Yoe auaea?aeee, aianoa n oai, aeieaeiu aeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea
i oii, eae iiieceeny o?iaaiue /enoi i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee, eae
“”iaiii iaaeaea i?ioanneiiaeueiay yoeea. Ia yoi, eae auoa iiiyiooi,

295

iineianeee Niaao nai oeacae; ii oa ia?u, eioi?ua ii i?eieiae, ia oieueei
ia i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaee, ii. iai?ioea, iie-oi e niinianoaiaaee aioo?aiiaio
?aceiaeaieth.

… E?anoueyiea E. auei i?e-
noaeaeaii noaeii n aa ioaea ia niaea?aeaiea ii 15 ?. aaeaiany/ii e 80 ?. ca
aaaeaiea aeaea. Iiaa?aiiue enoeoeu, iiiiuiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai,
iieo/ea io noaeaaiiai i?enoaaa acuneaiiua n ioaao/eea ii eniieieoaeueiiio
eenoo 167 ?. 68 e., oeaeeeii ca/ae eo a n/ao naiaai aiii?a?a. Niaao iaoae,
/oi ; (E). Niaao iaoae, /oi iiiiuiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ia i?aa,
/oi a oaeeo neo/ayo iaeaieaa oaeiaai iooue iiethaiaiiai niaeaoaiey, eioi?ue
ecaaaee au e aai e nineiaea io ia?aeaiee (ni?aaaaeeeauo?) aanueia iai?e-
yoiiai naienoaa, e … Oae iaoaeaee aea ia?ooaiea
naiie iaueiiaaiiie aeeoaeneie ni?aaaaeeeainoe, aaaeaiea e auea?uo /oaeiai
aeaea oieueei aeey naay naiiai, eae yoi i?eciae Niaao, ninoaaeyao Aaeia aaiy
aaoiia ecaeieoaeueioth ioeaeo, oioy a ii?aaeaeaiee Niaaoa iao iieiaee-
oaeueii ieeaeiai iaiaea ia eaeea-eeai niya/athuea ianoiyoaeuenoaa, e iu
ociaai eeoue, /oi, i?ecaaiiue e aea/a iauyniaiee, iiiiuiee i?enyaeiiai

ia?aiiiai ooaa?aeaeae, /oi i?aoaicee aeaeiaueoeu iainiiaaoaeueiu, oae
ii neiaaniiio aeiaiai?o, aio neaaeiaaei aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca aaaeaiea
aea \a n i?enoaeaeaiiie noiiu. Yoo no?aiiinoue iiaeii iauynieoue eeoue
oae, /oi Niaao caiooaeny a naiai nianooaaiiii e?anii?a/ee: aio ii/aio ia
iaeiie no?aieoea iu /eoaai, /oi Niaao n/eoaao iiiiuieea i?enyaeiiai iiaa-
iaiiiai iai?aaui, a ia ae?oaie, /oi, ,
e. iaeiiaoe, ia o?aoueae no?aieoea Niaao ?eoi?e/anee aii?ioaao: . Eoae – n iaeiie
noi?iiu ia i?aa, n ae?oaie – oaea?aeaa aeaiueae, ainiieueciaaeny eeoue naiei i?a-
aii, n o?aoueae – ia eiae caeiiiiai iniiaaiey oaea?aeeaaoue aeaiueae. . E eiaaea caoai Niaao
niiauaao iai, /oi , i?e/ai a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea nnueaaony ia iaeei neo/ae ec i?aaeuaeouaai
io/aoa, oi iai aniiieiaaony, /oi a oii neo/aa ii eneo, i?aaeuyaeaiiiio aeaai-
oai?eoaeueiui iauanoaii, i aica?aoa iiniaey iiiiuiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai
nineaeny ia aeaaiinoue, o.a. aeaenoaeoaeueii ainiieueciaaeny eeoue naiei i?aaii, ii
ca yoi Niaao cai?aoee aio ia 6 ianyoeaa ioi?aaeaiea iaycaiiinoae iiaa?aiiiai,
a a aeaiiii neo/aa, aaea iaaeiyaiue e ia i?aa, e ia?ooee naioth iaueiiaaiioth
aeeoaeneoth ni?aaaaeeeainoue, Niaao ii?aaeaeee: . Niaao ia
n/ae aeaaea ioaeiui aeeth/eoue a ?aciethoeeth i?aaeeiaeaiea eni?aaeoue a ii?aaea-
eaiiue n?ie aeiiouaiioth iai?aaeeueiinoue, eae yoi naeaeaii ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo
neo/ayo. Oaeiai nei?ia e aeaenoaeoaeueiia ia?aaeaeaiea /anoiuo eeoe io noaniaiee
iiaa?aiiuo, i eioi?ii caaioeeny caeiiiaeaoaeue.

E aio caeanue iu anooiaai, aianoa n oai, ii aiaEay aac ae?oaie no?aiiinoe,
ioee/athuae aeenoeeieeia?ioth aeayoaeueiinoue iineianeiai Niaaoa. Iu ai-
ai?ei i e?aeiai acaeiiii ianiioaaonoaee ioaeaeueiuo i?eaiai?ia, eioi?ia
?acei a?inaeinue a aeaca e a i?aaeuaeouai io/aoa. E niaeaeaieth, a naieo

O?- – ioa/aneia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea.
O?- – ioeaea (aeia) iac ioya/athueo ianoiyoaeuenoa

-\ea. – a naioth nooue aeaea, e naiiio aeaaiiio.

io/aoao iaeuecy iaeoe ieeaeeo aeaiiuo, i?e iiiiue eieo iiaeii auei au
iaeoe iooue e iauyniaieth yoie no?aiiinoe. Oae eae oaieeee a io/aoa ia
iacuaathony, oi i?eaiai?u Niaaoa yaeythony aacee/iuie, e iioiio iao aic-
iiaeiinoe ii io/aoo i?iaa?eoue, ianeieueei ni?aaaaeeeau iaii?aaeaeaiiua,
oioy e ianoie/eaua neooe i i?eno?anoee, i iai?aaiia?iii ioiioaiee e
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ?acee/iuo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae e o.ae. Ii, oae eee eia/a, i?e-
nyaeiua iiaa?aiiua aeaeyony ia eiceeu e iaaoe: iaeiiio, iai?eia?, a ii-
?aaaeaiea iayaee ia caueoo noieo nineaoueny ia oi, /oi o iaai neaeaee ainoe
e ii aoi?iiyo naeaeae iai?aaeeueioth ioiaoeo a naiai eaeaiaea?a, /oi ; ae?oaie –
a ii?iaa?aeaiea aeaeiau ia ia?aaeaiea ii aeaeo i?aaenoaaeyao ienueiaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, /oi aeiiaao nai aeaeiauee, ia i?aaenoaaeaoee iio?aaiuo
aeaiaa, e iaaeaeo i?i/ei nnueaaony ia . I?eciaaay yoe aei-
eacaoaeuenoaa aiieia oaaaeeoaeueiuie, Niaao oai ia iaiaa o?aaoao i?aaenoaaeaiey
naeaeaoaeuenoaa ea/aaieoeu i oii, /oi iia?aoeey aeaenoaeoaeueii auea i?iecaaaeaia,
oioy ec ?annoaeaeaiee Niaaoa aaniethoii iaeuecy oniio?aoue, eaeia ioiioaiea
iiaei au eiaoue yoi naeaeaoaeuenoai e aii?ino i iiaaaeaiee i?enyaeiiai iiaa-
?aiiiai, eioi?iio, ii neiaai Niaaoa, e aac oiai .

A canei, iiyoue a ae?oaii neo/aa, ii aeaeiaa ia i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai
ca iai?aaeuyaeaiea ai a?aiy enea e iai?eee/iia ia?auaiea n aeiaa?eoaeai
Niaao aiieia oaeiaeyoai?yaony, aac anyeie i?iaa?ee, cayaeaieai i?enyae-
iiai iiaa?aiiiai, /oi , e iioii i?iaeieaeaao: . Niaao aeaaea
ia iiethaiiuonoaiaae i?aaeeiaeeoue aeaeiaueeo i?aaenoaaeoue iauyniaiey ia
ii?iaa?aeaiea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, a aaaeue yoi auei au eioa?anii oioy
au n ineoieiae/aneie noi?iiu: eaeay oeaeue iiaeao auoue o aeaeiaueea oo-
aa?aeaeaoue, /oi ene ia i?aaeuyaeai, eiaaea noieue eaaei oaaaeeoueny iin?aaenoaii
ni?aaee a noaea, /oi i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue eniieiee naie iyacaiiinoe, e

iiioii aoa aei iiaea/e aeaeiau a Niaao? Iaeiiaoe, ii/aio a yoii neo/aa
cayaeaiey aeaeiaueea a ?aiiai eaaeoony Niaaoo aaconeiaii iaaeinoiaa?iuie,
c ae ae?oaii, iai?ioea, Niaao iieaaaaony ia ia nianai oi/iua e ia naiaiaeiua
io i?ioeai?a/ee iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae a?aaeaeaaiie noi?iiu e aeiioneaao,
/oi i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue , oioy inoaa-
oeany i?e iniaii iiaiee aeaa /eaia Niaaoa (E?theia e Iaayaeiineee)
ni?aaaaeeeai ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi . Iieiaeei, a yoii neo/aa aeaei oei i i?enyaeiii
iiaa?aiiii A., a a i?aaeuaeouai i i?enyaeiii iiaa?aiiii A., ii iai aaaeue
yoe aoeau ie/aai neacaoue ia iiaoo, e iaeuecy, eiia/ii, aeiionoeoue, /oiau
ioaeaeueiua aoeau ?onneiai aeoaaeoa eiaee eaeia-eeai eaaaeenoe/aneia cia-
/aiea a aeacao Niaaoa. A n ae?oaie noi?iiu, a ?aiiai eaa/a aeiionoeoue, /oi
i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua oiio?aaeytho , /ai eiiyony
a cae?uoua aeaa?e; ii e?aeiae ia?a, iineaaeiee neo/ae, ianeieueei iai ec-
aanoii, ia eiaao i?aoeaaeaioia; a /oi eanaaony a?aie… i?aaeuaeouee io/ao
?acaa?ioe i?aae iaie niaa?oaiii eneeth/eoaeueiia aoUeaaaaa n1ay InEaccaa ,
a ianoiyuee i?aaenoaaeyao a yoii ioiioaiee oieueei oo iniaaiiinoue, /oi
iioee a oiae oaeea neiaa, eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony iaicia/aoue iiiaioi/eai,
i?eaaaeyy a neiaeao , . E neiaa yoe ia i?ioiaeyo, ii-aeaeeiiio, iacaia/ai-
iuie aeey Niaaoa. Ai aoi?ii ec oiiiyioouo neo/aaa Niaao iinoaaee . E anee a oiio-
?aaeaiee iaoaeiaiiiaoi?yaiuo au?aaeaiee oniao?eaaaony eeoue iaaeinoaoie
naea?aeaiiinoe, oi ia/aai oaea, eiia/ii, oaeeaeyoueny oiio, /oi eiaaea a iau-
yniaieyo naieo ia aeaeiao i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue aac anyeeo iniiaaiee
iicaieyao naaa ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aeaeiauee , oi oaeea
iaeaeiua, ie ia /ai ia iniiaaiiua au?aaeaiey aiana ia inoaiaaeeaatho ia
naaa aieiaiey Niaaoa, e ii ?aaiiaeooii ieii ieo i?ioiaeeo.

E a iaeanoe i?ioeannoaeueiuo ii?yaeeia Niaao ia eeoee io/aoiue aiae
na?ueaciuo e nieeaeiuo iiaoanoa. Aeaaiaea?iue iiaiae e yoiio aeaea aoeaa I.
oa aoeaa – oaea ia , eioi?iai Niaao auioaeaeai iooa-

“i. – ec i?aaeoanoaothuaai, iacaaeneiiai iiuoa.
?- – cao?oaeiaiea ec-ca aiaaonoaa, ec-ca aieueoiai auai?a.

iyoue, – yoi iano?aeyiiue aiaoe. noa?ue ciaeiiue: i?aaeuaeouee io/ao ni-
iauee iai i iai, /oi i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue I., ia?aoynue e naiei aa?e-
oaeyi, neacae, oeacuaay ia aeiiiaeaaeaeueoea A.: . Eiia/ii,
I. oiaaea iino?aaeae: oioy ii e ia iieiaeie noaaea?, ii aio naeaeaii auei
ioa/aneia aiooaiea, aio iinoaaeee ia aeae ianaea?aeaiiinoue au?aaeaiee. E
ii i?eiye ia aeae e a io/aoiii aiaeo, aieaey ia aeai? oiai aea ceiiieo/iiai
A., neacae i?i iaai, ia?auaynue e naiaio eeeaioo: ! E /oi aea? Iaae iei ?ac?aceeenue a?iiu
niaaoneea, ii eneeth/ai ec nineiaey, eioi?ia i?ecaaii neoaeeoue i?aao e
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e ia iiaeao oa?iaoue a , eaiaeeaeaoia aani?aaey, eae eo
aannia?oii caeeaeiee A.O. Eiie! Ia io?eoeay i?iecianaiey yoie o?acu
(),
I. ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ?acaiai? aai aue n aeaco ia aeac n aai eeeaioii e
ae?oaii, a A. ii ia aeaeae, eai . Iai?ioea, A. ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iaoiaeeeny iaaaeaeaea io ?ac-
aiaa?eaathueo e ia iia ia neuoaoue iaeaeiie o?acu. Oio e ae?oaie nineaeenue
ia naeaeaoaeae, i?e/ai A. nnueaeny, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, ia niaanaaeieea I., aai
eeeaioa e ae?oaa. Ii ooo Niaao, ia 33-i aiaeo naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, niioaaoeeny
e iaoae aeii?in naeaeaoaeae iaaiciiaeiui, iioiio /oi . Ia-
i?anii iaeei ec /eaiia Niaaoa, inoaaoeeny i?e iniaii iiaiee, cayaeye,
/oi , iai?anii
aeaeiauee aunoaaeye naeaeaoaeai ae?oaa naiaai i?ioeaieea, iaaeaeo oai eae

ae?oaeo neo/ayo Niaao n/ao aiciiaeiui aeiionoeoue aeii?in, oioy iaaeiyaiue
, iai?anii
ae __ aeaeiaa ia I. inoaaeaia aac iineaaenoaee, Niaao nian aai aeia?ia eiy!!
E anee caoai oiiiyiooue /eai Niaaoa cayaeyao a iniaii iiaiee, /oi aio
, oi oai aieaa ia iiaeai iu iiaaaeaoue yoi /eoaoaeyi> .

Aua ooaea ianoiyei iieiaeaiea aeae a oa?ueeianeii Niaaoa. ; a /anoiie
aeaeiaa a noaeaaioth iaeaoo oiio?aaeytho oaeea au?aaeaiey: .

Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo Niaao iaoae aiciiaeiui ia iiaeaa?aaoue iaaeiyaiuo
aeenoeeieeia?iiio acuneaieth, iioiio /oi, oioy au?aaeaiea oiio?aaeaii (iiaeao, neaaeiaaoaeueii, neo/eony, /oi oaeea au?aaeaiey
ioaeoo e enoaoe!), oioy au?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueii e?aeia inei?aeoaeueiu,
ii iie, i/aaeaeii, eee .

Eiiaua a iinoaiiaeaieyo Niaaoa caeeth/aiey aanueia /anoi aiana ia
niioaaonoaotho iinueea; oae, iai?eia?, [ia iaeiie ec no?aieoe] iu /eoaai:

Eao. – (aoea. – oee!). Oeacuaaao ia aaaeiinoue eee iiaeeeiiinoue aeaiiiai ianoa a oaenoa eee
ia ioeai/iinoue i?eaaae?iiuo /ueeo-eeai neia.

218-22o

I?ei. aoo.

<...o. aeiionoee iainoi eioi ia aeieaeia eiaoue ianoa a aea- eiauo niioaieyo i iiaa n aeiaa ii yoei inii- aaieyi niaao o. aeenoeeieeia acuneaieth iiaeaa>.

Ia [ae?oaie no?aieoea]: .

A aio aua iaeei ethaiiuoiue ia?ac/ee:

I?eaaaeaiiua auaea?aeee caneoaeeaatho aieiaiey iioiio, /oi iie ynii
iieacuaatho, e eaeei iineaaenoaeyi i?eaiaeeo i?iieeiiaaiea a aeayoaeueiinoue
Niaaoa noi?iiieo oaiaeaioeee. Noieei Niaaoai aeiionoeoue onoaiiaeaiea a
eaeii-ieaoaeue ioiioaiee aeaoo ia?ie, oioy au e ouaoaeueii ne?uouo iiae
?aciuie i?aaeeiaaie, e iie iinoaiaiii caaiaaaee naaa i?eciaiea ai anao
naiuo oe?iiiuo oaieeao nineiaiie aeecie.

Oaeei ia?acii, iieiaeaiea i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?u noaiiaeeinue ana
aieaa aacio?aaeiui, e, eacaeinue, iaioeoaea auei aeaeaoue ieeaeiai i?inaaoa.
A ?a/e ia iauai nia?aiee iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo (30 yiaa?y
1914 a.) I.I. Iaeyioiae/ oae aniiieiaao ia yoii iiiaioa: .

27. I?AAIECAOeEss IIEIAeIE AAeAIEAOO?U

Iauee iiaeuai iano?iaiey, eae oaea neacaii, ia iia, eiia/ii, ia io-
?aceoueny ia aaeaieaoo?a, e i?aaeaea anaai ia naiie iieiaeie aa /anoe. A
Iineaa a naiii ia/aea aeaayiinouo aiaeia a?oiia iieiaeuo iiiiuieeia
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia?aciaaea oae iacuaaaiue , a
eioi?ii iaeaieaa aeayoaeueioth ?ieue ea?aee: A.A, Iaeeaeia, I.I. Iaeyi-
oiae/, I.E. Io?aaueaa e I.A. Oaneaiei. Eeoa iacuaaeny a?iaey/ei, iioiio
/oi ii ia eiae iinoiyiiiai iiiauaiey, e canaaeaiey aai i?ienoiaeeee ?ac
a iaaeaeth, eaaeaeue ?ac a ae?oaie eaa?oe?a. Eeoa ia eiae ii?aaeaeaiiie i?i-
a?aiiu, ii noaaee naiae caaea/ae iiaeiyoue i?ioanneiiaeueiue e iauanoaai-
iue o?iaaiue aaeaieaoo?u. ?aaee yoiai /eaiu eeoaa no?aieeenue i?iieeaoue
ai ana i?ioanneiiaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee e i?aaeaea anaai ia?aoeee aieiaiea
ia eiinoeueoaoeeth i?e nuacaea ie?iauo noaeae, eioi?ay a yoi a?aiy aea/eea
aanueia aeaeeia nouanoaiaaiea. *eaiu eeoaa aioee a ninoaa eiinoeueoaoeee,
a eioi?ie ioiuia naioth aeeyoaeueioth ?ieue noae ea?aoue E.N. Aene, e eii-
noeueoaoeey aanueia auno?i niaa?oaiii i?aia?aceeanue. Iia, aiai?y aa nei-
aaie, iaiaoeea naiae oeaeueth i?eeoe ia iiiiuue einiathuaio a aacunoiaeiii
iaaaaeanoaa e iaa?aiioiinoe ?aai/aio e e?anoueyineiio ianaeaieth, eioi?ia
ioee/ii ciaao naie iaycaiiinoe, ii ia eiaao ieeaeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey e ia
oiaao ionoaeaaoue naie i?aaa. . Iaiaoea naaa yoo oeaeue, eiinoeueoaoeey ?aoeea .

-a
1ae. iai?eia?. I.A. Oaneaiei ia iia auoue i?eiyo a iiiiuieee ca iaeiaieai naeaeaoaeuenoaa

“iiaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaeai aue nia/aea ca/eneeoueny eaiaeeaeaoii ia noaeaaiua aeieaeiinoe. Eia/a
i?y, iinooieaiea ia ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao auei ianoaaeaii iaiaa no?iauie oneiaeyie, /ai
-“a a nineiaea, eioi?ia eiaaea-oi ?eniaaeinue A.Ae. Nianiae/o. eae aieueiay Caii?iaeneay
“ue – I?ei. aao.

Noaa ia oaeie iooue, eiinoeueoaoeey, iineaaeiaaoaeueii eaey, ?aoeea, /oi iia
ia iiaeao auoue i?inoie ni?aai/iie eiioi?ie – aeaaaoue niaaou aac ?acai?a.
.

A yoie iiaie iinoaiiaea aeaea aanueia io/aoeeai neuoaony iocaoee oao
iayniuo iiaeaeaiee, eioi?ua auneacuaaeenue ianeieueei eao iacaae a

. Naie i?ioanneiiaeueiua caaea/e aaeaieaoo?a iiae/eiyao
o?aaiaaieyi nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee e oniao?eaaao naith caaea/o a oii, /oiau
iiiiaaoue neaaaeoaio a aeeciaiiie ai?ueaa.

Aeayoaeueiinoue eiinoeueoaoeee ec aiaea a aiae i?eieiaea ana aieaa oe?ieea
?acia?u, e ae i?eoiaeeeinue ioaeaaaoue aanueia iiiai a?aiaie. Ii o/anoieee
eiinoeueoaoeee ia yoii ia oniieieeenue. Iie ia?aoeee aieiaiea aua ia
ionoonoaea caueou ia auacaeiuo nanneyo ie?oaeiiai noaea e ia?aciaaee e?o-
aeie aeey i?aaiecaoeee yoeo caueo, ia iaaeinoaoie eieo aeaeiaaeny a naia
a?aiy i?io. Oieieoeeee. Ia?aui i?aaenaaeaoaeai yoiai e?oaeea aue i?e-
nyaeiue iiaa?aiiue Oaaeioia, nae?aoa?ai I.I. Iaeyioiae/. I?eai a e?o-
aeie aue ianoaaeai aieueoeie no?iainoyie, e iaaeinoaoi/ii auei noaoue /ea-
iii eiinoeueoaoeee, /oiau iiianoue e a e?oaeie. O?aaiaaeanue aua aoi?e/iay
aaeeioe?iaea, e i?eiyoui n/eoaeny oieueei oio, ca eiai auneacaeenue ana
o/anoieee e?oaeea. E?oaeie n?aco aea i?iyaee aanueia yia?ae/ioth aeayoaeue-
iinoue. A io/aoa, iai?eia?, ca 1899 a. oeacaii, /oi ec 36 nannee iineianeiai
ie?. noaea e?oaeie i?iionoee oieueei aeaa, ia inoaeueiuo i?enoonoaiaaee /eaiu
e?oaeea e i?iaaee 199 aeae, ii eioi?ui auei 232 iiaenoaeeiuo. Yoio oniao
aeaaaeny ia oae i?inoi, eai caeanue neiaeeeenue naie o?aaeeoeee. Oae, e?oaeeo
i?eoeinue auaea?aeaoue yia?ae/ioth ai?ueao n iaeei Eiaunaae/ai, ionoaaiui
eni?aaieeii, eioi?ue iiiiiieece?iaae caueoo a auacaeiuo nanneyo e n/e-
oae naay caeanue iieiii?aaiui oicyeiii. Ii e?oaeie ano?aoee aieueooth iiae-
aea?aeeo ni noi?iiu oiaa?eua i?aaenaaeaoaey Ie?oaeiiai Noaea Eea?ea, ei-
oi?ue aeaaiui ia?acii e ?oeiaiaeee auacaeiuie nanneyie.

N oa/aieai a?aiaie e?oaeeo noaiiaeeinue ana aieaa oanii a i?aaeaeao
Iineau. Aioo?e aai ia?aciaaeanue iiaay a?oiia, eioi?ay noaea ?anoe?youe
naith aeayoaeueiinoue, auacaeay e a ae?oaea aoaa?iee ia caueou ii ?aciui
aeaeai, i?eaeaeaaoei iauanoaaiiia iiaiea. Nthaea ioiinyony ?aai/ea aan-

aeaeaeaeee, e?anoueyineea aa?a?iua aieiaiey, iaiaaeaiey iaeiie /anoe ianaeaiey
ae?oaoth; niaoeeaeueiue iiaiae aeey ianniauo aanii?yaeeia aiciee iinea
oaey?ecaoeee, a auoiinoue A.E. Ieaaa ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae, oea?-
aeaiuo eiouanoa a?iyii-a?aai?eaineie oea?eae. Iaeiiaoe, n 1904 a., ni
a?aiaie aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea /anoe oaieiaiiai oeiaeaiey, a noaeao noaee
?acae?aoueny iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu . A ia?aia a?aiy a?oiia i?eaeaeaea e
o/anoeth a nieeaea?iuo caueoao O.I. Ieaaaei, e i/aiue ethaiiuoii ain-
iieueciaaoueny oaeei ni/aoaieai noa?iai e iieiaeiai, /oiau ioiaoeoue ?acieoeo
a i?eaiao caueou. Caueuay aianoa n ae?oaeie ?aai/eo Eiioeineie ia-
iooaeoo?u. iaaeiyaoeony ii 269 e 1358 no. Oe. i iaeac., Ieaaaei ia/eiaao
n oiai. /oi aai ?a/ue aoaeao naiaeeoueny e i?inueaa i nienoiaeeoaeueiii ioiioaiee,
e /oi . Iiae/a?eioa caoai, /oi , – Ieaaaei auyniyao, eaeia anoue in-
iiaaiea aeey nienoiaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e iiaenoaeeiui. Ai-ia?auo, aoe-
noai auei, auei aoi?aeaiea a /oaeia iiiauaiea, ii iiiauaiea yoi – eaaae,
. A, ai-aoi?uo, ?aai/ea iaanneeaiiua oece/aneei
o?oaeii, n iaia?oeie io aacaeaenoaey aeooiaiuie neeaie, a iioiio io ieo
iaeuecy o?aaiaaoue auaea?aeee, e oioy , ii aoaeueoa nienoiaeeoaeueiu, e .

Ia oo aea oaio i?eoeinue aiai?eoue A.A. Iaeeaeiao ii aeaeo Aeieaai-
eianeeo e?anoueyi. aaeaieyi oe i?iyaeaoaai ?ac?ooeoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue, neooaeinue a canaaeaiee Iineianeie No-
– Iaeaou 10-12 aeaeaa?y 1897 a. ?a/ue O.I. Ieaaaei a yoii i?ioeanna ioaeeeiaaeanue. Ni.,
i?ea?. oI IUeaaaei Eca?aiiua ?a/e. I.. 1993. n. 527. – I?ei. nino.
– – Cae?aanoaoe. Oeaca?ue, eaeouea ia nia?oue i?eaaonoaotho oaay.

aeeee e a?oau; ii iiaei ee auoue eia/a? *aai ae?oaiai iiaeii iaeeaeaoue io
yoie oieiu? Aaaeue yoe ethaee anaaaea a?oau, a?oau a naiae eanea, a?oau a
oooeao, a?oau a nii?ao – iiaee ee iie ieacaoueny eiuie a ceiaa e aiaaa?
Eo ee ca yoi aeieoue? Ionoue aeieo eo enoi?ee, eiaaea /a?ac iiiai eao aoaeao
iienuaaoue iaoa ia/aeueiia a?aiy. Ionoue aeieo eiino?aiaoe, ii?eoeay iao
i?aa e iau/ae… Ii anee ii?eoeaoue e iaaeiyoue noaiaoa au, i?aaenoaaeoaee
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, oi y ni?ioo aan: au, eioi?ua inoaeaeaaoa, a /oi
aea au naeaeaee aeey oiai, /oiau ecea/eoue aai io a?oainoe? Ainoaea?noaaiiay
aeanoue i iiiaii caaioeeanue: iia noa?aeanue, /oiau iie auee iiei?iu, i?a-
aeaiu aeanoyi, nie?aiiu ia?aae aunoeie, aacioaaoiu ia?aae ia/aeueieeaie;
a caaioeeanue ee iia i oii, /oiau niya/eoue eo i?aau, ecaiaoue ec ieo aeeeinoue,
anaeeoue ioa?auaiea e a?oainoe… Iu iiaeeiaai a eo a?oainoe oi, /oi iu
noa?aoaeueii nayee… E eiaaea oaia?ue au, i?aaenoaaeoaee ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe, i?eaoaee, /oiau iaeacaoue yoeo ethaeae, y aai ai?aaa neacaoue: au
i?eoee, eiaaea aaccaeiiea naeaeaee iie, a aaea aea au auee oiaaea, eiaaea
aaccaeiiea oai?eee iaae ieie?.. I?eciaeoa aea, /oi anee iie aeiiaaou, oi
e iu ana aeiiaaou ia?aae ieie, e a yoii aeaea ni?aaaaeeeainoueth iiaeao
auoue oieueei aunoay ieeinoue>.

Niiinoaaeyy i?eaaaeaiiua aeaa ?a/e, o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa aieaa y?eia
i?ioeai?a/ea: iaeei i?eaaaaao e i?eaio na?iaiii Ueaiaoiiaiiiaa noaeae, ae?oaie
a?inaao ei aucia; iaeei i?ineo ecaeieoue a?oainoue oieiu, ae?oaie aiceaaaao
ia noaeae ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yoo a?oainoue; iaeei iieeo i nienoiaeaeaiee, eae
aeey ethaeae ia?a/aiiuo, ae?oaie o?aaoao yeaiaioa?iie ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Yoo
?acieoeo iao?oaeii e iauynieoue, anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea, /oi iaeei, ii-
aeaeeiiio, anaoeaei iiaeiuai aeeaeaeoae noaeueaie iiaenoaeeiuo, a i?aaie-
caoeey, e eioi?ie i?eiaaeeaaeae aoi?ie, ii neiaai I.A. Oaneaiei, i?eaeaaaea
naiei caueoai oa?aeoa? iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau ca naiaiaeo .

I?iyaeaoeany a yoie ?a/e oae y?ei /a?ou ninoaaeyee, aiiaua, oa?ae-
oa?ioth iniaaiiinoue iineianeiai e?oaeea, neoaeeaooth caeiaii oniaoa no?ai-
eaiee aai. Niaeinoue, i?yiioa e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue – /oi iiaeao auoue
aieaa iiaaaeiiinii a ai?ueaa n ii?yaeeaie, iniiaaiiuie ia ?ooeia e eia?-
oeee… E?oaeie oaea e oiaaea, eiaaea ii ninoiye ec iaeieo oieueei iiiiuieeia
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ?aoee, iaeiaei, ieacuaaoue aicaeaenoaea ia auai?u
a Niaao. E?oaeie iaia/ae naieo eaiaeeaeaoia e caoai, ia iieeaaeay ?oe.
?aaioae, /oiau aeiaeoueny inouanoaeaiey aeaeaoaeueiuo aio eaiaeeaeaoo?. Eae
yoi ie no?aiii n ia?aiai acaeyaea, ii eiaiii iioiio, /oi caaea/a caeeth/aeanue

Eao. – nieneaiea ?aniieiaeaiey.

Oae aiai?ee I.A. Oaneaiei ia ana?inneeneii nuacaea aaeaieaoia 28 ia?oa 1905 a.
I?ei. aao.

306

?aaiui ia?acii a oie/oiaeaiee neeu eia?oeee, noa?aiey e?oaeea oaai/aeenue
oniaoii, e aai ianoie/eainoe ioaeii i?eienaoue i?iaaaeaiea a ninoaa Niaaoa
oeycy Ae.E. O?oniaa, Ae.E. Iaayaeiineiai, N.A. Io?iioeaaa. E?oaeie, e?iia
oiai, i?enaiee naaa ?ieue aethnoeoaey i?aanoaaiiinoe nineiaey e ia caaeo-
iaaeny, iai?eia?, auianoe ii?eoeaiea ia ninoiyaoaio a e?oaeea i?enyaeiiai
aeiaa?aiiiio E.A. Aeaaeeie?iao ca aai caueoo aeaiaea?ineiai iieeiaieea,
iaaeiyaoaainy a ?anoeaiee. Eae oaea ecaanoii, niaeanii i?aaeeai 3 ia?oa
1890 a., anyeia iauaiea iaaeaeo iiiiuieeaie auei oie/oiaeaii. E?oaeie
ia ia?anoaaae aicaoaeaeaoue oiaeaoaenoaa i aiciaiiaeaiee eiioa?aioeee, ii
aai oiaeaoaenoaa auee aaconiaoiu. Aea e aiiaua Niaao ?aoeoaeueii ia aei-
ioneae eaeeo-eeai nia?aiee iiiiuieeia, oae /oi iie ono?aeaaeenue naii-
/eiii e i?ienoiaeeee a caeao ainoeieoe, iiea, iaeiiaoe, a 1895 a. ia ninoi-
yeinue nia?aiea a iiiauaiee Niaaoa.

Ianeieueei eia/a ?acaeaaeinue yoi iai?aaeaiea a Iao?ia?aaea. Caeanue
eieoeeaoi?aie e ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie iiaiai aeaeaeaiey yaeeenue a?aouey I. e
A. Aa?aiooaiu, aie?oa eioi?uo na?oiie?iaaeenue: A.N. Aeiaoueaaneee,
A.A. Enaaa, A.I. Iiaeeia, I.I. Ia?aaa?caa e ae?. A.Aa?aiooai ia/ae
n oiai, /oi iinaeeeny ia Oeennaeueao?aneii o?aeoa, aaea i?iaeeaaao ianna
?aai/eo. , – naeaeaoueny
aaeaieaoii aaaeiiai, o?oaeyuaainy ianaeaiey e iinaeeeny a oaa?e/iie nei-
aiaea. A iae i?iaeeaaee ouny/ ni?ie ?aai/eo, ianeieueei nioai eioaeee-
aaioeee, aei aeaaaeoeaoe a?a/ae, ii, eae yoi ie no?aiii, ia auei ie iaeiiai
aaeaieaoa… Iaeei oaeo iiyaeaiey a neiaiaea iiaiai eioaeeeaaioiiai /a-
eiaaea, e oai aieaa aaeaieaoa, – iaenoiueiay oaia aeey iaueo ?acai-
ai?ia. Iinoiyiiia iauanoai oiaa?euae, aeecinoue e ai?iaeo… aeaeatho ?a-
ai/aai a ianna ian?aaiaiii iaoa?oao, niciaoaeueiaa e?anoueyieia. E iioiio
?aai/ee iia iaoiaeeoue aei?iao e iiaa?aiiiio, caueoieeo. A ooo aua ei-
oaeeeaaioeey, ni/oanoaothuay ai?anoyi ?aai/eo, aaeaa ociaa i iiyaeaiee
?aai/aai aaeaieaoa, oi?iieony iai?aaeyoue e iaio ioaeaeathueony a iiiiue.
Aio ii/aio aeinoaoi/ii auei iinaeeoueny a neiaiaea, eae iinea ianeieueeeo
ianyoeaa ?aaiou ei iia oaea iiaaeee ia?iae>. Aiaeii iicaea anooiee a ni-
neiaea I.A. Aa?aiooai, eioi?ue iinaeeeny ia ae?oaie ie?aeia noieeoeu.
Ia?ooay o?aaeeoeeiiiua i?aaeea aaeaieaoneie yoeee, ii iiaanee ia oi-
ia?iii noieaa o naiae eaa?oe?u aiooeoaeueiuo ?acia?ia aeiua/eo, eioi?ay
niiauaea, eiaaea e aaea i?ienoiaeeo i?eai o iiiiuieea i?enyaeiiai iiaa-
?aiiiai I.A. Aa?aiooaia.

I Ia?aueia aea iiiuoee auynieee, /oi ia ?aai/eo ie?aeiao anoue na?ueaciay
ioaeaea a th?eaee/aneie iiiiue. Ii oioy e a Iao?ia?aaea i?e Nuacaea ie?iauo
Oaeae nouanoaiaaea eiinoeueoaoeey, n naiiai ia/aea o?acaiiay Nuacaeii a

naiae i?ia?aiia e aea/eaoay oaeia aea aanoeaaoiia nouanoaiaaiea, eae e
a Iineaa, – aeayoaeueiinoue aa ia ?acaeaaeanue, a. iai?ioea, iinoaiaiii ia-
aeaea, – iao?ia?aaeneee e?oaeie inoaaee yoo eiinoeueoaoeeth a noi?iia, a
ia/ae iniiauaaoue iiaua eiinoeueoaoeee, ia ie?aeiao noieeoeu. A cayaeaiee,
iiaeaiiii a Niaao 9 ethiy 1898 a. eiienneae iiiiuieeia, oeacuaaaony, /oi
.

Ia?aie ec ieo auea Oeennaeueao?aneay eiinoeueoaoeey, a aneaae ca ia?aie
ioe?uou auee iineaaeiaaoaeueii: Aaneeaino?ianeay, Eeoianeay, Eciaeeia-
neay, Iaoa?ao?aneay, Auai?aneay, Ia?aneay, Oea?neinaeueneay, Iooaineay,
Ianeianeay (a ia?eiae n 1899 a. aei 1905 a.). Yoe eiinoeueoaoeee iinoaaeee
naith caaea/o aua aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii, iaaeaee iineianeay eiinoeueoaoeey. Iai-
c?aaay a 1905 a. e, aeaaiui
ia?acii, nineiaey iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, io/ao eiiennee
iiiiuieeia i?yii naycuaaao iiyaeaiea eiinoeueoaoeee n ia?aui aunooi-
eaieai o?oaeyueony eeannia ia a?aio iauanoaaiiie aeecie a ?innee e ia-
aeinoaoie eiinoeueoaoeee aeaeeo a oii, /oi iie iino?iaiu ia i?eioeeia aea-
aioai?eoaeueiinoe, a ia eae ?aai/ea nae?aoa?eaou ia caiaaea, ia ia/aea naii-
aeayoaeueiinoe e iieaoa o?oaea. Ii oieueei yoi e anoue nouanoaaiiay ?acieoea,
eioi?oth io/ao oniao?eaaao iaaeaeo eiinoeueoaoeeae e ?aai/ei nae?aoa?eaoii.
A io/aoao aea ioaeaeueiuo eiinoeueoaoeee aua ii?aaeaeaiiaa aiai?eony, /oi
eiinoeueoaoeey aeieaeia neoaeeoue ia?aoiaeiie nooiaiueth e nae?aoa?eaoo. . Ii io/ao ia yoii ia inoaiaaeeaaaony. Ii, ii-aeaeeiiio,
iieaaaao, /oi oae aeieaeia auoue aiiaua iano?iaia any aaeaieaoo?a. . Oaeei ia?acii, aeaei ia
oieueei a oii, /oi ii?aaeaeaiii iano?iaiiay a?oiia aaeaieaoia ioiaaeaauaaao
naaa ii?aaeaeaiioth iaeanoue aeayoaeueiinoe. Iao! Io/ao ioiineony n aaee/aeoei
i?aiaa?aaeaieai e aaeaieaoneie i?ioannee, iaoiaey, /oi nineiaiay yoeea i?a-
a?auaao aaeaieaoa a /anoiiai th?eaee/aneiai iaeea?a. Aeaeiaia ioiioaiea e
naiae caaea/a io/ao n/eoaao iiieaeaieai iauaai eaeaeiiai o?iaiy ?aaiou e
caeeth/aao neiai aeaeiaie a e?iie/aneea eaau/ee. Eia/a aiai?y, ia?iaeeaoayny
iieiaeay aaeaieaoo?a, i?eoiaey, i?aaaea, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeaea io?eoeaoaeueii
ioiineeanue e i?ioannee aaeaieaoa, eae e aa i?aaeoanoaaiieee.

Noiy ia oaeie oi/ea c?aiey, ie?aeiiua eiinoeueoaoeee aeiioneaee n aieueoei
?acai?ii o/anoieeia a naith n?aaeo. Oae, eiinoeueoaoeey ?ac?aoeea io?eoeaoaeueii
aii?in i aeiiouaiee a caaaaeothuea eiinoeueoaoeeae th?eneiinoeueoa aeaeaciie
aei?iae, oaa?eee eee caaiaea. Oaeia niaiauaiea auei au e .

Ai?acaei aeaeueoa iineianeie eiinoeueoaoeee oaaioee iao?ia?aaeneea a ia-
i?aaeaiee ioeacia a aea/a niaaoia. Eiinoeueoaoeee iinoaiiaeee ioeacuaaoue
a iiiiue ?aaioiaeaoaeyi i?ioea ?aai/eo, ioaeueyi, i?eieiathuei i?ioea
aeai i?eioaeeoaeueiua ia?u, a neeo naiae noi?oaeaneie aeanoe, e aiiaua
eeoeai eiouei. A yoii ioiioaiee eiinoeueoaoeee caoiaeeee oae aeaeaei, /oi
ioeacaee, iai?eia?, a i?inueaa inii?eoue caaauaiea, ninoaaeaiiia a iieueco
aoi?ie aeaiu, iaoiaeyuaeny a ioaeaea, oiaaea eae i?ineoaeue, iaieaeaiiue, nai
ninoiyoaeueiue /aeiaae. Ii iaei yoiai! Aeaaea iacaaeneii io i?aaeii/oaiey
neaaaeoaai neeueiaeoaio, eiinoeueoaoeey aua ioeacuaaea, iai?eia?, a ni-
aaoao noi?oaai, iaaeiythuei ae?oa ae?oaa a i?aethaiaeayiee. Iiaea/a niaaoia
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi iieeoeee i?eciaia eeoue aeiionoeiie, e oi oieueei ca i?a-
aeaeaie eo neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae, ii io?aiaieth ii?yaeea e iauanoaaiiiai
niieienoaey . Oai aieaa oa?aeoa?ii, /oi, eiaaea iinea aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu
noaee ia?auaoueny e?anoueyia ca niaaoaie a eiinoeueoaoeee, i?e/ai /anoue i?i-
neoaeae, i?eiaaeeaaea e aaaeiaeoae /anoe e?anoueyinoaa, i?ineea aeaoue niaao,
eae ia?aaeeoue naay io iieooaiee ia ?ac?ooaiea iaueiu, a ae?oaay /anoue,

Ioaa?aiooa i?aaiecaoeey caueo i?e nuacaea aaeaeo oiai. /oi caeii ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao caoeo
ii iacia/aieth a nuacaea, aeaaea n niaeaney iaaeiyaiuo, e ia?aie/aia aaoiiiiey eeinoeueoaeee aeiio-
uaiea a aa ninoaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aeaaea e aac aaeeioe?iaee. – I?ei. aao.

Io/ao Nia. Eiiennee iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 190 aiae. n. 284. –
Iiei. aao.

Io/ao Eiiennee ca 1905 a., n. 284 – I?ei. aao.

A iniaii niaauaiee, ninoaaeaiiii Niaaoii ec o?ao i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e o?ao iiiiuie-
. ca oaeia ?aoaiea aii?ina, aianoa n iiiioiieaie, auneacaoueny A.I. Ethnoeo i?ioea A.A. Aei?ia
“E. Eaiioueaaa. – I?ei aao
Io/ao Eiiennee ca 1905 i.. n 282 – I?ei. aao.

iai?ioea, ia?auaeanue n i?inueaie oe?aieoue o/anoie caiee ca niaie, oi
eiinoeueoaoeee aeaaaee niaaou oai e ae?oaei. Ii e?aeiae ia?a, ia ioeaca a
aea/a niaaoia a io/aoa aiana ia oiiieiaaony. Ii yoi oaea auei a iiiaio
oiaaeea iano?iaiey.

Io/ao eiinoaoe?oao aieueoie oniao aeayoaeueiinoe eiinoeueoaoeee. Iana-
eaiea ie?aei ioianeinue e iei n aeiaa?eai e oei e iei iiae/an ia oieueei
ca th?eaee/aneeie niaaoaie, ii ca oeacaieyie e niaeaenoaeai a ioaeaeueiuo
neo/ayo naiae iianaaeiaaiie aeecie . Iaeiaei /eaiu eiinoeueoaoeee ia noiyee
ia aunioa i?aaeuyaeaiiuo e iei o?aaiaaiee. .

Iacaaeneii io eiinoeueoaoeee e niaa?oaiii ioaeaeueii io ieo, a Iao?ia?aaea
oiaea ia?aciaaeny e?oaeie iieiaeuo aaeaieaoia, i?aaieciaaaoeo auacaeiua ca-
ueou. Caeanue oi/ii oae aea ia ia?auo ii?ao e?oaeie i?eaeaeae e o/anoeth a
caueoa noa?oeo oiaa?euae. A iaeiii ec ia?auo aeae i aanii?yaeeao ia oaa?eea
Iaenaaeue a /enea caueoieeia auee: I.A. Iioaoei e 0.0. A?ocaiaa?a, iiae-
aea?aeeaaaoea caoai e eannaoeeiiioth aeaeiao a Naiaoa. Eaeoth yia?ae/ioth
aeayoaeueiinoue e?oaeie ?acaeaae, iiaeii noaeeoue ii oiio, /oi /eaiai aai
(A.N. Ca?oaeiue e A.A. Aa?aiooai) i?eoiaeeeinue auacaeaoue aeaaea a sseoone.

I?eia? Iao?ia?aaea e Iineau ieacae aeeyiea e ia i?iaeioeeaeueiua ai?iaea.
Oaeea aea e?oaeee noaee ia?aciauaaoueny: a Oa?ueeiaa (Aiioa?aa, ?aii, Oeae-
eianeee), Iaeanna (Ia?aaiaio), Na?aoiaa (Eaeueiaiiae/, Ieeiiia). Ai iiiaeo
ai?iaeao noaee ioe?uaaoueny eiinoeueoaoeee, i?e/ai ia?aaeei iiiuoea i?aaieci-
aaoue eiinoeueoaoeeth ano?a/aea ioii? ni noi?iiu aaeieieno?aoeee. Oae, a Ooa
i?aaenaaeaoaeue Ie?oaeiiai Noaea ia ?ac?aoee ioe?uoey eiinoeueoaoeee aaeaeo
iaei/eneaiiinoe i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e ionoonoaey iiiauaiey a caeaiee
noaea, a Na?aoiaa ioeacaii auei aac i?eaaaeaiey eaeeo-eeai iioeaia .

Oniao eaeae i?aaiecaoeee auacaeiuo caueo eiae naiei iineaaenoaeai naee-
aeaiea aaeaieaoia ?aciuo ie?oaia. *ai aeaeueoa, oai ana aieueoa i?ioeannu
i anyeeo aanii?yaeeao – aa?a?iuo, oaa?e/iuo, i nii?ioeaeaiee aeanoyi –
i?eia?aee oa?aeoa? i?ioeannia-iiino?ia n iannie iiaenoaeeiuo. Niioaaono-
aaiii yoiio oaaee/eaaeinue e /enei caueoieeia, e ia ?acae?aoaeuenoaa oaeeo
aeae ano?a/aeenue i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua e eo iiiiuieee ni anao eiioeia

Io/ao Eiiennee ca 1907 a., n. 179. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao Eiiennee ca 1905 a., n. 187. – I?ei. aao.
Oai aea, n. 176, 177. – I?ei. aao.

I. Aa?aiooai. TH?eaee/aneea eiinoeueoaoeee a ?innee. , 1903, ei. 3.
I?ei. aao.

?icaei. Oae eae ana iie auee aieaa eee iaiaa iaeeiaeiai iano?iaiu
-uanoaiaaee o ieo iauea eioa?anu, oi aiieia anoanoaaiii, /oi n eaaeaeie
aeaeie ano?a/ae, iineaoae oioy e neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?, ana aieueoa e?aiea
ini, ia i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeeueiiai iauaiey. Oae ?iaeeeanue iuneue i nithca
aeaeaeieaoia. Ia/aei aio e auei iieiaeaii ia nuacaea, eioi?ue ninoiyeny a
Iineaa 15 oaa?aey 1903 aiaea. Nuacae yoio caieiaeny aeaaiui ia?acii
aeii?inaie i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie. Ia yoii nuacaea, – aiai?ee iioii iaeei ec
aai o/anoieeia I.E. Io?aaueaa, – . Ai?acaei aieaa eaoaai?e/anee oi?ioee?iaae
?aoaiey yoiai nuacaea I.A. Oaneaiei a naiae ?a/e ia ana?inneeneii nuacaea
aaeaieaoia a ia?oa 1905 aiaea. .

Aoi?ie nuacae ninoiyeny oiaea a Iineaa, a eiioea ieoya?y 1904 a., ca
ianeieueei aeiae aei enoi?e/aneiai nuacaea ai?iaeneeo e caineeo aeayoaeae a
Iao?ia?aaea. Yoio nuacae aue aieaa iiiai/eneaiiui e nia?ae i?aaenoaaeoaeae
a?oii iieiaeie aaeaieaoo?u ec ano ii/oe ie?oaia, ca eneeth/aieai Neae?e,
Eaaeaca e Aa?oaau. Ia aoi?ii nuacaea aeaaiui i?aaeiaoii ianoaeaeaiey
yaeeny aii?in i aunooieaiee aaeaieaoia n eiinoeoooeeiiiuie cayaeaieyie.
Nuacae iinoaiiaee i?eiyoue naiinoiyoaeueiia o/anoea a i?aaenoiyaoai i?acae-
iiaaiee 20 iiya?y ni?ieaeaoey noaeaaiuo onoaaia. Ono?ienoai iieeoe/aneeo
aaieaoia 20 iiya?y 1904 a., nua?aaoeo ?aoathuoth ?ieue a ?acaeoee eii-
noeoooeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey, auei a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aeaeii nithca.

28. AI?UeAA IAAEAeO NOA?UIE
E IIAUIE OA*AIEssIE

Aeayoaeueiinoue iieiaeie aaeaieaoo?u aucuaaea e naaa iiaeic?eoaeueiia io-
iioaiea ni noi?iiu i?aaiia nineiaey. Aeieaia a?aiy yoa aeayoaeueiinoue ni-
aa?oaiii eaii?e?iaaeanue. A 1897 a. a A?thnnaea ninoiyeny ia?aue iaae-
aeoia?iaeiue eiia?ann aaeaieaoia, A aii?inieea, ninoaaeaiiii ath?i eii-

Io/ao iineianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1904-1905 a., n. 54. – I?ei. aao.

a?anna, iinoaaeai aue, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, aii?in: . A.Ae. Nianiae/ ei?aiiui ia?acii n oaeei acaeyaeii
ia niaeanai. Ii oaeeaeyaony (oioy ii e nai i?enoonoaiaae ia eiia?anna),
/oi ieeoi ia ii?ioanoiaae yoiai e?oiiiai ia?aaeiena, ianinoiyoaeueiinoue
eioi?iai i/aaeaeia. . A ionthaea
A.Ae. Nianiae/ caeeth/aao, /oi . E oaeiio auaiaeo A.Ae. Nianiae/ i?eoiaeeo, oioy ii e i?eciaao, /oi
.

Anee n?aaieoue yoe auaiaeu n oaie eaoaai?e/aneeie ooaa?aeaeaieyie,
eioi?ua auneacaiu a i?eaaaeaiiii auoa io/aoa ath?i eiinoeueoaoeee, oi
ynii noaiao, /oi ?aciiaeanea iaaeaeo iooeaie e aeaoueie aanueia nouanoaaiiia,
e /oi ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ieie auea iaieioaia. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oaea ia?aia
aeaenoaea – i?eaeoea a?. Aa?aiooaiaie aeiua/ee ia oeeoea n iaicia/aieai
/ania i?eaia – aucaaei aieueoea oieee a niaaoneeo e?oaao, a iaia?aiea
ioe?uoue eiinoeueoaoeeth ?anniao?eaaeinue eae iieooaiea ia?ooeoue cai?ao
ioe?uaaoue eiioi?u. Eiaaea auea ioe?uoa oeennaeueao?aneay eiinoeueoaoeey,
Niaao ia?aoeeny e Eiiennee n i?aaeeiaeaieai .

E?iia oiai, a Aeaea ia ie?aeiiuo eiinoeueoaoeeyo eiaaony /a?iiaee,
iaienaiiue ?oeie A.Ae. Nianiae/a e caeai/eaathueeny oae: . Caoai, iaeiaei, Niaao ooaa?aeee n
iaeioi?uie eciaiaieyie au?aaioaiiue iiiiuieeaie onoaa, e Io/ao Ath?i
eiinoaoe?oao, /oi eiinoeueoaoeee . Io/ao eae au oi/ao neacaoue, /oi io Niaaoa ie/aai,
e?iia iiiao, iaeuecy auei iaeeaeaoue, i niaeaenoaee eiinoeueoaoeeyi e aiai?eoue
ia/aai. E anee Niaao ia iinoaaee i?aiyonoaee, oi oaea a yoii neaaeoao
aeaeaoue caneoao ?oeiaiaeyuaai i?aaia. Ethaiiuoiui eaaeaony yoio naiioaa-
?aiii iie?iaeoaeuenoaaiiue oii a ioiioaiee Niaaoa, yoi ino?ia i?ioeai-
iinoaaeaiea naieo caaea/ aeayoaeueiinoe Niaaoa.

Iniaaiii ?acei oaeia ioiioaiea i?iyaeyeinue a Iineaa e caeanue iii
i?eaaei e i/aiue ?aoeoaeueiiio noieeiiaaieth. Eae oaea caia/aii auoa,

Io/ao Eiiennee e?iie/anee iacuaaao yo) ia?aieneo n Eiienneae
I?ei aao.

onoaa iineianeie eiinoeueoaoeee ooaa?aeaeai aue Nuacaeii ie?iauo noaeae,
e Niaao ia eiae e iae ieeaeiai ioiioaiey. Ii Niaao iaeciaiii i?iaeieaeae
caieiaoueny aii?inii ia i?aaiecaoeee iiiiuie/anoaa. A 1899 a. i?aaenoaaeea
naie aeieeaae iaeia ec aan/eneaiiuo eiiennee, o/?aaeaeaiiuo aeey ?ac?aaioee
aii?ina. A yoii aeieeaaea, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, niaea?aeeony ?aoeoaeueiia inoae-

aeaiea i?eioeeia ee/iiai iao?iiaoa, onaiaiiiai aeaenoaiaaaoeie e oiio a?a-
iaie i?aaeeaie 3 ia?oa 1890 a., eiaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie a 1895 a., e oeacu-
aaaony, /oi, ca ionoonoaeai eaaaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee iiiiuieeia, iio?aa-
iinoue a yoii noaea oaeiaeaoai?youeny a oi?iao, au?aaioaiiuo naiinoiyoaeueii
e iacaaeneii io eiio?iey e ?oeiaiaeeoaeuenoaa Niaaoa. .

Oaea a yoeo neiaao neuoeony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?eciaiea cia/aiey
oao e?oaeeia, eioi?ua noaee ia?aciauaaoueny n?aaee iieiaeie aaeaieaoo?u, a
n ae?oaie – ii?aaeaeaiii iaicia/aaony io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e iei.
?aaeueii iii aeaei naay ciaoue aeaa aiaea nionoy, eiaaea eiinoeueoaoeey eneeth/eea
ec naiaai ninoaaa iaeiiai ec /eaiia, eioi?ue i?eian ia naieo oiaa?euae
aeaeiao a Niaao. Anoanoaaiii, /oi i?aaeaea anaai aiciee aii?in, iiaeeaaeeo
ee aeaeiaa eiiiaoaioeee Niaaoa, aiaoaoaeuenoai eiaai onoaaii eiinoeueoaoeee
ia i?aaeoniio?aii. Niaao ioaa/aao ia aii?in ooaa?aeeoaeueii, eai . Ii oaeie auaiae aua ia i?aae?aoaao
aii?ina ia ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo Niaaoii e eiinoeueoaoeeae. Ia yoio aii?in
Niaao ioaa/aao aanueia ii?aaeaeaiii: . Oaea
iae yoei auaiaeai e, aua aieueoa, ii oiio eo neia iao?oaeii aeiaaaeaoueny, /oi
Niaao i?eciaao a aeaiiii neo/aa ii?yaeie ia?ooaiiui. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
Niaao iaoae, /oi ia oieueei ia auei ieeaeeo iniiaaiee e eneeth/aieth
aeaeiaueea ec ninoaaa eiinoeueoaoeee, ii /oi aeaenoaey /eaiia ?anii?yaee-
oaeueiie eiiennee eiinoeueoaoeee, ianoaeaeaaoae iiaaaeaiea naiaai /eaia,
canei eneeth/aiiiai c ninoaaa eiinoeueoaoeee, iiaeeaaeao ianoaeaeaieth Niaaoa
a aeenoeeieeia?iii ii?yaeea. Iiyoiio Niaao iinoaiiaeaiea eiinoeueoaoeee
ia eneeth/aiee ioiaiee e ?anii?yaeeoaeueioth eiienneth i?eaeae e aeenoeei-
eeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

A?yae ee ioaeii aeaaea eanaoueny naiie nouiinoe aeaea, iiaeaaoaai iiaiae
e eneeth/aieth /eaia eiinoeueoaoeee e canei e i?eaea/aieth ?anii?yaeeoaeueiie
eiiennee eiinoeueoaoeee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Aaaeii oi, /oi iaaeaeo i?aaenoa-
aeoaeueiui i?aaiii nineiaey e auai?iui i?aaiii eiinoeueoaoeee ieacaeinue
noieue ?aceia ei?aiiia ?aciiaeanea; a iieiii niunea neiaa aaeui aeey iaeieo
eacaeinue oi, /oi ae?oaea n/eoaee /a?iui, e iaiai?io. Caia/aoaeueii i?e
yoii, /oi Niaao i?eciae aeayoaeueiinoue eiinoeueoaoeee /?acau/aeii iieaciie.
Niaao . Ianiio?y ia yoi, eiinoeueoaoeey iaaeiyaony
a oii, /oi iiaaaeaiea aa i?aaenoaaeyaony aeoii aaee/aeoae iani?aaaaeeeainoe;
/oi o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, aei eaeiai caaaaiey naiuo yeaiaioa?iuo o?a-
aiaaiee ni?aaaaeeeainoe, naiuo iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee i?aaa aeioee a yoii
aeaea /eaiu ?anii?yaeeoaeueiie eiiennee e o.i. Ionoue, iaeiaei, eiinoeueoaoeey
e?oaii ia i?aaa, ii i?anoeaeo, a eioi?ii ioaeaeaaony ?aoaiea Niaaoa, aaeaa
ee iiaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue oaeie no?anoiue iieaie/aneee oii. E eiaaea ?a-
oaiea iaiiieiaao eiinoeueoaoeee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe naea?aeaiiinoe ycuea e
acaeiiiai oaaaeaiey oiaa?euae, oi eae aea oeaieoue oaeea caia/aiey ii aae?ano
iaaeiyaiiai, eae /oi ii , /oi , Niaao e o.ae. Oaeie
oii e oaeay no?anoiinoue canoaaeytho aeoiaoue, /oi Niaao aunooiae a ea/anoaa
noi?iiu, a ia a ea/anoaa noaea.

Aua aieaa ino?uie aeieaeiu auee noaoue noieeiiaaiey ia ii/aa no?aieaiey
iieiaeie aaeaieaoo?u i?eiyoue o/anoea a iiiiceoeeiiiuo aunooieaieyo oiai
a?aiaie. Oae, a Iao?ia?aaea a 1903 aiaeo iiaeaioiaeyeinue /anoaiaaiea thaeeay
E..I, Oienoiai e A. A. Ei?ieaiei. A?oiia iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
ia?aoeeanue a Eiienneth n i?aaeeiaeaieai i?eiyoue o/anoea a /anoaiaaiee, i?e/ai
niaea?aeaiea yoiai ia?auaiey ia inoaaeyei ieeaeiai niiiaiey ioiineoaeueii
aai oa?aeoa?a. . Aaeaeo yoiai iiiiuieee
i?ineee nicaaoue iauaa nia?aiea. I?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa A.I. Aa?a?ae ioeacae
a nicuaa (yoi auei ai a?aiy aieacie, naaaeoae aai, nionoy aeaa ianyoea, a
iiaeeo), ii iniiaaieai ioeaca ii aunoaaee ioithaeue ia oa?aeoa? i?aaeiieaaa-
aiiai nia?aiey. .
Nia?aiea iiiiuieeia ia auei nicaaii, ii ia eo noi?iio noaei ianeieueei
iieiaeuo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eioi?ua, a /enea 25, iiaeaee cayaeaiea
i nicuaa iauaai nia?aiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aeey ianoaeaeaiey ai-
i?inia, niyouo i?aaenaaeaoaeai Niaaoa n iiaanoee iauaai nia?aiey ii-
iiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Niaao e ia yoio ?ac nia?aiey ia nicaae,
ii, ni naiae noi?iiu, e i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua eae aoaeoi caauee i naiai
aeaeaiee. I?ioei ianeieueei iaueo nia?aiee, i?aaeaea /ai, nionoy aieueoa
iieoaiaea, ia iauai nia?aiee iiaeiyo aue aii?in, ii/aio Niaao iieiaeee

aeae noeii oiaeaoaenoai 25-oe i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Caeanueauee ane?uou
enoeiiua i?e/eiu ?aciiaeaney. Noi?iiieee nicuaa nia?aiey oi?aeaee
Niaao a oii, /oi ii ia au?aaeaao aiee nineiaey, /oi a nineiaee ?acei
ii?aaeaeeeinue aeaa oa/aiey- . A noi?iiieee Niaaoa (A.A. Ieueoaiianeee, Ae.A. Noania) oo-
aa?aeaeaee, /oi ia iaaei nicuaaoue iauaa nia?aiea, eiaaea anoue iniiaaiea
aeoiaoue, /oi ianaiaa?aiaiiia aicaoaeaeaiea oiai eee ae?oaiai aii?ina iiaeao
eiaoue iaaeaeaoaeueiua aeey nineiaey iineaaenoaey, e /oi oaia?ue eiaiii a?aiy
aeey nineiaey noieue o?oaeiia, /oi eo/oa au iiiaeo aii?inia ia cao?aaeaaoue.

I?eaeeceoaeueii oa aea ?acaiai?u, ii, oae neacaoue, a ia?aoiii ii?yaeea,
i?ienoiaeeee ii iiaiaeo i?eianaiey Niaaoii iicae?aaeaiey I.A. Io?aaueaao
ii neo/ath aeanyoeeaoiaai aai i?aauaaiey ia iinoo ieieno?a thnoeoeee. Iaeia
/anoue nineiaey oi?aeaea Niaao, a ae?oaay aeieacuaaea, /oi iaaei auei i?eianoe
iicae?aaeaiea, /oiau ia iaino?youe ioiioaiee, /oiau iaa?a/ue eioa?anu ni-
neiaey. Cia/aiea yoeo nii?ia noaiao y?/a, anee neacaoue, /oi a naiai ioaaoa
iicae?aaeyaoae aai aeaiooaoeee iieieiue ieieno? thnoeoeee iaaeaeo i?i/ei iiae-
/a?eioe, /oi i?eaaonoaea aaeaieaoo?u aio iniaaiii oeaiii, oae eae iii enoiaeeo
io naiaiaeiiai nineiaey. I/aaeaeii, /oi oa, eoi oae ?aaieai ioiineeenue e
i?eianaieth iicae?aaeaiee, eiaee aeey yoiai aanueia ?aaeueiua i?e/eiu e aua
aieaa eiie?aoii no?aieeenue e oiio, /oiau iaa?a/ue eioa?anu nineiaey.

Ioia/aiiay auoa naiioaa?aiiinoue iieiaeaaee eiaea, ianiiiaiii, oe-
?ieia iniiaaiea a ie?oaeathueo oneiaeyo iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iooeu au-
ioaeaeaiu auee ana aieueoa e aieueoa onooiaoue aiae?iio iano?iaieth, eioi?ia
ioaaoeei aeaoae, e, iaei oiai, naie yoiio iano?iaieth iiaeaeaaaeenue. Iu oaea
aeaeaee, eae a Iao?ia?aaea Oeennaeueao?aneay eiinoeueoaoeey ia iiaeaeaea au-
aeeaeaoue caoyioaoaainy ooaa?aeaeaiey Niaaoii i?aaee, e Niaaoo, ianiio?y
ia ?aoeoaeueiua oa?icu, i?eoeinue n/eoaoueny n niaa?oeaoeiny oaeoii. A
canei a 1903 a. Niaao eiinoaoe?iaae, /oi , e iioiio i?eciae
iaiaoiaeeiui i?eiyoue aieaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiia e aeeaia o/anoea a aeayoaeue-
iinoe eiinoeueoaoeee. Oae, a Iineaa, aicaoaeaeaiiia i?ioea ?anii?yaeeoaeueiie
eiiennee iineianeie eiinoeueoaoeee aeenoeeieeia?iia aeaei iieiaeaii auei
iiae noeii e ia?aiineeinue ec iaeiiai aiaeiaiai ?aano?a a ae?oaie. Oieueei a
i?ioeii, 1913 aiaeo, neaaeiaaoaeueii nionoy eao aeaaiaaeoeaoue, iii auei i?a-
e?auaii oi?iaeueiui iinoaiiaeaieai. E yoiio a?aiaie iiiaea ec i?e-
aea/aiiuo e ioaaonoaaiiinoe naie oaea iaoiaeeeenue a ninoaaa Niaaoa.

23 ai?aey 1904 a. – I?ei. aao.

Iauaa nia?aiea 18 yiaa?y 1904 a. – I?ei. aao.

316

Ii?aceoaeueii i?e yoii, eae auno?i i?eniiniaeyeinue e iiaui ia-
noioaeuenoaai iano?iaiea iooeia. Ia 21 iiya?y 1904 a. iacia/aii auei
ii neo/ath 40-eaoey Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia iauaa nia?aiea i?enyaeiuo ii-
aa?aiiuo e eo iiiiuieeia a iau/iii iiiauaiee a caeaiee noaeaaiuo
onoaiiaeaiee. Ii oo?ii ia eaa?oe?o e i?aaenaaeaoaeth Niaaoa yaeeny niio-
?eoaeue caeaiey e cayaee, /oi iauaa nia?aiea ia iiaeao ninoiyoueny, oae
eae .
Ai?ioa caeaiey ieacaeenue caia?ouie, e nia?aaoeany aaeaieaou ia?aoee
a caeaiea ai?iaeneie aeoiu. I?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa A.I. Oo?/aieiia cayaee
caeanue, /oi nia?aiea ia iiaeao n/eoaoueny caeiiii ninoiyaoeiny, e i?e-
aeanee anao ?acieoenue. Nia?aaoeany ia oieueei ia ?acioeenue, ii, ia-
i?ioea, a ninoiyaoainy canaaeaiee i?eiyee o/anoea e i?aaenaaeaoaeue aianoa
ni anaie /eaiaie Niaaoa. Canaaeaiea caeii/eeinue i?eiyoeai ?aciethoeee
i oii, /oi i?aaeeueiay i?aaiecaoeey ioi?aaeaiey i?aainoaeey iaaiciiaeia
aac ei?aiiie ?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy. Iiae ?aciethoeeae cia/aony
e iiaeiene i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa e anao /eaiia Niaaoa. Iaaeaeo i?i/ei,
n?aaee iiiai/eneaiiuo iiaeienae, eiaaony e iiaeienue A.ss. Ianniaa?a n
oaeie oa?aeoa?iie iaiai?eie: . I/aaeaeii, yoio aea oa?aeoa? iineee e iiae-
iene /eaiia Niaaoa. Aaeaeo oaeiai ioiioaiey Niaaoa, nia?aiea, ii-
noaiiaea niiaueoue i?eiyooth ?aciethoeeth a. ieieno?o aioo?aiieo aeae,
ii?o/eei yoi ia Niaaoo, a eca?aei iniaoth aeaiooaoeeth. Aua iaaeaeth
nionoy, 27 iiya?y, Niaao ianoaeaeae i?aaeeiaeaiea ianeieueeeo /eaiia
i i?aaenoaaeaiee anai ninoaaii Niaaoa a. ieieno?o aioo?aiieo aeae
?aciethoeee, iinoaiiaeaiiie nia?aieai i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e eo
iiiiuieeia 21 iiya?y 1904 aiaea. I?aaeeiaeaiea yoi auei ioeeiiaii
aieinaie: A.Oo?/aieiiaa, A.Ethnoeoa, A.Aei?ia, I.Ie?iiiaa,
E.Aoaiiaa, A.THiea?a, i?ioea: E.Aacoiiaa, I.Eaieaia, I.Ea?aa-
/aaneiai, Ae.Noaniaa e I.Oieoieeiaa. A aua o?e aeiy nionoy, iinea
niaianoiiai ianoaeaeaiey n iineianeei Niaaoii, i?eauaoei a Iao-
?ia?aae, Niaao a oii aea ninoaaa aiiaue ianoaeaeae oio aea aii?in e iaoae,
/oi oioy nineiaea e eeoaii auei 21 iiya?y aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeeueii
nia?aoueny, ii . A i?ioieiea aea nia?aiey ioia/aii, /oi A.I. Oo?/a-
ieiia oaeaea ieeaaaao anai i?enoonoaothuei ?acieoenue>. – I?ei. aao.

iiaeaeaiey>. Niciaaay e ni naiae noi?iiu iaiaueiiaaiioth aaaeiinoue
“i?iaeeaaaiiai ioa/anoaii iiiaioa, . Ia?aay iiaeienue iiae yoei iinoaiia-
eaieai i?eiaaeeaaeeo A.I. Oo?/aieiiao, eioi?ue a 1882 aiaeo iaoiaeee,
/oi aeaaea iinueea niaieaciothuae oaeaa?aiiu ia?eaeneiio ath?i ii neo/ath
nia?oe Aaiaaoou ninoaaeyao aeaiiino?aoeaiia ia?ooaiea i?aaeaeia nineia-
iie eiiiaoaioeee. I?aaaea, iineaaeiee oie/ie oaia?ue aeai aue iineianeei
Niaaoii, eioi?ue, . Ii, aniiieiay iaaeaaiaa i?ioeia, iaeue-
cy oai aieaa ia oaeeaeyoueny, /oi eieoeeaoeaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo iineianeiio Ni-
aaoo. Eiia/ii, Niaao oaea aue ia oio, /oi ?aiueoa, ii aue a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie iaiiaeai . Oioy, iaeiaei, caeanue anoue e eiaia aeaaii ciaeiiua, ii-
noaiiaeaiea auei i?eiyoi aaeeiiaeanii e a iaeiii ec neaaeothueo iaueo
nia?aiee iineianeie aaeaieaoo?u A.A. Iaeeaeia eiae aiciiaeiinoue ca-
yaeoue, aoaeouee enoi?ee ?onneiai ?aiannaina ia caaoaeao iiaaaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u. Caiaoeee ee au, ice?aynue iacaae, /oi a nouiinoe iai i?e- iaaeeaaeeo /anoue ia?aie ii a?aiaie iieeoe/aneie ?aciethoeee... ?aiueoa anao, 20 iiya?y, auea i?eiyoa eiinoeoooeeiiiay ?aciethoeey nia?aieai i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. ss ia caauaath, eiia/ii, caineiai nuacaea 6-8 iiya?y, i?eciath aai a?iiaaeioth aaaeiinoue. Ii yoi auei /anoiia nia?aiea anee ia iieeoe- /aneeo aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia, oi ana-oaee oieueei ia?aaeiauo caineeo ethaeae. Iie e aiai?eee naiei eiaiai, a ia cainoaa. Aia?aua iu aiai?eee ioe- oeeaeueiui eiaiai oeaeie iauanoaaiiie a?oiiu, ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaiiie ei?ii?aoeee> .

Niaao ninoiye e yoiio a?aiaie: ec i?aaenaaeaoaey Ae.E. Iaayaeiineiai, oia. i?aaenaaeaoaey
N.A. Io?iioeaaa e /eaiia: I.A. Aiea/a, A.A. Eaiaeea?a, A.I. Eia?aia, I.I. Ei?aiaaa, A.A. E?th-
eiaa, N.E. Eaaeoeeiai, A.?. Eaaeieoeeiai, I.A. Noieiianeiai, I.A. Oaneaiei e N.E. Oeeaoiaa. –
I?ei aao.

, A.A. E?theia ia o/anoaiaae a niaauaiee. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao iineianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1904-1905 a., n. 44. – I?ei. aao.

29. AeAIENOAAIIIA IOIIOAIEA AEANOE

Eae aea ioianeanue iaaeno?aoo?a e aaeieieno?aoeey e iiaui oa/aieyi a aae-
aieaoo?a? Iu ciaai, /oi ioiioaiey nio?oaeie/anoaa a iauai aeaea, ?eniaaa-
oeany ninoaaeoaeyi Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, auee cia/eoaeueii ia?ooaiu oaea e
eiioeo ia?aiai aeaaaeoeaoeiyoeeaoey. Anee aea i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea, /oi e a
naiie aaeaieaoo?a ia/aeanue aioo?aiiyy ai?ueaa, oi a ?Iii iiaeii auei au
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ioiioaiey aua aieueoa enii?oyony, /oi a?aaeaeaaiia iano?iaiea
e aaeaieaoo?a aua aieaa ?acei ii?aaeaeeony. A ia naiii aeaea acaeiiioiioaiey
yoe neeaaeuaaeenue aeaeaei ia oae i?inoi; iie ieacuaaeinue, iai?ioea, i/aiue
neiaeiuie e, oae neacaoue, caoaeeeauie. I?e/ei oiai aeieai eneaoue ia i?e-
oiaeeony. N iaeiie noi?iiu, oi iano?iaiea, eioi?ia iinoaiaiii iaeaaeaei anai
iauanoaii, ia iiaei ia iaeiaeeoue naiaai ioia/aoea e ia noaeaeneea noa?u.
Ii, n ae?oaie – iieiaeaiea noaea noaiiaeeinue a ie?oaeathueo oneiaeyo ana
o?oaeiaa. A /anoiinoe, ioiineoaeueii noaea i?enyaeiuo i?ioanni? Oieieoeeee,
iai?eia?, caia/aao, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue aai iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io
ie?oaeathueo oneiaee. . Auaoee ieieno? thnoeoeee I.A. Io?aaueaa a iaeiii ec anaiiae-
aeaiiaeoeo aeieeaaeia aac anyeeo iaeiyeia oeacuaae, /oi noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia
. Auyniyy
aeaeaa, aaea oaeony yoi ianiioaaonoaea, I.A. Io?aaueaa eiinoaoe?iaae, /oi a
naiiaea?aeaaiii ainoaea?noaa noae . Aio ii/aio, iiyniyao aeaeueoa ieieno?, .
Ueaeaa ee ioaeii /oi-eeai i?eaaaeyoue e yoie y?eie oa?aeoa?enoeea iieiaeaiey
o ian noaea. Neaaeoao .eeoue niiaa iaiiiieoue, /oi anyeia iiae/eiaiea noaea ii-
noi?iiiei aeeyieyi aeieaeii auei io?aceoueny ia iieiaeaiee aaeaieaoo?u, ii-
neieueeo iia ionoaeaaea caeiiiue ii?yaeie, ia n/eoaynue ie n eaeeie .

Ethaiiuoiaeoee iaaeyaeiue i?eia? i?aaenoaaeyao ciaeiiue oaea iai
aii?in i i?aaeaeao eiiiaoaioeee noaea i?enyaeiuo. I?eia? yoio oai eioa-
?aniaa, /oi ii niiaa iaiiieiaao i ia?aeeaeecia a iieiaeaiee aaeaieaoo?u

” noaea i?enyaeiuo. Aeaei a oii, /oi /ai aeaeueoa, oai ana /aua noae i?enyaeiuo
(;.].aee auiineoue ii?aaaeaoaeueiua aa?aeeeou e i?e iaee/iinoe niciaiey iiaeno-
aeeiuo. Iiieii ioia/aiiuo auoa i?io. Oieieoeeei i?e/ei oaeiai yaeaiey,
caeanue ioaeii aua oeacaoue ia na?ueaciua iaaeinoaoee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey,
eioi?ua ?ane?uaaeenue, aeaaiaea?y oneeeyi caueou, ia noaeaaiii neaaenoaee e
niaa?oaiii eciaiyee ianoaiiaeo e ea?oeio i?anooieaiey. Ii?aaaeaoaeueiua
aa?aeeeou anoanoaaiii iaaniieieee Ieienoa?noai, eioi?ia ecaeaei oee?eoey?,
iai?aaeeueii ?anoe?yaoee iieiiii/ey i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae ia i?aaeuya-
eaiea oiaeaoaenoa i iiieeiaaiee. I?aaenaaeaoaeyi ie?oaeiuo noaeia aiaiaii
auei a iaycaiiinoue ?acuyniyoue yoi i?enyaeiui canaaeaoaeyi e oai i?ioeai-
aeaenoaiaaoue eo oyaioaieth e ii?aaaeaoaeueiui aa?aeeeoai. Ii i?aaenaaeaoaee
iioee aeaeueoa e, iie?aynue ia ciaeiiia iai naiaoneia ?acuyniaiea ii aeaeai
Nae?eaeiaa e Iaeueieoeeeo, noaee ?aoeoaeueii aini?auaoue caueoieeai i?ineoue
noae i?enyaeiuo ia ii?aaaeaiee niciaaoeony iiaenoaeeiuo. Iaeii ec oaeeo aeae
aeioei aei I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, e Naiao ?acuyniee, /oi . Iiy-
oiio Naiao, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, iinoaiiaee ia?aaeaoue aeaenoaey i?enyaeiiai iiaa-
?aiiiai ia ?anniio?aiea Niaaoa.

Yoi ?aoaiea aucaaei aieueoia aieiaiea n?aaee aaeaieaoo?u. A Iineaa,
a iauai nia?aiee 14 aeaeaa?y 1903 a., auea i?eiyoa, ii i?aaeeiaeaieth
I.I. Iaeyioiae/a, neaaeothuay ?aciethoeey: . A Iao?ia?aaea aii?in ianoaeaeaeny ia iauai nia?aiee 18 yiaa?y
1904 a. Caeanue oaeaea i?eiyoa auea ?aciethoeey i oii, /oi eaaeaeue caueoiee
a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea yoi, ii aai oaaaeaeaieth, i?aaenoaaeyaony ni?aaaaeeeaui,
iiaeao aeieacuaaoue iaaeiiaiinoue niciaaoaainy iiaenoaeeiiai . Aii?in ai?y/i

No. 74 Ono. oaie. noaeii?. –
Ni. , 1903, n. 2330. – I?ei. aao.

?aciethoeey auea i?eiyoa aieueoeinoaii i?enoonoaiaaaoeo i?ioea o?ao. (Io/ao iineianeiai
iaa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1903-1904 a., n. 128). – I?o/. aao.

~7oa ?aciethoeey auea i?eiyoa iieueoeinoaii aieinia, ii iaiueoeinoai ia niaeanii aueiei ia n
?uiy a iae iuneyie, a iaoiaeeei iaioaeiui i?eiyoea ?aciethoeee. – I?ei. aao.

aeaaaoe?iaaeny e a iao?ia?aaeneii e a oa?ueeianeii th?eaee/aneeo iauanoaao,
aaea oi/ii oae aea acaeyae I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa ia ano?aoee iiae-
aea?aeee.

Yoi aaeeiiaeooea ia i?iecaiaeeei, iaeiaei, ia i?aaenaaeaoaeae ie?oaeiuo
noaeia ieeaeiai aia/aoeaiey. Iai?ioea, i?iecioae aeaaea oaeie neo/ae, /oi
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuee oaeaeee caueoieea ec caea canaaeaiey ca oi, /oi ii
a ?a/e naiae oeacae i?enyaeiui canaaeaoaeyi ia eo i?aai ii?aaaeaoue ni-
ciaaoaainy iiaenoaeeiiai. Ii eannaoeeiiiie aeaeiaa ia iineaaeiaaaoee i?e
yoeo oneiaeyo aa?aeeeo aii?in niiaa aue iinoaaeai ia ?ac?aoaiea I?aae-
oaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa a i?enoonoaea aeaia?oaiaioa. Iaa?-i?ieo?i?ii oai-
eiaiiai eannaoeeiiiiai aeaia?oaiaioa a oi a?aiy aue E.A. Oeaaeiaeoia,
oieueei /oi ia yoo aeieaeiinoue iacia/aiiue. Caeeth/aiea ii ianoiyuaio
aeaeo auei aai ia?aui eannaoeeiiiui caeeth/aieai e oai neeueiaa i?eaeaeei
e naaa aieiaiea. E. A. Uaaeiaeoia oaeoaee aii?in aei naiuo ei?iae aai
e auyniee cia/aiea caueou a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna aiiaua. Ii iaoiaeee,
/oi caueoa ea?aao aniiiiaaoaeueioth ?ieue a aeaea ioi?aaeaiey oaieiaiiai
i?aainoaeey, /oi iiyoiio o/anoea caueoieea ninoaaeyao iaiaoiaeeiia i?i-
oeannoaeueiia oneiaea, e /oi aeey . Caueoa ii naiaio nouanoao
naiaiaeia e ia iiaeao auoue noaniaia ia noaea, anee oieueei iia ia ia?ooaao
o?aaiaaiey no. 745 ono. o. n. e ia i?eaiaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoa, ia auaoeo i?aae-
iaoii noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey. . I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao ioiaiee i?eaiai? noaea, ainnoa-
iiaea, oaeei ia?acii, i?aaa caueou, a iaa?-i?ieo?i? iieo/ee ianno i?e-
aaonoaaiiuo oaeaa?aii io aaeaieaoo?u.

Yoio i?eia? aanueia iaaeyaeii iieacuaaao, a eaeeo oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao
eieaaaeenue ioiioaiey iaaeno?aoo?u e aaeaieaoo?a, e eae, ia?yaeo ni noieue
oi?aeanoaaiiui i?eciaieai aunieiai iacia/aiey aaeaieaoo?u, oaeeaaeinue
naiia iaaeinoieiia o?aoe?iaaiea aa, eae oa?ieiiai cea. Caeanue, iaeiaei, ?ac-
eay aeaienoaaiiinoue ioiioaiee au?inea ia ii/aa i?eioeeieaeueiiai aii?ina,
aeaaii oaea neoaeeaoaai enoi/ieeii iaaei?acoiaiee. Ii e a noaeaaiii iaeoiaea
aiiaua caia/aeanue oa aea aeaienoaaiiinoue, iauyniyaiay anaoeaei i?e/eiaie,
ioia/aiiuie I.A. Io?aaueaaui a i?eaaaeaiiie ?a/e aai. Auoa oaea neacaii,
/oi aunooieaiea e?oaeea oaieiaiuo caueoieeia a Iineaa iieueciaaeinue

, 1904 a., n. 515. – I?ei. aao.

. e o.i. – I?ei. aao.

iie?iaeoaeuenoaii ni noi?iiu iaeiiai ec oiaa?euae i?aaenaaeaoaey iineia-
neiai Ie?oaeiiai Noaea Eea?ea, Aua aieaa ni/oanoaaiii ioiineeny e aea-
yoaeueiinoe iieiaeie aaeaieaoo?u noa?oee i?aaenaaeaoaeue iineianeie Noaeaa-
iie Iaeaou A.I. Iiiia. Ia aai ioiioaiee iiaeii noaeeoue ii noaouea,
iaia/aoaiiie ei a ioeoeeiciii i?aaia – . Iiaiaeii aeey noaouee iineoaeeei aeaei ?aai/aai Aeioeia. , ia aeieaeia eiaoue i?eiaiaiey. Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa
inoaaeea i?eaiai? a neea. Caueoiee Aeioeia iiaeae eannaoeeiiioth aeaeiao,
Naiao ia oniio?ae i?eciaeia oaieiaii iaeacoaiiai aeayiey e ioiaiee i?e-
aiai? Iaeaou ioiineoaeueii Aeioeia. Ii iieo/aiee a Iaeaoa yoiai oeaca
caueoieee i?i/eo ?aai/eo caaeee o?aaiao: ioaeii auei oeiiioaoue i oii,
/oiau Iaeaoa ainnoaiiaeea anai yoei ?aai/ei n?ie ia iaaeaeiaaiea i?e-
aiai?a, ioaeii auei caoai i?eianoe io eo eiaie aeaeiau a Naiao e i?e
yoii i?aaenoaaeoue eannaoeeiiiua caeiae. Iineaaeiaa auei, aa?iyoii, ini-
aaiii cao?oaeieoaeueii, eai ca 20 ?aai/eo i?aaenoiyei oieaoeoue 500 ?oaeae,
a o caueoieeia, eioi?ua caueuatho aaaeiuo ?aai/eo iaueiiaaiii aac ieaou,
ia anaaaea auaatho naiaiaeiua aeaiueae a oaeie noiia. Aiai?eee, /oi i?eoeinue
i?eaaaiooue e caeio aeaiaa o iaeiiai ec aieaa ninoiyoaeueiuo aaeaieaoia. *anoue
e neaaa oaieiaiie caueoa! Iia aeaaea aoaeo/e noaniyaia i?aiiiaie a io-
i?aaeaiee naiaai aeieaa e ia eiay aunieie iennee auoue , oai ia iaiaa i?iyaeea a nai aeaea, ianeieueei eiaiii iia .

Ii, eae oaea neacaii, eiaiii oaeia ioiioaiea caueou e naiei caaea/ai
e aeieaeii auei iaecaaaeii i?eaanoe e noieeiiaaieyi. Iaeii ec iaeaieaa
caiaoiuo noieeiiaaiee, /?aaaouo iineaaenoaeyie, i?iecioei 6 naioya?y
102 a. i?e neooaiee a oa?ueeianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaoa aeaea ia aa?a?iuo
aanii?yaeeao a Aaeeneii oacaea. Caueoa iinoaaeea naaa oeaeueth onoaiiaeoue,
/oi aei noaea iiaenoaeeiua iiaeaa?aioou auee oyaeaeiio oaeaniiio iaeacaieth.
“niio?y ia oi, /oi caueoieee nnueaeenue ia naiaoneia ?aoaiea, eioi?ia

, 1904 a., ei. 4, n. 161. – I?ei. aao.

322

aeaaaei ei i?aai ia oaeia auyniaiea, i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuee ?aoeoaeueii
aini?aoee caueoieeai caaeaaaoue niioaaonoaothuea aii?inu naeaeaoaeyi.
Aaeaeo yoiai I.A. Oaneaiei io eiaie anae caoeou i?aaenoaaee cayaeaiea,
a eioi?ii aiai?eeinue, /oi caueoa oaaaeeeanue, /oi iiaenoaeeiua, i?aaeaea /ai
auee i?aaeaiu noaeo ii iaaeiaieth a i?eienuaaaiuo ei aeayieyo, iioa?iaee
ca ieo iaeacaiea: auee iiaeaa?aioou oyaeaeiio oaeaniiio iaeacaieth ?ic-
aaie, e a ianoao aeeoaeuenoaa iiaenoaeeiuo aue iacia/ai iinoie aiene, ni-
aea?aeaiea eioi?uo ii naeai e ai?iaeai auei aiceiaeaii ia iiaenoaeeiuo,
/oi ii iniiaiiio iieiaeaieth oaieiaiiai i?aaa ieeoi ia iiaeao auoue iaeacai
aeaaaeaeu ca iaeii e oi aea; iaaeaeo oai iiaenoaeeiua ca aeayiey, ninoaaeythuea
i?aaeiao aeaea, iiaeaa?aeenue ea?ai, i?aauoathuei ea?u, iacia/aaiua ca oa
aea aeayiey ii oaieiaiui caeiiai; /oi cia/aiea iaeacaiee, iiianaiiuo
iiaenoaeeiuie ii ?anii?yaeaieth aaeieieno?aoeaiie aeanoe, io/anoe oeacaii
e ?acuyniaii a ?aoaiee I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa 1873 a. ? 32, /oi
i?aaenaaeaoaeai aini?auaii eanaoueny ianoiyoaeuenoa, eeiiyueony e auynia-
ieth iiianaiiuo iiaenoaeeiuie iaeacaiee e /oi oaeei aini?auaieai ec
?anniio?aiey Iniaiai I?enoonoaey Iaeaou ono?aiaiu aeiaiaeu e niia?a-
aeaiey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee au eiaoue ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia i?eaiai?,
/oi ?aaiineeueii eeoaieth aiciiaeiinoe caueuaoue iiaenoaeeiuo. Aaeaeo yoiai
caueoieee e cayaeytho ia ioeaca eo io aeaeueiaeoaai o/anoey a aeaea.

Cayaeaiea caueou i?iecaaei ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea, e oa?ueeianeay No-
aeaaiay Iaeaoa ia?aaeaea aii?in i iiaaaeaiee caueoieeia ia ?anniio?aiea
Niaaoa, eioi?ue ia iaoae a yoeo aeaenoaeyo ie/aai iiaeeaaeauaai aeenoeei-
eeia?iiio acuneaieth. I?ieo?aoo?a i?eianea i?ioano, a eioi?ii iiae/a?-
eeaaea eieeaeoeaiue oa?aeoa? cayaeaiey e aeaiiino?aoeaiinoue aai oi?iu.
ss?/a ?acaeea yoo iuneue iao?ia?aaeneay i?ieo?aoo?a ii ae?oaiio aiaeiae/-
iiio aeaeo, iiyniea, /oi a cayaeaiee i?iaiaeeony iuneue, aoaeoi i?ioeann
aaaeaony noieue iai?aainoaeii, /oi caueoa, ia aoaeo/e a ninoiyiee eniieieoue
naith caaea/o, i?aaenoaaeyaony i?e aeaiiuo oneiaeyo aaniieaciith. . Oioy, oaeei ia?acii, i?ieo?aoo?a iinoaaeea aii?in ?aa-
?ii, iineianeay Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa (iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii oaea oiiiyiooiai
A.I. Iiiiaa) oiaea ia oniio?aea a iiaaaeaiee caueoieeia ia?ooaiey
eaeie-eeai aiceiaeaiiie ia ieo iaycaiiinoe. Ioiineoaeueii aea oi?iu e
niaea?aeaiey cayaeaiey Iaeaoa iaoea, /oi iiaea/a yoiai cayaeaiey oeaeie
a?oiiie aaeaieaoia e eieeaeoeaiinoue yoiai cayaeaiey oea-

cuaaao eeoue ia iauiinoue eioa?ania caueou ii aeaiiiio aeaeo e caiaiyao
ainaiue iaeii?iaeiuo cayaeaiee. Ii oi?ia aea cayaeaiea niieieiia, naea?-
aeaiiia e ie a /ai iaoaaaeaiey e Iniaiio I?enoonoaeth Noaeaaiie Iaeaou,
ie inoaeaeaiey aeaenoaee aa i?aaenaaeaoaey ia au?aaeaao.

Anee. ii niaaoo i?ieo?aoo?u, aieeiooue a yoe ?annoaeaeaiey, oi a ieo
iaeuecy ia i?i/anoue oi?aea oa?ueeianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaoa, aicaoaeeaoae
aeenoeeieeia?iia aeaei i?e ionoonoaee e oiio eaeiai-eeai iiaiaea. Ai?i/ai,
eiaaea ioiineoaeueii ae?oaie a?oiiu caueoieeia, iiaeaaaeiiuo oa?ueeianeiio
Niaaoo, aii?in yoio i?eoeinue ianoaeaeaoue naiie aea oa?ueeianeie Iaeaoa,
oi e iia, oioy e i?eciaea eo aeiiaiuie, ii i?eaiai?eea e iecoae ia?a
acuneaiey, .

Oaeei ia?acii, aicaoaeaeaiea aeenoeeieeia?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa oieueei
neeueiaa iiae/a?eioea cia/aiea i?aaeuyaeaiiiai ioeaca io caueou e neeo
i?iecaaaeaiiiai yoei aia/aoeaiey. Ii yoei aeaei ia ia?aie/eeinue. Iinea-
aeiaaei aiaoaoaeuenoai ananeeueiiai oiaaea ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae Ieaaa.
Aiaoaoaeuenoai yoi oae iienuaaao I.A. Oaneaiei a ienueia ei iia: .

Oae ?acaiaa?eaae aee?aeoi? aeaia?oaiaioa ain. iieeoeee n I.A. Oaneaiei.
Ii neiaii ia?i/ii, aeey oiai, /oiau aua ?ac/a iiae/a?eiooue cia/aiea ioeaca
io caueou, iaeiia?aiaiii n Oaneaiei aue aucaai e A.A. Eiiooeio e ae?oaie
caueoiee ii oiio aea aeaeo, i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue I.E. Io?aaueaa, n
eioi?ui, iaeiaei, ?acaiai? iinee niaa?oaiii ae?oaie oa?aeoa?. A.A. Ei-
iooei niiauee I.E. Io?aaueaao, /oi ieieno? aioo?aiieo aeae icaai/ai
i?ae?auaieai aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?ani?aau e iiaac a Eeaaaeeth aeieeaae i
ia?aaea/a iieeoe/aneeo aeae ia ?ac?aoaiea noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Iiyoiio
aeey aaeaieaoo?u ioe?uaaaony iiaia oe?ieia iiea aeayoaeueiinoe, e ieieno?
iaaeaaony, /oi aaeaieaou aoaeoo noiyoue ia aunioa caaea/e e naiei iiaaaeaieai
aoaeoo niinianoaiaaoue A.E. Ieaaa aeieacaoue, /oi aai no?aieaiea caiaieoue
aaeieieno?aoeaiue i?iecaie noaeaaiui ?anniio?aieai auei i?aaeeueii.

Yoa ?aceay ?acieoea a i?eaiao aicaeaenoaey ?aaiui ia?acii ia naeaea-
oaeuenoaoao ia oaa?aiiinoe a naieo neiaao. A ia aaeaieaoo?o, iai?ioea, ie
oa?icu, ie caeneeaaiey ia i?iecaaee ieeaeiai aia/aoeaiey. Ioeacu io
caueou noaiiaeeenue ana aieaa /anouie, iaeciaiii nii?iaiaeaeaynue iioe-
ae?iaaiiuie cayaeaieyie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie niiniau aaaeaiey aeaea ia
noaea.

*oiau iieii/eoue n oa?aeoa?iie aeaienoaaiiinoueth, ioaeii i?eaanoe aua
iaeei aanueia ciaiaiaoaeueiue yieciae. Auoa oaea oiiieiaeinue, /oi a Iao-
?ia?aaea iauaa nia?aiea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, iacia/aiiia ia 21 iiya?y
1904 a. a iciaiaiiaaiea ni?ieaeaoey Noaeaaiuo Onoaaia, ia iiaei ninoi-
youeny, oae eae ana aoiaeu a caeaiea noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee ieacaeenue ca-
ia?ouie. I?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa iauyniee, /oi oo?ii oiai aea aeiy aio io
eiaie einiaeoi?a caeaiey (i?ieo?i?a Noaeaaiie Iaeaou) auei cayaeaii,
/oi nia?aiea ia ?ac?aoaaony, oae eae oeaeue nia?aiey ia niioaaonoaoao ia-
cia/aieth caeaiey noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee. A naiae aeaeiaa ieieno?o thnoeoeee
A.I. Oo?/aieiia, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, oeacae, /oi i?aai i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
niae?aoueny a caeaiee inayuaii ni?ieaeaoiae o?aaeeoeeae, e ia einiaeoi?o
caeaiey noaeeoue i oii, a /ai ninoieo oeaeue nia?aiey. . Oioy yoe aeiaiaeu e eaaeoony aannii?iuie, iiaeii auei, ia
caaeoiuaaynue, i?aaeneacaoue, /oi aeaeiaa aoaeao inoaaeaia aac iineaaenoaee,

ai o?oaeii auei aeiionoeoue, /oiau i?ieo?i? Noaeaaiie Iaeaou ?aoeeny,
ia naycaaoenue n Ieienoa?noaii THnoeoeee, ia?ooeoue o?aaeeoeeth, i?eoii
ii noieue iaoaeiaiiio iiaiaeo. E oaeeaeaieth, iaeiaei, II yiaa?y 1905 a. aee-
?aeoi? aeaia?oaiaioa Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee oaaaeiiee i?aaenaaeaoaey Ni-
aaoa, /oi . Iaeuecy i?e yoii ia aniiiieoue
aua, /oi ?anii?yaeaiea iineaaeiaaei iinea oiai, eae nia?aiea 21 iiya?y
ana aea ninoiyeinue a ai?iaeneie aeoia e auianei ?aciethoeeth ia eciaiaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy.

Yoio i?eia? aianoa n oai iieacuaaao, /oi aeaienoaaiiinoue ioiioaiee
?acaeaeaaeanue ana oe?a e oe?a. Anee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aaeaieaoo?a iieo/aea
y?eea naeaeaoaeuenoaa, /oi n iae n/eoathony, eae n i?aaieciaaiiie neeie, /oi
aa ?ieue a ionoaeaaiee caeiiiinoe e i?aaa noaiiaeony ana aieaa iaoaeiaiie
aeey nia?aiaiiiai ?aaeeia, oi, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, e oa?icu A.E. Ieaaa,
ia?auaiiua e I.A. Oaneaiei, ia inoaeenue onoiuie neiaaie. Ia eanaynue
oao neo/aaa, eioi?ua, eae caia/aii, ?ac?aoaeenue ioeacii caueou io naieo
iaycaiiinoae, ethaiiuoii iiniio?aoue, eae io?aaeaeinue yoi iano?iaiea a
noaeaaiuo aoaeiyo. Caeinoaoth iaoaea/o ec io/ao i aeaea ii iaae-
iaieth o?ao oaoa? a nayoioaonoaa, aeaea, ia i?eaeaeoai aieiaiey e neooaa-
oainy a aeaeaeie aeooe, a A?iaae?a. Aio io?uaie ec io/aoa:

Iii?iaoai oieueei niiinoaaeoue yoio oaeo n oai, /oi aiai?ee iaa?-i?i-
eo?i? E,A. Uaaeiaeoia i cia/aiee caueou ia noaea. A aaaeue iaa?-i?ieo?i?
ioithaeue ia aue iaeeiieei; any i?ieo?aoo?a, iai?ioea, i?aeniieieeanue, ii-
aeaeeiiio, aai acaeyaeia. A naieo i?ioanoao ia iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoia
ia inaiaiaeaeaiee io ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ioeacaa-
oeony ai a?aiy noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey io caueou, i?aaenoaaeoaee i?ieo-

, 1905 a., n. 46. – I?ei. aao.

?aoo?u aanueia e?anii?a/eai aeieacuaaee, /oi aii?in i caueoa eiaao cia-
/aiea iaeiiai ec aaaeiaeoeo noaeii?iecaiaenoaaiiuo einoeoooia. .
I?e oaeeo acaeyaeao ia caaea/e caueou – eae iia neo/eoueny i?eaaaeaiiue
auoa eioeeaeaio, a anee ii neo/eeny, oi eae iiaei auoue aeiiouaii, /oiau
i?aaenaaeaoaeue ia aue i?eaea/ai e aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe?

Iaaeaeo oai, aaeieieno?aoeey aeaenoaiaaea a ioiioaiee aaeaieaoo?u aua
ai?acaei ?aoeoaeueiaa. Ia nuacaea ?onneie a?oiiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nithca
e?eieiaeenoia I.A. Aa?aiooai ioiaoee, /oi . I?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue I.Ae. Nieieia, aunoo-
ieaoee a?aaeaeaineei enooeii a eeoeiaaneii i?ioeanna i iia?iia, aue a?an-
oiaai, iinaaeai a oth?ueio e caoai iiaeaa?any aaeieieno?aoeaiie aunueea ca
oi, /oi, eae neacaii auei a iinoaiiaeaiee aoaa?iaoi?a , ii ?ani?ino?aiye
ia noaea e aia noaea eiaeiua naaaeaiey i i?e/eiao iia?iia. Iuneeii ee
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa aiciiaeiinoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ia?aoiaea io i?eaaaeaiiuo
neia e iiaeiaiui aeaenoaeyi?

30. AINIIAeNOAI IIEEOE*ANEEO CAAeA*

Iiya?ue 1904 aiaea, eiaaea eniieieeinue ni?ieaeaoea noaeaaiuo onoaaia,
ninoaaeyao aannii?ii eoeueieiaoeeiiiue ioieo a aeecie ?onneie aaeaieaoo?u.
Iauea nia?aiey 20-21 iiya?y i?ioee n ?aaeeei aaeeiiaeooeai e eneeth-
/eoaeueiui iiaeuaiii. A Iao?ia?aaea ?acaeaeny oieueei iaeei aiein I.O. Ao-
eaoeaey i?ioea i?eiyoey ?aciethoeee , e e iaio i?eniaaeeieeenue aeaa ec /enea

, 1905 a.. n. 355-356. – I?ei. aao.

Aoaa?iaoi?ii oiaaea aue eiycue O?onia, aiineaaenoaee /eai Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu 1-ai nicuaa,
i?ineaaeaoeeny ?a/ueth eiaiii i iia?iiao. – I?ei. aao.

A iiaeaiiii ieieno?o aioo?aiieo aeae cayaeaiee I.O. Aoeaoeaeue eaoaai?e/anee ii?iaa?aae,
aoaeoi au i?e nia?aiaiiii ?aaeeia aiiaoa iaiuneeii ieeaeia aeooiaiia i?aoniayiea ia?iaea e iaaic-
iiaeii aeaaea i?aaeeueiia ioi?aaeaiea i?aainoaeey. – I?ei. aao.

i/ i?enoonoaiaaaoeo. A Iineaa a ninoiyaoainy 20 iiya?y iauai ni-
ae?aeiee ?aciethoeey auea i?eiyoa aaeeiiaeanii. Noiee/iua nia?aiey iaoee
c?y/ee ioeeee n?aaee i?iaeioeeaeueiie aaeaieaoo?u, e ni anao eiioeia ?innee
noaee iinooiaoue oaeaa?aiiu i i?eniaaeeiaiee e i?eiyoui ?aciethoeeyi eee
i ninoaaeaiee aiaeiae/iuo. Ana oaeea ?aciethoeee naiae enoiaeiie oi/eie
iaeciaiii noaaeee aeinoeaeaiea aunieeo oeaeae i?aainoaeey. . Oae aiai?ee iineianeee
Niaao a ?aciethoeee, i?aaenoaaeaiiie ieieno?o aioo?aiieo aeae . Iao?ia?aae-
neee Niaao iooaiee oio oaeo, /oi .

Oaeei ia?acii, oiaeaoaenoaoy i aaaaeaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai no?iy, aae-
aieaou aiana ia auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu /enoi i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaea/. Iie
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi nouanoaothuee ?aaeei eeoaao aiciiaeiinoe eniieiyoue
aaeaieaoneea iaycaiiinoe, e niciatho, /oi oieueei ei?aiiia i?aia?aciaaiea
iiaeao iaania/eoue yoo aiciiaeiinoue. Noaey aea ii anaio, /oi auei aei neo
ii? neacaii, iaeuecy ia i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi oaeay iinoaiiaea aii?ina
aeaeaea io anyeie eneonnoaaiiinoe, /oi aaeaieaoo?a auno?aaeaea naia i?aai
ia iiaeiaiua cayaeaiey, oae neacaoue, ?ai niiaei 5ea.

Iaia?oaeeaoeeny iiaeuai iano?iaiey i?e iauiinoe acaeyaeia anoano-
aaiii i?eaae e iunee i ?anoe?aiee oi?i iauaiey aaeaieaoo?u, eioi?ua
nouanoaiaaee e oiio a?aiaie, e au?aceeny a iaia?aiee i?aaieciaaoue ana-
?inneeneee nithc aaeaieaoia. Aeey yoie oeaee nicaai aue a Iao?ia?aaea
28-30 ia?oa 1905 a. e ninoiyeny, ianiio?y ia na?ueaciua aiaoiea i?a-
iyonoaey , ia?aue ana?inneeneee nuacae aaeaieaoia.

Io/ao iineianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, 1904-1905 a., n. 34, 35. – I?ei. aao.
” Io/ao iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, 1904-I a., n. 39. – I?ei. aao.
I I?eacaeei o/anoieeai nuacaea iieeoeey a?o/aea oaeea iauyaeaiey: .

*eaiu nuacaea i?eciaaaee, /oi a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai Ana?inneeneee
nuacae aaeaieaoia aoaeao eiaoue ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey i?ioanneiiaeueiie aea-
yoaeueiinoe aaeaieaoo?u, iiiiaay, iooai nuacaeia, eeoa?aoo?u e oaniiai ia-
uaiey, ?ac?aaioea, niaa?oainoaiaaieth e iauaaeeiaieth i?aaee aaeaieaoneie
yoeee e i?aaiecaoeee noa?oeo e ieaaeoeo /eaiia nineiaey. Ii iaeaa/eo
iiaeaea?aeaiea /anoe e aeinoieinoaa ai anai nineiaee aaeaieaoia, niaeaenoaoy
iiaeuaio i?aanoaaiiiai o?iaiy, ia?aaeaeay /eaiia nineiaey io i?iecaiea e
ono?aiyy i?e/eiu, noaniythuea eo aeayoaeueiinoue.

Ii iiiiaeao iauaaeeieoue, ?anoe?eoue e oiiiaeeoue o/?aaeaeaiey, no?aiy-
ueany auiieiyoue iauanoaaiiua caaea/e aaeaieaoo?u, iai?eia?, ii ieacaieth
th?eaee/aneie iiiiue ia?iaeo e ii caueoa eeoe, i?eaeaeaaiuo ii iieeoe-
/aneei aeaeai e iino?aaeaaoei a ai?ueaa ca naie oaaaeaeaiey. Nithc ieaaeao
ae?aaioeaiiua oneoae iaoea i?aaa e noaeaaiie i?aeoeea, iauaaeeiyy e ?ac?a-

ie /anoiua, ia iiaoo auoue aeiiouaiu ie a ioaee/iuo, ie a /anoiuo nia?aieyo. I?eeac i cai?auaiee
nuacaea aue iauyaeai iieeoeeae 28 e 29 ia?oa a iiiauaieyo, aaea auee nia?aiey, oai ia iaiaa
ii o/anoaiaae a nia?aiee 30 ia?oa ia Na?aeaaneie oe., a ae. 15, ea. 4, iioiio i?enoaa oiieiiii/ai
nia. a?aaeiia/aeueieeii iauyaeoue , /oi, ii ?anii?yaeaieth a. aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, aio i?aaeeaaaaony
aeia?iaieueii inoaaeoue noieeoeo a nooi/iue n?ie, ai ecaaaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?eiaiaiey e iaio aae-
ieieno?aoeaiuo ia? oaeaeaiey. Anee i?aauaaiea a Iaoa?ao?aa aucuaaaony ae?oaeie caeiiiuie iiai-
aeaie, oi oaeinoiaa?aiea oaeiauo a nooi/iue aea n?ie aeieaeii auoue i?aaenoaaeaii a. nia. a?aaeiia/aeue-
ieeo>. – I?ei. aao.

aaouaay aiaaoue iaoa?eae, ii/a?iuaaaiue /eaiaie nineiaey ec naiae i?i-
oanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nithc iiiiaeao caeiiiaeaoaeueiie ?aaioa aoaeouaai ?onneiai ia?eaiaioa,
iiiiaay ?ac?aaioea e ianoaeaeaieth caeiiii?iaeoia. Aai aaneia iiaiea ia-
?iaeiua i?aaenoaaeoaee ioeaiyo ii aeinoieinoao.

Iaeiiaoe, ana?inneeneee nithc aaeaieaoia aoaeao niaeaenoaiaaoue inouano-
aeaieth ia?ii?eyoee, eeiiyueony e iaoa?eaeueiiio iaania/aieth /eaiia
nineiaey e eo naiaenoa, ia neo/ae nia?oe, aieacie eee ianiiniaiinoe e
o?oaeo. Io iauaaeeiaiiie aaeaieaoo?u neaaeoao aeaeaoue ?aoaiey o?oaeiiai, ii
iaioeiaeiiai aii?ina i iaineiiiie eanna e eiuo aeaeao acaeiiiiiiue.

Niciaaay ia?iiiia iauanoaaiii-i?ioanneiiaeueiia cia/aiea nithca e
i?aaeaeaey oo ?aaioo, eioi?oth i?aaenoieo aio auiieieoue ia yoii iii?eua
a aoaeouai, nuacae oai ia iaiaa n/ae ioaeiui, aaeaeo iniaaiiinoe ia?aaee-
aaaiiai no?aiie iiiaioa, iinayoeoue naie canaaeaiey aeaaiui ia?acii ia-
noaeaeaieth iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo caaea/ nithca>. Canei I.A. Oaneaiei
iciaeiiee nia?aiea n iinoaiiaeaieyie nuacaea, a iauai niaiaaeathueie n
eiinoeoooeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie i?ia?aiiie nuacaea caineeo e ai?iaeneeo
aeayoaeae.

Anei?a iinea nuacaea iaeioi?ua /eaiu aai ca o/anoea a nithca aaeaieaoia
i?eaea/aiu auee e aeaiaea?ineiio aeiciaieth ii iaaeiaieth ii no. 126 no.
Oaie. oeiae. Eae oieueei ia yoii naeaeaeinue ecaanoiui, a aeaiaea?ineia oi-
?aaeaiea noaee iannaie iinooiaoue cayaeaiey io aaeaieaoia i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
eo e yoiio nithco, e i?eaea/aiea i?einoaiiaeeinue.

A oii aea aiaeo ninoiyeny e aoi?ie nuacae a Iineaa. Yoi auei 5-6 ie-
oya?y 1905 aiaea, ii/oe iaeaioia anaiauae iieeoe/aneie caaanoiaee. Ia
yoio ?ac canaaeaiey nuacaea ioe?ueenue oaea a caeaiee noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee,
a iiiauaiee Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Caeanue noieeiiaaiey n aaeie-
ieno?aoeeae i?eiyee aieaa ?aceea oi?iu. Iieeoeey aioea a iiiauaiea
Niaaoa ai a?aiy oiaea canaaeaiey e iio?aaiaaea i?ae?auaiey aai, ii o/ano-
ieee nuacaea ioeacaeenue iiae/eieoueny, e i/a?aaeiie i?aoi? i?iaeieaeae ai-
ai?eoue. Oiaaea ai?iaeiaua auaaee aiai?eaoaai ec caea, iinea /aai canaaeaiea
auei cae?uoi. Neaaeothuea canaaeaiey i?ienoiaeeee a /anoiuo eaa?oe?ao e
oaeaea auee i?a?uaaaiu iiyaeaieai iieeoeee. Ianiiiaiii, /oi yoi ianoi-
yoaeuenoai iiauoaei iano?iaiea e niinianoaiaaei aai iaeiioiiiinoe.

Aoi?ie nuacae auian oeaeue ?yae iinoaiiaeaiee. Eiia/ii, niioaaonoaaiii
oneiaeyi iiiaioa, aia?aaee noiyee aii?inu iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu.
Naiui aiaaui, ceiaiaeiaaiui aue aii?in i aieeioa auai?ia a Ainoaea?-
noaaiioth aeoio. Nuacae ?aoee aii?in io?eoeaoaeueii (aii?aee acaeyaeai e?ae-
ieo ia?oee) e ?aoee i?eiyoue a auai?ao naiia aeayoaeueiia o/anoea. Aua

aieueoa caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey ioiioaiea e caaanoiaea. ?aciethoeey, eioi?ay
yaeyaony ia?aoiaeii io iieeoe/aneeo aii?inia e i?ioanneiiaeueiui, iaauay
iiaeaea?aeeo anaiauae caaanoiaea, ioiineoaeueii iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey
a iae aaeaieaoia aiai?eo: . Ia?yaeo n yoei, i?eiyoa auea aanueia ianoiyoaeueiay ?aciethoeey io-
iineoaeueii i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaea/ nithca. .

A aeaeueiaeoai, iaeiaei, nithc aaeaieaoia ia naeaeae ?aoeoaeueii ie iaeiiai
oaaa aeey inouanoaeaiey iaia/aiiuo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo oeaeae. Nithc, eae
oeacaii, aanueia ianoie/eai nii?ioeaeyeny anyeei aiaoiei aeaaeaieyi e
iaia?oaeeaae oai aieueoa aeecianiiniaiinoe, /ai aeaaeaiea auei neeueiaa.
Ii ii ia iia auaea?aeaoue aioo?aiieo o?aiee, aeaaea ia o?aiee, a i?inoi
oiaiueoaiey eioa?ana e nithco. Niauoey ?acaeaaaoenue oiaaea auno?i e ao?ii,
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aaeaieaoo?u noaea i?ac?e-
oaeueii o?aeoiaaoue nithc, eae , e ii auno?i oia?

, 1905 a., n. 3538-3540. – I?o/. aao.
Eae au?aaeaeenue io/aou eiiennee iiiiuieeia. – I?ei. aao.

ae aioo?aiiaai ?acaeaiaiey, nua?aa, aeaaiui ia?acii, aeaeioth iieeoe/aneoth
ii \ue e inoaaea eeoue neaaue neaae a i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeecie aaeaieaoo?u.

Ioeaieo ee enoi?ey iieeoe/aneea aunooieaiey aaeaieaoo?u, eae iaaeaaony
A.A. Iaeeaeia, yoi aii?in aoaeouaai. Oaeo oio, /oi aeeaay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue
oaea oniaea ioeaieoue iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue aaeaieaoo?u. A Ainoaea?noaai-
iie aeoia aa i?aaenoaaeoaee ea?atho aanueia caiaoeioa ?ieue e eiee/anoaaiii e,
a iniaaiiinoe, ea/anoaaiii. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue, /oi i?aaenaaeaoaeai 1 Ai-
noaea?noaaiiie aeoiu aue n eneeth/eoaeueiui aaeeiiaeooeai eca?ai N.A. Io-
?iioeaa, iineaiiue Iineaith. A 1 Aeoia n?aaee aeaiooaoia auei 36 i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo e iiiiuieeia, ai II – 32, a III-29 e a IV- 23. Ai II Ai-
noaea?noaaiiie aeoia i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue I.I. Iiciaineee aue eca?ai
oiaa?euai i?aaenaaeaoaey. Aaeaieaoai a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a Ainoaea?noaaiiay
aeoia iaycaia naiei iaeacii – A.A. Iaeeaeia ai II e III Aeoia aue i?aae-
naaeaoaeai eiiennee ii ninoaaeaieth iaeaca e aeieeaae/eeii ii i?iaeoo iaeaca
a III Aeoia, a ai II Aeoia aeieeaae/eeii aue i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue I.ss. Ia?-
aaiaio. Aiiaua, ai anao aaaeiaeoeo eiienneyo i?aaenaaeaoaeyie auee aaeai-
eaou. Oae, ai II Aeoia oio aea I.ss. Ia?aaiaio aue i?aaenaaeaoaeai eiiennee
ii cai?inai, I.A. Oaneaiei – i?aaenaaeaoaeai eiiennee aeey ?anniio?aiey
caeiiii?iaeoa i naiaiaea niaanoy e E.A. Aannai – i?aaenaaeaoaeai eiiennee

0 ianoiii noaea (e aeieeaae/eeii ii caeiiii?iaeoo i i?aia?aciaaiee ianoiiai
noaea). O?ia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo: A.A. Aeaiueyiia, O.TH. Iiaiaeai?neee
e I.N. Oe?ieee, auee nae?aoa?yie eiiennee. A III Aeoia i?aaenaaeaoaeai
noaeaaiie eiiennee aue O.I. Ieaaaei, iinea aai nia?oe i?aaenaaeaoaeai
aue eca?ai i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue I.I. Ooaeineee, inoaaoeeny ia yoii
iinoo e a IV Aeoia. I?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue Iaothiei ninoiye i?aaenaaea-
oaeai ?aaeaeoeeiiiie eiiennee a III Aeoia. *oi eanaaony i?aoi?neeo au-
nooieaiee aaeaieaoia, oi ii/oe anaaaea iie i?eaeaeatho e naaa iauanoaaiiia
aieiaiea e ninoaaeytho niauoea aeiy.

Ianiio?y, iaeiaei, ia i?eciaiioth auaeathuothny ?ieue, eioi?oth i?aaenoa-
aeoaee aaeaieaoo?u ea?atho a Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoia, a ia/aoe au?aaeaii auei
niiiaiea ioiineoaeueii niaianoeiinoe caaiey aeaiooaoa n iaycaiiinoyie i?e-
nyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai. Au?aceoaeai yoeo niiiaiee yaeeny nai aea i?enyaeiue
iiaa?aiiue A.A. Iaeeaeia. A iiaiaeii iineoaeeee oi?aee, eioi?ua iaeeueii
nuiaeenue ia A.A. Iaeeaeiaa ca i?eiyoea ei ia naay caueou ieeeeiia?a

1 aaeaaa, iaaeiyaoaainy a enoycaiee. Ioaa/ay ia yoe oi?aee, A.A. Iaeeaeia
aeieacuaae, /oi eae aaeaieao ii iinooiee aiieia i?aaeeueii, eai aue oaaaeaeai
a iaaeiiaiinoe iaaeiyaiiai: . Iai?ioea, aeaiooao aeieaeai n/eoaoueny n oaeie iaiiioey?iinoueth
e iiaea?oaiaaoue ae iaycaiiinoyie caueou. A ionthaea e auoaeaao, /oi niaia-
uaiea iaycaiiinoae aaeaieaoa n iaycaiiinoyie aeaiooaoa iaaeiionoeii. Yoio
acaeyae eiaao anth i?aeanoue i?eaeiaeueiinoe e naiiauoiinoe, ii a?yae ee ioae-
aeaaony a ii?iaa?aeaiee. Aeinoaoi/ii naeaeaoue nnueeo ia enoi?eth anao caiaae-
iiaa?iiaeneeo ia?eaiaioia.

31. AIOO?AIIssss AI?UeAA

Aioo?aiiea ianiaeaney ia/aeenue, a nouiinoe, ai?acaei ?aiueoa ianooi-
eaiey ino?uo niauoee 1905 a.; iie aicieeee oio/an iinea 20 iiya?y 1904 a.,
eioi?ia iioiio e i?aaenoaaeyaony eoeueieiaoeeiiiui ioieoii. A Oa?ueeiaa
nicaaii auei iauaa nia?aiea ia 13 oaa?aey 1905 aiaea, aeey ianoaeaeaiey
aii?ina ia ieacaiee th?eaee/aneie iiiiue ianaeaieth. Nia?aiea yoi, i?e-
ciaaoaa, /oi i?aaeeueiay i?aaiecaoeey th?eaee/aneie iiiiue iaaiciiaeia
aac ei?aiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy, i?ioei, iaeiaei, i?e
?aoeoaeueiii i?ioanoa a?oiiu /eaiia nia?aiey, n?aaee eieo auee noa?aeoea
/eaiu nineiaey . A Iineaa a iauai nia?aiee 13 ai?aey 1905 a., nicaaiiii
aeey ianoaeaeaiey aii?inia, auoaeathueo ec Auni/aeoaai Oeaca e Auni-
/aeoaai ?ane?eioa 18 oaa?aey, oiaea cayaeaiu auee iniaua iiaiey. A
/anoiinoe, A.N. Iiiiaeia . Ii ana yoe ianiaeaney eaaeoony ionoyeaie n?aaie-
oaeueii n oaie ?acia?aie, eioi?ua i?eiyei iaaei?acoiaiea a n?aaea iao?i-
a?aaeneiai nineiaey. Iiaiaeii aeey yoiai iineoaeee oee?eoey?, ?acineaiiue
Niaaoii ii iinoaiiaeaieth io 15 yiaa?y 1905 aiaea.

, 15 ia?oa 1913 a. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1904-1905 a.. n. 49. – I?ei. aao.

?a-aii Niaaoo, iineoaeeei oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi a /anoiuo nia?aieyo a?oi-
aei i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e iiiiuieeia 10, a oaeaea II e 12 yiaa?y aea-
o?iaaeny e ianoaeaeaeny aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iauyaeoue caaanoiaeo
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aaeaieaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii naio iiaiaeo iacaaiiuie
nia?aieyie i?eieiaeenue oa eee eiua ?aciethoeee, ii aieueoeinoao aieinia
o/anoaiaaaoeo a ieo, e iinueaeenue iniai eca?aiiua aeaiooaou aeey iauya-
eaiey i caaanoiaea i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuei noaeaaiuo iano. Ieeoi ec /eaiia
ei?ii?aoeee, iaeiaei, ia iia e ia aeieaeai aue a yoii oniao?eaaoue /aai-eeai
iaycaoaeueiiai aeey /eaiia ei?ii?aoeee. Anai /eaiai i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?u
e eo iiiiuieeai aeieaeii auoue oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi ana aac eneeth/aiey
aii?inu e aeaea aioo?aiiaai naiioi?aaeaiey nineiaey aaaeathony eneeth/e-
oaeueii aai caeiiiuie i?aaiaie: Niaaoii e iauei nia?aieai i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo. Yoe iineaaeiea, /oiau eiaoue cia/aiea aeaenoaeoaeueiuo iaueo
nia?aiee, aeieaeiu auoue nia?aiu i?aaenaaeaoaeai Niaaoa a onoaiiaeaiiii
ii?yaeea e i?e iaaeeaaeaueo aa?aioeyo iiiaauaiey i ieo anao /eaiia ei?-
ii?aoeee. A aeaiiii neo/aa ioiineoaeueii ia ninoiyeinue ie
iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoa, ie iinoaiiaeaiey iauaai nia?aiey, a noaei auoue,
i eaeeo-eeai ei?ii?aoeaiuo iinoaiiaeaieyo ii iiaiaeo ai-
iaua ia iiaei auoue e ?a/e. Anee eiaaoay a aeaiiii neo/aa ianoi aeayoaeue-
iinoue /anoiuo nia?aiee a?oiiu aaeaieaoia, i?iyaeaoayny a aioe?iaaiee
iinoaiiaeaiey i e a iinueea i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeey iauyniaiee
n i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothueie noaeaaiuo iano, iiaea aucaaoue ioeai/iia i?aae-
noaaeaiea ia iauyaeaiee aoaeoi au nineiaeai iaoa?ao?aneie i?enyaeiie
aaeaieaoo?u caaanoiaee, oi yoi auei iineaaenoaeai iaeiai ciaeiinoaa n
i?aaiecaoeeae nineiaey. A ei?ioeee o?aoaeiaaiue n?ie ninoiyeinue ianeieueei
nia?aiey a?oiiu i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e eo iiiiuie-
eia. Oi iauyaeaia auea aaconeiaiay e iaycaoaeueiay aeey anao ii anai aeaeai
caaanoiaea, oi oaeiaay aeieaeia auea au?aaeaoueny eeoue i?eiyoeai e ioeiaeaieth aeae n iaycaoaeueiui cayaeaieai noaeo ecaanoiuo,
ca?aiaa oneiaeaiiuo, au?aaeaiee, e oieueei a neo/ayo, eiaaea ioeac iiaa-
?aiiiai io o/anoey a canaaeaiee iia iiaea/ue ca niaie iaaica?aoioth iioa?th
i?aa o?aoueeo eeoe e eiaaea ana i?eiyoua ia?u e ioeiaeaieth aeaea ieaaeoony
aaconiaoiuie, aeiioneaeinue o/anoea a canaaeaiee. Iaeiiaoe
auea aiana ioiaiaia, oioy oniaee oaea iaieoe i?aaenaaeaoaeue-
noaothueo noaeaaiuo iano e iiiaanoeoue eo i oaeiaie. Oaeay /enoi eiioeue-
neaiay niaia iinoaiiaeaiee ioiineoaeueii , naiay eacoen-
oe/iinoue e oneiaiinoue eo niaea?aeaiey, a oaeaea i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi iie
iiaoo auoue iaycaoaeueiu aeey /eaiia nineiaey, ia o/anoaiaaaoeo a ni-
aeaoaiee ia iiaeiaiua iinoaiiaeaiey, oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi e a ?aoaiee

ii nouanoao aii?ina i caaanoiaea ia auei ie na?ueaciie i?iaeoiaiiinoe
ie ananoi?iiiaai ianoaeaeaiey aii?ina ia?ainoaiaiiie aaaeiinoe ia oieueei
aeey eioa?ania anaai nineiaey e aeaeueiaeoaai i?aaeeueiiai aai ooieoeeiie-
?iaaiey, ii e aeey eioa?ania eeeaioia, aaa?eaoeo i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui
caueoo naieo i?aa.

Iaaeaeo oai, neooe i anaai nineiaey ?ani?ino?aieeenue e
aianee a aeayoaeueiinoue i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?u caiaoaoaeuenoai. Naiay
oi?ia, a eioi?ie i?aaeiieaaaeanue aueeoueny aeaiiay , i?aaenoaa-
eyaony Niaaoo iai?aaeeueiie e iaaeaeaoaeueiie. Iaaiciiaeii io?eoeaoue ai-
iaua neo/ay ianooieaiey a aeecie nineiaey oaeiai iiiaioa, eiaaea ana i?e-
nyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, eae iaeei /aeiaae, ni/ee au naiei i?aanoaaiiui aeieaii
i?ae?aoeoue naith i?ioanneiiaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Ii yoi iiaei au eiaoue
ianoi eeoue a neo/aa oaeiai ei?aiiiai ia?ooaiey oneiaee aeayoaeueiinoe
i?enyaeiie aaeaieaoo?u, iiae/eiaiea eioi?iio ni noi?iiu /eaiia nineiaey
yaeeinue au niaa?oaiii ianiaianoeiui n aeinoieinoaii aaeaieaoa, eae a?aae-
aeaieia e /aeiaaea. Aeaeaa, naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi oieueei iieiue ioeac
/eaiia nineiaey io i?aeiouanoa e i?aa naiaai nineiaiiai iieiaeaiey iia
au yaeoueny i?aaeiaoii iiaeiaiie caaanoiaee – eae naeaeaoaeuenoai aeoaeiu
e na?ueaciinoe iiaoaeaeaiee, eioi?ua auioaeeee aaeaieaoia ioeacaoueny io en-
iieiaiey eaaeaueo ia ieo iaycaiiinoae. aea, naiaeyuayny e
ioeiaeaieth e caoyaeaaieth aeae, ia?aaeei ei a?aaeo naieo aeiaa?eoaeae, i?e
nio?aiaiee i?e yoii aea caaanoiaueeaie, eae /eaiaie nineiaey, anao i?a-
eiouanoa naiaai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iieiaeaiey, oaea naia ii naaa, a neeo
iieiie naiae i?ec?a/iinoe, ii iiaieth Niaaoa, ia iiaea au noaoue i?aaeiaoii
i?iyaeaiey nieeaea?iie, nineiaiie ?aoeiinoe. Anee i?ioeaiia naio eiaei
a aeaiiii neo/aa ianoi, oi oaeia yaeaiea Niaao ia iiaeao ia n/eoaoue aanueia
i?enei?aiui e niaa?oaiii iaaeaeaoaeueiui, oae eae io eaaeaeiai naiaai
ni/eaia nineiaea ai?aaa iaeeaeaoue, i?e anyeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, a oai aieaa
a aaaeiua iiiaiou iauanoaaiiie aeecie, aaeoi/eaiai, aa?aaeiiai e no?iai
caeiiiia?iiai ioiioaiey e ei?aiiui aii?inai e oneiaeyi nineiaiie
aeecie.

I?eieiay, iaeiaei, ai aieiaiea, /oi i?aaeeueiia oa/aiea nineiaiie
aeecie auei ia?ooaii a aeaiiii neo/aa eneeth/eoaeueii iiae aeeyieai aia-
ooueo e enoeiii ai?anoiuo niauoee 9 yiaa?y, aianoeo niaa?oaiii en-
eeth/eoaeueiia aicaoaeaeaiea ai ana noa?u iauanoaaiiie aeecie e aeayoaeue-
iinoe, Niaao ia n/eoaao aiciiaeiui aicaoaeaeaoue eaeea-eeai aeenoeeieeia?-
iua aeaea ii iiaiaeo ioeiaeaiey i?enyaeiuie iiaa?aiiuie e eo iiiiuieeaie
canaaeaiee iiae i?aaeeiaii caaanoiaee, ii, i?eciaaay ii nouanoao oaeea io-
eeaaeuaaiey aeae iai?aaeeueiuie e, ai ecaaaeaiea iiaeiaiuo caiaoaoaeuenoa,

iinoaiiaee: i?eciaoue ioeiaeaiea neooaiey aeae iiae i?aaeeiaii caaanoiaee
“i?aaeeueiui, i /ai e iauyaeoue oee?eoey?ii i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui a
ai?iaea Iaoa?ao?aa>.

A iauai nia?aiee 30 yiaa?y 1905 a. A.I. Oo?/aieiia aeiiieieoaeueii
niiaoee, /oi oee?eoey? aue ninoaaeai I.I. Ea?aa/aaneei, ii ?aaeaeoeey
aai ianoaeaeaeanue anaie /eaiaie Niaaoa ca eneeth/aieai ionoonoaiaaaoeo
Ae.A. Noaniaa e A.E. Eaiioueaaa . Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi oee?-
eoey? aue i?eiyo Niaaoii aaeeiiaeanii, ii noieue aea aaeeiiaeanii ii aue
inoaeaeai a iauai nia?aiee. Aoeaaeueii ie iaeiiai aieina ia ?acaeaeinue a
aai caueoo. Iaei oiai. Eae oeacae, iai?eia?, A.I. Ethnoeo, . N ae?oaie noi?iiu, A.I. Oo?/a-
ieiia, caiaoea, /oi ,
i?eian eae au ?aneayiea, i?eciae, /oi ii ionooieeny io naieo acaeyaeia,
eiaaea, a ninoaaa iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa, aianoa n iineianeei, yaeyeny n
caieneie e ieieno?o aioo?aiieo aeae. A aeiiieiaiea aea e yoei cayaeaieyi
I.A. Iioaoei iiyniee, /oi aua 16 yiaa?y (o.a. aeaa iaaeaee iacaae) ii aiai?ee
caeanue, /oi . Ia-
eiiaoe, A.I. Oo?/aieiia, i?eciaaay, /oi , i?inee,
iaeiaei, nia?aiea .

Niiinoaaeaiea anao yoeo cayaeaiee iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aua ?ac, /oi 20 iiya?y
1904 a. auei eoeueieiaoeeiiiui ioieoii. Iinea yoiai a nineiaee iaaeth-
aeaaony oyaioaiea e i?aaeiei oaiaeaioeeyi . Ii oae eae, aianoa n oai, iieeoeea
o?oaeii auei nii?ioeaeyoueny, oi aeeciue nineiaey e noaea aeaeaaoueny oie/eaie.
Ii ia iaiaa oa?aeoa?ii e ae?oaia niiinoaaeaiea. A ?acoeueoaoa ai?y/eo

Io/ao nia. Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo 1904-1905 a., n. 58-61. – I?ei. aao.

I?ioea ?aaeaeoeee aic?aaeae I.I. Iiiieoieeia, niaeaoaaoeeny, iaeiaei, n ieii/aoaeueiui au-
aiaeii. E?iia iacaaiiuo eeoe, a ninoaa Niaaoa aoiaeeee: E.A. Aacoiia, A.A. Aoaiia, A.A. Aei?i,
1 aca?eiia, I.A. Ie?iiia i A.O. THiea?. – I?ei. aao.

Iieeoeea aiiaue a?iceea iieieaaaoue iaeciaiiinoue acaeyaeia nineiaey ai a?aiy nicuaa 1 Aeoiu.
oai nia?aiee 30 ai?aey 1906 a. a Iao?ia?aaea i?aaeeiaeaii auei iinoaiiaeoue ?aciethoeeth n o?a-
aiienoee. Iinea i?aiee inoaiiaeeenue ia i?eaeiaeueiii eiii?iienna, i?aaeeiaeaiiii
E Iioaoeiui, – au?aceoue na?aea/iia i?eaaonoaea ia?iaeiui i?aaenoaaeoaeyi: . – I?ei. aaai.

i?aiee oiiiyiooia iauaa nia?aiea 30 yiaa?y i?eiyei ?aciethoeeth, a ei-
oi?ie aiai?eeinue: . Iaeaieaa ai?y/ea /eaiu nia?aiey o?aaiaaee, /oiau Niaao ain-
i?eiye yoo ?aciethoeeth, eae i?aaeeiaeaiea iiaeaoue a ionoaaeo, ia /oi A.I.
Ethnoeo ioaaoee, /oi iaiiaeaiea Niaaoa iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii ia aiaeiaii
iauai nia?aiee. Ii eiaaea, o?e ianyoea nionoy, yoi iauaa nia?aiea ninoi-
yeinue, oi aanue ninoaa Niaaoa (ca eneeth/aieai ianeieueeeo auauaaaoeo ii
i/a?aaee) aue ia?aeca?ai, ianiio?y ia ai?y/ee i?ioano, eioi?ue, eae iu
aeaeaee, ii aucaae i?ioea naay.

Aii?in ia ioiioaiee e caaanoiaea eiaao e naith aeaeueiaeooth enoi?eth, ei-
oi?ay neoaeeo iiaui iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai oiai, eae ia?iaii iiaeaeaaeanue aeeciue ni-
neiaey. Aii?in aiciee, eiia/ii, a ieoya?a 1905 aiaea, a nayce n iauae iiee-
oe/aneie caaanoiaeie. A Iineaa ath?i nithca aaeaieaoia auneacaeinue i?ioea
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey aaeaieaoia a caaanoiaea. Ii aianoa n oai, Niaao i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo iinoaiiaee: i?eciaaay, aaeaeo eneeth/eoaeueiuo oneiaee,
ia?aaeeaaaiuo no?aiith, aeaeaoaeueiie a?aiaiioth i?einoaiiaeo a ?anniio?aiee
noaeaaiuo aeae a Iineaa, aeiaanoe i nai aei naaaeaiey a. noa?oaai i?aaenaaeaoaey
iineianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, yaynue aeey naai e iaio a iieiii ninoaaa Niaaoa.
Ai eniieiaiea yoie ?aciethoeee, Niaao oiai aea 15 ieoya?y ia?aoeeny e naiaoi?o
O.O. A?iieueaeo, ii i?eaeaoaieth eioi?iai a ianoaeaeaiee aicaoaeaeaiiiai aii?ina

Niaao i?eiye o/anoea a /anoiii niaauaiee iaee/iuo /eaiia iineianeie noaeaaiie
iaaeno?aoo?u e i?ieo?i?a iineianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou .

Niaa?oaiii eia/a, iiaeii neacaoue a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii iai?aaeaiee,
i?ioaeae yoio aii?in a Iao?ia?aaea. Aio eae ?anneacuaaao ia yoii io/ao
Niaaoa: .

Ni naiae noi?iiu, i?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa i?eaeanee /eaiia Niaaoa a
yeno?aiiia niaauaiea a o?e /ana aeiy oiai aea 14 ieoya?y (a iyoieoeo). Ia
yoii niaauaiee aeaa /eaia Niaaoa niiaueee, /oi iie aoaeoo aa/a?ii oiai
aeiy a nia?aiee, eioi?ia eiaei auoue a caeaiee oieaa?neoaoa.

Ia ae?oaie aeaiue, 15 ieoya?y, a noaaioo, /eaiu Niaaoa nia?aeenue a iau/-
iia canaaeaiea.

Ooaea i?eoee naaaeaiey i oii, /oi a caeaiee noaea inoaaeaiu oieueei aeaa
auoiaea, /oi o aoiaeia noieo iieeoeey, eioi?ay i?iioneaao a caeaiea oieueei
eiathueo iiaanoee e i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e eo iiiiuieeia, e /oi a?oiia
eeoe, n?aaee eioi?uo auee aoaeoi au i?aeiouanoaaiii i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua
e eo iiiiuieee, iio?aaiaaee i?ae?auaiey caiyoee e cae?uoey noaeaaiuo
canaaeaiee. Iinea oiai a canaaeaiea Niaaoa i?eoee aeaa aeaiooaoeee io iiiai-
/eneaiiiai nia?aiey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e iiiiuieeia, auaoaai a oio
aeaiue a iiiauaiee Niaaoa, e Niaaoo auea niiauaia ?aciethoeey, ninoiya-
oayny iaeaioia a nia?aiee aaeaieaoia, o?aaiaaaoay io aaeaieaoo?u i?eiyoue
ana ia?u aeey i?einoaiiaeaiey noaeaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e yoii .

Niaaoo auei i?aaeeiaeaii aeaiooaoaie i?eniaaeeieoueny e caaanoiaea e
i?ae?aoeoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue.

I?e iauyniaiee a Niaaoa iaeioi?ua ec aeaiooaoia auneacuaaee aeaea-
iea, /oiau Niaao nineiaey ianoaeee niaianoii n oiaa?euaie ioiioaiea,
a eioi?ii aeieaeii iaoiaeeoueny ana nineiaea e oaeouei niauoeyi iieeoe-
/aneie aeecie, e au?aceee niaeaeaiea i oii, /oi noa?oea /eaiu nineiaey
ia eiatho aeinoaoi/iiai iauaiey n iiiiuieeaie a yoi ciaiaiaoaeueiia
a?aiy – iauaiey, eioi?ia aeieaeii auei au oynieoue aeey anao, /oi aeaeaoue
nineiaeth. Naa?o oiai, Niaaoo naeaeaeinue ecaanoiui, /oi iaeioi?ua i?e-
nyaeiua iiaa?aiiua e iiiiuieee auee a?anoiaaiu i?e iinauaiee eie
Ae?oaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?e/ai oeacuaaeinue, /oi iinauaiey
yoe auee naeaeaiu n oeaeueth i?ae?auaiey oai caiyoee,

.

Iaeiaei, yoi nia?aiea ia iiaei ninoiyoueny. Niaeanii iinoaiiaeaieth
Niaaoa, a nia?aiee i?aaeaea anaai aue iiaeiyo aii?in, aeiionoeoue ee iiiiu-
ieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e o/anoeth n i?aaii niaauaoaeueiiai e ?a-
oathuaai aieina. Aii?in yoio aue iiaeaa?aioo aaeeioe?iaea iaeieo i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e aieueoeinoaii aieinia ?ac?aoeeny io?eoeaoaeueii.
Iinea yoiai canaaeaiea auei cae?uoi i?aaenaaeaoaeai iauaai nia?aiey aneaae-
noaea iaooeoaaoaai ooia e e?eea .

Eiienney iiiiuieeia a naiii nicuaa nia?aiey 16 ieoya?y oniio?aea
i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu Niaaoa, iaoiaey, /oi nia?aiea, ninoiyaoaany
a oieaa?neoaoa, eiaei aeinoaoi/ii aaoi?eoaoiia cia/aiea. . I?e aeeaeaeoae i?iaa?ea ieacaeinue, iaeiaei, /oi ?acaei?a
” aoaeoi au aiana e iao. 6 aeaeaa?y a iauai nia?aiee aue aicaoaeaeai
aeii?in ia eioeeaeaioa 16 ieoya?y, e nia?aiea iinoaiiaeei: . Yoi nia?aiea i?eoeinue nicaaoue /a?ac
ianeieueei aeiae, e /?acau/aeiia nia?aiea 12 aeaeaa?y, aaeeiiaeanii
i?eniaaeeieaoenue e caeeth/aieth Niaaoa, i?eiyei ?aciethoeeth: .

*ai neeueiaa auee eieaaaiey iaeieo, oai ?aoeoaeueiaa aueee aunooieaiey
ae?oaeo. Oaea auoa a io/aoao eiinoeueoaoeee iu /eoaee i caaea/ao aaeaieaoo?u
n oi/ee c?aiey . A 1906 aiaeo i?aaenoaaeoaee
?aai/eo i?aaiecaoeee Iao?ia?aaea ia?aoeeenue e eiiennee iiiiuieeia n
i?inueaie aeiionoeoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aai/eo ia iauaa nia?aiea aeey ia-
noaeaeaiey aii?ina i i?acaeiiaaiee 1 iay. Eiienney ioeacaea a yoii, /oi
aucaaei ao?iia iauaa nia?aiea iiiiuieeia. Aii?in aue iinoaaeai i/aiue
ino?i, e iaeioi?ua o/anoieee i?yii aeaeiaaeenue ia . Oai ia iaiaa, iauaa nia?aiea noaei
ia noi?iio i?aoi?ia, iieaaaaoeo, /oi , e, au?acea eiiennee ii?eoeaiea ii niaea?aeaieth e oi?ia
i?eiyoiai ath iinoaiiaeaiey, ?aoeei n/eoaoue yoi iinoaiiaeaiea ioiaiai-
iui. A oii aea aiaeo iauaa nia?aiea ie?aeiiuo eiinoeueoaoeee iinoaiiaeei,
/oi aeaei i?aaiecaoeee th?eaee/aneeo ath?i iiaeao auoue aeaeii eeoue i?aaie-
ciaaiiiai i?ieaoa?eaoa e ia aeieaeii auoue naycaii n i?ioanneiiaeueiuie
nithcaie. Iiyoiio, aianoi ia?aciaaiey iaia/aiiie oeaio?aeueiie eiinoeue-
oaoeee, nia?aiea iinoaiiaeei: aeey au?aaioee ia/ae i?aaiecaoeee th?eaee-
/aneeo ath?i iineaoue naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae a ath?i i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ni-
thcia e niaao ?aai/eo aeaiooaoia . A eiioea oiai aea aiaea eiienney, au?aaeay
ii?eoeaiea Niaaoo ca aai aeayoaeueiinoue, oaaaeaeaea aai, /oi caaea/a nineiaey –
iiaaaeeoue eee ianoue aianoa n ai?thueiny ia?iaeii.
A Iineaa iinea niauoee 9 yiaa?y 1905 a. eiieoao iiiiuieeia o?a-

Oai aea, n. 60. – I?ei. aao.

1ai aea, n. 14, \5. I?ioieiea iauaai nia?aiey ia nio?aieeinue. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo 190-1906 a., n 20 – I?ei. aao.

aiaae, /oiau ana nineiaiua eaieoaeu auee ioaeaiu naiueyi iino?aaeaaoeo.
A aeaeaa?a 1905 a. ii eeiee Iineianei-Eacaineie aeaeaciie aei?iae i?e
i?ae?auaiee aanii?yaeeia aue oaeo i?iaeeaaaoee a a. Eieiiia i?enyaeiue
iiaa?aiiue Oa?a?ueia. Yoa nia?oue aucaaea oa?aeoa?ioth ia?aieneo iaaeaeo
eiieoaoii iiiiuieeia e Niaaoii. Iauaa nia?aiea iiiiuieeia iinoa-
iiaeei iiianoeoue ii?o?ao O. a caea canaaeaiee Niaaoa aaeaeo aai caneoa ia
ii/aa inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey. Iinoaiiaeaiea yoi inoaeinue ia eniie-
iaiiui. Niaao iinoaiiaee aii?in i iiiauaiee ii?o?aoa O. ioeiaeeoue. A
neaaeothuai aiaeo eiieoao ia?aoeeny a Niaao n cai?inii, eaeia iineaaeiaaei
ii yoiio i?aaeiaoo iinoaiiaeaiea. Niaao ioaaoee ia yoio aii?in cai?inii
aeinoaaeoue naaaeaiey i /enea eeoe, o/anoaiaaaoeo a iauai nia?aiee, e ni-
noiyeinue ee iinoaiiaeaiea aaeeiiaeanii. Eiieoao ioaaoee, /oi iinoaiiaea-
iea auei aaeeiiaeaniia, e eiieoao e iaio i?eniaaeeiyaony. Niaao, nionoy
ianeieueei ianyoeaa (yoi auei oaea a 1908 a.), niiaa iinoaiiaee ianoaeaeaiea
aii?ina ioeiaeeoue. Eiieoao iioae oiaaea eae au ia eiii?iienn e aicaoaeee
oiaeaoaenoai i iinoaiiaea iaiyoieea ia iiaeea Oa?a?ueiaa. Niaao iinoa-
iiaee i?eaeaneoue a canaaeaiea Niaaoa aeey ianoaeaeaiey yoiai aii?ina iaeiiai
ec /eaiia eiieoaoa, a canei niiaa iinoaiiaee: ioeiaeeoue. Aaeaa ee, iAeiaei,
?aoaiea aii?ina ii nouanoao iiaei aucaaoue eaeea-eeai o?oaeiinoe e o?a-
aiaaoue eaeeo-eeai iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo ?aaio. Ianiiiaiii, /oi ioeeaaeuaaiey
iauyniyeenue ia neiaeiinoueth ?aoaiey ii nouanoao, a eaeeie-eeai iinoi-
?iiieie niia?aaeaieyie. Oaeoth aea ia?aieneo aucaaei aeiiiaaoaeuenoai ei-
ieoaoa, /oiau Niaao ia i?eieiae a iiiiuieee eeoe, aea?aeaaoeo ainoaea?-
noaaiiua yecaiaiu a 1905-1906 aa., aii?aee iinoaiiaeaieth i caaanoiaea.

Eiaaea aea aieia iauanoaaiiiai iano?iaiey ia/aea iiieaeaoueny, oi e
n?aaee iieiaeie aaeaieaoo?u noae i?iaeaaoueny acaeyae ia i?aaeiaa iai?aaeaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe, eae ia ioeaeo. Oae, oaea a io/aoao iao?ia?aaeneeo eiinoeue-
oaoeee ca 1906 a. aiai?eony, /oi . Iaeia ec eiinoeueoaoeee iaaeiyao ath?i
iauaaeeiaiiuo eiinoeueoaoeee a oii, /oi iii no?aieony i?iyaeoue naith aea-
yoaeueiinoue aeaaiaeoei ia?acii a aii?inao oe?ieiai iauanoaaiiiai cia-
/aiey, . Ii
yoa e?eoeea caaeiei /eneii, naii niaith ?acoiaaony, ia iiaea oaea eciaieoue
iieiaeaiey aeae. E?aeiyy yeniaineaiinoue, eioi?oth nineiaea iaia?oaeeei
ai a?aiy iiauoaiey iauanoaaiiiai iano?iaiey, naeaeaoaeuenoaoy i /ooeinoe
aai, ioithaeue ia aa?aioe?iaaea noieeinoe. Iai?ioea, iia i?aaeii?aaeaeeea
iiae/eiaiea aaeaieaoia iiaui i?ioeaiiieiaeiui aeeyieyi, eioi?ua i?eoee
ia niaio ainiiaenoaiaaaoei aei 1905 a. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oaea n 1906 aiaea
ia/eiaaony iinoaiaiiia oie?aiea ecethaeaiiiai aeaoeua iieiaeie aaeaiea-
-ao?u – ie?aeiiuo eiinoeueoaoeee. Noa?aeoay ec yoeo eiinoeueoaoeee, oeen-
naeueao?aneay, ouaoii aeaeoaony, /oi iia a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai ia niiaeao
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ianoiuo o?aaiaaiee, i?ae?auaiea aea… eiinoeueoaoeee, i?e-
caaiiie ianeoaeeaaoue ianoiinoue ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii e aeaenoaeoaeueii i?i-
eaoa?neoth… auei au aanueia e aanueia i?enei?aiui oaeoii> . Ii yoi ia-
ae/aneia neiai ia?anoaei oaea aeaenoaiaaoue, e a neaaeothuai aiaeo io/ao eeoiee
?ac iaeciaiii eiinoaoe?oao, /oi oeennaeueao?aneay eiinoeueoaoeey niaa?-
oaiii caauoa nineiaeai, e aeayoaeueiinoue aa, aneaaenoaea yoiai, eeiieony e
oiaaeeo. Ai anao ae?oaeo eiinoeueoaoeeyo i?ienoiaeeei oi aea naiia. , – aiai?eony
i ianeianeie . N ia/aea io/aoiiai 1906 a. oea?neinaeueneay eiinoeueoaoeey
oaeoe/anee ia?anoaea ooieoeeiie?iaaoue . Aea e naiia ath?i iauaaeeiaiiuo
eiinoeueoaoeee, . Ia?aeeaeueii
n yoei eaeoo aani?a?uaiua aeaeiau ia iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue /eaiia eiinoeue-
oaoeee e naiei iaycaiiinoyi. A.A. Enaaa aeieeaaeuaaao, /oi .
Oaeea aeaeiau iiaoi?ythony /ooue ia a eaaeaeii io/aoa, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi,
eae oeacaii auoa, Niaao ?aoee i?eiyoue aieaa aeoeaiia o/anoea a eii-
noeueoaoeeyo.

Aaeaeo oaeiai iaeciaiiiai oiaaeea, iaeia ec eiinoeueoaoeee oaea a 1907
aiaeo ?aeiiaiaeiaaea – a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue . Yoio i?ecua, ii-aeaeeiiio, niioaaonoaiaae ia-
c?aaoae iio?aaiinoe, iioiio /oi aeayoaeueiinoue eiinoeueoaoeee, aeaenoaeoaeue-
ii, ia/eiaao neeaaeuaaoueny a iiaii iai?aaeaiee. Aeaaea ath?i iauaaeeiaiiuo
eiinoeueoaoeee ia/eiaao caieiaoueny oaeeie aii?inaie, eae . . Aua oae ia-
aeaaii, , enoi?e/aneee i/a?e eiinoeueoaoeee n oaeei i?ac?aieai ai-
ai?ee i , a
oaia?ue io/aou ie?aeiiuo eiinoeueoaoeee ana aieaa e aieaa naiaeyony e nooiio
oeeo?iaiio iaoa?eaeo, eceiaeaiiiio . Oi/ii oae aea ia
iiauo iiceoeeyo noiyei, i/aaeaeii, iauaa nia?aiea iieiaeie aaeaieaoo?u,
eiaaea ii iiaiaeo nia?oe A.I. Oo?/aieiiaa a oaeaa?aiia cayaeei, /oi
. Eai ia i?i-
oei aaaeue e aeaoo eao, eae eiienney iiiiuieeia iaaeiyea Niaao i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo, ai aeaaa eioi?iai oiaaea noiye eiaiii ,
/oi ii aiineo ?acaei? e aeaii?aeecaoeeth a nineiaea.

Oaeie aea e?ecen ia?aaeeaaee e eiioa?aioeee. .

Ianiio?y ia noieue iea/aaiia ninoiyiea, anyeea iiiuoee ?aoi?i ieai-
/eaaaoenue iaoaea/ii. Io/ao ca 1907 a., iai?eia?, aiai?eo, /oi . Ii iaeciaiii eaaeaeue aiae iauea nia?aiey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eiiennee ianoaeaeaee, /oi aeaeaoue aeey iaeeaeaiey eiioa-
?aioeee, aaeaaiaeii ?acaeaaaeenue iaeie e oa aea ?a/e, e ana a iauai inoaaaeinue
ii-i?aaeiaio, i?e/ai ii-i?aaeiaio ioaa?aaeanue eaeay-eeai na?ueaciay ?a-
oi?ia iinoaiiaee aeaea, iniaaiii aea ioaa?aaeanue eae a Iaoa?ao?aa, oae e
a Iineaa anyeay iiiuoea onoaiiaeoue iaycaoaeueiia o/anoea a eiinoeueoaoeeyo.

Aiiaua, a Iineaa iaia/aeenue oa aea yaeaiey, ii, aneaaenoaea cia/e-
oaeueiiai ia?aiieiaiey aaeaieaoo?u, oai neeueiaa ?acaeaaeenue aioo?aiiea
o?aiey eiaiii n?aaee iieiaeiai nineiaey. Iiyoiio o?aiey i?eia?aoatho caeanue
niaa?oaiii eiie oa?aeoa?. Iiiiceoeey nouanoaothuaio ii?yaeeo iai?aaeaia
ia oi, /oiau ie/ai ia noaniyoue iiiiuieeia, ia iaeaaaoue ia ieo ieeaeeo
iaycaiiinoae. Onaiea naaa ainiiaenoaothuee i?eai iineaaeiaai aaca?aiaiuey
n?aaeaoueny i?oaeeai i?ioeaieea, iiiiceoeey aunooiaao iiae oeaaii ai?ueau
ca naiaiaeo. Yoio, oae neacaoue, aiaoiee i?eciae y?ei inaauaao caaeneiinoue
nineiaey io iaueo oneiaee. Ia/aeueiia iieiaeaiea aeae aanueia ii?aaeaeaiii
oa?aeoa?eciaaii a oeeoe?iaaiiie oaea ?a/e I.I. Iaeyioiae/a:

.
Neacaii yoi auei oae ?aaeinoii e i?eiyoi /anoueth nia?aiey oae ainoi?aeaiii,
/oi oae oioaeinue oaeaeaoue yoe ieiaeu, /oi-ieaoaeue oneuoaoue i ieo, /oiau

Io/ao iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1908 a., n. 205. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao iaoa?ao?aneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1913 a., n. 223. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, 1907 a., n. 66. – I?ei. aao.
Oai aea. – I?ei. aao.

Io/ao iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. 1906 a., n. 110. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, n. 149. – I?ei. aao.

ia?aaeeoue oaeoth aea ?aaeinoue. Nia?aiea ieii/eeinue. Oaia?ue anai i/aaeaeiu
yoe ieiaeu.

Ieioi eee oi?ioi (iiea yoi ia aaaeii), eca?aiieee nineiaey eniieieee
aeaiiia ei ii?o/aiea, au?aaioaee i?aaeea e i?aaenoaaeee eo ia ?anniio?aiea
oiaa?euae. E /oi aea?

Aieiaiea, eioi?ia i?eianee n niaie i?aoi?u e eioi?ui
iie oae ai?aeyony, au?aceeinue a oii, /oi aieueoeinoai, aeaaeaeouaa naiaiaeu,
i?aaee ia ?anniao?eaaei e ia iiaeaeaei ?anniio?aoue ie a eaeie oi?ia, a
naieo eca?aiieeia i?eioaeeei oeoe a ionoaaeo.

Oaeiau ?acoeueoaou . Oaeo aani?eia?iiai iaua-
noaaiiiai iai?eee/ey, a enoi?ee iaoaai nineiaey ia eiathuee
i?aoeaaeaioa. Eoae, i?aneiaooay naiaiaea oaea iciaiaiiaaeanue oaeoii iane-
eey, i?eoii a oi?ia eoeueoo?iie. E e?iia yoiai oaeoa, naiue aieiaoaeueiue
o/anoiee iauaai nia?aiey 30 yiaa?y ia iia au iacaaoue ie iaeiiai oaeoa
a aeayoaeueiinoe ainiiae iiiiceoeeiia?ia. Ana inoaeueiia auee neiaa.

O?oaeii iacaaoue aua ae?oaie oaeie neo/ae, eiaaea au iiiiceoeey ia eiaea
ieeaeie i?ia?aiiu, eiaaea i?aaenoaaeoaee aa auee au oae aaniiiiuiu, eae
30 yiaa?y, eiaaea ei i?aaeeaaaeenue aii?inu> .

N?aaieaay aea oeacaiiua oaeou n oai, /oi i?ienoiaeeei a i?iaeioeee,
iao?oaeii oaaaeeoueny, /oi oai aeaei ianoieo aua aanii?yaei/iaa. Oae, iiaeii
i?i/anoue a io/aoa oa?ueeianeie eiiennee:

aii?inia nineiaiie aeecie, n
eioi?uie eiiennee i?eoiaeeeinue noaeeeaaoueny ia eaaeaeii oaao, ia?aia
ianoi, ianiiiaiii, aeieaeii auoue ioaaaeaii i?eia?aoaieth eeeaioia i?e ii-
iiue iaeeaeia . Ia?yaeo n oeiaeaieai eeeaioia ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai
/a?ac iaeeaeia, a iineaaeiaa a?aiy a aeecie ieaaeoae /anoe nineiaey ii-
yaeeinue e ?anionoeeinue iao?iaui oeaaoeii iiaia o?iaeeeaia yaeaiea –
aacoaea?aeiay iiaiiy ca oaieiaiuie caueoaie. Yoi au?aaeaaony a oiaeaeaieyo
ii eaioeaey?eyi aeey iciaeiieaiey ni anaie i?iecaiaeyueieny oaieiaiuie
aeaeaie, a nin?aaeioi/aiee a naieo ?oeao anaie aeinooiiuie e iaaeinooiiuie
niiniaaie ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa iiaanoie eacaiiuo caueoieeia e ?ani?a-
aeaeaiey eo ii noaiaie nainaoeeiiiinoe i?ioeanna iaaeaeo niaie e oiaa?euaie.
Ia?aeeaeueii n yoei eaeao ?aeeaie?iaaiea naay a ianoiie i?anna iooai
iiiauaiey iiae?iaiuo io/aoia i naieo aunooieaieyo a iaeciaiii aeaai-
i?eyoiii aeooa e aa?aiaaiea ieaoiuo oaieiaiuo caueo /a?ac iin?aaenoai

eo?uea?ia e aiiaua eeoe, eiathueo aiciiaeiinoue iinoiyiii nii?eeanaoueny
n iaaeiyaiuie>.

Ana yoe oaeou i?eia?aee, i/aaeaeii, oa?aeoa? noieeee e i?i/iue, oae
/oi ?acaiai?u i iaaeaiee iieiaeie aaeaieaoo?u, ia oo?aoa eaeaaeia noa?eeia,
eioi?ua aua iaaeaaii n/eoaeenue nianai ioaeeaoeie, noaee iau/iui, i?yii
iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii iaueo nia?aiee, e aeaeiau yoe, aeaaiui ia?acii,
enoiaeeee eiaiii io i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiauo oa/aiee . Niioaaonoaaiii n yoei,
iaecaaaeii aicaoaeaeaeenue aii?inu i . A ioaao ia yoi o/?aaeaeaeenue eiiennee, i?aa-
ieciauaaeenue /anoiua niaauaiey, ii aii?in oae e inoaaaeny aii?inii,
aicaoaeaeay eaaeaeue ?ac iaeie e oa aea i?aiey, i?e/ai aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
iieiaeaiey iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi caaioai ia i?aaiecaoeee iiiiuieeia i?i-
oeainoaaeyeinue o?aaiaaiea i?ae?aoeoue ia a?aiy i?eai a iiiiuieee, aeey
ineaaeaiey neeu eiieo?aioeee. Ia?yaeo n yoei oi e aeaei aicaoaeaeaeenue
aii?inu i ieioii ninoiyiee aeaeeioa/iiai aeaea, ia ia?iiiuo iaaeieieao,
eioi?ua iniaaiii neeueii aeaaaee naay /oanoaiaaoue nineiaiie eanna a Iineaa.
Auei ynii, /oi aaeaieaoo?a ioiineony eiaeeooa?aioii e nineiaiui eioa-
?anai. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iaueo nia?aiee ia iiaea ni-
noiyoueny ca ionoonoaeai eai?oia. A 1906 aiaeo, iai?eia?, ieaeaai?iaeneea
i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua i?aaeuyaeee Niaaoo .

Aeayoaeueiinoue aaeaieaoo?u iaeeaeyeanue oieueei aeaaiaea?y aieaa eee iaiaa
neeueiui oie/eai ecaia. Oae, a Iineaa iiiai ?acaiai?ia aucaaei iiaaaeaiea
iaeiiai ec oiaa?euae i?aaenaaeaoaey iineianeiai noaea Ieeona, eioi?ue oaeaeee
ec caea canaaeaiee i?enoonoaothuoth aaeaieaoo?o, /oiau i/enoeoue ianoi aeey
aeai. Aieueoia aia/aoeaiea i?iecaaei i?eaea/aiea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai
Aeeea?niia e noaeaaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii 129 no. Oa. oe. ca i?iecianaiioth
a noaea ?a/ue. Aaeaieaoo?a caaieiiaaeanue, e ana Niaaou i?eiyee o/anoea a caueoa
iiaenoaeeiiai. *ai aeaeueoa, iaeiaei, oai iaiueoa e aiaoiea oie/ee aucuaaee
?aaeoeeth. Eiaaea a 1907 a. a?oiia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aianea i?aaeeiaeaiea
ia ia?aciaaiee eiiennee aeey ?anniio?aiey caeiiii?iaeoa i i?aia?aciaaiee
ianoiiai noaea, iao?ia?aaeneee Niaao ioeacae a yoii, a iauaa nia?aiea noaei
ia oi/eo c?aiey Niaaoa ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi III Aeoia ia ioaeai oio iaoa?eae,
eioi?ue iiaea au aeaoue eiienney i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Yoi cayaeaiea i/aiue
oa?aeoa?ii, eai a iai yanoaaiii cao/eo iaaeiaa?ea ia oieueei e nianoaaiiui

. 1914 a.. ? 15. – I?ei. aao.
Iaeeae (onoa?.) – iin?aaeiee.

Io/ao oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1913-14 a., n. 13. – I?ei. aao.

Oae, i/aiue ?acei ia oo?aoa eaeaaeia noa?eeia aiai?ee a iauai nia?aiee A.O. Ea?aineee.
?ei. aao.

neeai, ii e cia/aieth iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey aiiaua. A 1909 a. ieieno?
thnoeoeee i?iecian ?a/ue a Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoia, niaea?aeaaooth e?aeia ?ac-
eoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo aaeaieaoneiai nineiaey. A?oiia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
iiaeaea a Niaao cayaeaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicuaa iauaai nia?aiey aeey
ianoaeaeaiey ?a/e ieieno?a e auyniaiey, ianeieueei oa?aeoa?enoeea yoa ni-
ioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Niaao e ia yoio ?ac a nicuaa iauaai nia?aiey
ioeacae, i?e/ai iioeau ioeaca aua aieaa ia?auatho ia naay aieiaiea.
Niaao iaoae, /oi . Eaeeie au
iioeaaie Niaao a aeaiiii neo/aa ie ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny, ianiiiaiii, /oi
iie ?anoiaeyony n iai?aaeaieai aai i?aaeiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eiaeeooa?aioeci, eioi?ue ana ianoie/eaaa caaiaauaae naaa ii/ao, ieeiaaea
ia auaaao naiiaeiaeathuei yaeaieai. Ii yaeyaony iai?ioiie noi?iiie ono-
?aieaiey eioa?ana a eaeii-ieaoaeue iiaii iai?aaeaiee. A a eaeii iai?aaeaiee
oei yoi ono?aieaiea a aeaiiii neo/aa, iieacuaaao oio oaeo, /oi a 1909 a.,
ii eieoeeaoeaa aanueia cia/eoaeueiie a?oiiu iao?ia?aaeneeo i?enyaeiuo iiaa-
?aiiuo (75 /aeiaae), niiaa aue iinoaaeai ia i/a?aaeue aii?in i . I?aiey iineee iaiau/aeii no?ano-
iue oa?aeoa?. N iaeiie noi?iiu, i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue eayeny a oii, /oi
ii . A ae?oaie i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue, iai?ioea,
cayaeye, /oi ii ea?ae e aoaeao ea?aoue, e . Oaia?ue iauaa nia?aiea ia iiaei oaea ia?aie/eoueny iaeieie
?acaiai?aie e, ia?iiiui aieueoeinoaii i?eciaa iaiaoiaeeiui iinoaiiaeoue
ii?aaeaeaiea nia?aiey, aneaae canei aaeeiiaeanii iauyaeei aca?oioth ea?o ia-
niaianoeiie ni caaieai i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai e i?aaeinoaaeei Niaaoo ca
oaeoth ea?o a eeoaao e iauanoaaiiuo ianoao iiaeaa?aaoue /eaiia nineiaey aeen-
oeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aieioue aei eneeth/aiey ec nineiaey .

32. IOE?UOEA IIAUO NIAAOIA

N 1904 aiaea, o.a. nionoy o?eaeoeaoue eao iinea a?aiaiiiai i?einoaiiaeaiey,
ia/aeinue ioe?uoea iiauo Niaaoia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Aeeaeaeoei
iiaiaeii e yoiio iineoaeeei, ii-aeaeeiiio, neo/aeiia ianoiyoaeuenoai. A
1903 aiaeo ?aoaii auei nicaeaoue iiaue noaeaaiue ie?oa a Iiai/a?eannea,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoai aei oiai e oa?ueeianeiio noaeaaiiio ie?oao. A Iiai/a?-
eannea oaea n 1877 a. nouanoaiaaei ioaeaeaiea Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?ai-
iuo oa?ueeianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou. Oae eae n ioe?uoeai naiinoiyoaeueiiai
ie?oaa ioaeaeaiea Niaaoa ia iiaei au aeaeueoa nouanoaiaaoue, a ioe?uoea
iiauo Niaaoia auei i?einoaiiaeaii, oi iiai/a?eanneea i?enyaeiua iiaa-
?aiiua aioee n oiaeaoaenoaii e ieieno?o thnoeoeee I.A. Io?aaueaao, ei-
oi?ue ieacae aio iiaeaea?aeeo. 21 ethey 1904 a. iineaaeiaaei Auni/aeoaa
iiaaeaiea ia ioe?uoee Niaaoa i?e iiai/a?eanneie Noaeaaiie Iaeaoa. Eiaaea
aea aneaae canei aeaiooaoeey io iiaiai Niaaoa yaeeanue e I.A. Io?aaueaao,
/oiau iiaeaaiaea?eoue ca iiaeaea?aeeo, oi ieieno? neacae, iaaeaeo i?i/ei,
/oi, ii aai iiaieth, oieueei i?e iaee/iinoe naiioi?aaeaiey aaeaieaoo?a
iiaeao aeinoieii ianoe naie iaycaiiinoe, e /oi ii, ieieno?, iaia?ai aieoe
n oiaeaoaenoaii i iianaianoiii a eiia?ee ioe?uoee Niaaoia . Neiaa ie-
ieno?a ?aaeeciaaeenue ia aiieia, aua e aei neo ii? ia ai anao noaeaaiuo
ie?oaao ioe?uou Niaaou i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ii a oii aea 1904 aiaeo
(10 iiya?y) ninoiyeinue Auni/aeoaa iiaaeaiea ia ioe?uoee Niaaoia i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo a ie?oaao eacaineie, iaeanneie, na?aoianeie Noaeaaiuo
Iaeao, a aua /a?ac aeaa iaaeaee, 24 iiya?y, ninoiyeinue Auni/aeoaa iiaaeaiea
ia ioe?uoee Niaaoia i?e e?eooneie e iineie Noaeaaiuo Iaeaoao.

Ec anaai, /oi neacaii auoa, iainii?eii yanoaoao, /oi iiiaio aeey io-
e?uoey iiauo Niaaoia aua?ai aue iaiiaeoiaeyuee. Oi auei a?aiy eneeth-
/eoaeueiia, a?aiy ao?iuo e auno?i niaiyaoeony ia?aaeeaaiee, iaiueoa anaai
i?eaiaeiia aeey i?aaeeueiiai e ieaiiia?iiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. I?ioanneiiaeue-
iua eioa?anu, anoanoaaiii, ionooiaee ia caaeiee ieai ia?aae iieeoe/aneeie
caaea/aie, a ?ac?aoaiee eioi?uo aaeaieaoo?a i?eieiaea aeaeiia o/anoea, e
iioiio nineiaiay aeeciue ia iiaea ?acaeaaoueny aeaaea aieaa eee iaiaa ii?-
iaeueii. Io/aou anao Niaaoia iano?yo niiauaieyie i ianinoiyaoeony ni-
a?aieyo. A Iaeanna, a iauai nia?aiee 1909 a., iaaeiyeenue eiaiii iaeanneea
i?enyaeiua iiaa?aiiua, . . Aii?in yoio ia-
noaeaeaeny ii/oe ai anao Niaaoao, ii ana i?aaeeiaeaiey anaaaea auee ioeei-
iyaiu. Na?aoianeia iauaa nia?aiea iiiuoaeinue ?ac?oaeoue ai?aeeaa ocae.
A 1907 aiaeo nia?aiea auei iauyaeaii i?aaenaaeaoaeai Niaaoa ianinoiya-
oeiny ca ionoonoaeai eai?oia. Nia?aiea, iaeiaei, i?eciaei naay ninoiya-
oeiny. Niaao iacia/ee aoi?ia nia?aiea, ia eioi?ia oiaea i?eauei cia/e-
oaeueii iaiueoa onoaiiaeaiiiai eai?oia. Ii nia?aiea iiyoue i?eciaei naay
ninoiyaoeiny e aua?aei iiaue Niaao. Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa e I?aaeoaeueno-
aothuee Naiao auai?u ioiaieee. A iaaeaeo oai cei aanaioaecia ana neeueiaa
oei?aiyeinue, e a 1914 a. ianinoiyaoaany ca ionoonoaeai eai?oia iauaa
nia?aiea iinoaiiaeei:

1) i?eiyoue yoe/anee iaaeiionoeiui iinooieii iai?eauoea i?enyaeiiai
iiaa?aiiiai ia iauaa nia?aiea aac oaaaeeoaeueiie i?e/eiu;

2) ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue Niaaoo, aicaoaeaeay i eeoeao, ia yaeaoeony ia nia?a-
iea, aeenoeeieeia?iia i?iecaiaenoai, oneeeoue ?ai?anneaiua ia?u, iniaaiii
a ioiioaiee e i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui, aeeaouei a Na?aoiaa;

3) i i?e/eiao iayaee ia nia?aiea cai?aoeaaoue ianoiua eaaeiaou i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo (yoi iinoaiiaeaiea i?eiyoi ii i?aaeeiaeaieth a?oiiu
oaiaianeeo i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo);

4) i?ineoue Niaao ia/aoaoue io/aou i naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, a a /anoiinoe
e i aeenoeeieeia?iuo aeaeao, eaeiaua ia ia/aoaeenue ?aiueoa ca ionoonoaeai
n?aaenoa, a oaeaea iaia/aoaoue naiae iaeaieaa eioa?aniuo iinoaiiaeaiee ca
i?aaeiea aiaeu.

Ia?yaeo n aanaioaeciii ana aieueoa iaeaieeaaeenue iaaeieiee a nineiaiuo
nai?ao e noaee i?eieiaoue oa?iaeathuea ?acia?u. . Nai?u, – aiai?eo eacaineee Niaao, – iinoo-
iatho a oaeie noaiaie iaaeeo?aoii, /oi i?aaenoaaeyaony cao?oaeieoaeueiui
oaeiaeaoai?youe oaeouea iio?aaiinoe Niaaoa ii oai i?aaeiaoai, aeey eioi?uo
ii iacia/ai. Iaaeeo?aoiinoue a ieaoaaea nai?a ni noi?iiu eeoe, ia aeaeathueo
iiiyoue, /oi oieueei i?e ei?ii?aoeaiii ono?ienoaa i?enyaeiay aaeaieaoo?a
iiaeao auiieieoue naia aunieia iauanoaaiiia iacia/aiea, oa?iaeaao naiiio
nouanoaiaaieth nineiaey>. Yoio aii?in oiaea neoaeeo i?aaeiaoii, iiaeii
neacaoue, aani?a?uaiiai ianoaeaeaiey n oi/ee c?aiey i?eiyoey eaeeo-eeai

?ai?anneaiuo ia?, e oi/ii oae aea ieeaeeo i?aeoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia ionthaea
ia iieo/eeinue.

Oaeia aea iano?iaiea oea?eei e a iieiaeie /anoe aaeaieaoo?u. Ioe?uaay
a 1905 aiaeo ia?aia iauaa nia?aiea iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
a Iaeanna, auaoee i?aaenaaeaoaeue Niaaoa I.ss. Ia?aaiaio ai anooieoaeueiie
?a/e neacae: . Oae aiai?eeinue a 1905 a., a a 1908 a. io/ao
eiieoaoa ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi, . Caeanue aanaioaeci ia /oaeae auee aeaaea

oa?aeoa?a ecaeaaaoaeuenoaa. A 1906 a. iiiiuieee ?aoeee i?aaieciaaoue eii-
oa?aioeee, au?aaioaee i?ia?aiio, iaiaoeee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, ii oaea ia ia?-
auo nia?aieyo ii/oe ieeiai ia auei. Iiyoiio /a?ac aeaa ianyoea auei
nicaaii nia?aiea, /oiau auynieoue i?e/eiu aanaioaecia e eeai i?ae?aoeoue
eiioa?aioeee, eae iaoaeaaoothny caoath, eeai i?eiyoue ia?u. Nia?aiea ni-
noiyeinue, e ?aoaii eiioa?aioeee iinauaoue. Iaia/aiu auee oaiu, aua?aiu
aeieeaae/eee, ii . Oieueei a 1911 a. aiiaue aiciee aii?in ia ono?ienoaa ?aoa-
?aoia, a 1912 a. , ii a nea-
aeothuai io/aoa oaea ieeaeeo neaaeia eiioa?aioeee iaeoe iaeuecy.

Ia?aeeaeueii n yoeie, oae neacaoue, io?eoeaoaeueiuie i?eciaieyie, eaeoo
e aanueia y?eea iiaeic?eoaeueiua neiioiiu ?aceiaeaiey nineiaiie aeecie.
Ia yoii iiaeii noaeeoue ii oai aii?inai, eioi?ua Niaaoo i?eoiaeeeinue
noaaeoue ia naia ianoaeaeaiea. A iineaaeiai io/aoiii aiaeo /eaiu nineiaey,
i?iaeeaathuea a ?inoiaa-ia-Aeiio, ia?aoeee aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iaeioi?ua
/eaiu nineiaey n/eoatho aiciiaeiui iiiiaaoue e i?ee?uaaoue iacaeiiioth aae-
aieaoo?o (niaeanii iiaiio caeiio i ianoiii noaea), e iioiio iie . Aua aieaa ii?aaeaeaiiua a yoii niunea iieiaeaiey onoa-
iiaee eacaineee Niaao. Ia aeiioneaaony, ?acuyniyao Niaao: 1) iieo/aiea
aeae i?e iin?aaenoaa ?aciiai ?iaea aaaioia, iieo/athueo ieaoo ca aeinoaaeaiea
eeeaioia..; 3) auaaoeaaiea ia oeeoeao, e?iia aoiaeiuo aeaa?ae, aeiua/ae
eee iauyaeaiee n oeacaieai i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caiyoee, aae?ana e i?eaiiuo
/ania..; 6) auaaoeaaiea ia noaiao i?enoonoaaiiuo iano ieaeaoia i i?i-
oanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe..; 8) i?aaeeiaeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo oneoa a
eaeie au oi ie auei oi?ia e eaeei au oi ie auei niiniaii; 9) iaaea-
aii?enoieiue IOCUeA i oiaa?eua, ii?i/auee /anoue, aeia?ia eiy eee i?i-
oanneiiaeueiua iiciaiey aai; 10) iaiin?aaenoaaiiia niioaiea ii aeaeo n
aeiaa?eoaeai oiaa?eua n oeaeueth ono?aiaiey iineaaeiaai io o/anoey a ianoae-
aeaiee oao eee ae?oaeo aeaeiauo aii?inia e II) aaeoaoeey i?ioea oiaa?eua
n oeaeueth ?anoe?aiey nianoaaiiie i?aeoeee. Ianiiiaiii, eiia/ii, /oi ana
yoe iieiaeaiey aannii?iu, eae aeneiia. Ii eiaiii oi e i?eaeaeaao aie-
iaiea, /oi e iyoeaeanyoeeaoiaio thaeeath aaeaieaoo?u Niaaoo i?eoiaeeony
oaeea aeneiiu ianoaeaeaoue e i?aiiaeaaaoue eo i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui a ea-
/anoaa ianoaaeaiee. Aaeeea ee ?acieoea iaaeaeo yoeie ianoaaeaieyie e oaie
o?aaiaaieyie, eioi?ua i?aaeuyaee caeiiiaeaoaeue a eiioea XVIII noieaoey e
eeoeai, caieiaaoeiny noaeioiaeaeaieai?

33. AIOAAIIECI IAAEAeO AAeAIEAOO?IE
E AEANOUeTH

Oaeia iieiaeaiea aeae canoaaeyao iniaaiii ai?y/i aniiiieoue i?eaaaeai-
ioth auoa oeeoaoo ec ioeoeeaeueiiai i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
i?eieiaoue ia?u niaeaenoaey i?aaeeueiiio ?acaeoeth aaaaeaiiiai a aeeciue
einoeoooa. Aio eiaaea oaeea ia?u yaeyeenue iaioeiaeiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.
Ii iaaea?ii aaeaieaou, ?annoaeaeay a iaueo nia?aieyo ia oiaaeea nineiaey,
ana /aua oeacuaaee, /oi oaeie oiaaeie iaoiaeeony a nayce n ninoiyieai
anaai iauanoaa. Iiaia iauanoaaiiia oa/aiea, niaieaoaa e?aoeia?aiaiiia
aaeeiiaeooea, iaeiaeeei aua aieaa aonoie ioia/aoie ia aaeieieno?aoeeth e
iaaeno?aoo?o, e aianoi eaeeo au oi ie auei ?aoi?i, a?aaeaeaaiia ioiioaiea

e aaeaieaoo?a, iaia/aaoaany aanueia caiaoii oaea e ia?aae 1905 a., iinea
yoiai i?eiyei /?acau/aeii ?aceee oa?aeoa?.

Caeanue, iaeiaei, ec iaeanoe enoi?ee iu iiiaaeaai oaea a aeeaoth aeaeno-
aeoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay aiiaua n o?oaeii iiaeaeaaony iauaeoeaiiio aiaeeco, a
a oneiaeyo iuiaoiaai iiiaioa ano?a/aao iai?aiaeieeiua aiaoiea i?aiyo-
noaey aeey ecia?aaeaiey nouiinoe aa. A?yae ee, ai?i/ai, o?aaoaony aeieacu-
aaoue, /oi eia/a ioiioaiey yoe neiaeeoueny ia iiaee. Aianoi anyeeo aeiea-
caoaeuenoa aeinoaoi/ii, iai?eia?, iaiiiieoue oioy au i aeaea Euaeeia. A
1911 a. a I?aaeoaeuenoaothuai Naiaoa neooaeinue aeaei ii iaaeiaieth nauoa
noa eeoe a i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e ?aaiethoeeiiiiio iauanoao Aeaoiaeoeoothi. Ia
noaeaaiii neaaenoaee auei onoaiiaeaii caueoie, /oi i?iecaiaeeaoee i?aae-
aa?eoaeueiia neaaenoaea noaeaaiue neaaeiaaoaeue Euaeei niaa?oee ?yae iiae-
eiaia, I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao iinoaiiaee i?eaea/ue Euaeeia e ioaao-
noaaiiinoe, ii aeiiiaaoaeuenoai caueou aa?iooue aeaei e aeineaaeiaaieth aaeaeo
noieue eneeth/eoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey auei ioaa?a-
iooi, noae aue aeiaaaeai aei eiioea, a canei e aeaei, aicaoaeaeaiiia i?ioea
Euaeeia, auei i?ae?auaii, oae eae ii i?eciai aue aeaenoaiaaaoei a ni-
noiyiee aeooaaiie iaii?iaeueiinoe. Oi/ii oae aea a aeaea oae iac. Iiai-
?inneeneie ?anioaeeee, neooaaoainy a Iiai/a?eannea, aiaiiue noae on-
oaiiaee iaee/iinoue iiaeiaiiai aea aaaeaiey neaaenoaey.

Oaeia ninoiyiea thnoeoeee ia iiaeao ie?eoueny n ooieoeeyie caueou, e
anoanoaaiii, iai?eia?, anee ia iaeiii aieueoii i?ioeanna i?aaenaaeaoaeue ia-
ia?aae iauyaee caueoieeai, /oi ia aeiionoeo ieeiai ec ieo aeaeaoue caia/aiee
ii iiaiaeo i?ienoiaeyueo ia noaea aeaenoaee, a oaeaea ia aeiionoeo cayaeaiee
e oiaeaoaenoaa i caianaiee a i?ioieie ia yoeo aeaenoaeyo e aai, i?aaenaaeaoaey,
?anii?yaeaieyo, , e
nii?eoue i?ioea yoiai ia i?eoiaeeony, – ii iaaei i?eciaoue aianoa n oai,
/oi eia/a i?aaenaaeaoaeth o?oaeii auei au aanoe canaaeaiea.

Aio ii/aio e a nayce ni neacaiiui auoa iao ioaeaeu iiaeae?aoue e eaa-
eeoeoee?iaaoue neo/ae, aiai?yuea ia ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo aeanoueth e aaeaiea-
oo?ie. Iiaeii ia?aie/eoueny i?eaaaeaieai eeoue i?eioeeieaeueiuo oaeoia,

Aaeaaiaeiee ia 1914 a., n. 76. – I?ei. aao. No. 630 Ono. oaie. noaeii?. – . Nionoy ianyoe I.A. Aeeiia oaaaeiiee i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa, /oi
25 yiaa?y (o.a. i?ineaeaa a oth?ueia nauoa ianyoea aac i?aaeuyaeaiey eaeiai
au oi ie auei iaaeiaiey) N.A. Eaeueiaiiae/ inaiaiaeaeai. Ii naiue oaeo
a?anoa caueoieea i?e eniieiaiee naieo iaycaiiinoae ieeaeie ?aaeoeee ia
aucaae ni noi?iiu aeanoe.

A oii aea Oaiaiaa aoaa?iaoi? Io?aoia a 1906 a. iaeiaeee oo?ao ia
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai Oaoiaa ca i?iecianaiioth ei noaeaaioth ?a/ue. Yoi
?anii?yaeaiea auei ioiaiaii. A E?eoonea aue a?anoiaai aanue ninoaa Niaaoa
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, e aai ooieoeee ia?aoee e ie?oaeiiio noaeo. Aeaoiy
aiaeaie iicaea, a 1908 aiaeo, auei aicaoaeaeaii oaieiaiia i?aneaaeiaaiea

i?ioea i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai Aeeea?niia, iaaeiyaiiai ii 129 no. Ono.
oa. oe. ca i?iecianaiioth ei ia noaea ?a/ue. Yoio eioeeaeaio aua neeueiaa
acaieiiaae aaeaieaoo?o, eioi?ay eiiaiaee?iaaea ii/oe ec anao ie?oaia ca-
ueoieeia ia yoi aeaei. Noae ninoiyeny a 1909 a. a auacaeiie nannee aeeaineie
Noaeaaiie Iaeaou a A?iaeia. A naiae ?a/e 0.0. A?ocaiaa?a iiaeiye aii?in
ia i?eioeeieaeueioth aunioo, oeacaa, /oi . ?anniio?aa n yoie oi/ee c?aiey iaaeiaiea,
0.0. A?ocaiaa?a oeacae ia oi, /oi .

Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa i?eciaea iaaeiyaiiai aeiiaiui e i?eaiai?eea aai
e caeeth/aieth a e?aiinoue ia 1 aiae. I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao inoaaee
eannaoeeiiioth aeaeiao aac iineaaenoaee. Iu ia i?eaiaeei nouiinoe au-
noaaeaiiiai i?ioea aaeaieaoa iaaeiaiey, eiaiii aeey oiai, /oiau ia ?anna-
eaaoue aieiaiey. Oaeo oio, /oi oaeia iaaeiaiea aicieeei /ooue ia iaeaioia
50-eaoiaai thaeeay noaeaaiuo onoaaia. Iiaeii, i?aaaea, aic?aceoue ia yoi,
/oi i?aaeaea caueoieee ia iicaieyee naaa oaeeo au?aaeaiee. Aeinoaoi/ii
auei au, iaeiaei, oeacaoue, /oi eie?eieie?oaiua ianoa ia aucaaee aeaaea
caia/aiey ni noi?iiu i?aaenaaeaoaey. Ii aianoa n oai, iiaeii ee oaeeaeyoueny
aicaoaeaeaieth e enoiaeo iaaeiaiey, anee e ?a/e aeaiooaoia i?eciathony iiae-
eaaeaueie oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Aua 3 aiaea nionoy iiaeaa?any eieaaaieth ae?oaie onoie aaeaieaoneie i?i-
oannee. I?e neooaiee a Aa?oaaa iaeiiai aeaea iaeei ec naeaeaoaeae, nai
?aiueoa inoaeaeaiiue, cayaee, /oi ii ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii neaaenoaee niciaeny,
ii ia noaea acye naia niciaiea iacaae, niaeanii niaaoo caueoieea naiaai,
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai Iaoaea. Iaiaaeeaiii iineaaeiee aue i?eaea/ai e
aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Ii eaoaai?e/anee ioaa?a oaeoe/aneoth
noi?iio aeaea, ii ioeacuaaeny aeaoue iauyniaiey ii nouanoao, eai aai iau-
yniaiey n iiaenoaeeiui i?ienoiaeeee, niaeanii 569 no. Ono. oa. noae., iaaaeeia
e ninoaaeytho iiyoiio i?ioanneiiaeueioth oaeio. Aa?oaaneee Ie?oaeiie
Noae i?eciae iaaeiaiey Iaoaea i?aaeeueiuie e inaiaiaeee aai io aeenoeei-
eeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii i?ieo?i? i?eian i?ioano, e aa?oaaneay No-
aeaaiay Iaeaoa eneeth/eea Iaoaea ec nineiaey. Iaoae i?eian aeaeiao a

Niaaeeiaiiia I?enoonoaea 1-ai e eannaoeeiiiuo Aeaia?oaiaioia I?aaeoaeue-
noaothuaai Naiaoa, ii aeaeiaa inoaaeaia auea aac iineaaenoaee.

Aiiaua, ioiioaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa e aaeaieaoo?a ecia-
ieeinue. A naiae ?a/e, i?iecianaiiie a Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoia 25 iiya?y
1909 a., ieieno? thnoeoeee E.A. Uaaeiaeoia iaaeaeo i?i/ei ?anneacae, /oi
, ia?aoeei
a aaanoai anao yoeo o?aa?uo iinaoeoaeae>. Yoa i?ac?eoaeueiay e?iiey, a
nayce n oai, /oi ?a/ue eaeao eeoue i iaeioi?uo aaeaieaoao, iicaieyao
aeoiaoue, /oi Ieienoa?noai ia niio?aei na?ueacii ia caaanoiaeo, ii, ii-ae-
aeeiiio, inoaaeei iaecaeaaeeiue neaae ia ioiioaiee
I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa e aaeaieaoo?a. Ii e?aeiae ia?a, ia auei,
eaaeaony, ie iaeiiai aii?ina, eioi?ue ia aue au ?ac?aoai a iaaeaaii?eyoiii
aeey aaeaieaoo?a niunea. Auoa oeacaii auei, iai?eia?, ia aanaioaeci, i?e-
aaaeoee e oiio, /oi cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iaueo nia?aiee ia iiaea ninoiyoueny.
Iiieii aanaioaecia, yoiio, iaeiaei, aua niinianoaiaaee iaeioi?ua /enoi
aiaoiea oneiaey: aieueoay i?ioyaeaiiinoue iaeioi?uo ie?oaia (iniaaiii
iineie e e?eooneie Noaeaaiuo Iaeao) e oi, /oi, eae, iai?eia?, a ie?oaa
iiai/a?eanneie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou a ?inoiaa-ia-Aeiio i?iaeeaaao ai?acaei
aieueoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, iaaeaee a Iiai/a?eannea. Iiyoiio aeey
iaania/aiey eai?oia aaeaieaou iuoaeenue ono?ieoue iauaa nia?aiea a ?in-
oiaa-ia-Aeiio, ii ooaea yaeeanue iieeoeey, a i?enoonoaee eioi?ie aaeaieaoo?a
ia aeaeaea i?iaeieaeaoue canaaeaiea. Eiaaea aea ia yoi Niaaoii i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo i?eianaia auea aeaeiaa, oi aaeeinoaaiiui aa ?acoeueoaoii auei
?acuyniaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, /oi iauea nia?aiey aeieaeiu
i?ienoiaeeoue a ai?iaea, aaea iaoiaeeony Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa (I.N., 1907 a.,
.? 10). Ii oaeiio aea iiaiaeo I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao ?acuyniee, /oi
Niaaou i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia ai?aaa ?anniao?eaaoue iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiua
ei aeenoeeieeia?iua aeaea aia ianoa iaoiaeaeaiey Noaeaaiie Iaeaou (I.N.,
1912 a., .? 9). A 1908 a. ii aeaeiaa iaeiiai i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai I?a-
aeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao, a eciaiaiea 42-eaoiae, oaa?aei onoaiiaeaoaeny a
Iao?ia?aaea i?aeoeee, ?acuyniee, /oi aeey aiciaiiaeaiey Niaaoa o?aaoaony
i?eauoea a iauaa nia?aiea iieiaeiu anao iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo Niaaoo i?e-
nyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, a ia iieiaeiu neo iiaa?aiiuo, i?iaeeaathueo a ianoa
i?aauaaiey Niaaoa (Niaaeeiaiiia I?enoonoaea, 7 oaa?. 1908 a.). Oi aea
Niaaeeiaiiia I?enoonoaea i?aaeinoaaeei i?aaenaaeaoaeth noaea, ii aai ee/iiio

oniio?aieth, o?aaiaaoue io i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai nienea ii?o/aaiuo aio

aeae (0i?” 6/O 1912 a.).

Naiue oyaeaeue oaea? iaianai aue ?acuyniaieai Naiaoa ii aii?ino i
eiinoeueoaoeeyo. Caeanue ethaiiuoii ioiaoeoue, /oi a 1908 a. iaeanneee a?a-
iaiiue aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? e a?aaeiia/aeueiee, a oeaeyo ai?ueau n iiaeiieueiie
aaeaieaoo?ie, iiaeiye aii?in ia ono?ienoaa iiauo eiinoeueoaoeee e i?inee
Niaao ?ac?aaioaoue . A yoii
oaeoa iao ie/aai neo/aeiiai. Iai?ioea, a ia/aoe iiyaeeinue ioeoeeiciia
niiauaiea Ieienoa?noaa THnoeoeee, eiinoaoe?iaaaoaa, /oi a iineaaeiea
aiaeu yia?ae/ii oeacuaaeinue ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ai?ueau n iiaeiieueiie aae-
aieaoo?ie, cei eioi?ie i?eieiaao iaaa?iyoiua ?acia?u, /oi iaano?a/o
yoei oeacaieyi e auea ecaeaia 939 no. Oe. i iae. Ii, eiinoaoe?oao ni-
iauaiea aeaeueoa, ecaeaiea yoiai caeiia e aucaaei o?aaiao, /oi noaouey yoa
aoaeao neeoeii oe?iei i?eiaiyoueny. Iiyoiio, eae e iinea ecaeaiey caeiia
i /anoiuo iiaa?aiiuo, Ieienoa?noai ?acineaei oee?eoey? i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
n/eoaoueny n nicaeaaoeieny oneiaeyie ieacaiey th?eaee/aneie iiiiue. Ea-
caeinue au iiyoiio, /oi i?e noieue ino?ie iinoaiiaea aii?ina i ai?ueaa n
iiaeiieueiie aaeaieaoo?ie ioaeii auei au any/anee niaeaenoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth
eiinoeueoaoeee. Ii oe?ieia o/anoea eiinoeueoaoeee a i?aaeauai?iie ai?ueaa
ia?aoeei ia naay ?aaieaia aieiaiea aaeieieno?aoeee. Oae, y?ineaaneee ao-
aa?iaoi? cai?aoee ianoiie eiinoeueoaoeee iiaea/o niaaoia ii aii?inai ec-
ae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa. Eiinoeueoaoeey aea i?eciaea cai?auaiea iacaeiiiui
e iinoaiiaeea i?iaeieaeaoue iiaea/o niaaoia. Oa?aeoa?ii i?e yoii, /oi a
io/aoao iao?ia?aaeneeo eiinoeueoaoeee ca 1907 a. oeacaii: . E aio eae ?ac a oi a?aiy, eiaaea ?ieue eiinoeueoaoeee a ecae?a-
oaeueiie ai?ueaa oaea eii/eeanue, aaeieieno?aoeey caeioa?aniaaeanue eo noua-
noaiaaieai. Iineianeee a?aaeiia/aeueiee cai?inee Ieienoa?noai THnoe-
oeee, ai?aaa ee Niaao naiinoiyoaeueii ooaa?aeaeaoue onoaa eiinoeueoaoeee, a
iao?ia?aaeneee a?aaeiia/aeueiee ia?aoee aieiaiea ia eiiiaoaioeeth eiinoeue-
oaoeee e, ni naiae noi?iiu, iieaaae, /oi eiinoeueoaoeee i?eiaaeeaaeeo i?aai
iiaea/e niaaoia eeoue ii aii?inai /enoi noaeaaiiai oa?aeoa?a, e i?eoii ia

Io/ao iaeanneiai Niaaoa ca 1908 a.. n. 41. – I?ei. aao.
Io/ao iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ca 1907 a.. n. 231. – I?ei. aao.

eia/a, eae ii ii?o/aieth o/anoaothueo a aeaea eeoe e iiae aeeaeaeoei eii-
o?ieai iiaeeaaeaueo noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee. Ieienoa?noai ia?aaeaei aii?in
ia ianoaeaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, e Naiao ?acuyniee, /oi Ni-
aaou i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo ia ai?aaa ooaa?aeaeaoue onoaau eiinoeueoaoeee.

Ia eanaynue iiyoue-oaee nouanoaa aii?ina, aeinoaoi/ii ioiaoeoue, /oi eii-
noeueoaoeee i?inouanoaiaaee nauoa ni?iea eao, /oi onoaau eo ooaa?aeaeaeenue
ia oieueei Niaaoaie, ii e ie?oaeiuie noaeaie. Niiiaiea aicieeei oieueei
oaia?ue, eiaaea aiiaua ioiioaiea e aaeaieaoo?a noaei ?acei io?eoeaoaeueiui,
a eae oieueei niiiaiea aicieeei, iii oaea auei ?aoaii a io?eoeaoaeueiii
niunea. Aeey ioeaiee ?aoaiey I?aa. Naiaoa aaaeii ioiaoeoue aua e oi ia-
noiyoaeuenoai, /oi oaeoe/anee iii ia i?eaaaeaii a eniieiaiea. Eeoue /anoue
eiinoeueoaoeee cae?uoa, aaconeiaii caaea?aeaii ioe?uoea iiauo, ii cia/e-
oaeueiia aieueoeinoai ii-i?aaeiaio nouanoaoao, i?ieo?aoo?a i?eciaao eo
nouanoaiaaiea, a aaeieieno?aoeey, ia ii/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe ai?ueau n iiae-
iieueiie aaeaieaoo?ie, ioiineony e iei iieiaeeoaeueii. Aua a 1913 aiaeo
i?ieo?i? iao?ia?aaeneie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou ia?auaeny a Niaao n cai?inii
i niiauaiee aio naaaeaiee i /enea, ninoaaa e aeayoaeueiinoe eiinoeueoaoeee,
a iieo/ea yoe naaaeaiey, aua /a?ac o?e ianyoea caeioa?aniaaeny iieo/aieai
iaeaieaa oi/iuo aeaiiuo i /enea eeoe o?enoeaineeo e iao?enoeaineeo en-
iiaaaeaiee a ioaeaeueiuo eiinoeueoaoeeyo. Oaeei ia?acii, iaeuecy aeaaea neacaoue,
/oi i?ieo?aoo?a cae?uaaea aeaca, iia ioe?uoi i?eciaaaea nouanoaiaaiea
eiinoeueoaoeee.

Ia/aai iaiiieiaoue, /oi i?e oaeii iai?aaeaiee ?acuyniaiee ino?ea eo
aeieaeii auei i?aaeaea anaai iiaa?iooueny i?ioea eeoe iao?enoeaineeo aa?i-
eniiaaaeaiee. I?aaenaaeaoaeue aa?oaaneie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou a 1912 a. au-
?acee niiiaiea, ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ee ia?aie/aiea i?eaia a i?enyaeiua
iiaa?aiiua e ia eo iiiiuieeia (i?ei. e 380 no. O/?. noae. ono.). Iu oaea
ciaai, /oi aii?in yoio iaiaeiie?aoii noaaeeny aeeciueth, ii I?aaeoaeueno-
aothuee Naiao inoaaaeny a noi?iia io aicieeaaoae ai?ueau. A 1912 a. ni-
iiaiey noa?oaai i?aaenaaeaoaey auee ?ac?aoaiu ?ani?ino?aiaieai icia-

/aiiiai ia?aie/eoaeueiiai i?aaeea e ia iiiiuieeia (?aoaiea iau. nia?.
12 yiaa?y 1912 a., I? 4). Iinea yoiai, /a?ac aiae, aicieeee niiiaiey, ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony ee icia/aiiia i?aaeei e ia i?eiyoea a i?enyaeiua no?yi-
/ea. Yoi niiiaiea oi/ii oae aea auei ?ac?aoaii a niunea aeaeueiaeoaai
?ani?ino?aiaiey. . A yoii caeeth/aiee, aannii?ii, ie/aai
iaiaeeaeaiiiai iao. ?ac, eae yoi i?eciaii a ?aoaiee iauaai nia?aiey 12/IV,

aoeaaeueiue oaeno aeaiiiai caeiiiiieiaeaiey ia eiaao en/a?iuaathuaai cia-
/aiey e ?ani?ino?aiyaony oaeaea e ia iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo,
oi e aeaeueiaeoaa ?anoe?aiea aai niunea yaeyaony oieueei iineaaeiaaoaeueiui.

Aeey iieiiai oyniaiey oa?aeoa?a naiaoneeo ?acuyniaiee neaaeoao inoa-
iiaeoueny aua ia iaeiii neo/aa, ia?eiaoee eioi?iai oyioeenue aiaea o?e. A
canaaeaiee oa?ueeianeie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou 3 ai?aey 1909 a. caueoiee, i?e-
nyaeiue iiaa?aiiue Ea?eeneee, ai a?aiy i?aaenoaaeaiey iauyniaiee ii
aeaeo, aue inoaiiaeai i?aaenaaeaoaeai, eioi?ue ?acei iiauoaiiui oiiii
e?eeioe aio: aeiaieueii! Ea?eineee iiaeae a Niaao cayaeaiea i ?anniio?aiee
aai aeaenoaee, e Niaao iaoae, /oi ai a?aiy caueou E. ie a /ai ia ia?ooee
iaycaiiinoae naiaai caaiey. I?ieo?i? Iaeaou i?eian i?ioano ia yoi ii-
?aaeaeaiea aaeaeo oiai, /oi iii ia eiaao cia/aiey ?aoaiey ii aeenoeeiee-
ia?iiio aeaeo e ieeoi ia aicaoaeaeae aii?ina i ia?ooaiee E. i?aaee i?i-
oanneiiaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey. Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa iinoaiiaeea ana i?iecaiaenoai
oie/oiaeeoue, a i aeaenoaeyo Niaaoa aicaoaeeoue aeenoeeieeia?iia i?iecaiaenoai,
ia?aaeaa aeaei I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaio Naiaoo. Naiao, ii aunoaio aeenoeei-
eeia?iiio i?enoonoaeth, ia?aaeae aeaei ia ?anniio?aiea eacaineiai Niaaoa
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Eacaineee Niaao i?eiye aeaei e naiaio ?anniio-
?aieth, ii inoaaee niiauaiea Iaeaou i aeaenoaeyo oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa
aac iineaaenoaee. I?ieo?i? eacaineie Noaeaaiie Iaeaou i?eian i?ioano,
e eacaineay Iaeaoa iinoaiiaeea iauyaeoue i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea /eaiai oa?ue-
eianeiai Niaaoa, i?eieiaaoei o/anoea a iinoaiiaeaiee i Ea?eineii.

Oaeei ia?acii, a aeaiiii neo/aa iaia/aaony oaiaeaioeey i?eciaoue, /oi
Niaao ia ai?aaa ianoaeaeaoue aii?inia i niaa?oaiiuo i?enyaeiuie iiaa-
?aiiuie niaiiic niaeniiaina, e /oi iaaeci? ca Niaaoaie i?eiaaeeaaeeo Niaaoai
ae?oaeo ie?oaia e noaeaaiui iaeaoai. Ii anee aa?iooueny iacaae e aniiiieoue,
/oi aiai?eeinue a eiiennee I.A. Io?aaueaaa ii aeaiiiio iiaiaeo, oi ieaaeaony,
/oi oiaaea ieeaeeo niiiaiee ia aicieeaei ioiineoaeueii oiai, /oi ii aeae-
noaothuaio caeiio niaiiic niaeniiaina ioiinyony e eiiiaoaioeee Niaaoa, /oi
, e /oi eciaiaiea
yoiai ii?yaeea iiaeao auoue niaa?oaii eeoue iooai caeiiiaeaoaeueiui. A
oaia?ue I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao i?eciae aiciiaeiui onoaiiaeoue oaeie
ii?yaeie neeith naiaai ?acuyniaiey.

Aii?in ia ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo aeanoueth e aaeaieaoo?ie naeaeaeny oaeaea
i?aaeiaoii ianoaeaeaiey a Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoia . Iiaiaeii iineoaeeei ec-

I?aai>, 1913, n. 3023 – [??ei aao.
Iauynieoaeueiay Caienea, o. III. n. 87. – I?ei. nao.
-Canaaeaiey 2y iiya?y e 2 aeaeaa?y 1909 a. – I?eei. aao.

aeaiea oee?eoey?a ii oth?aiiiio aaaeiinoao, ?aeiiaiaeiaaaoaai ia aeiioneaoue
e naeaeaieth n iaaeiyaiuie caueoieeia, eioi?uo oth?aiiia ia/aeuenoai ca-
iiaeic?eo a ia?aaea/a iaaeiyaiiio ienueia eee aauae. Oee?eoey? yoio aucaae
cai?in i iacaeiiiia?iinoe, aaeaeo aai i?ioeai?a/ey aaeaieth 569 no. Ono.
oa. n. i aeiiouaiee naeaeaiee caueoieea n iiaenoaeeiui iaaaeeia. Iacaaeieai
aei ianoaeaeaiey cai?ina a Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoia oee?eoey? aue ioiaiai.
Oai ia iaiaa, ieieno? thnoeoeee aunooiee n ?a/ueth, eioi?oth iiaeii auei
au ioeaieoue oieueei i?e aoeaaeueiii aa aini?iecaaaeaiee, eai aua aaaeiaa
niaea?aeaiey oio oii, oa iaoiaeu, eioi?ua auee eniieueciaaiu aeey oa?aeoa-
?enoeee iiaaaeaiey aaeaieaoo?u. E.A. Uaaeiaeoia, eioi?ue a 1904 a. oae
aaeioiiaaiii aiai?ee i i?aaao caueou e oae ai?y/i ionoaeaae aa i?aaa,
oaia?ue noae ia . A /ai aea nouiinoue yoie oi/ee c?aiey? . Eia/a aiai?y, oaia?ue oaea aaeaieao ia i?aaie-
/aneia caaii a i?aaiecaoeee i?aainoaeey, yoi oieueei ainoue, oa?ieiue oicy-
eiii. Oaia?ue caueoiee ioithaeue ia yaeyaony oaea iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii
i?aainoaeey. . Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia ia
niaeaneeanue n ieieno?ii, a ?aoeoaeueii auneacaeanue ca i?aaa caueou e
iiaeaaeythuei aieueoeinoaii i?eiyea i?aaeeiaeaiioth /eaiii Ainoaea?noaai-
iie aeoiu Ao/eiaui ?aciethoeeth: ,

Oi?ioea Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu ioee/aaony aieueoie ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth,
ii a. ieieno? thnoeoeee ca?aiaa iauyaee, /oi ath ie/aai ia aoaeao aeinoeaiooi.

No. 569 Ono. oaie. noaeii?. – .
Noaiia?aoe/aneee io/ao. Nanney III, /. 1, n. 2896. – I?e.oe. aao.

Iaei oiai. E. A. Uaaeiaeoia oaeinoiaa?ee, /oi iaia?aiey oee ai?acaei
aeaeueoa. .
Oi/ii oae aea iiaeii ee oaeeaeyoueny oiio, /oi aicaoaeaeaii auei aeaei i?ioea
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai Aeeea?niia, anee aue e oaeie neo/ae, /oi oiaa?eu
i?ieo?i?a i?inee caianoe a i?ioieie oeacaiey caueoieea ia onoa?aeinoue
aeaenoaothueo iinoaiiaeaiee caeiia i ?acaia, oa?iaeay aicaoaeaeaieai i?ioea
iaai oaieiaiiai i?aneaaeiaaiey ii 129 no. Oa. oe. . Eee oaeie i?eia?: a
1912 a. aicieeei niiiaiea o noa?oaai i?aaenaaeaoaey iineianeie Noaeaaiie
Iaeaou ioiineoaeueii 378 no. o/?. noae. ono., eioi?ay aiai?eo, /oi a oao
ianoao, aaea ia aoaeoo ioe?uou Niaaou i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eo ooieoeee
ia?aiinyony ia ie?oaeiua noaeu. Niiiaiea aicieeei ioiineoaeueii oiai, ia
iiae/eieoue ee eiiiaoaioeee ie?. noaeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo e a oao ai-
?iaeao, eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeao e ie?oao Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, eiathuae Niaao.
Nionoy 43 eao iinea ioe?uoey noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee noa?oee i?aaenaaeaoaeue
cai?aoeaaao i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa, eaeay onoaiiaeeanue a yoii ioiioaiee
i?aeoeea.

34. AAeAIEAONEEE I?IOeANN

Oaeea iaii?iaeueiua ioiioaiey, anoanoaaiii, aeaeaee aoiinoa?o ana
aieaa e aieaa iai?yaeaiiie, e ?aiueoa eee iicaea aeieaeii auei i?iecieoe
eaeia-ieaoaeue ec ?yaea aii auoiaeyuaa noieeiiaaiea. Iiaiaeii aeey yoiai e
iineoaeeei oae iacuaaaiia aeaei Aaeeena, eioi?ia aiiaua nua?aei cia/e-
oaeueioth ?ieue a iauanoaaiiie aeecie ?innee. Ia 23 ieoya?y 1913 aiaea, a
oi a?aiy, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaaea a Eeaaa aua i?iaeieaeaeinue ?anniio?aiea
aeaea ia oaeenoaa THueineiai, a Iao?ia?aaea iacia/aii auei iauaa nia?aiea
i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aeey ane?uoey eiiaa?oia n ecae?aoaeueiuie caien-
eaie e iiaen/aoa aieinia, iiaeaiiuo aeey eca?aiey ninoaaa Niaaoa ia 1913-
1914 aiae. Nia?aeinue anaai ieiei aeaoonio i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo.-Ai a?aiy
oiaea iauaai nia?aiey aianaii auei i?aaeeiaeaiea iineaoue oaeaa?aiio ca-
ueoieeai Aaeeena, eioi?ay niaea?aeaea au eaoaai?e/aneee i?ioano i?ioea
iinoaiiaee yoiai i?ioeanna.

Ec yaeaoeony a nia?aiea /eaiia Niaaoa iaeei oeacae, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiiay
?aciethoeey ia ianoaeaeaeanue a Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, oae eae aio
aiana i?aaenoaaeaia ia auea; iiyoiio Niaao ia iiaeao aeaoue naiaai caeeth/aiey

Eaeaaiaeiee -1a/e> ia 1914 a.. n. 1?). – I?ei. aao.

13

ii nouanoao, a i?e i?ienoiaeeaoai oieueei /oi iaiaia iuneae Niaao i?e-
ciae, /oi ii i?aaeeai ia iaueo nia?aieyo ii aii?inai, ia iinoaaeaiiui
ia iiaanoeo, ieeaeeo iinoaiiaeaiee i?eiyoi auoue ia iiaeao. E?iia oiai,
iiaeiaiay ?aciethoeey iiaea au auoue ni/oaia iaoianoiith aei ?aoaiey aeaea
Aaeeena noaeii. Nineiaea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo aeieaeii iaia?oaeeoue ec-
aanoioth auaea?aeeo, eaeiau au ie auee aai /oanoaa, e iieacaoue i?eia?
oaaaeaiey e caeiiiinoe, ia ia?ooay i?aaee ?anniio?aiey aii?inia a iaueo
nia?aieyo. Ae?oaie aea /eai Niaaoa i?ioeaiiinoaaee yoiio iiaiea iaiue-
oeinoaa Niaaoa, eioi?ia n/eoaei i?eiyoea ?aciethoeee ia oieueei aiciiae-
iui, ii e nayuaiiie iaycaiiinoueth nineiaey i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo.

Iauaa nia?aiea i?eniaaeeieeinue e iiaieth iaiueoeinoaa, i?eiyei ?a-
ciethoeeth e iineaei oaeaa?aiio, iiae/a?eioa, /oi oaeia iiaaaeaiea iii n/eoaao
i?ioanneiiaeueiui e a?aaeaeaineei aeieaii aaeaieaoo?u. Iinoaiiaeaiea ia-
uaai nia?aiey aucaaei ?aceoth ?aaeoeeth ni noi?iiu iaaeno?aoo?u e i?i-
eo?aoo?u, Iaeii aiaoiaa iienaiea oiaea niauoee iieacuaaao, eaeia en-
eeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea auei yoiio iinoaiiaeaieth i?eaeaii. Ia ae?oaie aea
aeaiue iinooieei a Niaao ioiioaiea i?ieo?i?a Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, a eioi?ii
i?ieo?i? i?inee niiaueoue aio a naiii iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiii a?aiaie, –
auei ee iauaa nia?aiea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo 23 ieoya?y, aeey eaeie
oeaee iii auei nicaaii e auea ee ei i?eiyoa ?aciethoeey n au?aaeaieai
i?ioanoa ii aeaeo Aaeeena. I?e yoii a. i?ieo?i? i?inee i?ai?iaiaeeoue aio
i?ioieie iauaai nia?aiey e iieiaiiue nienie eae i?enoonoaiaaaoeo, oae
e i?eieiaaoeo o/anoea a ianoaeaeaiee ?aciethoeee, e niiaueoue aio niaea?-
aeaiea i?iecianaiiuo ii naio iiaiaeo ?a/ae e i?eiyouo ?aciethoeee.

A oio aea aeaiue iinooieei io noa?oaai i?aaenaaeaoaey Iaeaou o?aaiaaiea
aeinoaaeaiey oaeoe/aneeo naaaeaiee, a ia ae?oaie aeaiue cao?aaiaai aue iiae-
eeiiue aeo?iae iauaai nia?aiey eee aai eiiey. I?aaeaea, iaeiaei, /ai a
canaaeaiee 25 ieoya?y Niaao oniae ianoaeeoue yoi o?aaiaaiea, io a. noa?oaai
i?aaenaaeaoaey iinooieei ioiioaiea i iaiaaeeaiiii aeinoaaeaiee a canaaeaiea
iauaai nia?aiey Aeaia?oaiaioia Iaeaou, a oi a?aiy i?ienoiaeeaoaa, iiae-
eeiiuo aeo?iaeia iauaai nia?aiey 23 ieoya?y, ii/aio Niaao e i?ai?iaiaeee
a Iaeaoo: i?ioieie iauaai nia?aiey io 23 ieoya?y, nienie eeoe, yaeaoeony
a yoi nia?aiea, aeo?iae Niaaoa io oiai aea /enea.

A oio aea aeaiue, iiea aua i?iaeieaeaeinue canaaeaiea Niaaoa, aio auei
niiauaii ii?aaeaeaiea iauaai nia?aiey Aeaia?oaiaioia Noaeaaiie Iaeaou
ia eno?aaiaaiee io Niaaoa e 31 ieoya?y naaaeaiee e iauyniaiee ii niaea?-
aeaieth i?aaeeiaeaiee i?ieo?i?a Iaeaou, a ?aaii e eiiee i?ioieiea iauaai
nia?aiey 23 ieoya?y e nienea eeoe, i?eieiaaoeo a yoii nia?aiee o/anoea.
Iiaeeeiiua aeieoiaiou, eioi?ua Niaao ia?aae oai i?ai?iaiaeee a Iaeaoo,

aneaaenoaea o?aaiaaiey noa?oaai i?aaenaaeaoaey, i?e yoii ioiioaiee aic-
a?auaeenue, e noa?oee i?aaenaaeaoaeue i?eeiaeee iiaeeeiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea i?i-
eo?i?a, oiiiyiooia auoa. A yoii i?aaeeiaeaiee i?ieo?i? oeacuaae ia ia-
caeiiiinoue iauaai nia?aiey, eae ia eiaaoaai eai?oia e eae ia?ooeaoaai
eiiiaoaioeeth, eioi?ay en/a?iuaaaony i?iecaiaenoaii auai?ia a Niaao e
auneooaiiii io/aoa. Aaeaeo yoiai i?ieo?i? iieaaaao, /oi Niaao, eae e ana
o/anoieee yoiai iauaai nia?aiey, iiaeeaaeao aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaai-
iinoe, eae eeoea, caauaoea oaaaeaiea e caeiio e e iaycaiiinoyi i?enyaeiie
aaeaieaoo?u. E ia yoio ?ac, iaeiaei. Niaao ia oniae ianoaeeoue i?aaeuyaeaiiia
aio o?aaiaaiea, iioiio /oi a oio aea aeaiue aa/a?ii a iiiauaiea Niaaoa
yaeeny neaaeiaaoaeue ii aaaeiaeoei aeaeai A.I. Na?aaea n oiaa?euai i?i-
eo?i?a noaea e, i?aaeuyaeyy iinoaiiaeaiea i i?iecaiaenoaa neaaenoaey ii ia-
aeiaieth o/anoaiaaaoeo a iauai nia?aiee ii 279 no. Oeiae. i eae., i?inee
ia?aaeaoue aio iiaeeeiiue i?ioieie iauaai nia?aiey 23 ieoya?y (ca ia-
neieueei /ania aica?auaiiue noa?oei i?aaenaaeaoaeai), nienie eeoe, o/ano-
aiaaaoeo a yoii nia?aiee, /a?iiaeee yoeo aeieoiaioia, a ?aaii e /a?iiaeee
i?eiyouo a nia?aiee ?aciethoeee. A iiiauaiee Niaaoa a oi a?aiy ia ia-
oiaeeeinue ieeiai ec /eaiia Niaaoa, e, ociaa, /oi aeo?iae iauaai nia?aiey
e nienie i?enoonoaiaaaoeo a nia?aiee 23 ieoya?y iaoiaeyony o /eaia Niaaoa
I.A. Eaieaia, neaaeiaaoaeue acye oieueei aeieeaaeiie eenoie canaaeaiey Niaaoa
26 ieoya?y (eioi?ue aue aica?auai Niaaoo 28 ieoya?y), ioi?aaeeny ia
eaa?oe?o e /eaio Niaaoa I.A. Eaieaio e i?iecaae o iaai auaieo oiiiy-
iooiai aeieoiaioa, iiaeeeiiiai i?ioieiea iauaai nia?aiey 23 ieoya?y e
nienea eeoe, o/anoaiaaaoeo a oii nia?aiee, e caoai i?eaue iiyoue a iiia-
uaiea Niaaoa e a ionoonoaee /eaiia Niaaoa e /eiia eaioeaey?ee iia/aoae
iiiauaiea. Caoai, ia ae?oaie aeaiue, a i?enoonoaee i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa e
iaeioi?uo /eaiia Niaaoa, neaaeiaaoaeue i?iecaae a iiiauaiee iaune, ii
ieeaeeo /a?iiaeeia ia iaoae.

30 ieoya?y Niaao iia ianoaeeoue, iaeiiaoe, i?aaeuyaeaiiua aio o?aaiaaiey
e a ?acoeueoaoa i?aaenoaaee iiae?iaiua ?acuyniaiey ioiineoaeueii i?aaeaeia
eiiiaoaioeee iauaai nia?aiey, i?eciaaaaoaeny anaaaea e iaaeno?aoo?ie, e
oeacae, /oi eno?aaiaaiiua aeieoiaiou ii eeoai aiciiaeiinoe i?aaenoaaeoue,
oae eae iie ecuyou noaeaaiui neaaeiaaoaeai. 31 ieoya?y iinoaiiaeaiea Ni-
aaoa auei caneooaii a iauai nia?aiee Aeaia?oaiaioia, e a oio aea aeaiue
a Niaao iinooieea ?aciethoeey Noaeaaiie Iaeaou: 1) i?aaeeiaeaiea i?ieo?i?a
Noaeaaiie Iaeaou a /anoe, eanathuaeny i?eaea/aiey e ioaaonoaaiiinoe Ni-
aaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ioeeiieoue e 2) i?aaeienaoue Niaaoo i?enyaeiuo
iiaa?aiiuo: ai-ia?auo, ?ac?aoeoue a iany/iue n?ie a ii?yaeea aeenoeeiee-
ia?iii aii?in ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe oeaeiai ?yaea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo,

363

iieiaiii iacaaiaeuo, eioi?ua, ii iiaieth Iaeaou, yaeyeenue aieaa aeoea-
iuie o/anoieeaie; ai-aoi?uo, th auyniaiee, inoaeueiuo o/anoieeia iauaai
nia?aiey, aieiniaaaoeo ca i?eiyoea naiY i?aaeeiaeaiey, aicaoaeeoue i?ioea
ieo ioaeaeueiia aeenoeeieeia?iia i?iecaiaenoai, eioi?ia e ?ac?aoeo canei a
onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea, e, a-o?aoueeo, aicaoaeeoue e ?ac?aoeoue a ioaeaeueiii
i?iecaiaenoaa aii?in i aeenoeeaeeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaenaaeaoaeueno-
aiaaaoaai a iauai nia?aiee.

Oaea 4 iiya?e Niaao i?enooiee e ianoaeaeaieth ii?aaeaeaiey Iaeaou,
i?aaeaea anaai ia?aoea aieiaiey ia i?aaeienaiea ?anniio?aoue aeaei a iany/-
iue n?ie Oaeia i?aaeienaiea, ii iiaieth Niaaoa, iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi
Niaaoii eeoue eae i?aaeeiaeaiea i ?anniio?aiee aeaea aia i/a?aaee, oae eae
a?)aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey ?ac?aoaiey oiai eee eiiai aeenoeeieeia?iiai aeaea,
ia iiaeao auoue ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaii, a anaoeaei caaeneo io nouanoaa aeaea;
ii/aio ieaaea a caeiia e iao oeacaiey ia oi, /oiau eaeie-eeai noaeaaiie
einoaioeee auei i?aaeinoaaeaii iacia/ao? oaeea n?iee. Niaao e i?enooiee
e ?anniio?aieth ii?aaeaeaiey Noaeaaiie Iaeaou io 2 iiya?y 1913 aiaea ia
ae?oaie aea aeaiue, ii ia n/ae aiciiaeiui ionooiaoue io onoaiiaeaiiuo aeie-
aieaoiath i?aeoeeith ii?yaeeia auciaa i?eaea/aiiuo e i?aaeinoaaeaiey ei
ii?aaeaeyaiuo Niaaoii n?ieia (no. 371 O/?. noae. ono.) ia aea/o iauyniaiee.

Aicaoaeea yoi aeenoeeieeia?iia i?iecaiaenoai i?ioea iieiaiiaaiiuo Ia-
eaoie eeoe, Niaao iinoaiiaee: aicaoaeaeaiea aeenoeeieeia?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa
i?ioea inoaeueiuo o/anoieeia iauaai nia?aiey 23 ieoya?y 1913 a., aiei-
niaaaoeo ca i?eiyoea ?aciethoeee, i?eiyoie oai nia?aieai, ioeiaeeoue aei
ieii/aiey oaieiaiiai aeaea, iaoiaeyuaainy iuia a noaaeee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
neaaenoaey, ii?o/aiiiai e.ae. noaeaaiiai neaaeiaaoaey ii aaaeiaeoei aeaeai a.
Na?aaea.

A ia/aea aeaeaa?y Niaao ?anniio?ae aeenoeeieeia?iia aeaei i aeaayoe oea-
caiiuo a ii?aaeaeaiee Iaeaou aaeaieaoao. I?eaea/aiiua e ioaaonoaaiiinoe
inia?eaaee eiiiaoaioeeth Niaaoa, eai iie aeaenoaiaaee eae /eaiu iauaai
nia?aiey. Iauea aea nia?aiey yaeythony aunoei i?aaiii nineiaiie aeecie,
i?aaiii, eioi?ue ia oieueei ia iiae/eiai iiaieth e iinoaiiaeaieyi Niaaoa,
ii eioi?ue yaeyaony aeey naiiai Niaaoa aunoae einoaioeeae, ioiaiythuae
ana iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoa e aai eiio?iee?othuae.

Yoe aic?aaeaiey Niaao ioaa?a, ii, nnieaynue ia naith iaeciaiioth i?ae-
oeeo, iinoaiiaee: ianoiyuaa aeaei i?iecciaenoaii i?einoaiiaeoue aei ieii-
/aoaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey noaeii oaieiaiui aeaea ii iaaeiaieth iieiaiiaaiiuo
aeaayoe i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, i?eaea/aiiuo a ea/anoaa iaaeiyaiuo ii
13 e 279 na.no. Oeiaeaiey i iaeacaieyo.
Iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa auei ii?ioanoiaaii i?ieo?i?ii Iaeaou, e Ia-

eaoa, niaeaneaoenue n aeiaiaeaie i?ioanoa, ioiaieea iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa
e i?aaeienaea aacioeaaaoaeueii eniieieoue ii?aaeaeaiea i i?eaea/aiee e aeen-
oeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe anao o/anoieeia iauaai nia?aiey.

Iaaeaeo oai, noaeaaiue neaaeiaaoaeue niiauee Niaaoo, /oi, e?iia oea-
caiiuo Iaeaoie 9 eeoe, ei i?eaea/aiu e ioaaonoaaiiinoe aua 78 eeoe eae
o/anoieeia iauaai nia?aiey, e i?ioea ieo Niaaoii auei aicaoaeaeaii aeen-
oeeieeia?iia i?iecaiaenoai. I?aaenoaaeaiiua i?eaea/aiiuie iauyniaiey
ioee/athony aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai. Aieueoeinoai onoaiaaeeaaee naia aIiUei.
Oioy iie e i?eauee a nia?aiea, ii iaeie oaoaee aei ianoaeaeaiey ?aciethoeee,
a ae?oaea i?eaoaee iinea ieii/aiey ianoaeaeaiey, iioiio /oi – eoi nai
caaieae, a eoi e aieueiie nano?a niaoee, eoi aue caaea?aeai, eoi ioeo/eeny
aeey /oaiey aeae. Eeoue iaiiiaea i?eciaaaee, /oi iie o/anoaiaaee e aiei-
niaaee ca ?aciethoeeth; ae?oaea ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi ieeaeiai aieiniaaiey e ia
auei; o?aouee aieiniaaee oieueei ca ?aciethoeeth, ii ia ca oaeaa?aiio, ii-
neaiioth caueoieeai Aaeeena. Iaeei iiyniee, /oi ii oai aieaa n/ae naiei
aeieaii aieiniaaoue ca ?aciethoeeth, /oi iiieiae, /oi n aai eiaiai aa iaeuecy
aoaeao i?eienuaaoue aa?aeneei i?ieneai, oae eae aai aunooieaiey a ea/anoaa
caueoieea A?eai?ueaaa a i?ioeanna Aa?ooie, a aeaea iia?iiueeia e nieaeao
Naiaiianeiai iieea e ia ieoeiaao a 1905 aiaeo noaaeee aai auoa iiaeiaiuo
iiaeic?aiee. E yoiio aua ioaeii i?eaaaeoue, /oi ii aeaiiui i?aaeaa?eoaeue-
iiai neaaenoaey ec /enea i?eaea/aiiuo 60 eeoe aiana ia i?eieiaee o/anoey
a aieiniaaiee ?aciethoeee ii aeaeo Aaeeena, a ii iauyniaieyi, i?aaenoaa-
eaiiui Niaaoo, oaeeo o/anoieeia nia?aiey auei anaai 56. ?aciiaeanea a
iieacaieyo i?eaaei e oiio, /oi ec /enea i?eaea/aiiuo e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiio
neaaenoaeth i?aaeaii noaeo eeoue 23 /aeiaae, a ia inoaeueiuo 62-o aeaei i?i-
ecaiaenoaii i?ae?auaii.

Ianiio?y, iaeiaei, ia eneeth/eoaeueioth auno?ioo oaiia, acyoiai No-
aeaaiie Iaeaoie, aeaei auei ?anniio?aii Niaaoii ieii/aoaeueii eeoue 10-
13 iay 1914 a. A naiai ?aoaiee Niaao ioi?aaeyeny oaea io ianeieueei eiie
enoiaeiie oi/ee c?aiey, eioi?oth ionoaeaae io eiaie Niaaoa iaeei ec aai
/eaiia a iauai nia?aiee 25 ieoya?y. *oi eanaaony ia?ooaiey eiiiaoaioeee
iaueo nia?aiee, oi, ii iiaieth Niaaoa, .

Aoi?ia iaaeiaiea ioiineony e iinoaiiaea ia ianoaeaeaiea aii?ina, ia
icia/aiiiai ia iiaanoea. Caeanue Niaao eiinoaoe?oao ia?ooaiea oi?iaeueiiai
naienoaa, ii iiaeiaiua neo/ae eiaee ianoi e ?aiueoa;
oe?iei ?acineaea /anoiua ecaauaiey i iaia?aiee aianoe i?aaeeiaeaiea i
i?eiyoee ?aciethoeee ii aeaeo Aaeeena. Iiyoiio Niaao ana aea n/eoaao ia-
aiciiaeiui i?eiaieoue e i?enyaeiui iiaa?aiiui, aeiionoeaoei yoi ia?o-
oaiea, eaeoth-eeai ia?o aeenoeeieeia?iiai acuneaiey, oai aieaa, /oi, eiay
i?aae niaith iiiai/eneaiiua i?aoeaaeaiou iiaeiaiiai ionooieaiey io i?aaee,
iie iiaee aeia?iniaanoii n/eoaoue yoe i?aaeea iaiaycaoaeueiuie e /oi iie
aeaenoaiaaee a ninoiyiee aicaoaeaeaiey, eioi?ia a oi a?aiy i?iyaeyeinue ai
anao neiyo iauanoaa ii ioiioaieth e aii?inai, naycaiiui n aeaeii Aaeeena,
aicaoaeaeaiey, ioaaoeaoaai oaeaea noaeaaiua noa?u e a iniaaiiinoe /eaiia
aaeaieaoneiai nineiaey. Iaeiiaoe, /oi eanaaony naiiai niaea?aeaiey ?acieth-
oeee, eioi?ia Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa oa?aeoa?eciaaea eae , oi Niaao ia iaoiaeeo
a ?aciethoeee ie au?aaeaiey iaoaaaeaiey e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, ie, eae
neacaii a iinoaiiaeaiee iauaai nia?aiey Aeaia?oaiaioia Noaeaaiie Ia-
eaou, iaaeiaiey yoie aeanoe a eca?auaiee iniia i?aainoaeey.
Ia n/eoay aiciiaeiui aeey naay eae o/?aaeaeaiey, aeaenoaothuaai e noaeyuaai
ia iniiaaiee caeiia, eceiaeaiiiai a o/?aaeaeaiee noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee,
aeaoue iaaeeaaeauoth ioeaieo aeiiouaiiiio a ii?aaeaeaiee Noaeaaiie Iaeaou,
ii aae?ano i?eaea/aiiuo e aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eeoe, au?aaea-
ieth , e enoiaey ec oaaaeaeaiey, /oi ii caeiio aeiiaiua a ia?ooaiee
aeieaa iiaoo caneoaeeaaoue iaeacaiey, ii ia aeieaeiu iiaeaa?aaoueny inei?aea-
ieyi, Niaao i?eciaao, /oi a oaenoa ?aciethoeee 23 ieoya?y 1913 a. ia ni-
aea?aeeony ieeaeiai oeacaiey ie ia ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue aiiaua, ie ia
oa eee ae?oaea aa i?aaiu a /anoiinoe: ?aciethoeey i?ioanooao i?ioea eii-
noaoe?oaiiai ath oaeoa, aac anyeiai oiiieiaiey i oii, eiai eiaiii iaaeeaaeeo
n/eoaoue aai aeiiaieeii.
Iaeiiaoe, iineaaeiaa iaaeiaiea caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi o/anoieee ni-

Yoio oa?iei aue oaea, eae ioia/aii auoa. oiio?aaeai ieieno?ii thnoeoeee a aai ?a/e a Ai-
noaea?noaaiiie aeoia. – I?ei. iaii.

a?aiiy i?eniaaeeieeenue naieie aeaenoaeyie e oie iaaeinoieiie aaeoaoeee,
eioi?ay aaeanue ai a?aiy neooaiey aeaea Aaeeena eeoeaie, caeioa?aniaaiiuie
a caoaiiaiee yoiai aeaea. Niaao, iai?ioea, i?eciae oaaaeeoaeueiuie iau-
yniaiey iaaeiyaiuo a oii, /oi ai?ueaa i?ioea aiciaiiaeaiey, iin?aaenoaii
i?ioeanna Aaeeena, e?iaaaiai iaaaoa, aaeanue a eioa?anao i?aaaeu, aeey caueou
iniia iauaaeeoey, a ia a oeaeyo caoaiiaiey enoeiu. Aaeaeo yoiai. Niaao
i?ae?aoee i?iecaiaenoai ioiineoaeueii oao, i?ioea eioi?uo auei i?ae?a-
uaii noaeaaiia i?aneaaeiaaiea, e inaiaiaeee io aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaai-
iinoe inoaeueiuo.

I?ioei aua ieiei ianyoea, e 3 ethiy iao?ia?aaeneee ie?. noae i?enooiee
e ?anniio?aieth aeaea ii iaaeiaieth aaeaieaoia. Iaaeiyaiua e caueoieee
iooai aeii?ina naeaeaoaeae onoaiiaeee, /oi ia iauai nia?aiee i?enoono-
aiaaei io 200 aei 250 /aeiaae. Aieiniaaiea i?iecaiaeeeinue oaeei ia?acii,
/oi oi?iaeueiue aii?in auei i?aaeeiaeaii aieiniaaoue iiaeiyoeai ?oe. Canei
auea i?iecaaaeaia ia?aoiay iiaa?ea, o.a. auei i?aaeeiaeaii iiaeiyoue ?oee
oai, eoi n/eoaao, /oi iauaa nia?aiea, aneaaenoaea ionoonoaey aii?ina ia
iiaanoea, ia eiiiaoaioii ianoaeaeaoue yoio aii?in. Iinea oiai, eae aieue-
oeinoaii anao aieinia i?ioea naie oi?iaeueiue aii?in aue ?ac?aoai oo-
aa?aeeoaeueii, auei i?aaeeiaeaii iiaeiyoue ?oee oai, eoi i?ioea naiie ?aci-
ethoeee ii nouanoao. Oaeiauo ia ieacaeinue. Iiyoiio eoi-oi ec oiaa?euae
cayaee: neaaeoao caianoe a i?ioieie, /oi ?aciethoeey i?eiyoa aaeeiiaeanii.
Oiaaea aeaia o/anoieeia cayaeee, /oi yoiai caiineoue ia neaaeoao iioiio, /oi
iie aicaea?aeaeenue io aieiniaaiey ii nouanoao, aaeaeo oiai, /oi iie ii
ia?aiio, oi?iaeueiiio aii?ino aieiniaaee i?ioea. Aicaea?aeaaoeony auei
oieueei aeaia. Ana inoaeueiua aieiniaaee niaa?oaiii iaeeiaeiai.

Aio eae ?eniaaee naeaeaoaee, naie auaoea o/anoieeaie nia?aiey, oiae
niauoee. Oai ia iaiaa, eae auoa oiiiyiooi, iiiaea ec i?enoonoaiaaaoeo
ia nia?aiee io?eoeaee naia o/anoea a aieiniaaiee ?aciethoeee e iiaoi?eee
yoi ia noaeaaiii neaaenoaee, aoaeo/e aucaaiu a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaeae. Ii
iiaiaeo iaeiiai ec oaeeo naeaeaoaeae iaeei ec iiaenoaeeiuo neacae a naieo
iauyniaieyo: , – ii n aeinoi-
einoaii ioaaoee: . Ii ooo, n/e-
oathuee naay oiaea iieeoe/aneei aeayoaeai, ii ia neaiuea naeaeaoaeae… ss
ia iiiith, auea ee o iaiy a ea?iaia iaeia ?oea eee aeaa, ii y, ainiiaea
noaeuee, i?eaue ana naie aeanou aeaeaoue ia a ea?iaia. ss i?eaue eo aeaeaoue
ioaee/ii… ioe?uoi…>.
Caueoieee aanueia ianoiyoaeueii aiaeece?iaaee th?eaee/aneoth noi?iio

i?aaeuyaeaiiiai iaaeiaiey, aeieacuaay, /oi 279 no. Oe. i iae., noaaoay
aiao?iieciii, ii/oe ieeiaaea ia i?eiaiyaoayny a i?aeoeea, ieeaeiai io-
iioaiey e ianoiyuaio aeaeo ia eiaao. Ii aua aieaa aieiaoaeueii iie in-
oaiiaeeenue ia iauanoaaiiii cia/aiee aunooieaiey aaeaieaoia a oio iiiaio,
eiaaea any ?inney ia iiaea iie/aoue, e ananoi?iiia inaaoeee aeaei Aaeeena,
aai ?ieue a iauanoaaiiie e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie ?innee. Ie?oaeiue noae
i?eciae anao iaaeiyaiuo aeiiaiuie e, auaeaeea aeaoo, i?eaiai?aiiuo e
8-iany/iiio oth?aiiiio caeeth/aieth, inoaeueiui iacia/ee iaeacaiea a ?ac-
ia?a 6 ianyoeaa oth?ueiu.

Inoaeaeaiiua aaeaieaou iieo/eee ianno i?eaaonoaee, a eo /anoue aue
ono?iai aaieao, ia eioi?ii aiai?eeenue ai?y/ea ?a/e; any .eeaa?aeueiay i?anna
noaea ia noi?iio aaeaieaoo?u. Ii eiaiii ii iiaiaeo yoiai caiicaeaeiai ac?u-
aa ni/oanoaey ienaei: , 1914 a.. ? 24.

I?ei. iao.

naie i?eieiaee aeayoaeueiia o/anoea a nii?aiee e eioi?uo, iiyoiio, iuei
au oianoiaa neuoaoue ni neaiuee iiaenoaeeiuo e aeaeaoue n?aaee /anoaoaiuo>…

Yoe ia/aeueiua niiinoaaeaiey i?eaaaeytho eeoithth /a?oi/eo e ioia-
/aiiie auoa eiioeueneaiinoe iano?iaiee, iai?ioiie noi?iiie eioi?ie ya-
eyaony eo ianoieeinoue. Ii eae au ie ioeaieaaoue cia/aiea yoiai iiiaioa,
, iaee/iinoue eioi-
?iai i?yii i?eciaaony ai iiiaeo iaia/aoaiiuo i?eaaonoaeyo. I?aaeeueia
ee eee, iai?ioea, ?acei iai?aaeeueia oaeay ioeaiea, – yoio aii?in oa?yao
oaea naia cia/aiea i?aae eeoeii oiai oaeoa, /oi a i?aaiecaoeee i?aainoaeey
aicieeee o?aiey, /oi no?ie aai niaa?oaiii ?aceaaeeeny. Oaeie oaeo neoaeeo
neiioiiii na?ueaciie aieacie, eioi?oth, i/aaeaeii, iaeuecy auea/eoue oai,
/oi 2 aaeaieaoia aoaeoo i?eaiai?aiu e oth?aiiiio caeeth/aieth. Iai?ioea,
io yoiai aieaciue eeoue ?ani?ino?aiyaony eioaineaii>.

I?ioeann aaeaieaoia aua ia aeaeaeny enoi?eae, ii inoaaony aeeaith aeae-
noaeoaeueiinoueth. Aeaei aeaeao naiae i/a?aaee a Noaeaaiie Iaeaoa, aeey ?an-
niio?aiey aiaeeyoeeiiiiai iocuaa iiaenoaeeiuo, a a oa naiua ieioou, eiaaea
ieooony yoe no?iee, aacaou ia/aoatho ecaanoea, /oi i?ieo?i? i?eian i?ioano
ia i?eaaaeaiiia auoa iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa, o?aaoy eneeth/aiey ec nineiaey
ia oieueei i?eaea/aiiuo e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, ii e oeaeiai ?yaea
ae?oaeo, eioi?ui noaeaaiue neaaeiaaoaeue ia iaoae aiciiaeiui i?aaeuyaeoue
iaaeiaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, aii?aee i?ecuao caauoue aioo?aiiea ?ani?e,
i?ieo?aoo?a no?aieony ia?aeeiooue iino io enoaeoaai iyoeaeanyoeeaoey e
iiaiio ia?eiaeo, onoaiiaeoue i?i/iia i?aainoai.

33. INIIAIUA AII?INU

Caeanue niiaa i?eoiaeeony iiaoi?eoue ciaeiiue oaea iaiaa, /oi oaeia aac-

io?aaeiia iieiaeaiea aeae ia iiaei niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth nineiaiie i?-
aaiecaoeee, ?acuyniaieth e ?ac?aoaieth oao aii?inia, eioi?ua inoaaaeenue
aenyueie a aicaeooa. Ec iiauo aii?inia, noaaoeo ia?aae nineiaeai, ioaeii
ioiaoeoue ianoie/eaia aeiiiaaoaeuenoai aeaiuei-th?enoie i ca/eneaiee a ii-
iiuieee i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. Ii/oe ana Niaaou ioaaoeee ia yoio ai-
i?in ooaa?aeeoaeueii, ii Noaeaaiua Iaeaou e I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao
eaoaai?e/anee ?acuynieee, /oi eeoea aeaineiai iiea, oioy au iie ieii/eee
eo?n th?eaee/aneeo iaoe a Eiia?aoi?neeo ?inneeneeo oieaa?neoaoao eee

368

ae?oaeo aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo, eee auaea?aeaee yecaiai a eniuoaoaeue-
iuo th?eaee/aneeo eiienneyo ii anai i?aaeiaoai th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa,
ia eiatho ii caeiio i?aaa ia anooieaiea a nineiaea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo
e i?eiyoea caaiey i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai e iiiiuieea. ?acuyniaiea yoi
ninoiyeinue ii Niaaeeiaiiiio I?enoonoaeth (1910 a., .? 557) e aiieia ni-
ioaaonoaiaaei acaeyaeai a. ieieno?a thnoeoeee, eioi?ue ai?y/i auneacaeny
i?ioea aeiiouaiey aeaiuei a aaeaieaoo?o. Eiaaea aea, ianiio?y ia iineaaei-
aaaoaa iaeiaaeaeu ?acuyniaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa, eacaineee
Niaao aoi?e/ii iinoaiiaee i ca/eneaiee aeaiueiu a iiiiuieee, ii aue
i?eaea/ai e aeenoeeieeia?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, oioy ii caeiio iaycaoaeueioth
neeo ?aoaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa eiatho oieueei ii oiio aeaeo,
ii eiaio iie ninoiyeenue. Caoi iiai/a?eanneee Niaao ioeacae a aiaeiae/iii
oiaeaoaenoaa, nineaaoenue ia oi, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea iineianeiai Niaaoa i ca-
/eneaiee auei oaea ioiaiaii.

I?aaiecaoeey iiiiuieeia i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eae oaea iaiaeiie?ao-
ii ioia/aeinue auoa, ia naeaeaea ie iaeiiai oaaa aia?aae. A Iineaa aua
naeaeaia auea iiiuoea i?aaieciaaoue eiinoeueoaoeeth aeey iiiiuieeia, eioi-
?ua iiaee au iieo/aoue oai Niaaou ii aicieeathuei o ieo i?aeoe/aneei
aii?inai, ii e ec yoie iiiuoee ?aoeoaeueii ie/aai ia auoei. Eae aoaeoi
ana ia/eiaiey a yoie iaeanoe ca?aiaa inoaeaeaiu ia aanieiaeea, e, /oi aaaeiaa
anaai, ai anao ?acaiai?ao ii aeaiiiio aii?ino a?ii/a anao e cao/eo eiaiii
iioa niciaiey aaciaaeaaeiinoe e aanneeey. Eiia/ii, iaaeno?aoo?a, ni naiae
noi?iiu, iaiaei niinianoaiaaea yoiio. Oae, oa?ueeianeay Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa
ioiaieea ecaeaiiua Niaaoii i?aaeea, ?aaoee?iaaaoea aaaeaiea oaieiaiuo
caueo iiiiuieeaie. I?aaeea oaeea onoaiiaeaiu a ?acee/iuo ie?oaao, ii
ia yoio ?ac oa?ueeianeay Iaeaoa ia?aeeciaaea no?aieaiea Niaaoa aianoe
iaeioi?ue ii?yaeie.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iaia/aaony no?aieaiea e i?iecaiaenoao noaoenoe/aneeo
aieao. Aei neo ii? iie ia ano?a/aee oe?ieiai ioeeeea, ia aeaaaee aeinoa-
oi/iiai iaoa?eaea aeey auaiaeia e caeeth/aiee. Ii oae eae ?aaioa a yoii
iai?aaeaiee (iniaaiii a Iineaa) ia ineaaaaaao, oi iiaeii aeoiaoue, /oi
iieo/aony aieueoea eoiae, eioi?ua ninoaayo nieeaeiia iniiaaiea aeey auyn-
iaiey ioaeae aaeaieaoo?u e ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aoi?i.
Iaeei ec naiuo iaaieaaoeo aii?inia – i i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe i?e-
nyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai ioeacaoueny io aaaeaiey aeaea – ia oieueei ia iiaeaeioeny
aia?aae e naiaio ?ac?aoaieth, ii noae aua aieaa ooiaiiui e caiooaiiui.
A Iao?ia?aaea i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue II. ioeacaeny io iaeiie caueou ii

Io/ao oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo. 1914, n. 14, 1. – I?ei. iaii.

iacia/aieth i?aaenaaeaoaey noaea, i?eciaaay aeey naay iaaiciiaeiui aoiaeeoue
a iauaiea n oaie, eoi onie?ye ia?iaeiia ainnoaiea. Niaao, ?anniao?eaaaoee
aeaei ii cayaeaieth noa?oaai i?aaenaaeaoaey Noaeaaiie Iaeaou, i?eciae ioeac
i?enyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai iai?aaeeueiui. I?enouee aaeaieaoneie aeayoaeue-
iinoe iauanoaaiiue yeaiaio caeeth/aaony, ii iiaieth Niaaoa, ia a oii,
/oi aaeaieaou yaeythony a i?ioeanna eae au i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iauanoaa, a a
oii, /oi iie, yaeyynue i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioa?ania /anoiuo eeoe, anai e eaae-
aeiio aeieaeiu ieacuaaoue th?eaee/aneoth iiiiuue, ?ac iie i?ecaaiu e oiio
a caeiia oeacaiiui o/?aaeaeaieai, e ia iiaoo oeeiieoueny io eniieiaiey
oaeeo naieo iaycaiiinoae ii eaeei-eeai ee/iui acaeyaeai ia iaaeiyaiiai
eee ia i?inooiie, ei niaa?oaiiue. Aiai?eoue, /oi a oaieiaiii i?ioeanna
aaeaieao yaeyaony i?aaenoaaeoaeai iauanoaa a oii niunea, eae iiieiaao
yoi II., e aeiioneaoue iioiio, /oi a ecaanoiuo neo/ayo aaeaieao iiaeao oe-
eiieoueny io caueou, aeaau iooaieoue naith ianieeaea?iinoue n iaaeiyaiui, –
iaeuecy, eai, ai-ia?auo, a i?ioeannao oaieiaiuo aaeaieaou a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa yaeythony caueoieeaie eeoe, niaa?oeaoeo aeayiey, a?aaeyuea anyeie
iauanoaaiiinoe, a, ai-aoi?uo, einoeooo iaycaoaeueiie caueou, onoaiiaeai-
iue caeiiii, ieeiaaea ia i?aaeiieaaaao eaeie au oi ie auei nieeaea?iinoe
iaaeaeo caueoieeii e iiaenoaeeiui eee aeayieai, ei niaa?oaiiui. Aeiion-
oeoue aiciiaeiinoue ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny a i?eiyoee iaycaoaeueiuo ii caeiio
caueo ee/iuie acaeyaeaie e ee/iuie oaaaeaeaieyie iaeuecy, eai i?e oaeii
oieeiaaiee caeiia iaycaoaeueiinoue caueou iioa?yao anyeia cia/aiea. Acaey-
aeu, oaaaeaeaiey e neiiaoee aanueia ?aciiia?aciu; iaeei aaeaieao iiaeao io-
eacaoueny io caueou iioiio, /oi aeayiea, niaa?oaiiia iiaenoaeeiui, i?ioeaii
aai i?aanoaaiiinoe, ae?oaie – iioiio, /oi iie ia noiaeyony a oaaaeaeaieyo
?aeeaeiciuo, o?aoee – iioiio, /oi ii /oanoaoao aioeiaoeth e oie eee
eiie iaoeeiiaeueiinoe, /aoaa?oue – iioiio, /oi i?aaeoanoaothuay aeayoaeue-
iinoue iiaenoaeeiiai ia niaeania n aai iieeoe/aneeie acaeyaeaie, e o.i. Ii-
eo/eony iieiue i?iecaie oniio?aiey e aiciiaeiinoue, /oi iiaenoaeeiue aoaeao
eeoai caueou, aac /aai i?aaeeueiia ioi?aaeaiea i?aainoaeey iaaiciiaeii .

Niaao i?eo?i/eaaao naie niia?aaeaiey oieueei e caueoa ii iacia/aieth,
ii anee enoiaeeoue ec iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaania/eoue i?aaeeueiia ioi?aaeaiea
i?aainoaeey, oi ana yoe ?annoaeaeaiey iaeeiaeiai i?eiaieiu e ei anyeie
caueoa aiiaua, i?aaeiieaaay, eiia/ii, /oi iaycaiiinoe oiai e ae?oaiai ca-
ueoieea ii ioiioaieth e i?eiyoiio aeaeo iaeeiaeiau. Ii, aii?aee oaeiio

Io/ao iao?ia?aaeneiai Niaaoa i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo 1906–1907 a.. n. 246-247. Noaeaaiay
Iaeaoa eciaieea iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa, iauyaeaoaai i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea, e caiyoeea i?enyaeiiio ii-
aa?aiiiio i?aeoeeo ia \ aie, ie ii iioeaai eneeth/eoaeueii iieeoe/nneiai oa?aeoa?a, a ia i?ioan-
neiiaeueiiai. – I?ei. aai

?acuyniaieth, neo/ae ioeaca ia i?ae?auaeenue. Oae, a canaaeaiee I?aae-
oaeuenoaothuaai Naiaoa i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue Oiaeia nai a ?a/e naiae
cayaee, /oi eiaaea a aeaea, ii eioi?iio ii aunooiae caueoieeii, yaeeinue
iaiaeeaeaiiia aeey iaai naeaeaoaeueneia iieacaiea, ii ioeacaeny io caueou,
i?eaaaea, /oi anee noaeo oaiaeii iacia/eoue aai caueoieeii, ii aoaeao i?i-
aeieaeaoue eniieiaiea naieo iaycaiiinoae . Iao?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, eaeia
aia/aoeaiea ia i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae aeieaeii auei i?iecaanoe oaeia ii-
aaaeaiea caueoieea. E niaeaeaieth, yoi iiaaaeaiea, ?aa?ii iinoaaeaoaa ai-
i?in ia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo caueoie ii niaeaoaieth e ii iacia/aieth, ia
aucaaei ieeaeie ?aaeoeee ni noi?iiu Niaaoa. A aaaeue eao ieiei 50 iacaae
E.A. Eoia?iee ii aiaeiae/iiio iiaiaeo aue i?eaea/ai e aeenoeeieeia?iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iaeiiaoe, oaea a iaoe aeie, a nayce n ioaaoeaoae anth
Aa?iio aieiie, i?iecioae iiaue iaauaaeue neo/ae 13 naioya?y a iao?i-
a?aaeneie Noaeaaiie Iaeaoa. I?e ?acai?a aeaea ii eneo iaiaoeeiai aaiea
a Aa?eeia e iaeiaio Nie?iiao ia II ouny/ ?oaeae, ii-
aa?aiiue aaiea i?enyaeiue iiaa?aiiue I,N. O?aooa?aa cayaee, /oi ii
ianoiyoaeuenoaai a?aiaie ii ia n/eoaao aeey naay aiciiaeiui aunooiaoue ii
ianoiyuaio aeaeo e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eioa?anu naiaai aeiaa?eoaey, auoaia-
caaiiiai aaiea, e i?inee aeaei ec i/a?aaee eneeth/eoue. Iinea i?iaeieaee-
oaeueiiai niaauaiey Noaeaaiay Iaeaoa iaycaea I.N. O?aooa?aaa nio?aieoue
naie iieiiii/ey e i?iaeieaeaoue eniieiaiea naieo iaycaiiinoae. Ia?aoee
ee aieiaiea Niaao ia yoio neo/ae, aei neo ii? iaecaanoii. A iaaeaeo oai
eaii?e?iaaiea oaeiai iiaaaeaiey a?iceo ieii/aoaeueii ?anoaoaoue i?aaenoaa-
eaiey ia iaycaiiinoyo aaeaieaoo?u. Oaeoth aea oa?ico niaea?aeao e aaeaieao-
neea eeoa?aoo?iua aunooieaiey , a eioi?uo n aieueoae niaeinoueth, ii iaiue-
oae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth, aa?uee?oaony oaia, cao?iiooay ni?ie eao iacaae
A.Ae. Nianiae/ai.

Yoa iaonoie/eainoue, iaeiaei, aiieia iauyniyaony aeaaeaieai ni noi?iiu
iauanoaa, eioi?ia ieeae ia iiaeao io?aoeoueny io ioiaeaeanoaeaiey iiaeno-
aeeiiai n aai caueoieeii. A 1904 a. a Eacaie iaaeaeaei iiiai ooio aeaei
i iioeuaiee /oaeioai?iie eeiiu ?acaieieeii *aeeeiui. I?ioea i?e-
nyaeiiai iiaa?aiiiai, iacia/aiiiai caueoieeii aai, e i?ioea aaeaieaoo?u
aiiaua iiaeiyeny a iauanoaa oaeie aiieue iaaiaeiaaiey, /oi i?aaenaaeaoaeue
auioaeaeai aue ?acuynieoue i?enyaeiui canaaeaoaeyi iacia/aiea caueou e
oaaaeaeaoue eo, /oi aaeaieaoia ia oieueei iaeuecy oi?aeaoue, ii /oi .

Iyoeaeanyoeeaoea ?onneie aaeaieaoo?u caeai/eaaaony ia oiiao aanueia
ieii?iuo, aiieia niioaaonoaothueo oiio oaeaniiio aaca?aiaiueth, eioi?ia
ioaaoeei ?inneth ia?aae aieiith e eioi?iio aieia n?aco iieiaeeea eiiaoe.
Ii aaeaieaoo?a niieieii e niaei iiaeao ioaeaoue naith enoi?eth ia noae ia-
uanoaaiiiai iiaiey a aeoaieee oaa?aiiinoe, /oi anyeiio aani?eno?anoiiio
/eoaoaeth aoaeao ynii, /oi ?onneay aaeaieaoo?a n /anoueth auoea ec oao ia-
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee, eioi?ua aeaaeee aa a oa/aiea anaai iyoeaeanyoeeaoey.

E eae ia aniiiieoue n oaaaeaieai i oii aacaanoiii i?aaenaaeaoaea oai-
eiaiie iaeaou, eioi?ue aua i?e iioaeeeiaaiee
i?aaeaeaeae, /oi, aeaaiaea?y oniaa?oainoaiaaieth i?ioeannoaeueiuo caeiiia,
y?/a iaia?oaeaony iaaeinoaoee caeiiia iaoa?eaeueiuo, a yoi auciaao iiaia
iaaeiaieuenoai. Iiaeaeaai aea, /oiau iinei?aa inouanoaeeanue yoa ?aoi?ia,
eioi?ay n?aco ono?aieo aeaienoaaiiinoue a iieiaeaiee aaeaieaoa, e oai naiui
oie/oiaeeo enoi/iee iaaei?acoiaiee. Eai, ice?aynue iacaae e aniiieiay,
/oi aaeaieaoo?a noiaea naeaeaoue o ian e a eaeoth iiuioth i?aaiecaoeeth iia
?acaeeanue ca 50 eao, aaeaa ee iiaeii na?ueacii niiiaaaoueny a oii, /oi iia
anoue ainoaea?noaaiii iaiaoiaeeiia o/?aaeaeaiea. Anee au yoi auei eia/a,
anee au aaeaieaoo?a ia i?iyaeea o ian naiae iaiiaaaeeiie aeecianiiniaiinoe,
anee au iia ia caiyea aeaeiiai ianoa a iaoae iauanoaaiiinoe, anee au
iia ia naeaeaeanue aa i?aaie/aneei yeaiaioii, iia ia noiaea au nio?aieoue
naith iacaaeneiinoue e ia?aaeeoue a ioaaaeaiiii ae ianoa ia/aea Noaeaaiuo
Onoaaia, ianiio?y ia ana iiiuoee eo eeeaeaee?iaaoue.

Ni. . 1914 a., 3, n. 65. – I?ei. aao.

“I?aai… 1914 a., n. 3528. – I?e

NIAeA?AEAIEA

Io ninoaaeoaey ………………………………..
1. Aei noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu

1. Aei?aoi?iaiiay aaeaieaoo?a…………………….

2. Aeanoue e aaeaieaoo?i …………………………

3. Aaeaieaou e iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ……………….

II. ?ac?aaioea e aaaaeaii> i?aaee ia aaeaieaoo?a

4. Ia?aiia/aeueiua i?iaeou ?aoi?iu ………………

5. I?aaiecaoeey aaeaieaoo?u ii Iniiaiui Iieiaeaieyi . . .

6. Ioiioaiea iauanoiiiai iiaiey e Iniiaiui Iieiaea-
ieyi ……………………………………

7. ?ac?aaioea Iniiaiie Iieiaeaiee. ………………

8. Caia/aiey ieieno?) thnoeoeee e ae?oaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
aeanoe…………………………………..

9. I?iaeo iieiaeaiey a aaeaieaoo?a a Ainoaea?noaaiiii
Niaaoa ………………………………….

10. A?aiaiiua e ia?aaeiua i?aaeea . . .

11. Ia?aua eiieoaou Niaaou ……..

III. Ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae 11866-1874)

. II
. 29
. 34

.38
. 56

. 63
. 75

. 86

. 91
. 99
109

21. Iiieaeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?iaiy a nayce n ia-
ueie oneiaeyie………………………….

22. ?ieue Niaaoia e eo ioiioaiea e nineiaeth. ……..

23. Aiaaua aii?inu aaeaieaoneie i?ioannee ……….

V. I?iaeou ?aoi?iu aaeaieaoo?u

24. Niaauaiea 1890 a. e Eiienney 1896 a…………

25. Ioiioaiea aaeaieaoo?u e i?iaeoai. …………..

VI. Aoi?ia aeaaaeoeaoeiyoeeaoea

26. Iiaia iano?iaiea e neea eia?oeee ……………

27. I?aaiecaoeey iieiaeie aaeaieaoo?u ……………

28. Ai?ueaa iaaeaeo noa?uie e iiauie oa/aieyie, ……

29. Aeaienoaaiiia ioiioaiea aeanoe ……………..

30. Ainiiaenoai iieeoe/aneeo caaea/………………

31. Aioo?aiiyy ai?ueaa ……………………….

32. Ioe?uoea iiauo Niaaoia ………………….

33. Aioaaiieci iaaeaeo aaeaieaoo?ie e aeanoueth ……..

34. Aaeaieaoneee i?ioeann……………………..

35. Iniiaiua aii?inu……………………….

12. Ia?aiia/aeueiua oneiaey e ianoaiiaea aeecie aaeaieao-
neiai nineiaey……………………………

13. Ioiioaiea i?aaeouenoaa e aaeaieaoo?a………….

14. Ia?aua oaae aaeaioo?uei ……………………

15. Ioiioaiea iauanoa e aaeaieaoo?a. …………….

16. Ioiioaiea aaeaieaO?u e naiei caaea/ai…………

17. ?acoeueoaou ………………………………

IV. Eoiae ia?aiai aeaaaeeioeiyoeeaoey

18. I?e/eiu iaaeiaieueia aaeaieaoo?ie. ……………

19. Ioiioaiea iaaeno?aoo?u e aaeaieaoo?a ………….

20. Noaeaiea i?aa cauau- ……………………..

119
127
141
164
180
184

191
197
206

Eieae iicaeaoa.iuenoaa


iiaeii caeacaoue a oe?ia

110 aoeon/:

10700. Ii)neia. o.i. ??), .1111..11,a. e. .}/~1. no?. 6
(no. iao?i )
Oae.: (095)267-64 (095)67-311)5. Oaen: (095)267-52

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. Aanii.iueniineiiii (ia?ia. 1-y eeiey, 52
(caeaiea Iaaeeinoeoooa) On.o: (12)21-007

Ninoaaeoaeue
AAA?EEIA Na?aae Ieeieaaae/

ENOI?Ess ?ONNEIE AAeAIEAOO?U
OII IA?AUE
AANNAIE.A. Aaeaieaoo?a, iauanoai e ainoaea?noai (1864-1914)

Ei??aeoi? A. E. Aeeiiaa
Ooaeiaeiee E. E. Oaaoiiaa
Eiiiuethoa?iay aa?noea E. TH. A/i?ia

Eeoeaicey E? ? 020653 io 28.10.92
Iiaeienaii a ia/aoue 20.03.97. Ia/aoue ionaoiay.
Aoiaaa ionaoiay. Oi?iao 60 o 90 e,.
On-o. ia/. e. 23.5. O/.-ecae. e. 24.6. Oe?aae 10000 :)ec. Cae. ? 1335

Ecaeaoaeuenoai


123286, Iineaa, oae. Naaeiaay-Eoae?eineay. ae. 9

Ioia/aoaii a iieiii niioaaonoaee
n ea/anoaii i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo aeeaiiceoeaia
a IAI .
143200. a. Iiaeaene, oe. Ie?a. 93

X.

X. io .oc– iA

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