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Проектування засобів обчислювальної техніки в САПР PCAD 2008 (схема управління освітленням з будь-якого пульту ДУ)

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I?i?noa?noai Ina?oe Oe?a?ie

*a?i?aaoeueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee Oi?aa?neoao

O?ce/iee Oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a AII

7.09.1501 Eiii’thoa?i? nenoaie oa ia?aae?

I?iaeooaaiiy cania?a ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee a NAI? PCAD 2008

(noaia oi?aae?iiy ina?oeaiiyi c aoaeue-yeiai ioeueoo AeO)

/Eo?niaa ?iaioa/

Aeeiiaea

Nooaeaioea 407 a?oie

________I.ss. Cayoe

2008

CI?NO

Anooi

Iaeyae no/anieo NAI?

Iien ?iaioe a na?aaeiaeu? PCAD 2008

Iien noaie oi?aae?iiy ina?oeaiiyi c aoaeue-yeiai ioeueoo AeO

Aeniiaee

E?oa?aoo?a

Anooi

I?e ?icaeyae? NAI? iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe iinoaaeaio caaea/o ? a ca’yceo c
?? aeiiaaie iae?aoe iaea?eueo i?aeoiaeyuo NAI?. A ?iaio? iieno?oueny
PCAD 2008 aeey iiaoaeiae i?eioeeiiai? noaie oi?aae?iiy ina?oeaiiy c
aoaeue-yeiai ioeueoo AeO oa o?anoaaiiy ieaoe, a oaeiae aeaiee ei?ioeee
iaeyae NAI? ye? ?niothoue ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue.

1. Iaeyae nenoai aaoiiaoe/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy

A?aeiii, ui ?ioa?oaen ?c noaiiei ?aaeaeoi?ii ACCEL Schematic aeeth/aiee
o aa?n?th 8.2 i?ia?aie iiaeaethaaiiy ci?oaieo aiaeiai-oeeo?iaeo
i?eno?i?a Dr. Spice o??ie Deutsch Research, o ye?e ?ai?o aoee ?ioa?oaene
eeoa c? noaiieie ?aaeaeoi?aie OrCAD Capture 7.0, OrCAD Express/Capture
7.1, ViewLOGIC ViewDraw ? Protel EDA Client. O ?acoeueoao? i?ia?aia Dr.
Spice 2008 A/D 8.2 ?c nenoaiith ACCEL EDA 13.0 ooai?eee iane??cio
nenoaio i?iaeooaaiiy aeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a, ui aeeth/a? a?ao?/ia
aaaaeaiiy ? iiaeaethaaiiy noai, ?ic?iaeo ae?oeiaaieo ieao ? aeione
oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? aeey ?oiueiai aeaioiaeaiiy Oeth nenoaio
aeioe?eueii aeiiiaieoe i?ia?aiith aaoi?ici?uaiiy e aaoio?anoaaiiy
SPECCTRA 7.1 o??ie Cadence, ui caaacia/o? a aeaiee /an e?au? ?acoeueoaoe
ia ieaooi?i? IBM PC.

Iai?i aeaieie i?ae i?ia?aiith Dr. Spice ? ACCEL Schematic i?aai?ciaaiee
o oaeee niin?a. Nii/aoeo a i?ia?ai? Dr. Spice ii eiiaiae?
Commands-Preferences aeae?a?oueny ?i’y a?ao?/iiai ?aaeaeoi?a noai ACCEL
Schematic. Iio?i ca aeiiiiiaith ACCEL Schematic noai?th?oueny noaia
iiaeaethth/iai i?eno?ith, eoaee ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo neiaie?a
CARD aaiaeyoueny ia?aiao?e an?o eiiiiiaio?a ? aee?aeoeae caaaeaiiy ia
iiaeaethaaiiy (inoaii? ?iaeoe iaiaia’yceiai, aea oiae? i?e eiaei?e ci?i?
noaie oe? aee?aeoeae iio??aii a?o/io aeiienoaaoe a oaenoiaee oaee
caaaeaiiy). Ii eiiaiae? Utils-Generate Netlist noai?th?oueny iien noaie
o oi?iao? PSpice. Ia oeueiio eiio?ao?aoe?y i?ia?ai cae?i/o?oueny. Oaia?
aeineoue o i?ia?ai? Dr. Spice ii eiiaiae? File-Open-Design Files aeacaoe
?i’y oaeeo noaie, ye caaaioaaeeoueny a?ao?/iee ?aaeaeoi? ACCEL Schematic
? a noaio iiaeia aoaea aianoe aeiiiaiaiiy ? ci?ie. Ii caaa?oaii?
Utils-Generate Netlist ea?oaaiiy iiaa?oa?oueny a Dr. Spice ? ii eiiaiae?
Simulation aeeiio?oueny iiaeaethaaiiy. Aeey iiaoaeiae a?ao?e?a aoceiaeo
iioaioe?ae?a ? no?oi?a aaeocae ?oi? ?iaia aeae?athoueny c? nieneo
ia?ai?iieo aai iio??aiee aocie aai eiiiiiaio aeaco?oueny ia noai?
eo?ni?ii (aeey oeueiai aeeiio?oueny eiiaiaea Commands-Cross Probing).

I?e iiaeaethaaii? aiaeiaiaeo aeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a, o oiio /ene?
?ioaa?aeueieo noai, oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny aeai?eoie SPICE
(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis), ?ic?iaeai?
iai?ee?ioe? 70-o ?ie?a a Oi?aa?neoao? Aa?ee? (Eae?oi?i?y). Ia ?oi?e
iniia? noai?aiee ?yae eiia?oe?eieo i?ia?ai aeey IE: HSPICE (o??ia
MetaSoftware), PSpice (MicroSim), IS_SPICE (Intusoft), Micro-Cap V
(Spectrum Software), Analog Workbench (Cadence), Saber (Analogy), Dr.
Spice ? ViewSpice (Deutsch Research). An? inoaii? aa?n?? oeeo i?ia?ai
aeiiiaiai? iiaeeeainoyie iiaeaethaaiiy ci?oaieo aiaeiaiai-oeeo?iaeo
i?eno?i?a.

Caniiaiee o??ie Deutsch Research Aeaeaoo?? Aeie/ (Jeffrey T. Deutsch) o
na?e /an a?aa o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? SPICE. Iiaeeo?eaoe??, aianai? ?i o Dr.
Spice, aeicaieeee iie?ioeoe ca?aei?noue aeai?eoi?a ?ic?aooieo ?aaeeio
iae?i?eieo noai ii iino?eiiio no?oiia? ? ca?eueoeoe oaeaee?noue
?ic?aooieo ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a (ye caoaa?aeaeo? o??ia, o ii??aiyii? c
PSpice i?eaeecii a 1,5 ?ace). I?e ?ic?aooieo ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a
ei?enooaa/ iiaea aea?aoe iaoiae ?ioaa?oaaiiy: ca caiia/oaaiiyi
canoiniao?oueny noaiaea?oiee iaoiae o?aiaoe?e, a i?e aeeth/aii? iioe??
METHOD=Gear aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiae Ae?a, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?aeaeuaiei
nooiaiai ca?aeiino? (ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy /ano ia/eneaiue). I?e
aeeth/aii? a caaaeaiiy ia iiaeaethaaiiy iioe?? CHECKPOWER=On
?ic?aoiaothoueny ieoo?a? iiooaeiino?, ui ?icn?ththoueny ia eiiiiiaioao,
ui ii??aiththoueny c a?aie/ii i?eionoeieie cia/aiiyie (aiie caaeathoueny
ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aiao??a POWER, ui aeeth/athoueny a iaoaiaoe/i?
iiaeae?).

Iiaeae? aiaeiaiaeo eiiiiiaio?a aeeiiai? a noaiaea?o? SPICE, ui aeicaiey?
iai?ithaaoeny a?ae?ioaeaie iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae c aiaeia?/ieie
i?ia?aiaie. Ooo, uii?aaaea, ? iaeia aeeeth/aiiy: aeey oa?iiaai?oieo
iaoa??ae?a aeei?enoiao?oueny iiaeaeue Aeaeiia *aia (John Chan), a?eueo
oi/ia, /ei cooaaea aaaaoi aei??eaiue iiaeaeue Aeaeeena — Aoa?oiia
(Jiles ? Atherton), canoiniaoaaia a i?ia?ai? PSpice. Ui noino?oueny
iiaeaeae oeiiaeo oeeo?iaeo eiiiiiaio?a (aaioee?a, o?eaa??a,
e?/eeueiee?a, ICO e ?i.), oi aiie i?ino?o?, i?ae o PSpice:
a?aoiaothoueny o?eueee cao?eiee iioe?aiiy neaiae?a ? ia i?eeiathoueny a
oaaao ao?aei? ? aeo?aei? iii?e.

O i?ia?ai? Dr. Spice aeeiio?oueny noaiaea?oiee aiae?c oa?aeoa?enoee:
?ic?aoiaothoueny ?aaeeie iae?i?eieo eaioetha?a ii iino?eiiio no?oiia?,
ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane, niaeo?e neaiaeo, /anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?
niaeo?aeuei? u?eueiino? ooio e?iaa?eciaaieo eaioetha?a. I?iaiaeeoueny
noaoenoe/iee aiae?c aieeao ?iceeaeo ia?aiao??a eiiiiiaio?a ii iaoiaeo
Iiioa-Ea?ei ? ??ciiiai?oiee aiae?c i?e aa??aoe?? oaiia?aoo?e aai iaeiiai
c ia?aiao??a eiiiiiaio?a noaie aai ?oi?o iiaeaeae. Ia?aaeaa/aii
aeaeo?iiio ia?iaeo a?ao?e?a ?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy, iaeiae ooo
iiaeeeainoae o?ioe iaioa, i?ae o i?ia?ai? Probe nenoaie DesignLab.

O oe?eiio iaeiicia/ii a?aeaeaoe ia?aaaao iaei?e ?c nenoai i?iaeooaaiiy
aeineoue aaaeei: on? aiie iathoue nai? neeuei? ? neaae? noi?iie
(iai?eeeaae, i?ia?aia Micro-Cap V, aa?n?y 2.0 aeicaiey? iaeii/anii
aa??thaaoe aei aeanyoueio ia?aiao??a ? aoaeoaaoe o?ueioaei??i? a?ao?ee).
Iiaeia neacaoe, ui nenoaio DesignLab 8.0, ui aeeth/a? a naaa noaiiee
?aaeaeoi?, i?ia?aio iiaeaethaaiiy PSpice, a?ao?/iee ?aaeaeoi?
ae?oeiaaieo ieao MicroSim PCBoards, i?ia?aio SPECCTRA ? ?yae
aeiiii?aeieo i?ia?ai (neioac aiaeiaiaeo o?eueo??a ? i?eno?i?a
i?ia?aioaaeueii? eia?ee, iioei?caoi? ia?aiao??a, ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a
iiaeaeae ii ianii?oia aeaiei, iiaeaethaaiiy c iae?eii ia?aceoieo
ia?aiao??a ae?oeiaaieo ieao), aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe o aeiaaeeao,
eiee iniiai? i?iaeaie ca’ycai? c? noaiioaoi?/iei i?iaeooaaiiyi. Oiae?
iiaeia cie?eoeny c iaaeineiiae?noth a?ao?/iiai ?aaeaeoi?a ae?oeiaaieo
ieao MicroSim PCBoards ? aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiai a iniiaiiio aeey ia?aiino
noaie ia ieaoo, a ?ici?uaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ? o?anoaaiiy i?ia?aeiee?a
aeeiioaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie SPECCTRA (i?e iaiao?aeiino? nienie
c’?aeiaiue noaie /a?ac oaee *.alt iiaeia a?ae?aco ia?aaeaoe a i?ia?aie
P-CAD aai ACCEL P-CAD PCB aeey ?ic?iaee ae?oeiaaieo ieao, aea oiae?
ii?ooeoueny “aa?y/a” ca’ycie i?ae ?aaeaeoi?aie noai ? ae?oeiaaieo ieao).
sseui ae iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny eiino?oeoi?nuee?e ?ic?iaoe?
neeaaeieo aaaaoioa?iaeo ae?oeiaaieo ieao, a i?iaeaie iiaeaethaaiiy
aeieeathoue ai?ciaee/ii, oi ia? nain aeei?enoiaoaaoe nenoaio ACCEL EDA ?
i?ia?aio iiaeaethaaiiy Dr. Spice.

Aeaiiino?aoe?eio aa?n?th Dr. Spice 2008 A/D 8.2 (?ici?? a?o?aiiai oaeeo
10,5 Iaaeo) iiaeia iaea?aeaoe /a?ac Internet, caa?ioaoenue ia aocie, aai
ii aeaeo?iii?e iioo?. ?ia?oieee ? aeaiiino?aoe?ei? aa?n?? Dr. Spice
i?aoeththoue i?ae ea?oaaiiyi Windows 3.1, Windows 95, Windows NT 3.5.1 ?
a?eueo i?ci?o aa?n?e, i?e oeueiio iaiao?aeiee i?ioeani? ?486DX aai
Pentium. I?i?iaeueiee ianya ICO 8 Iaaeo, a?eueia i?noea ia aei?noeiio
aeeneo 12 Iaaeo.

2. Iien ?iaioe a na?aaeiaeu? PCAD-2008

Aeey i?iaeooaaiiy aeaeo?iiii-ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee aeei?enoiao?oueny
PCAD 2008 PCB aeey noai?aiiy ei?ion?a aeene?aoieo aeaiaio?a oa
o?anoaaiiy ieaoe c ?aaeueieie o?ce/ieie ?ici??aie eiiiiiaio, PCAD 2008
Schemantic – aeey iiaoaeiae i?eioeeiiaeo noai c on?ia noaiieie
iicia/aiiyie, PCAD 2008 Library Manager – aeey noai?aiiy a?ae?ioae
iaa?aeiieo aeey NAI? PCAD aeene?aoieo aeaiaio?a.

?icaeyiaii ?iaioo a PCAD 2008 Schemantic.

A oeueiio na?aaeiaeu? iiaeia noai?thaaoe i?eioeeiia? noaie aeey ?o
iiaeaeueoiai o?anoaaiiy, a oaeiae noai?thaaoe neiaieueia (noaiia)
iicia/aiiy eiiiiiaio.

Aeey iiaoaeiae noaie iaiao?aeii anoaiiaeoe iio??aiee oi?iao eenoa
(A4,A3,A2,A1), a oaeiae iaeeieoeth aei??o (mm – i?e?iao?e, mil – aeanyoa
/anoeia aetheia, inch – aetheie), i?ney oeueiai iio??aii aea?aoe
oeooeueiee eeno, yeee oaeiae iiaeia noai?eoe a PCAD 2008 Scemantic.
Ia?aeaeaii aei noai?aiiy ?aaeueii? i?eioeeiiai? noaie. Aeey aeeiiaiiy
aoaeue-yei? eiiaiaee iio??aii aea?aoe oeth eiiaiaeo ? aiia aoaea ae?yoe
aei oeo i??, iiee eiiaiaea ia aoaea a?aei?iaia iaoeneaiiyi ia no??eeo
aai aeai?ii ?ioi? eiiaiaee. Ia iaiae? oaeaeeiai ?aaaoaaiiy (ce?aa)
aea?aoe eiiieo neiaie. I?ney aeai?o eiiiee “neiaie” ee?eiooe ia ?iai/?e
iaeano?, i?ney /iai o a?ei? aea?aoe iio??aiee eiiiiiaio, yeui eiai a
iioi/i?e a?ae?ioaoe? iaia? iio??aii o aeiaaeath/iio iaith aea?aoe ?ioo
a?ae?ioaeo aai anoaiiaeoe ?? aei nieneo iioi/ieo aea?aaoe eiiieo Library
setup. I?ney oiai ye iaiao?aeiee eiiiiiaio aea?aiee aeae?a?ii eiai
iieiaeaiiy ia i?eioeeiia?e noai? ? ee?eii ?ici?uo?ii ia i?e, i?e oeueiio
yeui iaoeniooe ia eiiieo ieo? ? oo?eioth/e ?? iaoeneaoe ‘z’ oa ‘f’, oi
eiiiiiaio a?aeiia?aeii aoaea e?ooeoeny oa aeca?eaeueii a?aeia?aaeaoeny
a?aeiinii ai?eciioaeueii? in?.

I?ney ?ici?uaiiy an?o eiiiiiaio ?o iaiao?aeii c’?aeiaoe o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei eia?/iiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy noaie. I?e /iio aeey
c?o/iino?, yeui i?ia?aeiee aeanue ia?aoeia?oueny c ?ioeie i?ia?aeieeaie
e?eueea ?ac?a, oi c?o/ii ia iueiio anoaiiaeoe ii?oe c iaeiaeiaeie
iacaaie, ye oea ?iaeoueny ia i?eioeeiiaeo noaiao aeey iicia/aiiy noaiii?
caie?.

Aeai?ii eiiaiaee Place/Wire c’?aeio?ii iinoaaeai? ia eeno aeaiaioe.

I?ney oiai, ye noaia iaiaeueiaaia a PCAD 2008 Scemantic aeae?ey?ii ?? ?
ca aeiiiiiaith eiiaaee Util/Generic Netlist aaia?o?ii nienie ca’yce?a
i?ae eiiiiiaioaie (aeaiaioaie noaie) o oaee? c ?icoe?aiiyi *.net. I?ney
/iai caieno?ii i?eioeeiiao noaio ia aeene aeey iiaeaeueoiai
ii?aoethaaiiy oa ?icae?oeiaoaaiiy. Ia oeueiio ae?? a PCAD 2008 Snemantic
caaa?oothoueny.

Aeey o?anoaaiiy ieaoe caaaioaaeo?ii i?ia?aio PCAD 2008 PCB aeaa?aii
?ici?? ?iai/i? ciie, iaeeieoeth aei??o eiiaiaeith Options/Configure…
Iio?i caaaioaaeo?ii oaee c ?icoe?aiiyi *.net – oaee ca’yce?a. Aeey
oeueiai aeaa?aii eiiaiaeo Utils/Load Netlist. sseui a i?eioeeiia?e noai?
iaia? iiieeie, oi i?ia?aia caaaioaaeeoue ei?iona aeaiaio?a c ?oi?ie
ca’yceaie. Aeaa?aii eiiaiaeo Route/Autoroutes. Aiia aeicaiey? aea?aoe
e?euee?noue i?ia?aeieo i?ioa?e?a Layers aeey o?anoaaiiy iaeiii?ioa?eiaeo
oa aaaaoii?ioa?eiaeo ieao, a oaeiae iiaeia caaeaoe ca yeith oaoiieia??th
aoaeooue aeaioiaethaaoeny ieaoe ia i?aei?e?inoaao (Engenearing Design),
a oaeiae e?ie n?oee oa oiaueio e?i?e o?anoaaiiy. Iaoenioaoe ia eeaa?oo
Start i?ia?aia i?io?ano? aeaiaioe oa ?icaaaea ieaoo. I?ney /iai
caieno?ii noaio ia aeene aeey ?? iiaeaeueoi? ia?iaee.

O ?ac? a?aenooiino? iio??aieo aeaiaio?a ?o iiaeia noai?eoe naiino?eii,
ye oea c?iaeaii a aeai?e ?iaio? o ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth a?ae?ioae c
a?o/eciyieie eiiiiiaioaie. Aeey noai?aiiy eiiiiiaio iaiao?aeii noai?eoe
noaiia iicia/aiiy oa aeaeyae ei?iono a i?ia?aiao Pcad 2008Scemantic oa
PCAD 2008 PCB. I?e /iio aeaiaee neiaie?a Pins Designators iiaeii? aooe
iaeiaeiaeie a ei?ion? oa noaiiiio iicia/aii?. I?ney oeueiai a Library
Manadger noai?th?ii ia’?eo i?ae’?aeio?ii aei iueiai ei?ion oa noaiia
iicia/aiiy oa a ?o/io ei?aao?ii oa caiiaith?ii neoaeaiao ?ioi?iaoe?th
i?i aeaiaio. A naia: eia?/ia i?ecia/aiiy aeaiae?a iaeaaei?noue aei
iaaii? naeoe?? o aaaaoinaeoe?eieo aeaiaioao, iacae aeaiae?a, ?o
aea?aaeaioi?noue. Iiaeia oaeiae ia?aianoe eiiiiiaio, noaiia iicia/aiiy
aai ei?ion aea?aaoe iioe?th Librarys Copy… i?ney /iai aeaco?ii c yei?
a?ae?ioaee eii?thaaoe oa a yeo a?ae?ioaeo eii?thaaoe aeaiaioe. Iaei??th
c iiooaeieo iia?aoe?? i?ia?aie ? iiaeeo?eaoe?y ?nioth/eo aeaiaio?a
aeaiaio?a. I?ney oiai, ye aeaiaio noai?aiee caieno?ii eiai i?ae
i?ea?iaeueiith iacaith, yea ia noai? iicia/a?oueny ye oei aeaiaioa.

Aeey noai?aiiy noaiiiai iicia/aiiy aeaiaioa aeei?enoa?ii i?ia?aio PCAD
2008 Scemantic iaiaeth?ii aeaiaio, i?iioia?o?ii aeaiaee aeaiaioa oa
aeaaeaii iaeiaeia? aeey aeaiaioa ? ei?iona aeaiaioa cia/aiiy Pin
Designbator, anoaiiaeii i?ea’yceo aeaiaioa, eiai oei oa noaiia iineeaiiy
? caieoaii eiai noaiaoe/ia iicia/aiiy a a?ae?ioaeo. A i?ia?ai? PCAD 2008
PCB noai?eii ciai?oi?e aeaeyae ei?iono eiiiiiaioa. Aeaaeaii cia/aiiy Pin
Name, Pin Designator, anoaiiaeii i?ea’yceo aeaiaioa (oi/ea a?aeiinii
yei? aeaiaio iiaeia iaa?oaoe), eiai oei, noaiia iicia/aiiy, oa caieoaii
eiai a a?ae?ioaeo.

3. Iien i?eioeeiiai? noaie oi?aae?iiy ina?oeaiiyi c aoaeue-yeiai ioeueoo
AeO

I?eno??e neeaaea?oueny ?c i?eeia/a ?E ?iioeuen?a ? aeieo ea?oaaiiy. A
yeino? i?eeia/a iiaeia acyoe aoaeue – yeo ?c oeiiaeo noai ye?
canoiniaothoueny a oaeaa?ci?ao aeey AeO. Aocie oi?aae?iiy c?a?aiee ia
o?ueio EIII i?e?inoaiao ? neeaaea?oueny ?c oi?ioaa/a oe?ieeo ?iioeuen?a
(Ae1.1), naeaeoi?a aeaio naeoiaeiiai /aniaiai ?ioa?aaeo (Ae1.2) ?
aea?eeiaeo e?/eeueiee?a ia aeaiaioao o?eaa??a Ae2…Ae3. Eiiiee SB1 ?
SB2 aeicaieythoueny aeeth/aoe ? aeeeth/aoe iaaaioaaeaiiy aac ioeueoa
AeO.

?iaeeeaoi?ii ni?aoethaaiiy inoaiiueiai o?eaa?a (Ae3.2.) yaey?oueny
aei?ii?ithaaiiy na?oei ae?iaea HL1. Iio?iiiee eeth/ VS1 caaacia/o?
aeaeo?e/io ?ica’yceo aeieo ea?oaaiiy a?ae ia?aae? 220A, ui aeicaiey?
iaea?aeaoe oi?ioo no?ee?noue noaie aei ia?aoeiae.

I?e iaoeneaii? eiiiee ia ioeueo? AeO ?c ia/ie ?iioeuen?a ia aoiae?
aeaiaio?a Ae1.1 ? Ae1.2 oi?iothoueny a?eueo oe?ie?. O?eaa?e Ae1.2 /a?ac
2 naeoiaee caaacia/o? onoaiiaeo e?/eeueiee?a Ae2, Ae3,1 a ii/aoeiaee
noai (oi?io? ?iioeuen iaioeaiiy ia aeoiae? Ae1/12).

Noaia i?eno?ith ia e?eoe/ia aei aeai?o aeaoaeae ? ?o iii?iaee iiaeooue
a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae aeacaieo ia 30%. An? iino?ei? o?aicenoi?e
i?ei?iythoueny oeio IEO, iano?i?iee R1 oeio NI4 – 1. Iaiiey?i?
eiiaeainaoi?e oeio E10 – 17, aeaeo?ie?oe/i? N3 ? N5 oeio E53 – 16.
Ae?iaee EAe522 iiaeia cai?ieoe aoaeue – yeeie ?iioeuenaie. Noaa?e?caoi?
iai?oae Ae4 cai?iy?oueny a?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaiei ?c na??? EI142?I8A.

O?ainoi?iaoi? O1 oeio OI112 – 8 – 1, aea oaeiae i?ae?eaea aoaeue – yeee
?c oeo, ui i?ei?ith?oueny a a?o/eciyieo oaeaa?ci?ao aeey aeeaeaiiy a
aeaaeo?iiio ?aaeei? aai a ?a?iaeo i?enoaaeao oeio DENDI. Iaiao?aeia
iai?oaa aoi?eiii? iaiioee – 15…20A, ? no?oi – ia iaioa 10 iA.

Aeniiaee

I?e inai?ii? NAI? PCAD 2008 aoei ?aae?ciaaia o?anoaaiiy ieaoe, aeey
noaie oi?aae?iiy ina?oeaiiyi c aoaeue-yeiai ioeueoo AeO. ?NAD 2008
iieacaea naaa iaae?eiith i?e ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo. Aei iaaeie?e?a aeaii?
nenoaie iiaeia a?aeianoe a?aenooi?noue eiiiiiaio a?o/eciyiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oa a?aenooi?noue a noaiaea?oi?e aa?n?? PCAD 2008 i?aeo?eiee
a?o/eciyiiai noaiaea?oo. Aei ia?aaaa iienaii? NAI? a?aeiineoueny c?o/iee
aeey ei?enooaaiiy Windows ?ioa?oaen, o ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?ie
aa?n?yie, oa oaeaeea noai?aiiy noaie ia iniia? aioiaeo aeie?a
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. ANNEL 7.1

2. E.I. Oaeanoia ?aaeeiethaeoaeyi: iieaciua noaiu. – I.:Nieii–?,1999,
216 n ee.

3. A.E. Oeei Iiioey?iua oeeo?iaua iee?inoaiu: Ni?aai/iee. – I.: ?aaeei e
naycue, 1997

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