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I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

Aa?aee/?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee eieaaeae

Eiio?ieueia ?iaioa

c i?aaeiaoa “Eiii’thoa?i? ia?aae?”

(aa??aio ?7)

Aeeiiaa:nooaeaio a?oie Icn-504

?aanthe A.I.

Ia?aa??ea aeeeaaea/:Eic?e A.TH.

i. Aa?aee/?a

2007 ?.

1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea oa i?ecia/aiiy ia?o?ooecaoi??a

Iaiao?aei?noue ia?o?ooecaoe?y aeieea? a ianooiiiio aeiaaeeo. ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? aoce?a o ia?aae? aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe inoaiiuei?
iinooiiai cieaeo?oueny. Oea aeieea? ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?
oe?ieiiiaieo iia?aeiieaiue yeeie iai?iththoueny aocee ia?aae?. A
e?ioeaaiio aeiaaeeo ia?aaea aoaea i?aoethaaoe naia ia naaa ia?aaeath/e
o?eueee oe?ieiiiai? iia?aeiieaiiy. Iaeiei c aeoiae?a ?c aeaii? neooaoe??
? iaiaaeaiiy i?inoi?o aeey oe?ieiiiaieo iia?aeiieaiue oeyoii ?icaeooy
aaeeei? ia?aae? ia a?eueo iae? i?aeia?aae?. Aea a oaeiio aeiaaeeo
iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoai?cie, ye? a aeicaieeee aoceai iaei???
i?aeia?aae? aca?iiae?yoe c aoceaie ?ioi? ia?aae?. Oea aeinyaa?oueny
aeei?enoaiiyi ia?o?ooecaoi??a, ye? aeeiiothoue ia?o?ooecaoe?th, i?ioean
ia?aaea/? iaeao?a i?ae i?aeia?aaeaie, ui aoiaeyoue aei aaeeei?
neeaaeaii? ia?aae?. ?ic??ciythoue i?yio ia?o?ooecaoe?th ? iai?yio
ia?o?ooecaoe?th. I?yia ia?o?ooecaoe?y cae?enith?oueny i?ae aoceaie
iaei??? i?aeia?aae?. Iai?yia ia?o?ooecaoe?y, oea ia?aaea/a aeaeoaa?ai
i?ae aoceaie ??cieo i?aeia?aae.

Ia?o?ooecaoi? yaey? niaith i?eno??e, ui ia? iaeei aai e?eueea ia?aaeieo
?ioa?oaen?a aeey i?aeeeth/aiiy eieaeueieo ia?aae aai a?aeaeaeaieo
c’?aeiaiue. Eiaeiiio o?ce/iiio ?ioa?oaeno noaaeoueny o a?aeiia?aei?noue
iaeia /e e?eueea ??-i?aeia?aae, ui iathoue c iei aaciina?aaei?e ca’ycie.
Ia?o?ooecaoi? aeeiio? i?aeia?aaeio ia?aaea/? iaeao?a i?ae aoceaie
aeinooiieo eiio i?aeia?aae. Aei iaei??? c ooieoe?e ia?o?ooecaoi?a
aoiaeeoue ciaioaiiy iieth TTL (Time ti Live, /an aeeooy) ia iaeeieoeth
i?e i?eoiae? iaeaoo, a iio?i eiaeio naeoiaeo eiai ia?aaoaaiiy a
ia?o?ooecaoi??.

O nai?e ?iaio? ia?o?ooecaoi? aeei?enoiao? oaaeeoeth ia?o?ooecaoe??, a
ye?e i?noeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ??-aae?ane ? ianee i?aeia?aae,
i?aeeeth/aieo aei eiai ii?o?a ia?aae, a oaeiae nienie non?aei?o
ia?o?ooecaoi??a.

Iniaeeaei ia?o?ooii, ui ia? aooe i?enooi?i a aoaeue ye?e oaaeeoe?
ia?o?ooecaoe?? ? “Ia?o?oo ca caiia/oaaiiyi”, a?i oaeiae iiaea iaoe iacae
“Iniiaiee oethc”, “Iniiaiee ia?o?oo”. Oaeee caien aiai?eoue i?i oa ia
yeee ia?aaeiee ?ioa?oaen iaiao?aeii a?aei?aaeyoe aeaeoaa?aie, o aeiaaeeo
eiee aae?ana i?ecia/aiiy aeaeoaa?aie aeiaeia c i?aeia?aae i?aeeeth/aieo
aei ia?o?ooecaoi?o, ??-aae?ana iniiaiiai ia?o?ooo – 0.0.0.0 ianea
i?aeia?aae? 0.0.0.0.

??oaiiy ia a?aei?aaeaiiy aeaeoaa?aie ia a?aeiia?aeiee ii?o ae?iaey?oueny
ia iniia? aiae?co cacia/aii? a caaieiaeo iaeaoo ??-aae?ane
aocea-iaea?aeoaa/a, oa oaaeeoe? ia?o?ooecaoe??. Nii/aoeo aecia/a?oueny
aei yei? ia?aae? iaeaaeeoue aocie-iaea?aeoaa/, yeui a?aeiiino? i?i oaeo
ia?aaeo ? a oaaeeoe? ia?o?ooecaoe??, oi iaeao a?aei?aaey?oueny ia
ia?aaeiee ?ioa?oaen, aei yeiai i?aeeeth/aia ia?aaea i?ecia/aiiy, yeui
oae? a?aeiiino? a?aenooi? oi iaeao a?aei?aaey?oueny ia ia?aaeiee
?ioa?oaen, yeee a oaaeeoe? ia?o?ooecaoe?? cacia/aii, ye “Iniiaiee
ia?o?oo”.

Caiiaiaiiy oaaeeoeue ia?o?ooecaoe?? iiaea aeeiioaaoenue aeeiai?/ii aai
noaoe/ii.

E??i oeueiai ia ia?o?ooecaoi?e iiaea iieeaaeaoeny caaea/a o?eueo?aoe??,
ca iaaieie i?aaeeaie, iaeao?a, ye? oee?eoeththoue i?ae i?aeia?aaeaie
i?aeeeth/aieie aei ia?o?ooecaoi?o.

Iano?ithaaiiy ?iai/i? noaioe?? aeey aeei?enoaiiy ia?o?ooecaoi?a
caeeth/a?oueny a caaeai? iniiaiiai ia?o?ooo (oethco ca caiia/oaaiiyi),
yeee ? ??-aae?anith eieaeueiiai ?ioa?oaeno ia?o?ooecaoi?a

2.Oeie oa eeane aae?an noaeo ON?/??. Niaoe?aeuei? aae?ane noaeo ON?/??

A noaeo ON?/?? aeei?enoiaothoueny o?e oeie aae?an: eieaeuei? (aia?aoi?),
??-aae?ane oa neiaieuei? aeiiai? ?iaia.

I?ae eieaeueiith aae?anith ?icoi??oueny oaea aae?ana, yea
aeei?enoiao?oueny caniaaie aaciai? oaoiieia?? eaiaeueiiai oa o?ce/iiai
??aiy aeey aeinoaaeaiiy aeaieo a iaaeao i?aeia?aae?, ui ? aeaiaioii
neeaaeaii? ?ioa?ia?aae?. A ??cieo i?aeia?aaeao aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ci?
aacia? oaoiieia??, oiio i?e noai?aii? noaeo ON?/?? ia?aaeaa/aeany
iayai?noue ??cieo oei?a eieaeueieo aae?an. sseui i?aeia?aaeath
?ioa?ia?aae? ? eieaeueia ia?aaea, oi eieaeueia aae?ana oea IAN-aae?ana
ia?aaeiiai aaeaioa?o. IAN-aae?ane i?ecia/athoueny ae?iaieeaie ia?aaeiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy ? ? oi?eaeueieie. Aiie iiaeooue i?ecia/aoeny ia?aaeiei
aaeaioa?ai ? ?ioa?oaenai ia?o?ooecaoi??a. Aeey an?o oaoiieia?e
eieaeueieo ia?aae IAN-aae?ana ia? aeiaaeeio 6 aaeo, iai?eeeaae
11-A0-17-23-A3-3N. Aeiaaeuei? ii?oe ia?o?ooecaoi??a oeio “oi/ea-oi/ea”
eieaeueieo aae?an ia iathoue.

??-aae?ane yaeythoue niaith iniiaiee oei aae?an, ia iniia? yeeo
ia?aaeiee ??aaiue ia?aaea? iaeaoe i?ae ia?aaeaie. Oaea aae?ana
neeaaea?oueny c 4 aaeo, iai?eeeaae 192.168.2.10. ??-aae?ana
i?ecia/a?oueny i?ae /an iano?ithaaiiy eiii’thoa??a oa ia?o?ooecaoi??a.
Aiia neeaaea?oueny c aeaio /anoei: iiia?o ia?aae?, iiia?o aocea. Iiia?
ia?aae? iiaea aooe aea?aiee aeia?eueii, a o aeiaaeeo eiee ia?aaea ia?
i?aoethaaoe, ye neeaaeiaa Internet, oi i?ecia/a?oueny niaoe?aeueiith
i?aai?caoe??th InterNIC. Iiia? aoceo a ??-aae?an? i?ecia/a?oueny
iacaeaaeii a?ae eieaeueii? aae?ane aoceo. Ia?o?ooecaoi? aoiaeeoue
a?ae?aco aei aeae?eueeio ia?aae, oiio eiaeai eiai ii?o ia? aeanio
??-aae?ano. Oaeei /eiii ??-aae?ana oa?aeoa?eco? ia ie?aiee eiii’thoa?, a
ie?aia ia?aaeia c’?aeiaiiy.

Neiaieuei? aeiiaii? ?iaia aoaeothoueny ca ???a?o?/iith iciaeith.
Neeaaeia? iiaiiai neiaie?/iiai ?iai? a ??-ia?aaeao ?icae?eththoueny
e?aieith ? ia?a?aoiaothoueny a ianooiiiio ii?yaeeo: nii/aoeo ?i’y
e?ioeaaiai aocea, iio?i ?i’y a?oie aoce?a (iai?eeeaae, ?i’y
i?aai?caoe??), iio?i ?i’y a?eueo e?oiii? a?oie (i?aeaeiiaio) ? oae aei
?iai? aeiiaio naiiai aenieiai ??aiy (iai?eeeaae, aeiiaio, ui ia’?aeio?
i?aai?caoe?? ca aaia?ao?/iei i?eioeeiii). I?eeeaae aeiiaiiiai ?iai?
iiaea aooe: bpc.zt.ukrtel.net, rambler.ru. I?ae aeiiaiiei ?iaiai oa
??-aae?anith iaia? i?yei? aeai?eoi?/ii? a?aeiia?aeiino?, oiio iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeiaeaoeia? oaaeeoe? aai neoaeae, aeey oiai, uia aocie a
ia?aae? iaeiicia/ii aecia/aany, ye ca aeiiaiiei ?i’y, oae ? ca
??-aae?anith. A ia?aaeao ON?/?? aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiao?oueny
niaoe?aeueia neoaeaa Domain Name System (DNS).

Eeane ?? aae?an.

??-aae?ana ia? aeiaaeeio 4 aaeoe ? neeaaea?oueny c aeaio /anoei, iiia?o
ia?aae? oa iiia?o aocea. ssea /anoeia aae?ane ? iiia?ii ia?aae?, a yea
iiia?ii aocea aecia/a?oueny cia/aiiyi ia?oeo a?o aae?ane:

1. sseui ia?o?e aea?eeiaee a?o aae?ane aei??aith? ioeth, oi aae?ana
iaeaaeeoue aei eeano A. Iiia? ia?aae? aecia/a?oueny ia?oei aaeoii, iiia?
aoceo aecia/a?oueny o?ueiia ianooiieie aaeoaie. Iiia?e ia?aae 0 oa 127
ca?aca?aiaai? aeey niaoe?aeueieo oe?eae. Eiaeia ia?aaea eeano A ia?
aae?aniee i?ino?? a?eueoa 16 iei. aae?an.

2. sseui ia?o? aeaa aea?eeia? a?oe aae?ane aei??aiththoue 10, oi ia?aaea
a?aeiineoueny aei eeano A. Iiia? ia?aae? aecia/a?oueny ia?oeie aeaiia
aaeoaie, iiia? aocea ianooiieie aeaiia aaeoaie. Eiaeia ia?aaea eeano A
ia? aae?aniee i?ino?? 65536 aae?an.

3. sseui ia?o? o?e aea?eeia? a?oe aae?ane aei??aiththoue 110, oi ia?aaea
a?aeiineoueny aei eeano N. Iiia? ia?aae? aecia/a?oueny ia?oeie o?ueiia
aaeoaie, iiia? aoceo inoaii?i aaeoii. Eiaeia ia?aaea eeano N ia?
aae?aniee i?ino?? ia a?eueoa 256 aae?an.

4. sseui ia?o? /ioe?e aea?eeia? a?oe aae?ane aei??aiththoue 1110, oi
aeaia aae?ana ? aae?anith eeano D ? iicia/a? iniaeeao a?oiiao aae?ano.
Oaea aae?ana iiaea aooe iacia/aia a?ae?aco aeae?eueeii aoceai a ia?aae?.
sseui a iaeao? a yeino? aae?ane i?ecia/aiiy aeacaii aae?ano eeano D, oi
oaeee iaeao io?eiothoue an? aocee, yeei i?ecia/aii aeaio aae?ano.

5. sseui ia?o? i’youe a?o aae?ane aei??aiththoue 11110, oi aeaia aae?ana
? aae?anith eeano A. Aae?ane aeaiiai eeano ca?aca?aiaai? aeey
iaeaooiueiai aeei?enoaiiy.

A i?ioieie? ?? ?nio? aeae?eueea oaiae i?i iniaeeao ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th
aeayeeo ?? aae?an:

– yeui ??-aae?ana neeaaea?oueny o?eueee c aea?eeiaeo ioe?a, oi aiia
icia/a? aae?ano oiai aocea yeee caaia?oaaa aeaiee iaeao. Oeae ?aaeei
aeei?enoiao?oueny o?eueee a aeayeeo iia?aeiieaiiyo ?NI?.

– yeui /anoeia ??-aae?ane, yea icia/a? iiia? ia?aae? neeaaea?oueny
o?eueee c aea?eeiaeo ioe?a, oi aaaaea?oueny, ui aocie i?ecia/aiiy
ciaoiaeeoueny a o?e nai?e ia?aae?, ui ? aocie, yeee caaia?oaaa oeae
iaeao.

– yeui an? aea?eeia? ?ic?yaee ??-aae?ane aei??aiththoue 1, oi iaeao c
oaeith aae?anith ?icneea?oueny an?i aoceai, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a o?e nai?e
ia?aae?, ui ? aocie, yeee caaia?oaaa oeae iaeao. Oaea ?icneeea
iaceaa?oueny iaiaaeaiei oe?ieiiiaiei iia?aeiieaiiyi.

– yeui a /anoeia ??-aae?ane, ui icia/a? iiia? aocea-i?ecia/aiiy
neeaaea?oueny o?eueee c aea?eeiaeo iaeeieoeue, oi iaeao, yeee ia? oaeo
aae?ano i?ecia/aiiy ?icneea?oueny an?i aoceai ia?aae? c caaeaiei iiia?ii
ia?aae?. Iai?eeeaae, iaeao 192.168.1.255. aoaea aeinoaaeaiee an?i aoceai
ia?aae? 192.168.1.0. Oaea ?icneeea iaceaa?oueny oe?ieiiiaiei
iia?aeiieaiiyi.

I?ecia/aiiy ?? aae?an

I?e i?ecia/aii? ?? – aae?an iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe o? iaiaaeaiiy, ui
aiinyoueny iniaith ?ioa?i?aoaoe??th aeayeeo ?? – aae?an. Iiia? aocea, /e
iiia? ia?aae? ia iiaea neeaaeaoeny o?eueee c aea?eeiaeo iaeeieoeue /e
ioe?a. Oaeei /eiii, iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue aae?an, ui iiaea aoaee
aeei?enoaiiy aeey i?ecia/aiiy aoceai ia?aae? ia aea?. (Aeey aae?anaoe??
aoce?a ia aeei?enoiaothoueny aae?ane aeaeo o.o.o.0 oa o.o.o.255)

Aaaeaii a?aooaaoe, ui aeey ia?aae ye? ia ? /anoeiith Internet aaaeaii
aeae?aoe aae?ane c oaeeo ae?aiacii?a:

Eean A – iaeia ia?aaea c aaciaith aae?anith 10.0.0.0

Eean A – 16 ia?aae c aae?anaie a?ae 172.16.0.0 ii 172.31.0.0

Eean N – 255 ia?a c aae?anaie a?ae 192.168.0.0 ii 192.168.255.0

Oe? aae?ane ia ia?iaeythoueny ia?o?ooecaoi?aie Internet i? i?e yeeo
oiiaao.

3. I?aeoe/i? caaaeaiiy

Iaaaaeaii o?aaiaio eiii’thoa?ii? ia?aae?. A, B, C, D, E – eiioi?eaoe?ei?
i?eno?i? (eiioeaio?aoi?e – Hub aai eiiooaoi?e – Switch). Eiaeai c ieo
ia? 4 ii?oe, aae?ana ii?oa neeaaea?oueny ?c ?iai? i?eno?ith ? iiia?o
ii?oa, iai?eeeaae, ii?o ?3 eiioi?eaoe?eiiai i?eno?ith N iaoeia aae?ano
N3. E1-E9 – eiii’thoa?e, ye? ia?aaeathoue oa i?eeiathoue ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
eaae?e. A oaaeeoe? 5 aeacaii oeie eiioi?eaoe?eieo i?eno?i?a oa iiia?
eiii’thoa?a, ui ia?aaea? aeai?. Aecia/eoe:

ia yeeo ii?oao c’yaeoueny iia?aeiieaiiy aeoeaiiai eiii’thoa?a;

ye? eiii’thoa?e iiaeooue ia?aaeaaaoe aeai? iaeii/anii c aeaiei
eiii’thoa?ii aac aeieeiaiiy eie?c?e;

aeaoe a?aeiia?ae? ia ioieoe a), a) i?e oiia? ui an? eiioi?eaoe?ei?
i?eno?i? ? eiioeaio?aoi?aie;

aeaoe a?aeiia?ae? ia ioieoe a), a) i?e oiia? ui an? eiioi?eaoe?ei?
i?eno?i? ? eiiooaoi?aie;

? aa?.Oeie eiioi?eaoe?eieo i?eno?i?aAeoeaiee
eiii’thoa?ABCDE5SwitchSwitchHubHubHubE4

a.) iia?aeiieaiiy c’yaeoueny ia N1, N2, N3 oa ia ii?oao A1, A2, A3, A4:

b.) Aeai? iiaeooue ia?aaeaaaoenue oaeeie eiii’thoa?aie aac aeieeiaiiy
eie?c?e E8, E9, E6, E7, E2, E3.

c.) a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo an? eiii’thoa?e iiaeooue ia?aaeaaaoe aeai?
iaeii/anii.

d.)a oeueiio ae aeiaaeeo iaaiaee aeiaeai ?c eiii’thoa??a ia ciiaea
ia?aaeaaaoe aeai?.

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464301000000000001008dd4000000000100000000030000000000000003000001000000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e84c11001e504d310700000001000000244d1100244d11003d524b31070000004c4d1100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Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e

1. “I?aeoe/aneee eo?n eioi?iaoeee”. ?oaeaiei A.Ae., Iaea?/ee I.I.,
Iaaeaiaeiaeo I.I. Eeaa: Oaieen, 1997.

2. Eoeueaei I. Oaoiieiaee ei?ii?aoeaiuo naoae. Yioeeeeiiaaeey – NIa.:
Ieoa?,2000.

3. Aoe I. Aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa eieaeueiuo naoae. Yioeeeeiiaaeey. – NIa.:
Ieoa?, 2001.

4.Eiiniaeo eaeoe?e c eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae.

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