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I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE ? IAOEE OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE

OI?A?AAEUeII-AEIIII?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

EIEIIEENUeEEE AEIIII?EI-I?AAIAEE EIEAAeAE

EO?NIAA ?IAIOA

c i?aaeiaoo ?IN

Ia oaio:

“Aaciaa i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie”

Aeeiiaa

nooaeaio a?oie I-12

A?ioiiye ss?ineaa

Aaneeueiae/

Eieiiey

2001 ?.

Ci?no

1. Anooi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2. Aaciaa i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 4

2.1. Cia/aiiy oa aoaie ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? ia ii/aoeo OO

noie?ooy a Oe?a?i?. Ia?o? iniiai? ?iaeiaeua . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 5

2.2. ?icaeoie oa aeaeiaooie aaco a Ia?aaeea?iaoo?, Aei?i?ianueei-

Aeiiaoeuee?e aaciiini?e iaeano? oa o I?e/i?iiii?nueei-

E?einuee?e iaooiaaciiini?e iaeano? Oe?a?ie c 40-o ?ie?a OO

noie?ooy. Iniiai? i?iaeaie, iia? a?aee?eooy oa ia?niaeoeae

ia iaeaooi? aaeoc? aeaieo ?aa?ii?a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .7

2.3. ?ieue Oe?a?ie a i?aeia?iaei?e oi?a?ae? aacii. Aacio?ainii?o-

iee iioaioe?ae oa iaea?eueo? aacii?iaiaee a Oe?a?i? . . . . . . .
11

2.4. Cia/aiiy ?in?enueeiai AAO “Aaci?ii” aeey Oe?a?ie ia

nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue. Aacii?ia?ae “ssiae-?a?iia” oa oni?oiee

a?ceo oe?a?inueeiai i?ai’??a A?eoi?a THuaiei aei Iineae.

Iniiai? i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aaeoc? . . . . . . 13

2.5. ?ici?uaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy aaciaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?

a Oe?a?i? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .16

2.6. Caai?aiaai?noue — iaeaieth/?oa i?iaeaia aeey Oe?a?ie oa aeey

ianaeaiiy ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeano?; “Oaieieiioiaia?ai” 17

2.7. Iiaeyae ia no/anio aia?aaoe/io noa?o, a?oea-i?ai’??-i?i?no?a

c ieoaiue IAE, THe?? Oeiioaiei oa e?ei?iaeueia ni?aaa i?ioe

ia? ca eiio?aaaiaeo aacii. Iiaeyae i?ai’??a Aieiaeeie?a

Aieiaea ia ni?aao i?ioe TH. Oeiioaiei ia no/anio caeoieo

oa o?ainii?ooaaiiy aaco a Oe?a?i?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .20

3. Aeniiaee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 24

E?oa?aoo?a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 27

Aeiaeaoie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

1. Any ?noi??y ethaenoaa o?nii iia’ycaia c iiooeii oa aeei?enoaiiyi
iiaeo aeae?a iaeeaa e aia?a??. ? /ei aeua i?ae?eiaeanue ethaeeia ii
noiaeeieao oeea?e?caoe?e, oei a?eueoeie noaaaee ?? iio?aae a aia?a??
(“aia?a?y” o ia?aeeaae? c a?aoeueei? — ae?yeuei?noue).

Oaio “Aaciaa i?iieneia?noue”, y aea?aa oiio, ui naia ?icaeoie
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno, caaacia/aiiy noni?euenoaa aia?aaoe/ieie
?ano?naie ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai aoaeue-yei? aea?aeaae
na?oo, a ii?io aeiaaeeo — Oe?a?ie. ? oeth i?iaeaio y ae??oea ?ice?eoe oa
aiae?coaaoe a nai?e ?iaio?, caaaeyee ?ioi?iaoe??, yei? ia aeaiee /an ?
aeinoaoiuei, uia aeeaoa “i??iooe” a i?iaeaio “?icaeoie aaciai?
i?iieneiaino?”. sse ie cia?ii, iieeaii-aia?aaoe/iee eiiieaen Oe?a?ie
ioiieth? an? i?ioeane aeaeiaooeo ? ia?a?iaee iaeeaa (ae?aa?aia 1). Aeey
iiaiiai aia?aicaaacia/aiiy Oe?a?ie iaiao?aeii ia iaioa ye 300 iei. oiii
o.i. (oiiaia iaeeai). Aea Oe?a?ia ia iiaea ?aae?coaaoe nai? aaeee?
aeiiii?/i? iiaeeeaino?, noa?? oi?ie oa iaoiaee ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
caeaaei?noue a?ae oeaio?o iaaaoeaii aieeaaee ia ?icaeoie aaciai?
i?iieneiaino?, a oiio /ene? ia ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee oa aeeooy ia?iaeo.
Oiio, ia aeaiee /an, Oe?a?ia caaacia/o? naaa o?eueee aeecueei ia o?aoeio
ca ?ic?aooiie aeanieo ?ano?n?a, ?e aeiaiaeeoueny aaiceoe iaeeai c ?ioeo
e?a?i na?oo, ui ? ? ua iaei??th i?iaeaiith aea?aeaae. Nueiaiaei? iaoa
aea?aeaaa uiaei iinoaaie aia?aiiin??a iaeaea iiai?noth i???ioo?oueny ia
?in?th, ui iaiaaeo? iiaeeeaino? ?? ?icaeoeo, ? iaaaoeaiei a ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee, ?? i?aeianaiiy aei aeuiai ??aiy — ??aiy aeniei?icaeiooeo
aea?aeaa na?oo.

Iiceoeaiei aeey ?icaeoeo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno ? oa, ui
Oe?a?ia ia? cia/i? iiooaeiino? aeey ia?a?iaee iaooe oa aaee/aci?
i?aecaii? aacinoiaeua aeey caa??aaiiy aaco.

Iaaaoeaiei ua ? oa, ui i?e?iaeiiai aaco iao?e e?a?i? ia aenoa/a?.
Oaaaeeinueea, iai?eeeaae, oa Aeaoaanueea ?iaeiaeua aaea iaeaea
ae/a?iai?. A ia ?o i?noe? noai?ai? ?aca?aoa?e aeey caa?aaeaiiy
i?e?iaeiueiai aaco, ui iaaeoiaeeoue ii aacii?iaiaeo ?c Cao?aeiiai
Nea??o. Ana oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei caiaiaaeo oa aaeueioaaiiy aeiiii?ee.
Oiio, oaea i?iaeaia, ye “aac”, ? aaaeeeaith aeey an?o ian —
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo oa aea?aeaae. Aiia ia ? ?ica’ycaiith ia aeaiee /an
? iai? aoei oe?eaai aeine?aeaeoaaoe ??, ii/eiath/e c 20-o ?ie?a OO no.,
?? aoaie ?icaeoeo oa oi?ioaaiiy, ui aoaea iienaii oa iiyniaii a ii?e
?iaio?. Iiaeia aoaea ae?ciaoenue i?i an? oe? i?iaeaie, a oaeiae iiaa/eoe
aeeiai?eo aeaeiaooeo iaeeaa a Oe?a?i?, ca a?ao?eii iiaeia niinoa??aaoe,
ye c?inoaa aeaeiaooie iaeeaa, ? iaaiaee — niaaeaa (a?ao?e 1).

C aeiy i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? ia?aae iaoith aea?aeaaith a?aee?eeeny
iiaeeeaino? aoiaeaeaiiy aei na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa a?eueieo ?
i?ioea?oath/eo e?a?i. Aaeaea aeey oeueiai Oe?a?ia ia? an? iiaeeeaino?.
Ca caaaeueieie ianyaaie i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a oa aeiiii?/iei iioaioe?aeii
iaoa e?a?ia iin?aea? ainueia i?noea a na?o? ? ia? ?aaeueio ia?niaeoeao
ia?aoai?aiiy a iaeio c iaeaaaaooeo e?a?i na?oo. Aea oae ia noaeiny,
oiio, ui ianooiia aeiiii?/ia e?eca, ui ioiieea an? i?iieneiaino?, oe?eo
aea?aeaao, cie?aia ? aaciao i?iieneia?noue. A iniiaiith i?e/eiith aoei
oa, ui o ia?o? ?iee aeinyaiaiiy iacaeaaeiino? aoee a?aenooi? ?aaeuei?
aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie, i?iaeiaaeoaaea ae?yoe noa?a, a?aeaeeea ?aaeyinueea
nenoaia ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ua ?nioaaee oioae?oa?i? caeeoee. Ana oea y
aaaeo aei oiai, ui, yeui a Oe?a?i? ?nioaaoeia aeiiii?/ia e?eca, oi ye
aoaea ?icaeaaoenue aaciaa i?iieneia?noue? Ia oea ieoaiiy y aoaeo
noa?aoenue a?aeiia?noe oa ?icaeyiooe eiai aeaoaeuei?oa.

A nai?e ?iaio? y noaaeth ia?aae niaith ca iaoo ?ice?eooy iaei??? c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai iaoi? aea?aeaae — ?icaeoie aaciai? i?iieneiaino?,
?? aaeueioaaiiy, o?oaeiiu?, ye? iia’ycai? c aeaeiaoaaiiyi i?e?iaeiueiai
aaco. A oaeiae ?? ?icaeoie ia no/aniiio aoai?, caai?aiaai?noue,
a?aoiaoth/e, ui cia/ia /anoeia ?? i?eiaaea? ia ianaeaiiy, ianoa/a aaco,
a oaeiae noia?a/ee i?ae ea??aieoeoaii.

2.1. Aaciaa i?iieneia?noue — iaeiieiaeoa aaeocue iaeeaii?
i?iieneiaino?. Aeei?enoaiiy aaco a aeaa ?ace aeaoaaoa, ii??aiyii c
iaooith. E??i oiai, aiia caaacia/o? ae?iaieoeoai acioieo aeia?ea ?
neioaoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a. Oey aaeocue a?ae?a?a? aaeeea cia/aiiy a ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee, a caaaa/aii? Oe?a?ie, a i?aeianaii? aeiiii?ee aei ??aiy iaoeo
?a?iiaenueeeo aeniei?icaeiooeo aea?aeaa. A oaeiae, a caaacia/aii?
Oe?a?iith ianaeaiiy oaieii.

Aaciaa i?iieneia?noue ca?iaeeeany ia I?eea?iaoo? a 20-o? ?iee OO no. A
oi/i?oa, oi aia?oa aoei cao?eniaaii ca?iaeaeaiiy oe??? aaeoc? a 1901 —
1902 ??. i?ae /an aoae?aieoeoaa nieaieo oaoo o Ia?aaeea?iaoo?. Ia?oa
?iaeiaeua i?e?iaeiiai aaco a?aee?eee o 1910 ?. iaiiaeae?e i. Eaeooa
(?aaii-O?aie?anueea iae.). O 1913 ?. a?aee?eoi Aeaoaanueea ?iaeiaeua, a
c 1924 ?. ?icii/aoi i?iieneiao ?ic?iaeo oeueiai ?iaeiaeua (Euea?anueea
iae.). Oiae? ae caoaeiaaii ia?o? aacii?iaiaee Aeaoaaa — No?ee (1924) oa
Aeaoaaa — Euea?a (1929). C 1933 ?. aenieoaoo?oueny Eaeonueea ?iaeiaeua.
Aaaeeeaei e?ieii o ?icaeoeo aaciai? i?iieneiaino? noaei a?aee?eooy
Oaa?nueeiai ?iaeiaeua ia Euea?auei? oa nii?oaeaeaiiy iaea?eueoiai ia oie
/an iaa?no?aeueiiai aacii?iaiaeo Aeaoaaa — Ee?a. Caiaeii a?i aoa
i?iaeiaaeaiee aei naii? Iineae.

Aei 1050 ?. a Oe?a?i? aenieoaooaaeiny /ioe?e ?iaeiaeua, ye?
caaacia/oaaee iiiaae 1,5 ie?ae eoaiiao??a aaco — /aa?oue oiae? ua
nithciiai aeaeiaooeo. C /anii aei ieo i?e?aeiaeiny oi?eaeueia
Oaaaeeinueea aacieiiaeainaoia ?iaeiaeua ia Oa?e?auei?. A oeueiio
?iaeiaeu? neiioeaio?iaaii iiiaae 80% ?ica?aeaieo caian?a aaco. Aecia/io
?ieue a?ae?a?a? aiii e o aeaeiaooeo aaco. Naiai /ano ianya
aaciaeaeiaooeo noaiiaea ooo aei 20% caaaeueiinithciiai, caaaeueiee ianya
aeaeiaooiai a Oaaaeeioe? aaco ia?aaeuea 550 ie?ae eoaiiao??a, aea
i?iieneiaa aenieoaoaoe?y oeueiai ?iaeiaeua ua o?eaa?. C Oaaaeeiee a
??cieo iai?yiao i?ieyaathoue aacii?iaiaee: Oaaaeeiea — Oa?e?a, Oaaaeeiea
— Iieoaaa — Ee?a, Oaaaeeiea — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — E?eaee ??a — Iaeana —
Eeoei?a. Aacii?iaiaeii Oaaaeeiea — A?eai?iae — Eo?nuee — A?yinuee —
Iineaa oe?a?inueeee aac aaaaoi ?ie?a iaaeoiaeea aei ?in??.

2.2. O 1940 ?. o Ia?aaeea?iaoo? cina?aaeaeoaaeiny 87% aeaeiaooeo aaco a
oiae?oiueiio N?N?. C oeueiai ?aeiio aoee i?ieeaaeai? iaa?no?aeuei?
aacii?iaiaee aei Ee?aa, I?inueea, ?eae, Eai?ia?aaea, Iineae oa ?ioeo
i?no. Oaia? ia Ia?aaeea?iaonueeo iaooiaaciiinio iaeanoue i?eiaaea? 3,1%
anueiai aeaeiaoaeeo aaco a Oe?a?i?. Oeae ?aeii aeineoue ia?niaeoeaiee,
ai aac aeaeiaoaathoue a iniiaiiio c iacia/ieo aeeaei. ?ica?aeai? caiane
aaco noaiiaeyoue 94 ie?ae i3. A oe?eiio, o Cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio
iaooiaaciiiniiio ?aa?ii? i?iaiiciaai? caiane iaooe ? aaco noaiiaeyoue
iiiaae 600 iei. o. oiiaieo iaeeieoeue iaeeaa. I?e/iio, a?eueo i?ae
iieiaeia ?o neiioeaio?iaaia a ?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e iaeano?, aea aiie
caeyaathoue ia aeeaei? 5 — 6 ei, ui ? iniiaiith oaoi?/iith i?iaeaiith
i?iieneiaiai aeaeiaooeo ?o.

O I?eea?iaoo? A?eue/a — Aieeoeueea aaciaa ?iaeiaeua, ui aenieoaoo?oueny
c 1949 ?. Einiaoeueea aacieiiaeainaoia ?iaeiaeua, ui aenieoaoo?oueny c
1969 ?., ? oe?iiei aeey o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino?. Eiai aacieiiaeainao
ia?a?iaey?oueny ia Iaaea??iyinueeiio aaciia?a?iaiiio caaiae?. Iia?nueea,
Oaa?nueea, ?oaee?anueea ?iaeiaeua ua aenieoaoothoueny, aea ?oi? caiane
aaea aeoaea ae/a?iaii. Ein?anueea ? Eaaeiaiainueea aacia? ?iaeiaeua
aeei?enoiaothoue aeey i?noeaaeo iio?aa. E??i ia?ae?/aieo aaciaeo
?iaeiaeu ? aaciaeya?a i?iieneiaiai cia/aiiy. Oea — Noaeiai —
Aeoiainueea, Iaie??anueea, Nieioaeinueea, Ioea/?anueea, ??oaanueea oa
?i.

Ciaioaiiy aeaeiaooeo aaco a Ia?aaeea?iaonuee?e iaooiaaciiini?e iaeano?
— oea ? iaeia ?c i?iaeai ?icaeoeo aaciai? i?iieneiaino? oa aeiiii?ee a
oiio /ene?. A iiynith?oueny oea oei, ui ae/a?io?oueny aac ?c noa?eo
?iaeiaeu, ia?aoe?iiaeueii ae?iaey?oueny cia/ia /anoeia ?iaeiaeu,
ine?eueee aaeeea e?euee?noue aaco caeeoa?oueny i?ae caieath, a iaaeaaii
a?aee?eo? iia? ?iaeiaeua aai iaeiiiooaei?, aai ia ?ic?iaeythoueny
cian?i. Oao?aoe? aaaaeathoue, ui a I?eea?iaoo? iiaeia ca?eueoeoe
aeaeiaooie aaco, aea aeey oeueiai iio??aii a?aeiiaeoe caiouai?
naa?aeeiaeie, iie?ioeoe ye?noue iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueiiai ao??iiy,
caaacia/eoe ao?ia? i?aai?caoe?? iaeaaeiaiiyi aeey ao??iiy naa?aeeiaeie
caaaeeaoee 5 — 7 oen. i. Ca aeaeiaooeii i?e?iaeiiai aaco a Oe?a?i?
i?ioyaii 1940 — 1995 ??. iiaeia niinoa??aaoe ca oaaeeoeath 1 a
Aeiaeaoeo.

Ui ae aei ?ioeo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie, oi a Aei?i?ianueei — Aeiiaoeueeo
aaciiinio iaeanoue aeyaeaii ii?yae c iieeaaeaie iaooe a Aei?i?ianueei —
Aeiiaoeuee?e caiaaeei?. Aea iniiai? ?iaeiaeua aaco noaee a?aeiieie o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? 60-o ?ie?a. Aei?i?ianueei — Aeiiaoeueea iaooiaaciiinia
iaeanoue iaea?eueoa a Oe?a?i?, ia ia? i?eiaaea? 93, 8% aeaeiaooeo aaco
e?a?ie. Iniiai? ?iaeiaeua i?e?iaeiiai aaco ?icoaoiaai?, oaeiae, o
Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano? (Oaaaeeinueea, O?anoeuainueea, Eao/?anueea,
Ae?oaeaetha?anueea ? Cao?aeiio?anoeuainueea); Noinuee?e (?eaaeuenueea,
Ea/ai?anueea); Iieoaanuee?e (Nieioi — Aeeeainueea); Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e
(Ia?auaieinueea) oa *a?i?a?anuee?e (Ai?aeeioe?anueea). Ooo aeyaeaii 111
aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu, caiane aaco noaiiaeyoue 785,4 ie?ae. i3. (aeea. ea?oo
a aeiaeaoeo)

Iaea?eueoa ?c cacia/aieo ?iaeiaeu — Oaaaeeinueea, yea i?noeoue 80% on?o
caian?a aaco a Oe?a?i?. Ae?oaa i?noea a Oe?a?i? ca caianaie aaco caeia?
Cao?aeiio?anoeuainueea aacieiiaeainaoia ?iaeiaeua, yea aenieoaoothoue c
1970 ?.

Aaieiai?ica?aeieee e nueiaiaei? aeyaeythoue iia? ?iaeiaeua aaco, a oiio
/ene? a Eoaainuee?e iaeano?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aaaaonoai iaae?
Aei?i?ianueei — Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie, i?i oa, ui ana ua ia ao?a/aii oa
ia ae/a?iaii, iio??aii o?eueee i?eeeanoe “o?ioe nee”.

O I?e/i?iiii?nueei — E?einuee?e iaooiaaciiini?e iaeano? a?aee?eoi e
aenieoaoothoueny 17 aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu ?c caaaeueieie caianaie 14,3 ie?ae.
i3. Iaea?eueo? c ieo: Aieeoeeinueea, Aeaeaieienueea, Ae?a?anueea,
Ieai?anueea, Caaei?iainueea, No??ee?anueea ?iaeiaeua, 85% ?ica?aeaieo ia
I?aaei? Oe?a?ie ?iaeiaeu — oea ii?nuee? ?iaeiaeua i?e?iaeiiai aaco
(aeea. oaaeeoeth 2). C ii?nueeiai aeia nueiaiaei? aeaeiaoaa?oueny
aeecueei 650 ie?ae. eoaiiao??a aaco ia ??e. Oaia? ia aei? *i?iiai ii?y
aaieiae aeyaeee ua ?yae ia?niaeoeaieo aaciaeo i?aeaeuaiue (i?aecaiieo ?
aiaeii/an i?aeaiaeieo no?oeoo?).

Iauiaeaaii a?aee?eoi o?noue iiaeo aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu — *a?aiiia?aaenueea
a Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?, E?oaeee?anueea — a Eoaainuee?e, Aa?aueoeueea oa
I?oiaeoeueea — o Euea?anuee?e, Oeyi?anueea — o Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e,
I?ai?/iieacaoeinueea — ia aei? Acianueeiai ii?y.

Aeeiai?eo aeaeiaooeo i?e?iaeiiai aaco a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii 1940 — 1995
??. a?aeia?aaeaii ia ae?aa?ai? 1.

Iaeii/anii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeaeiaooeo ?icii/aeiny ?ioaineaia
aoae?aieoeoai aacio?ainii?oii? nenoaie. Iiooaei? o?oaii?iaiaee aoei
i?ieeaaeaii a?ae ?iaeiaeu Oa?e?anueei? iaeano? aei Ee?aa, Aeieeie,
Oaeai?iaea, Aei?i?iiao?ianueea, E?eaiai ?iao, Iaeane, ?cia?ea, oa a
Aeiiaan. Oae, o 1978 ?. aaaaeaii a aenieoaoaoe?th aacii?ia?ae “Nithc”,
o?ana yeiai i?ioiaeeoue a?ae I?aiao?cueeiai ?iaeiaeua (Cao?aeiee Nea??)
aei Oaeai?iaea ? aeae? aei e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. O 1984 ?. noaa
aei eaaeo iiooaeiee aacii?ia?ae O?aiaie — Iiia?e — Oaeai?iae. *a?ac
nenoaio iaa?no?aeueieo aacii?iaiae?a a Oe?a?i? ?in?y cae?enith? aenii?o
naiai aaco aei /ioe?iaaeoeyoe e?a?i ?a?iie, o oiio /ene? a *ao?th,
Neiaa//eio, Oai?ueio, Iieueuo, THaineaa?th, Aano??th, O?I, O?aioe?th,
?oae?th oa Oo?a//eio.

2.3. Aea?aeia aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia iniiaieo oeyoao
o?ainii?ooaaiiy aaco c iaea?eueoeo aaciaeiaoaieo ?aa?ii?a ?in??, e?a?i
Oeaio?aeueii? Ac?? oa Aeecueeiai Noiaeo aei iaea?eueoeo eiai niiaeeaa/?a
o e?a?iao Cao?aeii?, Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie aecia/a? eeth/iao
?ieue aacio?ainii?oii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie o i?aeia?iaei?e oi?a?ae? aacii.
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui Oe?a?ia a?ae?a?a? aaeeeo ?ieue o oe?e oi?a?ae?
aacii, aea caae?yi? aeniei?icaeioo? aea?aeaae na?oo. Aiia ia?
iaea?eueoee o na?o? aacio?ainii?oiee iioaioe?ae, yeee noaiiaeoue ia
aoiae? 290 ie?ae. eoaoiao??a, a ia aeoiae? (a e?a?ie Cao?aeii?,
Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?iie, a oaeiae o Iieaeiao oa I?aaeaiue ?in??)
iaeaea 170 ie?ae. eoaiiao??a ia ??e. Ca i?ioyaei?noth iaa?no?aeueieo
aacii?iaiae?a aaeeeiai ae?aiao?a, yea ia nueiaiaei? noaiiaeoue iiiaae 35
oen. ei, Oe?a?ia iinooia?oueny eeoa NOA oa ?in??. Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie
?icoaoiaaii aeaaiaaeoeyoue aaeeeeo i?aecaiieo aacinoiaeu, ui iathoue
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ?aaoethaaiiy iiaea/? aaco i?ioyaii
?ieo.

Iaea?eueoeie aacii?iaiaeaie a Oe?a?i? ?: Oaaai?ia — Ia??oiieue (312,3
ei), Eoaainuee — ?oa?aeia (148,1 ei), Aiain??aea — Neia’yinuee (135 ei),
Aeaoaaa — Ee?a (462 ei), Ee?a — A?yinuee (367 ei), Oaaaeeiea — Iieoaaa —
Ee?a (477,4 ei), ?o?ai?aea — Aeeeaiueea — Ee?a (478 ei), Ee?a — Cao?ae
Oe?a?ie-1 ? -2 (367 ? 506 ei) oa ?i. Ae?aiao? o?oa 520 — 1420 ii,
?iai/ee oene — 35 aoi ? aeua. sse ie cia?ii, i?aei?e?inoaa aaciai?
i?iieneiaino? cae?eniththoue aeaeiaoaaiiy, caa??aaiiy, o?ainii?ooaaiiy
oa ia?a?iaeo i?e?iaeiiai aaco. Oae, o aaeain? niiaeeaaiiy aaco a Oe?a?i?
iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e iniiai? neeaaeia?: aeaniee aeiaooie (aeecueei 18
ie?ae eoaiiao??a ia ??e), ?iii?o (25 — 26 ie?ae eoaiiao??a) oa aac, ui
iaaeoiaeeoue a?ae ?in?enueeiai AAO “Aaci?ii” ca o?aiceo (30 — 32 ie?ae
eoaiiao??a). Caaa?oo?oueny aoae?aieoeoai iaa?no?aeueiiai aacii?iaiaeo
Aeaeaieie — Oaiaein?y — Ea?/ aeiaaeeiith 254 ei. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
aaee/acio i?iioneio ni?iiiaei?noue iaa?no?aeueieo aacii?iaiae?a Oe?a?ie.
Oae, ae?th/ee aacii?ia?ae Oi?aeie — Aeieeia caaaeiaaeee 529 ei ?
ae?aiao?ii 1420 ii ia? iiooaei?noue 11 ie?ae eoa. iao??a aaco ia ??e.
Ae?oaa ieoea aacii?iaiaeo Aiaiue?a — ?cia?e caaaeiaaeee 377 ei ?
ae?aiao?ii o?oa 1420 ii, yea ua nii?oaeaeo?oueny, ?ic?aoiaaia ia
ia?aea/oaaiiy 18 ie?ae eoaiiao??a aaco ia ??e.

2.4. *a?ac Oe?a?io a ?a?iio o?ainii?oo?oueny aeecueei 97% aenii?oieo
ianya?a ?in?enueeiai AAO “Aaci?ii”. sse ieaoo ca o?aiceo ?in?enueeiai
aaco Oe?a?ia io?eio? a na?aaeiueiio 30 ie?ae eoaiiao??a i?e?iaeiueiai
aaco. ?ic?aooiee cae?eniththoueny ca iiaiaeaeaiith oa?eoiith noaaeith
(1,09 aeiea?a NOA ca o?ainii?ooaaiiy 1 oen. eoaiiao??a aaco ia 100 ei),
ui cia/ii ieae/a na?oiaeo oa?eo?a (2 — 4,5 aeiea?a NOA). Ia cian?i
caaeiaieueiy? oe?a?inueeo noi?iio e oaeoe/ii aa?oa?ia oi?ia ?ic?aooie?a.
Iaeiae ia?aaeyae oaei? onoaeaii? i?aeoeee iaiiaeeeaee aac iiaaoaiiy oae
caaiiai “aaciaiai ai?ao” ia?aae ?in??th. Aaaaeathoue, ui c ia?aoiaeii
aei na?oiaeo ?icoe?iie Oe?a?ia iiaea a o ?aooiie iieaoe ca o?aiceoi?
iineoae io?eiaoe c ?in?? aei 60% iaiao?aeiiai ?e aaco.

I?aaio/e oieeiooe caeaaeiino? a?ae o?aiceoo aaco oe?a?inueeith
oa?eoi???th, ?in?y nueiaiaei? ooea? aeueoa?iaoeai? aa??aioe eiai
o?ainii?ooaaiiy ca ei?aeii. Iauiaeaaii AAO “Aaci?ii” o?i/enoi
i?iaieineei i?i a?aee?eooy o?ain’?a?iiaenueeiai aacii?iaiaeo ssiae —
Cao?aeia ?a?iia, yeee aoei i?ieeaaeaii /a?ac oa?eoi??th ?anioae?ee
A?ei?onue. Caaaeueia aeiaaeeia aacii?iaiaeo noaiiaeoue aeecueei 5100 ei
? aaea o ianooiiiio ?ioe? aoaea a?aei?aaeaii, ia?aaaaeii ia aenii?o —
aei I?ia//eie oa Aaeuea??, aeecueei 15 ie?ae eoaiiao??a aaco. A a
iaeaooiueiio iinoaaee aaco /a?ac A?ei?onueeo oa?eoi??th ciiaeooue
aeinyaoe 28 ie?ae eoaiiao??a ia ??e. Ni?eueii c Oo?a//eiith ?in?y ii/aea
cae?enithaaoe i?iaeo o?ainii?ooaaiiy aaco ii aeio *i?iiai ii?y —
“Aeaeeoiee iio?e”. O ?aieao oeueiai i?iaeoo ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
o?ainii?ooaaiiy 30 ie?ae eoaiiao??a aaco ia ??e. Iauiaeaaii a
eeii?-na?ii? 2000 ?ieo, i?ae /an cono??/? c i?ai’??-i?i?no?ii ?in??
Ieoaeeii Eanueyiiaei oe?a?inueeee i?ai’?? A?eoi? THuaiei ia?aeiiaa
?in?th ia aoaeoaaoe aacii?ia?ae “ssiae-?a?iia”, yeee iaa aooe
i?ieeaaeaiee a iao?ae Oe?a?ie. Acai?i iao i?ai’??-i?i?no? iiia?oeya, ui
Oe?a?ia a?eueoa ia e?anoeia ?in?enueeee aac ? ni?aaii ieaoeoeia ca
niiaeeoee. Aenia?oe ioe?iththoue iineianueeee a?ceo THuaiea ye aeoaea
oni?oiee — on? iiia?aaeieee A?eoi?a Aiae??eiae/a iiae?aieo
aeiiiaeaiinoae o Iinea? ia aeinyaaee, ui aoei e iiceoeaiei aeey Oe?a?ie,
ai, iiee ui, aac ?in?enueeiai aaco Oe?a?ie “ia ia?eoenue”, aiia e oae
ia?aae iath a ai?ao ca aac. Iai?eeeaae, ?in?y ia? ia oe?a?inueeiio ?eieo
iaooii?iaeoeo?a iaeaea iiaio iiiiiie?th. Aiia aeeeoo? iai ? oe?io, ?
ianya iinoa/aiiy. Oaeoe/ii, i?ooi ia caaaaea? Iinea? e aeae? ia?iuoaaoe
oe?ie. Iaca?aai? ni?iae Ee?aa aeeoe c aeiiii?/ii? caeaaeiino? iiee ui
i?/iai ia aeaee. Ae?ae iiaaii o?iaino?oueny nii?oaeaeaiiy iaooii?iaiaeo
Iaeana — A?iaee, yeee a?aee?ea ae oeyo a Oe?a?io aca?aaeaeaeainuee?e /e
iaa?oue ??aenuee?e iaoo?. Aaeueio?oueny oea aoae?aieoeoai, ianaiia?aae,
aae aeiaiaeeoe ?in?enueeei “a?aoai”. A ye o?eueee Ee?a aeae?ey? a?io? ia
iaooii?ia?ae, Iineaa iae?aco ii/eia? aeiaaaoe iiaaoaiiy ai?a?a ca aac.
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui Oe?a?ia ia iiaea a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae
o?ainii?ooaaiiy aaco /a?ac naith oa?eoi??th, aiia ? caeaaeiith ia?aae
?in??th, a oi/i?oa, ia?aae ?? ne?iaeiith — aacii. ?in?y caeeoaoeiaoueny
iinoa/aeueieeii Oe?a?ie — i?e?iaeiiai aaco. Ana oea ii?iaeaeo? i?iaeaie
— ye a aeai?e aaeoc?, oae ? a aeiiii?oe?. Oae, iaei??th c oaeeo i?iaeai
? oa, ui c 34,8 oen. ei. iaa?no?aeueieo aacii?iaiae?a, ui ia?aaoaathoue
nueiaiaei? ia aaeain? IAE “Iaooiaac Oe?a?ie”, 5,5 oen. ei aacii?iaiae?a,
aai 17% ?o caaaeueii? aeiaaeeie, aaea a?aei?aoethaaee na?e ?ano?n ?
iio?aaothoue cai?ie. Ia iaioa 7 — 10 oen. ei iio?aaothoue eai?oaeueiiai
?aiiioo. Caaaeueia ni?aoethaaiiy aacio?ainii?oieo ia?aae Oe?a?ie
ia?aaeuo? 40 — 60%. A?aei?aoethaaee na?e iioi?ano?n ? aeecueei o?aoeie c
708 aaciia?aea/oaaeueieo noaioe?e. Ia nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i? ?ic?iaeaii
ieai ?aeiino?oeoe?? noa?eo eiii?ani?ieo noaioe?e ?c canoinoaaiiyi
aeaeaoi?a ae?iaieoeoaa AI “Ci?y” (Ieeiea?a) oa AO “Iioi? — N?/”
(Caii??aeaey). Oe?a?ia ia? aaeee? ia?niaeoeai? iaooiaaciiini? ieiu?, aea
iiaeeea? a?aee?eooy ?iaeiaeu na?oiaiai ianooaao. Ianaiia?aae, oea
noino?oueny oaeueoo *i?iiai ii?y. Iaooa ? i?e?iaeiee aac ? ? a ?aeiiao,
aea ?o aeaeiaoaathoue aeanyoeaie ?ie?a. sse aeyaeeiny, oa?eoi??y Oe?a?ie
aeine?aeaeaia a aaieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? iaaeinoaoiuei, oiaoi ?
ia?niaeoeae iiooeo aia?aiiin??a i?aeoe/ii ii an?e Oe?a?i?: Caea?iaooy,
Ia?aaeea?iaooy, Aieeiue, *a?i?a?aueia, I?e/i?iiii?’y, Acianueea ii?a,
Aeiiaan, I?eaei?i?ia’y oiui. A oea na?ae/eoue i?i ?nioaaiiy
aia?aiiin??a, ye? iio??aii ooeaoe, ae?iaeyoe oa ia?iaeyoe, a ia ooeaoe
?o ca ei?aeiiii ? oei naiei ?iaeoe nia? i?iaeaio ? nai?io ia?iaeia?.
Iaiao?aeii aeiaeaaoeny c?inoaiiy aia?aicaaacia/aiiy eiaeiiai aeeoaey
Oe?a?ie ? aea?aeaae a oe?eiio. Aac oeueiai iaiiaeeea? iie?auaiiy oiia
aeeooy a?iiaaeyi iaoi? aea?aeaae ? i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a
on?o noa?ao ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

2.5. Uiaei ?ici?uaiiy aaciaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?, oi niaoeeo?/iith
?? ?enith ? aenieee ??aaiue ?? oa?eoi??aeueii? eiioeaio?aoe??, a
aeaeiaooie ci???ioiaaiee ia iaeaea?aei?o? oiiae oenieoaoaoe?? ?iaeiaeua.
Aeei?enoiaothoue aac ia ae?iaieoeoa? (iaoaeo?a?eia i?iieneia?noue,
o?i?/i? oa oeaiaioi? caaiaee) ? aeey eiioiaeueii-iiaooiaeo iio?aa.
I?eaeecii 4/5 i?e?iaeiiai aaco aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey iio?aa
i?iieneiaino?. Aeei?enoaiiy aaco a eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noa? ia?
naciiiee oa?aeoa?. Ine?eueee aac i?ioyaii ?ieo iiaea?oueny ??aiii??ii,
aeineoue aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi ? aoae?aieoeoai aacinoiaeu. Noiooi?
aace, ye? ? ia ?yae? iaaaeeeeo aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu, — oea aeoaea oe?iia
ne?iaeia, yea iio??aia aeey i?iieneiaino? i?aai?/iiai neioaco. C ieo ia
aaciaaiceiiaeo caaiaeao iaea?aeothoue aaicei.

Iaaio ?ieue o iaeeaiiio aaeain? a?ae?a?a? ooee?caoe?y i?iieneiaeo aac?a
? ae?iaieoeoai ooo/iiai aaco c oaa?aeiai iaeeaa. A Aeiiaan?
(Eene/ainuee) aaaeaoueny i?aecaiia aaceo?eaoe?y aoa?eey. Oaeiae,
iniiaiei iai?yiii aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco, e??i
eiioiaeueii-iiaooiaiai naeoi?o ? oe?ieiai ia?aaaaeaiiy ia iueiai
aaoio?ainii?oo, ? iaooio?i?/iee, aea ye i?iaeoeo iaea?aeothoue
neioaoe/i? iaoa??aee. C iaei??? oiiie ??aeeeo aoaeaaiae?a iiaeia
iaea?aeaoe 600-700 ea iaooio?i?/ii? ne?iaeie, aa?o?noue yei? a aaaaoi
?ac?a ia?aaeuo? aoaeo aeei?enoaiiy eiai ye iaeeaa. Ia
eiioiaeueii-iiaooia? iineoae aeo?a/a?oueny 17 ie?ae i3 aaco, a ia
ae?iaieoeoai aeaeo?iaia?a?? — iaeaea 34 ie?ae i3 aaco ia ??e.

2.6. ?ic?aooiee ca aia?aiiin?? ia nueiaaei? iaeaieth/?oa i?iaeaia ia
o?eueee aeey iaoi? aea?aeaae, i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e, a
aeey iaoeaioe?a i?eaaoieo aoaeeie?a ? eaa?oe? o aaaaoiiiaa?o?aeao.
A?aoiaoth/e, ui cia/ia /anoeia caai?aiaaiino? ca aac i?eiaaea? ia
ianaeaiiy, oa aa?o/e aei oaaae, ui ai?ae uii?nyoey c?inoathoue,
?aaii-O?aie?anueea iaeania aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?y aeaeaea ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
“I?i caoaa?aeaeaiiy ii?yaeeo a?aeeeth/aiiy aeeoeiaeo i?ei?uaiue a?ae
aaciiinoa/aiiy”. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai ?icii?yaeaeaiiy,
?aaii-O?aie?anueea o?e?y AeE “Oi?aiaee ae?i ”Aac Oe?a?ie”” aoaea
i?eieiyoe iinoa/aiiy aaco aaiiaioai, yeui noia caai?aiaaiino? ca
niiaeeoa iaeeai ia?aaeuoaaoeia 300 a?eaaiue. I?eieiaiiy oa iiiiaeaiiy
iinoa/aiiy aaco aoaea i?iaiaeeoeny ca ?aooiie aaiiaio?a-ai?aeiee?a i?ney
nieaoe caai?aiaaiino?. Aei ?a/?, oaeeo ?aaeeeaeueieo caoiae?a oaeeaaee
iiaeaeoaee eeoa aei oeo niiaeeaa/?a, ai?a yeeo ia?aaeuoaaa iaeio oeny/o
a?eaaiue.

Aac ia?ae?eaaoeiooue i?ney ia?aa??ee eiaeiiai aaiiaioa — cono??/? c iei
oa ioi?ieaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai aeoo ca??ee ?ic?aooie?a, yeee niiaeeaa/ ia?
aeanii?o/ii i?aeienaoe. Caai?iiaii iicaaaeyoe aaciiinoa/aiiy oeo
niiaeeaa/?a, ye? caai?aoaaee OAe “Aac Oe?a?ie” /a?ac iaaeieaoo ?i
ca?ia?oiuei? ieaoe /e iain?? aai iai?ecia/aiiy noaneae?e. aeey oeueiai
iaeaaeeoue iiaeaoe o ?ic?aooieia? ae?eueieoe? a?aeiia?aei? aeieoiaioe.
E??i oiai, ae??oaii, ui ?aaii-O?aie?anueea o?e?y AeE “Oi?aiaee ae?i “Aac
Oe?a?ie”” iiaea a?aeiiaethaaoe aaciiinoa/aiiy aaiiaio?a, ye? nieaoeee
iieiaeio caai?aiaaiino? aei iiaethaaeueiiai naciio oa oeeaee iiaeaoeiao
oaiaeo i?i nieaoo ?aooe ai?ao i?ioyaii ianooiieo 6-12 i?nyoe?a. Aea
neooaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ia oae, ye ae oio?einy, a iaaiaee, aiia
iia??ooaaeany. sse aoei a?aeiii, a aeiaoi? 2000 ?ieo iaeei ?c ea??aiee?a
eiioiaeueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa A?nai Aeauoe neacaa: “Ianaeaiiy
?aaii-O?aie?anueea caai?aoaaei “Oaieieiioiaia?ai” iiiaae 15 iei
a?eaaiue. Eeoa ca oeae ??e ai?a ianaeaiiy ca?eueoeany ia 3 i?eueeiie
o?eaaiue. Aaco caaea?ia i?ooi ia aea?. Oiio aeey iaoeaioe?a
?aaii-O?aie?anueea ii/aoie iiaethaaiiai naciio cao?eio?oueny. Ia?ac? ie
i?ae’?aeiaee aei oaieiiinoa/aiiy eeoa iieiaiaee aoaeeiie oa iaaee/i?
caeeaaee i?noa. O? aoaeeiee, iaoeaioe? yeeo iathoue aaee/aci? ai?ae
ia?aae “Oaieieiioiaia?ai”, aoaeooue i?ae’?aeiai? aei oaieiiinoa/aiiy a
inoaiith /a?ao”. I?nueeee aieiaa Caiia?e Oeooye caeeeeaa iaoeaioe?a
iaeaniiai oeaio?o aeoeai?oa ieaoeoe ca oaieiiinoa/aiiy, uia AeEI
“Oaieieiioiaia?ai” iaei iiaeeea?noue i?eaeaaoe aac, ca yeee
iinoa/aeueieee aeiaaathoue ia?aaeiieaoo. Ca aeayeeie aeaieie, “i?ny/ia
niiaeeaaiiy aaco a i?no? iio?aao? 2,5 iei a?eaaiue”. Oaeiae aoei
a?aecia/aii, ui o aeiaoi? iaoeaioe? ?aaii-O?aie?anueea ieaoeoe ca oaiei
noaee ni?aai?oa, iaeiae 30 a?aenioe?a ianaeaiiy i?noa i?iaeiaaeo? aeeoe
a ai?a.

C on?o oeeo aeua neacaieo i?eeeaae?a, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie: i?iaeaia
caai?aiaaiino? aeieea? ia o?eueee a ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe? Oe?a?ie,
iai?eeeaae, ai?a ca ?in?enueeee aac, a e a aioo??oi?e iie?oeoe? iaoi?
aea?aeaae, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee, a oiio /ene? ? ia
?icaeoie aeaii? i?iieneiaino?, aeaeiaooie iaeeaa.

2.7. Iai a?aeiii, ui ia aeaiee /an, Oe?a?ia ciaoiaeeoueny a aaaeeiio
aeiiii?/iiio noaiiaeu?. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe aaaaoueia i?e/eiaie. Iaeia c
oaeeo i?e/ei ? aa?o?aea aeaaee, ea??aieoeoai yei? ia i?aei?ia? aeiiii?eo
ia aeuee ??aaiue, a iaaiaee — aaeueio?. A ii?io aeiaaeeo — ?icaeoie
aaciai? i?iieneiaino?. Uiaei oeueiai ieoaiiy, oi a?aeiia?aeue ia iueiai
aeanoue aen-i?aceaeaio eaaaiaea?ii? ei?ii?aoe?? “?aeei? aia?aaoe/i?
nenoaie Oe?a?ie”, aieiaa athaeaeaoiiai eii?oaoo ia?eaiaioo a iaaeaeaeiio
ieioeiio ? a?oea-i?ai’?? nueiaiaei?, THe?y Aieiaeeie??aia Oeiioaiei:

— Aaaaoi ?ie?a aacaeae?nii ?oeioaaeanue aia?aaoe/ia noa?a. sse aiia
?oeioaaeanue? ?nio? ae?iaiee aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a??, o? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye?
aeaeiaoaathoue aoa?eey. Aaaaoi ?ie?a oe? ae?iaieee aoee i?aeoe/ii
caoeuai? a?ae o?iainiaeo iioie?a. Ae?iaiee ?nioaaa nai ii nia?, a
o?iainia? iioiee, a?aoiaoth/e oaeo nia? ?aeeaiio i?iiaaaiaeo i?i
iaieaoini?iiiaei?noue iaoiai iieoioey, caeeoaeeny a o?iueia?e noa??. ? y
oi/o neacaoe, ui naia oa, ui ae?iaiee aoa aaaaoi ?ie?a iicaaaeaiee
?aaeueieo eioo?a, c?oeiiaaii iaeaea ana. C?oeiiaai? iniiai? oiiaee,
ii?iaeuei? oi?aiaaeuei? noinoiee. ? nueiaiaei?, ye iane?aeie oiai, ui a
o?iueia?e noa?? caeeoaeenue i?euey?aei? eiooe, ie io?eiaee e?eco. ss
oi/o neacaoe, ui nueiaiaei? c?iaea o?yae. Iai?eeeaae, ie a?cueiaii IAE
“Iaooiaac”. Eiee o?yae i?eeoia aei aeaaee, 98% a oe?e aaeoc?
a?aeaoaaeiny ?ic?aooie?a ca i?e?iaeiee aac cae?eaie. Ia an?o a?ioiaeo
iioieao ciaoiaeeeeny, i?aeoe/ii, iiooaei? o?iueia? no?oeoo?e, ? oe?
eiooe ni?yiiaoaaeenue cian?i a ?ioa ?onei. ? y oi/o neacaoe, ui aaea ca
o?aaaiue i?nyoeue 2000 ?ieo, i?ney oiai, ye o?yae i?ea?aa an?o
iina?aaeiee?a, c?oeioaaa an? o?iueia? noaie, oaoiai c?oeioaaa, ui ?
ae?aoo? oeo ethaeae, ye? oai i?aoethaaee, ie ia?oee ?ac acaaae? a
?noi??? iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie io?eiaee a?ioiaeie eiooaie ia ?aooiie IAE
“Iaooiaaco” 94,2% a?ioiaeo, ?aaeueieo eioo?a ca a?aeiouaiee i?e?iaeiee
aac. Oae, y naia oi/o caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui oe? eiooe aoee aeeo/ai? c
o?iueiai? noa?e. ? nueiaiaei? ie ii/eia?ii ?ic?iaeyoe ? ?iaeiaeua, ?
i?aeoe/ii iiaaneee ai?ae ii ca?ia?oi?e ieao? ethaeyi, aea ae i?ooi ia
oi/a i?eie?eoenue c oei, ui oe? eiooe ao?a/ai?. ? y oi/o neacaoe, ui
e?eca a iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiio eiiieaen? ae?enii ?nio?. Aea ae oea e?eca
o?iueiaeo no?oeoo?, ye? uiaeiy caaaeyee oaoia?e ?iaio? o?yaeo
ao?a/athoue nai? o?iueia? aeioiaee. Ae?iaieee ia ciiaee i?eaeaaoe
iaeeai, ia ciiaee ?ic?aooaaoeny c oaooa?yie oa ia ciiaee ?ic?aooaaoeny c
iinoa/aeueieeaie i?e?iaeiueiai aaco. O ian ae?enii aaeeea iaae??oaia
i?iaeaia! C? neiaaie THe?? Oeiioaiei ae?enii iiaeia iiaiaeeoenue, ana
/?oei ? aeinooiii neacaii, aiia aeaea ciiao c?icoi?oe iai i?iaeaio
nueiaiaeaiiy, yea ?nio? a iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiio eiiieaen?. Aei oiai ae,
iauiaeaaii, o 2000 ?ioe? i?ae /an a?ceoo aei Oo?eiai?noaio
a?oea-i?ai’??-i?i?no?a c ieoaiue iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno THe??
Oeiioaiei aeinyaiooi aeiiiaeaiino? i?i i?iaeiaaeaiiy ia aeaa ?iee
aeieaoe oe?a?inueeiai ai?ao ca oo?eiainueeee i?e?iaeiee aac. Onueiai
oeae ai?a noaiiaeoue 225 iei aeiea??a. Noi?iie oaeiae aeiiiaeeeny i?i
iiiiaeaiiy aaea iei?oiueiai ?ieo iinoaaie a Oe?a?io oo?eiainueeiai aaco.
Caaaeyee oeueiio iaoa e?a?ia iaoeia aeueoa?iaoeaia, iacaeaaeia a?ae
?in?? aeaea?aei iinoa/aiiy aaco. Oea noaei iiceoeaiei e?ieii
TH.Oeiioaiei aeey Oe?a?ie. Nueiaiaei?, 2001 ?ieo, THe?th Oeiioaiei
caeioaa/aii a ii?ooaii? a?ae?aco aeaio e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa. Iaeio c ieo
— ca no. 80 (eiio?aaaiaea) ? no. 172 (i?ae?iaea aeieoiaio?a), ae?oao —
ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a a iniaeeai aaeeeeo ?ici??ao.
?icaeyiaii ni?aao, ui noino?oueny eiio?aaaiaee aacii. Eieeoiy “aaciaa
i?eioeana” Oe?a?ie THe?y Oeiioaiei iiaea aeaiceoe c ia? eeoa iaeei
oiaa? — aac. I?aaaea, o ia?an?/iiai a?iiaaeyieia a?ae?aco iai?oo?oueny
caieoaiiy: o yeee niin?a a Oe?a?i? iiaeeeaa eiio?aaaiaea aaco? Aaeaea i?
TH.Oeiioaiei, i? aoaeue-yeee ?ioee ae?iaiee, ia uanoy, ua ia iathoue
i?eaaoii? aaciai? o?oae, aiia o ian aea?aeaaia. Ioiae, ? “?aeei?
aia?aaoe/i? nenoaie”, ui ?o o ieioe? ?iee i/iethaaea i.Oeiioaiei, iiaee
iiiioaaoe aac ii oe?e o?oa? eeoa c aeicaieo o??? ae aea?aeaae… Iaeiae
caeiaaaeee — oea iaeia. A ui c oeueiai i?eaiaeo eaaeooue oao?aoe?? Oae,
ia/aeueiee oi?aae?iiy ?c ieoaiue nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee oa ca’yce?a c
a?iiaaenuee?noth IAE “Iaooiaac Oe?a?ie” i.Aieiaeeie? Aieiaei neacaa: “?
aac, ui eiai caeoieee aacio?aeaea?e, ? oie aac, ui eiai io?eio?
“Iaooiaac Oe?a?ie” ye ieaoo ca o?aiceoi? iineoae, ? aac, i?ecia/aiee
aeey caea/oaaiiy o i?aecaii? noiaeua, iaaeoiaeeoue a Oe?a?io /a?ac iaeio
o?oao. Eiaeai, ooi caeoiiao? aac, caiaeii iiaea? aeieoiaioe, ye?
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?aai aeaniino? ia eiai iaaio /anoeo. Uia aeyaeoe,
yeee aac “/enoee”, a yeee eiio?aaaiaeiee, oe?a?inueeiai a?i aeaeiaooeo
/e ?in?enueeiai, “?oa??anueeee” /e “aaci?ii?anueeee”, o?aaa o eiaeiiio
aeiaaeeo ?iaeoe aeoaea aaeeeo ca??eo aeieoiaio?a — ye ao?aeieo, oae ?
aeo?aeieo. Neaae?ii, o ian nueiaiaei?, ca aeieoiaioaie, o o?oa? ? ?
oo?eiainueeee, ? ?in?enueeee aac. Oi/a, iani?aaae? i?yeiai
oo?eiainueeiai aaco iaia?. A?i caeeoa?oueny aeanue ia oa?eoi???
?in?enueei? oaaea?aoe??, a ie ia?ii eiiiainaoe?eiee ?in?enueeee aac.
Ne?eueee aaco aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? Oe?a?ie — anoaiiaeth?oueny ca iieacaie
e?/eeueieea ? i?ney ia?aa??ee eiio?aeo?a i?iaeaaoe?a ? iieoioe?a aaco.
Eaaeooue, ui Aaia?aeueia i?ieo?aoo?a ia? oaeoe eiio?aaaiaee aaco o
ni?aa? THe?? Oeiioaiei. Ie ia iiaeaii a?aeiia?aeaoe ca ?? oaa?aeaeaiiy.”
Iaeiae, ni?aao TH.Oeiioaiei ii?ooaii, ? ana oea iiaeiai ae??oeoe noae
ii-ni?aaaaeeeaiio. Ai oea iia’ycaii c ?icaeoeii aeiiii?ee, aieeaa? ia
?icaeoie IAE.

3. Iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee eiiieaen Oe?a?ie neeaaea?oueny c iaeeaii?
i?iieneiaino? ? aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee, ui niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia aeaeiaooeo,
ia?a?iaoe? oa niiaeeaaii? ??cieo aeae?a iaeeaa. A?ae noaio ?icaeoeo
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno caeaaeeoue ??aaiue ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee
e?a?ie a oe?eiio. Iaeeaia i?iieneia?noue iiae?ey?oueny ia: aoa?eueio,
iaooiao, aaciao ? oi?oiao.

Aaciaa i?iieneia?noue — iaeiieiaeoa aaeocue aeaii? i?iieneiaino?. Aiia
ca?iaeeeany ia I?eea?iaoo? a 20-o? ?iee OO no. Aea ia?oa ?iaeiaeua
i?e?iaeiiai aaco aoei a?aee?eoi o 1910 ?. iaiiaeae?e i. Eaeooa
(?aaii-O?aie?anueea iaeanoue). Oaeiae, i?e?iaeiee aac aeaeiaoaaee ia
E?aiaa?aaeae? oa a I?e/i?iiii?nueeiio iaooiaaciiiniiio ?aa?ii?. Ooo, o
*a?i?a?anuee?e, Noinuee?e oa Iieoaanuee?e iaeanoyo i?noeoueny cia/ia
e?euee?noue iiiooiiai i?e?iaeiiai aaco, yeee aeei?enoiaothoue aeey
aaceo?eaoe?? iaaeieeoi?o i?no ? n?e. O 1940 ?. o Ia?aaeea?iaoo?
cina?aaeaeoaaeiny 87% aeaeiaooeo aaco a oiae?oiueiio N?N?. O 1949 ?. o
I?eea?iaoo? aenieoaoo?oueny A?eue/a-Aieeoeueea ?iaeiaeua. C /anii a
Ia?aaeea?iaonuee?e iaooiaaciiini?e iaeano? a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy
aeaeiaooeo. Iinoa? i?iaeaia. Aiia iiynith?oueny oei, ui aac
ae/a?io?oueny ?c noa?eo ?iaeiaeu, ia?aoe?iiaeueii ae?iaey?oueny cia/ia
/anoeia ?iaeiaeu, oaoi?/i? iani?aaiino? ? o.ae. Ioaea, ?icaeoie aaciai?
i?iieneiaino? aaeueio?oueny, oei naiei iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia aeiiii?eo
iaoi? aea?aeaae.

O 1960-o ?ieao Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueea iaooiaaciiinia iaeanoue noa?
iaea?eueoith a Oe?a?i?, ia ia? i?eiaaea? 93,8 % aeaeiaooeo aaco e?a?ie.
?iaeiaeua aaco ?icoaoiaai? a iniiaiiio A Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?, na?aae
yeeo iaea?aeii?oa Oaaaeeinueea, yea i?noeoue 80% on?o caian?a aaco a
Oe?a?i?. Oaeiae, aeyaeythoue iia? ?iaeiaeua a Eoaainuee?e iaeano?, a
I?e/i?iiii?nueei-E?einuee?e iaooiaaciiini?e iaeano? a?aee?eoi e
aenieoaoo?oueny 17 aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu ?c caaaeueieie caianaie 14,3 ie?ae
i3 (Aieeoeeinueea, Ae?a?anueea, Ieai?anueea oa ?io?). C ii?nueeiai aeia
nueiaiaei? aeaeiaoaa?oueny aeecueei 650 ie?ae eoaiiao??a aaco ia ??e.
Iaeii/anii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeaeiaooeo iaeeaa ?icii/aeiny ?ioaineaia
aoae?aieoeoai aacio?ainii?oii? nenoaie, aea c /anii aiii caiaiaaea?.
Oiae, iacaaaeath/e ia iaai? o?oaeiiu?, nueiaiaei? iaooi- ?
aacio?ainii?oi? ia?aae? Oe?a?ie ia o?eueee i?aeo?eiothoueny a iaeaaeiiio
noai?, a e i?iaeiaaeo?oueny iiaa aoae?aieoeoai. O 1978 ?. aaaaeaii a
aenieoaoaoe?th aacii?ia?ae “Nithc”, a o 1984 ?. — iiooaeiee aacii?ia?ae
O?aiaie — Iiia?e — Oaeai?iae.

O i?aeia?iaei?e oi?a?ae? aacii aecia/io ?ieue iin?aeathoue
aacio?ainii?oi? ia?aae? Oe?a?ie, caaaeyee yeei aac o?ainii?oo?oueny c
?in?? o e?a?ie Cao?aeii?, Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?iie, a oaeiae o
Iieaeiao oa I?aaeaiue ?in??. A ca i?ioyaei?noth iaa?no?aeueieo
aacii?iaiae?a aaeeeiai ae?aiao?a, Oe?a?ia iinooia?oueny eeoa NOA oa
?in??. Oaeiae /a?ac Oe?a?io a ?a?iio o?ainii?oo?oueny aeecueei 97%
aenii?oieo ianya?a ?in?enueeiai AAO “Aaci?ii”. sse ieaoo ca o?aiceo
?in?enueeiai aaco Oe?a?ia io?eio? a na?aaeiueiio 30 ie?ae eoaiiao??a
aaco. C /anii c’yaey?oueny oae caaiee “ai?a aaciaee” ia?aae ?in??th, ui
e noaei iaeaieiai?oith i?iaeaiith a IAE Oe?a?ie. ? Oe?a?ia ooea? ?ioeo
iinoa/aeueiee?a (Oo?eiai?noai). Aea ana-oaee, aac i?iaeai i?/iai ia
iaoiaeeoueny, ii?iaeaeo?oueny iia?. Oae, aacii?iaiaee a?aei?aoethaaee
na?e ?ano?n ? iio?aaothoue cai?ie; ?ic?aooiee ca aia?aiiin??;
ia?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ?iaeiaeu; caai?aiaai?noue ianaeaiiy ca aac,
aiane?aeie /iai iaoeaioe? aoaeeie?a “neaeyoue aac oaiea”. ?oeioaaeanue
aia?aaoe/ia noa?a, i?euey?aei? eiooe caeeoaeenue a o?iueia?e noa??,
c?oeioaaeenue oi?aiaaeuei? ca’ycee, ana oea a nai?e ?iciia?ae? iiynith?
a?oea-i?ai’??-i?i?no? THe?y Oeiioaiei, yeo nueiaiaei? iaaeioaa/othoue a
eiio?aaaiae? aaco. A oaeiae iiaeia iiaiaeeoeny c ?iciia?aeaeth i.
Aieiaeeie?a Aieiaea, yeee aeaa iai /?oei c?icoi?oe, ye io?eio?oueny aac.

ss aeoiath, ui iai? aaeaeiny aeinyaiooe o??? iaoe, yeo y iinoaaea nia?
ia ii/aoeo. Ia e?iaoeue oi/o neacaoe, ui inoaii?i /anii aaeaeiny
noaa?e?coaaoe ianya aeaeiaooeo iaooe ? aaco. A Oe?a?i? oni?oii
aaaeooueny aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeuei? ?iaioe. Ia?a?iai? i?aei?e?inoaa
inaiththoue iia? oaoiieia?? ia?a?iaee ne?iaeie. Ana oea ? iaae?eiith
caii?oeith oni?oiiai ?icaeoeo iaooiaaciaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio.

E?oa?aoo?a:

1. Aacaoa “Aeni?an” — 22-23 /a?aiy 2000 ?. — ?67. — n. 9 /noaooy
“Neaiaeae”.

2. AEo?iae “Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie” // — 1999 ?. — ?7 — n. 5-7 /noaooy
“Iaooiaaciaee eiiieaen Oe?a?ie”.

3. Canoaaiee O.Ae. /”Aaia?ao?y Oe?a?ie”, — Euea?a, 1994.

4. Ianeye I.I., Oeuaiei I.A. /”Aaia?ao?y Oe?a?ie”. — Ee?a, 1997.

5. Ne?ioaiei A.E., *a?iia A.I., Ieaoooa A.ss. /”Aaia?ao?y Oe?a?ie”, —
Ee?a, 1996.

6. ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie /ca ?aaeaeoe??th ?.I.Ea/aia. —
E., 1996.

Aeiaeaoie

Oaaeeoey 1. Aeaeiaooie i?e?iaeiiai aaco a Oe?a?i?.

?iee

Ie?ae i3 a % aei aeinyaiooiai

??aiy

1940 0,5 0,07

1960 14,3 20,03

1970 60,9 89,56

1975 68,0 100,00

1980 56,7 83,38

1985 42,9 63,88

1986 39,7 58,38

1987 35,6 52,35

1988 32,4 47,63

1989 30,8 45,29

1990 28,1 41,32

1991 24,3 35,80

1992 20,9 30,76

1993 19,2 28,24

1994 18,3 27,6

1995 18,2 27,4

Oaaeeoey 2. Caiane i?e?iaeiiai aaco a aaa??? *i?iiai ? Acianueeiai
ii??a.

Iacaa ?iaeiaeua ??e a?aee?eooy Aeeaeia ii?y

i Caiane aaco ca eaoaai??yie,

ie?ae eoaiiao??a

N1 N2

I?aaeaiiiaieeoeeinueea 1981 30 1,85 1,61

Aieeoeeinueea 1975 30 11,049 4,268

Oi?aeo?anueea 1979 30 2,698 13,3

A?oaiaaeuenueea 1987 50 0,1 0,517

Iaeanueea 1988 30-40 9,299

Ooi?iiaa 1981 80-90 8,333 8,11

E?einueea 1982 70-80 0,1 0,517

No??eeiaa 1964 9 3,085 0,996

Ii?nueea 1977 13 0,55 3,15

I?ai?/iiea?/ainueea 1976 11 1,346 3,833

PAGE 21

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