I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueeee Aea?aeaaiee Oi?aiaaeueii-Aeiiii?/iee Oi?aa?neoao

Eaoaae?a aeiiii?/ii? oai???

Eo?niaa ?iaioa

c iae?iaeiiii?ee oa iie?oaeiiii??

ia oaio

“Nooue, oi?ie ? i?e/eie ?ioeyoe??”

Ee?a 1997

Ieai:

Anooi
………………………………………………………………
……………… 1

Nooi?noue oa oi?ie ?ioeyoe??:
…………………………………………… 2

I?e/eie ?ioeyoe??
……………………………………………………. 4

Oeie ?ioeyoe??
…………………………………………………………. 6

?ioeyoe?y iiieoo ……………………………………………. 6

?ioeyoe?y i?iiiceoe?? ………………………………………. 7

Aeaee ?ioeyoe??
…………………………………………………………. 8

Aeiiii?/i? ? nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee ?ioeyoe?? …………………. 13

Noai Oe?a?ie a ia??iae ?ioeyoe??
…………………………………….. 15

Iniaeeaino? e?ece a Oe?a?i? …………………………………..
19

A?ia??ioeyoe?y a Oe?a?i?
…………………………………………. 21

Aioe?ioeyoe?eia iie?oeea oa iniiai? caniae

ai?ioueae c ?ioeyoe??th:
…………………………………………………… 22

I?yi? caniae
…………………………………………………………. 22

Iai?yi? caniae
……………………………………………………… 23

Ia?oi/a?aia? aioeiioeyoe?ei? caniae ………………………. 24

Aeniiaie
………………………………………………………………
………. 27

Nienie e?oa?aoo?e

?aoeaic?y

Anooi

Ia?ao?ae iaoi? aeiiii?ee ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie ??cei i?aeaeuea cia/aiiy
a?ioae. I?iaeaie a?ioiaiai ainiiaea?noaa noathoue iniiaieie ? a
i?aeoe/ieo caoiaeao ii ?aeiino?oeoe?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ? a
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo. Oiio, iacaaaeath/e ia aeaaaa iaaiai?aiiy
cacia/aieo ieoaiue ia noi??ieao aeiiii?/ii? i?ane, aeooaeuei?noue ?o ia
ciaioo?oueny. Aeniea aa?o?noue aiae?co ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a, aaeeea
/enei ae?th/eo /eiiee?a oneeaaeiththoue ae?ia?oie i?aaeeueii? a?ioiai?
iie?oeee. sse iieaco? aeina?ae iaoi?, a oaeiae ?ioeo e?a?i, ia?ao?ae ia
?eieia? a?aeiineie noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oaeaeeei c?inoaiiyi oe?i,
i?aeneeaiiyi ae?? ?ioeyoe?eieo /eiiee?a. Aeoaea aaaeeeai i?aaeeueii
ioe?ieoe, /e ? naiee ia?ao?ae ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie i?e/eiith
caaeeaeaiiy ?ioeyoe?? /e i?e oeeo a?aeiineiao iaeiie/aiee ?ai?oa
?ioeyoe?eiee iioaioe?ae iaea?aeo? na?e ?aaeueiee aene?a.

I/aaeaeii, ui a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iiaeeeaino? ooo/iiai
no?eioaaiiy ?ioeyoe?? ??cei nei?i/othoueny. ?acii c oei
iaiine?aeiai?noue a i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue ii ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo,
iai?iaeoiai?noue aeayeeo e?ie?a onoaoaeythoue ?nioth/? o?oaeiiu?,
i?aeneeththoue ?ioeyoe?ei? i?ioeane.

Aeina?ae aaaaoueio e?a?i iieacaa, ui o?eaaea ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ieaioaaiiy, ye i?aaeei, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy
caaeainiaaiino? iaoa??aeueieo ? a?ioiaeo no?oi?a.

?ai?oa ?ioeyoe?y aeieeaea, ye i?aaeei, a iaaecae/aeieo ianoaaeiao. Oae,
i?ae /an a?ei aea?aeaae /anoi aeioneaee aaeeeo e?euee?noue
iacaaacia/aieo iaia?iaeo a?ioae aeey iie?eooy a?enueeiaeo aeaeaoe?a. A
inoaii? aeaaaeoeyoue — o?eaeoeyoue ?ie?a ?ioeyoe?y noaea o?ii?/iei
caoai?thaaiiyi aeiiii?e aaaaoueio e?a?i na?oo.

Nooi?noue oa oi?ie ?ioeyoe??

«I?aauoaiea ia?u a auioneao aoiaaeiie

iiiaou ii no?iaie i?aaaea ia iiaeao auoue

eia/a i?aaenoaaeyaii, eae a aeaea iai?eiaoiiai

iioeuaiey /anoe ec eiouanoaa eaaeaeiai»

( I. Ii?iaiiia, aeiiiiino, o?einio ?

aea?aeaaiee ae?y/ ?in?? e?ioey XVIII a. )

A?ae /iai ae caeaaeeoue e?euee?noue a?ioae, iaiao?aeia aeey caaacia/aiiy
oiaa?iiai ia?ao ? Ia?aaeon?i a?ae noie oe?i oiaa??a, ui i?aeeyaathoue
?aae?caoe?? i?ioyaii iaaiiai ia??iaeo, neaae?ii ?ieo. Ui a?eueoa
oiaa??a, oei a?eueoa iio??aii a?ioiaeo iaeeieoeue aeey ?o ?aae?caoe??.

E?euee?noue a?ioae a ia?ao caeaaeeoue aeae? a?ae oaeaeeino? ia?ao
eiaeii? a?ioiai? iaeeieoe?. Oea iia’ycaia ?c oei, ui iaeia ? oa ae noia
a?ioae iiaea ianeoaoaaoe a?eueoa /e iaioa /enei aeo?a eoiei — i?iaeaaeo.

Ia?aaeuaiiy e?eueeino? a?ioiaeo iaeeieoeue, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a ia?ao,
iaae noiith oiaa?ieo oe?i ? iiyaa aiane?aeie oeueiai a?ioae, ia
caaacia/aieo oiaa?aie, icia/a? ?ioeyoe?th. Aiia i?ecaiaeeoue aei
c?inoaiiy oe?i ia oiaa?e (yaiiio /e i?eoiaaiiio). Oiio ?iaeaen oe?i —
oea iaeei ?c aieiaieo ? iaea?eueo iai/ieo iieaciee?a iayaiino? /e
a?aenooiino? ?ioeyoe??, ?? aeeaeie. ?ioeyoe?y iiaea aooe aeeeeeaia
??cieie /eiieeaie. Oea ? aeione caeai? e?eueeino? a?ioiaeo iaeeieoeue, ?
a?aenoaaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a a?ae c?inoaiiy ieao?aeacaeaoiiai
iiieoo, ? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ia ?eiie oiaa??a, ui ia ei?enoothoueny iiieoii.

?ioeyoe?y — oea ia?aiiaiaiiy o?iainiaeo eaiae?a iaia?iaeie a?ioeia, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?o ciaoe?ithaaiiy. ?ioeyoe?y — oea a?ioiaa yaeua, aea
aiia ia iaiaaeo?oueny ciaoe?ithaaiiyi a?ioae. Aiia i?iieea? o an? noa?e
aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy ? ii/eia? ?oeioaaoe oe? noa?e. A?ae ia? no?aaeaea?
aea?aeaaa, ae?iaieoeoai, o?iainiaee ?eiie, aea a?eueoa ca ana
no?aaeaeathoue ethaee. I?ae /an ?ioeyoe?? ia? i?noea:

Ciaoe?ithaaiiy a?ioae ii a?aeiioaiith aei cieioa.

Ciaoe?ithaaiiy a?ioae ii a?aeiioaiith aei oiaa?o.

Ciaoe?ithaaiiy a?ioae ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?iicaiii? aaethoe.

Ua iaeia aecia/aiiy ?ioeyoe?? ie iiaeaii i?i/eoaoe a no/anieo
aia?eeainueeeo i?ae?o/ieeao:

«?ioeyoe?y — oea i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueiiai ??aiy oe?i. Oea, c?icoi?ei, ia
icia/a?, ui i?aeaeuothoueny iaia’yceiai an? oe?ie. Iaa?oue a ia??iaee
aeineoue oaeaeeiai c?inoaiiy ?ioeyoe?? aeaye? oe?ie iiaeooue caeeoaoeny
a?aeiinii noaa?eueieie, a ?io? iaaeaoe. Iaeia ?c aieiaieo oai?eo i?noeue
— oea oa, ui oe?ie iathoue oaiaeaioe?th i?ae?eiaoeny aeoaea
ia??aiii??ii. Ia?o? i?aeno?eaothoue, ae?oa? i?ae?eiathoueny iiiaae
iii??ieie oaiiaie, a o?ao? cian?i ia i?ae?eiathoueny.»

?ioeyoe?y aei??th?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ?iaeaeno oe?i. Caaaea?ii, ui
?iaeaen oe?i aecia/a? ?o caaaeueiee ??aaiue ii a?aeiioaiith aei aaciaiai
ia??iaeo.

Oaii ?ioeyoe?? aeey iaaeaiiai ?ieo iiaeia ia/eneeoe oaeei /eiii:

a?aeiyoe ?iaeaen oe?i ieioeiai ?ieo ?c ?iaeaeno oe?i oeueiai ?ieo,
iiae?eeoe oeth ??cieoeth ia ?iaeaen ieioeiai ?ieo, a i?ney oeueiai
iiiiiaeeoe ia 100.

?iaeaen oe?i
?iaeaen oe?i

oeueiai ?ieo — ieioeiai
?ieo

Oaii ?ioeyoe?? = ————————————— o 100%

?iaeaen oe?i ieioeiai ?ieo

Aeey oiai, uia aeiiii?ea ia ia?aaeeaaea ?ioeyoe?eieo e?ec:

Ia? aooe iino?eia ??aiiaaaa aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo.

Oeaio?aeueiee aaie iiaeiai aanoe ?aeaaeueio iie?oeeo.

Aea?aeaa? ia ne?ae ao?o/aoeny a ?iciiae?e i?eaooeo.

E?a?io iiaeii? ianaeyoe a?iiaaeyie c? caei?iaith ?eieiaith
ineoieia??th, ethaee, iicaaaeai? ?ioeyoe?eieo i/?eoaaiue.

I?e/eie ?ioeyoe??.

C?inoaiiy oe?i iiaea aooe iia’ycaia c ia?aaeuaiiyi iiieoo iaae
i?iiiceoe??th oiaa??a, i?ioa oaea aeeni?iii?oe?y i?ae iiieoii ?
i?iiiceoe??th a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ia ? ?ioeyoe??th. I?eeeaae:
aia?aaoe/ia e?eca 70o a NOA, eiee iaooiaeaeiaoaath/? e?a?ie i?aeiyee
oe?ie ia iaooo a aeanyoee ?ac?a, a ia ?io? oiaa?e e iineoae oe?ie c?inee
a iaeii/an ia 7-9%.

Iacaeaaeii a?ae noaio a?ioiai? noa?e, oiaa?i? oe?ie iiaeooue
ci?ithaaoeny aiane?aeie c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, oeeee?/ieo ?
naciiieo eieeaaiue, no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a nenoai? a?aeoai?aiiy,
iiiiiieicaoe?? ?eieo, aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, aaaaeaiiy
iiaeo noaaie iiaeaoe?a, aeaaaeueaaoe?? ? ?aaaeueaaoe?? a?ioiai?
iaeeieoe?, ci?ie eii’thieoo?e ?eieo, aieeao ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a, noeo?eieo eeo ? o. ?. I/aaeaeii, ui ia anyea c?inoaiiy oe?i —
? ?ioeyoe??th ? oiio iniaeeai aaaeeeai aeae?eeoe iani?aaae? iioeyoe?eia.

Oaeei /eiii, c?inoaiiy oe?i, iia’ycaia ?c oeeee?/ieie eieeaaiiyie
eii’thieoo?e, ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe iioeyoe?eiei. Ii i??? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oac
oeeeeo — iniaeeai i?e ?iiae? iath/?e i?noea ?o «ianoaiaea?oii?»
?icoyaiooinoi iii?oii aoaea ci?ithaaoeny ? aeeiai?ea oe?i. Oe?ie
aoaeooue i?aeaeuoaaoeny a oacao aoia ? iaaeaoe a oacao e?ece, a i?ney
oeueiai ciiao c?inoaoe a ianooiieo oacao aeoiaeo ?c e?ece.

I?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao i?ecaiaeeoue
aei cieaeaiiy oe?i. I?ioa iiaeeea? aeiaaeee, eiee i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. A
oeueiio aeiaaeeo — o. c. ?ioeyoe?y aeo?ao i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a
aoaeue-ye?e aaeoc? iani?aaae? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi
caaaeueiiai ??aiy oe?i.

Noeo?ei? eeoa ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe i?e/eiith ?ioeyoe??. Iai?eeeaae,
aiane?aeie noeo?eiiai eeoa ia yeeenue oa?eoi??? c?oeiiaai? aoaeeiee.
I/aaeaeii, ui c?inoa? iiieo ia aoaeiaoa??aee, iineoae aoae?aiee?a,
o?ainii?o ? o. ?. Aaeeeee iiieo ia iineoae ? i?iieneiao i?iaeoeoe?th
aoaea noeioethaaoe ae?iaiee?a aei ca?eueoaiiy ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa ? ii
i??? iane/aiiy ?eieo oe?ie aoaeooue iioneaoeny.

Oaeei /eiii, aei iaeaaaeeea?oeo iioeyoe?eieo i?e/ei c?inoaiiy oe?i
iiaeia a?aeianoe ianooii?:

Aeeni?iii?oe?ei?noue — iacaaeainiaai?noue aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ?
i?eaooeo — o. c. aeao?oeeo aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo. *anoi oeae
aeao?oeeo iie?eaa?oueny ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy «ae?oea?nueeiai
aa?noaoo», ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy a?ioiai? iane ? ye iane?aeie
— ?ioeyoe?y.

Iioeyoe?eii iaaacia/i? ?iaanoeoe?? — caeaa?eueoiai i?e?oa?ecaoe?y
aeiiii?ee. A?enueeia? aneaioaaiiy aaaeooue aei ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai
ieao?aeacaeaoiiai iiieoo, a ye iane?aeie — ca?eueoaiiy a?ioiai? iane.
Iaaei??i? a?enueeia? aneaioaaiiy cae/aeii ? aieiaiith i?e/eiith
o?ii?/iiai aeao?oeeoo aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao aeey iie?eooy yeiai aeioneathoueny aeiaeaoeia?
iaia?ia? a?io?.

A?aenooi?noue /enoiai a?eueiiai ?eieo ? aeineiiaei? eiieo?aioe?? ye eiai
/anoeie. No/aniee ?eiie a /eiae?e i??? iaiiieinoe/iee. Ine?eueee
iaiiieino caoe?eaaeaiee a nei?i/oaaii? ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?iiiceoe??
oiaa??a noai?th?oueny aeao?oeeo aeei?enoiaoaaiee ?i aeey i?aeo?eiee /e
i?aeiyooy oe?ie ia oiaa?.

?iii?oiaaia ?ioeyoe?y, ?ieue yei? c?inoa? c? c?inoaiiyi a?aee?eoinoi
aeiiii?ee ? ooyaiaiiy ?? a na?oiainiiaea?nuee? ca’ycee o??? /e ?ioi?
e?a?ie. Iiaeeeaino? aeey ai?ioueae o aea?aeaae aeineoue-oaei iaiaaeai?.
Can?a ?aaaeueaaoe?? aeanii? aaethoe, ui ?ieiee canoiniao?oueny a oaeeo
aeiaaeeao, ?iaeoue ?iii?o a?eueo aea?aeiei, iaeii/anii oneeaaeithth/e
aenii?o.

Iioeyoe?ei? i/?eoaaiiy — aeieeiaiiy a ?ioeyoe?? naiii?aeo?eioth/iai
oa?aeoa?o. Ianaeaiiy ? ainiiaea?nuee? noa’?eoe caeeathoue aei iino?eiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy oe?i. Ianaeaiiy aeiaaa? i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ?
caiana?oueny oiaa?aie iaia?aae, i/?eoth/e ia ?o oaeaeea iiaei?iae/aiiy.
Ae?iaieee ae iiaiththoueny i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i c aieo nai?o
iinoa/aeueiee?a, ye? aiaeii/an caeeaaeathoue a oe?io nai?o oiaa??a
i?iaiiciaaia ieie c?inoaiiy oe?i ia eiiieaeooth/? ? ?icaieaeothoue ioei
naiei iaoiaee ?ioeyoe??. AEeaee i?eeeaae oaeeo iioeyoe?eieo i/?eoaaiue
ie iiaeaii niinoa??aaoe o nai?io iianyeaeaiiiio aeeoo?.

I?e/eio ?ioeyoe?? o?aaa oaeiae ooeaoe a o?ueio aeaeao iiiiiie?e:

Aea?aeaaia iiiiiie?y ia ai?n?th a?ioae.

I?ioni?eeiaa iiiiiie?y.

Iiiiiie?y aaeeeeo o??i ia aecia/aiiy oe?ie ? aeanieo aeo?ao.

Oe? o?e aeaee iiiiiie?e iia’ycai? i?ae niaith ? eiaeia c ieo iiaea
ii?oooaaoe aaeain iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe??. I?e/eie ?ioeyoe?? iiaeooue
ciaoiaeeoenue ? iica aea?aeaae, oiae? ?o o?aaa ooeaoe a na?oia?e
oi?a?ae?.

Oeie ?ioeyoe??.

A oai??yo, ui ii?aoeueiaothoueny cao?aeieie aeiiiiinoaie, aeae?eythoueny
o aeaeyae? aeueoa?iaoeaieo eiioeaioe?e ?ioeyoe?? iiieoo ? ?ioeyoe??
aeo?ao. Oe? eiioeaioe?? ?icaeyaeathoue ??ciiiai?oi? i?e/eie ?ioeyoe??.

?ioeyoe?y iiieoo

?ioeyoe?y iiieoo — oea ii?ooaiiy ??aiiaaae i?ae iiieoii ? i?iiiceoe??th
c aieo iiieoo. Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie ooo iiaeooue aooe ca?eueoaiiy
aea?aeaaieo caiiaeaiue (iai?eeeaae, a?enueeiaeo), ca?eueoaiiy iiieoo ia
caniae ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao iiaii? caeiyoino? ? iaeaea iiaii?
caaaioaaeaiino? ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae, a oaeiae c?inoaiiy iieoiii?
ni?iiiaeiino? o?oaeyueo (c?inoaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe) aiane?aeie,
iai?eeeaae, ocaiaeaeaieo ae?e i?ioni?eie. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aeieea?
iaaeeeoie a?ioae ii a?aeiioaiith aei e?eueeino? oiaa??a, i?aeaeuothoueny
oe?ie. Oaeei /eiii iaaeeeoie ieao?aeieo cania?a a ia?ao noai?th?
aeao?oeeo i?iiiceoe??, eiee ae?iaieee ia iiaeooue ?aaaoaaoe ia c?inoaiiy
iiieoo.

O?aaeeoe?eii ci?ie a ??ai? oe?i iiyniththoueny caeaei noeoiiei iiieoii.
Aeiiii?ea iiaea ni?iaoaaoe aeo?a/aoe a?eueoa, i?ae aiia caeaoia
ae?iaeyoe. Ae?iaie/ee naeoi? ia a ciic? a?aeiia?noe ia oeae caeaee iiieo
ca?eueoaiiyi ?aaeueiiai ianyao i?iaeoeoe??, ai an? ?nioth/? ?ano?ne oaea
iiai?noth aeei?enoai?. Oiio oeae caeaee iiieo i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaeuaieo
oe?i ia iino?eiee ?aaeueiee ianya i?iaeoeoe?? ? aeeeeeath ?ioeyoe?th
iiieoo. Nooue ?ioeyoe?? iiieoo ?ieiee iiyniththoue iaei??th o?acith:
«Iaaeoi aaaaoi a?ioae iieth? ca iaaeoi iaeith e?euee?noth oiaa??a»

?ioeyoe?y i?iiiceoe??

?ioeyoe?y i?iiiceoe?? — c?inoaiiy oe?i aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao
ae?iaieoeoaa /e ciaioaiiy noeoiii? i?iiiceoe??. I?e/eiaie ca?eueoaiiy
aeo?ao iiaeooue aooe iaiiieinoe/ia iie?oeea oe?iiooai?aiiy, aeiiii?/ia ?
o?iainiaa iie?oeea aea?aeaae, c?inoaiiy oe?i ia ne?iaeio, ae??
i?ioni?eie, ui aeiaaathoue i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ? o. ?. Aiia
iiaea oaeiae c’yaeoeny a ?acoeueoao? ci?ie no?oeoo?e i?iiiceoe?? ia
?eieo.

Oai??y ?ioeyoe??, coiiaeaii? c?inoaiiyi aeo?ao, iiynith? c?inoaiiy oe?i
oaeeie /eiieeaie, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth
i?iaeoeoe??. Aeo?aoe ia iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe?? — oea na?aaei? aeo?aoe
i?e iaaeaiiio ianyc? ae?iaieoeoaa. Oae? aeo?aoe iiaeia iaea?aeaoe,
iiae?eeaoe caaaeuei? aeo?aoe ia ?ano?ne ia e?euee?noue aeaioiaeaii?
i?iaeoeoe??:

Caaaeuei? aeo?aoe

Caaaeuei? aeo?aoe ia iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe?? =
————————————-

E?euee?noue iaeeieoeue i?iaeoeoe??

I?aeaeuaiiy aeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe?? a aeiiii?oe? nei?i/o?
i?eaooie ? ianya i?iaeoeoe??, ui o??ie aioia? cai?iiiioaaoe i?e
?nioth/iio ??ai? oe?i. A iane?aeie ciaioo?oueny i?iiiceoe?y oiaa??a ?
iineoa a ianooaa? an??? aeiiii?ee. Oea ciaioaiiy i?iiiceoe??, a naith
/a?ao, i?aeaeuo? ??aaiue oe?i. Ioaea, ii oe?e noai? aeo?aoe, a ia iiieo
?icaeoaathoue oe?ie, ye oea ae??oueny i?e ?ioeyoe?? iiieoo.

Ia i?aeoeoe? iaeaaei a?ae??cieoe iaeei oei ?ioeyoe?? a?ae ?ioiai, an?
aiie o?nii iia’ycai? ? iino?eii aca?iiae?thoue ?, iai?eeeaae, c?inoaiiy
ca?ieaoe iiaea aeaeyaeaoe ? ye ?ioeyoe?y iiieoo ? ye ?ioeyoe?y aeo?ao.

Iaiao?aeii oaeiae aecia/eoe, ui a aeiaei?e c aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i
ia niinoa??aaeany a ae?oai? iieiaei? OO noi??//y iiaia caeiyo?noue,
a?eueiee ?eiie /e ae noaa?euei?noue oe?i. Oe?ie ii ?yaeo i?e/ei a oeae
/an c?inoaee iino?eii ? iaa?oue a ia??iaeo canoith ae?iaieoeoaa. Oaea
yaeua iaceaa?oueny noaaoeyoe??th — iioeyoe?eiei c?inoaiiyi oe?i a oiiaao
noaaiaoe?? — canoith ae?iaieoeoaa, aeiiii?/ii? e?ece.

Aeaee ?ioeyoe??

?icaeyaeath/e oaiie c?inoaiiy oe?i, iiaeia aeae?eeoe ianooii? aeaee
?ioeyoe??:

Iii??ia. Oe?ie c?inoathoue ia 10% ia ??e, aa?o?noue a?ioae
caa??aa?oueny, a?aenooi?e ?ecee i?aeienaiiy eiio?aeo?a a iiiiiaeueieo
oe?iao. Aaaaoi no/anieo aeiiiiino?a, a oiio /ene? no/ani? iine?aeiaieee
aeiiii?/iiai a/aiiy Eaeina aaaaeathoue oaeo ?ioeyoe?th iaiao?aeiith aeey
aoaeoeaiiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Oaea ?ioeyoe?y aeicaiey? aoaeoeaii
ei?aaoaaoe oe?ie noiniaii aei oiia ae?iaieoeoaa ? iiieoo, ui iino?eii
ci?iththoueny.

Aaeiioth/a. Oe?ie c?inoathoue ia 20-200% ia ??e, a?io? i?enei?aii
iaoa??ae?cothoueny a oiaa?e, eiio?aeoe i?ea’ycothoueny aei c?inoaiiy
oe?i.

A?ia??ioeyoe?y. Oe?ie c?inoathoue ano?iiii?/ia, ?icoiaeaeaiiy oe?i ?
ca?ieaoe, ?oeio?oueny aeia?iaoo iaa?oue caaacia/aieo aa?noa oiaa?enoaa.

A?ia??ioeyoe?y.

Aeaye? aeiiiiinoe iiaiththoueny, ui iii??ii iiaco/a ?ioeyoe?y, ui iiaea
nii/aoeo ni?eyoe iiaeaaaeaiith aeiiii?ee, iio?i, ia?inoath/e ye ni?aiaee
eii, ia?aoai?eoueny a a?eueo aei?noieo a?ia??ioeyoe?th. Oeae oaii
c?inoaiiy ?ioeyoe?? aeyaey? ?oei?aiee aieea ia ianya iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ? caeiyo?noue. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui eiee oe?ie iiaie?, aea
iino?eii c?inoathoue, ianaeaiiy ? i?aei?e?inoaa i?eeaooiaothoueny aei ?o
iiaeaeueoiai i?aeaeuaiiy. Oiio, uia ?o iaaeei?enoaii? caiuaaeaeaiiy ?
iioi/i? i?eaooee ia ciaoe?ieeenue, oiaoi uia aeia?aaeeoe ia?aaeaa/aii?
i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i, ethaee iiaeii? aeo?a/aoe a?io? ca?ac. I?aei?e?inoaa
iiaiaeyoueny oae naii, eoioth/e ?iaanoeoe?ei? oiaa?e. Ae??, aeeeoiaai?
iioeyoe?eiei ineoicii, i?aeneeththoue oeniaiiy ia oe?ie, ? ?ioeyoe?y
ii/eia? aiaeoaaoe naia naaa. A?eueoa oiai, ine?eueee aa?o?noue aeeooy
ca?eueoo?oueny, ?iai/? aeiaaathoue ? iaea?aeothoue a?eueo aenieo
iiiiiaeueio ca?ia?oio ieaoo. A i?ioni?eee i?aaiooue aei oaeiai
i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, yei? aenoa/eei ae ia o?eueee ia oa, uia
iie?eoe oi??oi? i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i, aea ? eiiiainoaaoe ?ioeyoe?th, ui
i/?eo?oueny o oie ia??iae, eiee iiaee eieaeoeaiee aeiaia?? aoaea ua a
nee?. Ca?ieaoa ? i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i i?aeaiaeiaothoue iaeia iaeiiai, ? oea
aeiiiiaaa? iiaco/?e ?ioeyoe?? ia?aeoe aei aaeiioth/i?.

E??i ?oei?aieo iane?aee?a aeey ia?a?iciiae?eo, a?ia??ioeyoe?y iiaea
i?enei?eoe aeiiii?/iee e?ao. AEi?noiea ?ioeyoe?y ni?ey? oiio, ui coneeey
iai?aaeythoueny ia ia ae?iaie/o, a ia niaeoeyoeaio ae?yeuei?noue.
I?aei?e?inoaai noa? an? a?eueo oa a?eueo aea?aeiei iaeiie/oaaoe ne?iaeio
? aioiao i?iaeoeoe?th a ia?aaeaa/aii? i?eeaeaoiueiai i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i.
Aea ianoi?ni?noue e?eueeino? ne?iaeie ? aioiai? i?iaeoeoe?? iiieoo ia
ieo aaaea aei i?aeneeaiiy iioeyoe?eiiai oeniaiiy. Iaoii?noue, uia
oeeaaeaoe eai?oae a ?iaanoeoe?ei? oiaa?e, ae?iaieee ? ie?ai? iniae
caoeuath/enue a?ae ?ioeyoe??, iaaoaathoue iaae?iaie/eo iaoa??aeueieo
oe?iiinoae. THaae??i? ae?iae, cieioi ? ?io? aei?iaioe?ii? iaoaee,
ia?ooii?noue ? oaea ?ioa.

A iaaecae/aei?e neooaoe??, eiee oe?ie i?aeno?eaothoue ??cei ?
ia??aiii??ii, ii?iaeuei? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie ?oeiothoueny. Aeanieee
i?aei?e?inoa ia ciathoue, yeo oe?io ia oiaa?e ne?ae i?ecia/eoe ?
i?iieneia? i?aei?e?inoaa caeaa?eueoiai ia?aoiaeyoue ia ?io?, cia/ii iaio
aoaeoeai? oi?ie ?ic?aooieo, iai?eeeaae — aa?oa?. Niiaeeaa/? ia ciathoue,
yeo oe?io niea/oaaoe. Iinoa/aeueieee ne?iaeie aaaeathoue iaea?aeaoe
?aaeuei? oiaa?e, a ia a?io?, ui oooei ciaoe?iththoueny. E?aaeeoi?e
iaiaaathoueny oieeaoe nai?o ai?aeiee?a, uia ia iaea?aeoaaoe iiaa?iooee
ai?a a aeaoaaeo a?ioao. A?io? oaeoe/ii aoaeyoue oe?io ? ia?anoathoue
aeeiioaaoe nai? ooieoe?? a yeino? i??e aa?oino? ? caniao iai?io. A
ie?aieo aeiaaeeao c’yaeythoueny ia?aeaeuei? aaethoe, neeueii c?inoa?
?ieue ?iicaiieo aaetho. Ae?iaieoeoai ? iai?i c? ne?eiii iinoaathoueny
aei coieiee ? a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo ni?iiaaa?oueny ianooieoe
aeiiii?/iee, nioe?aeueiee ?, aeoaea iiaeeeai, iie?oe/iee oain.
A?ia??ioeyoe?y i?enei?eoue o?iainiaee e?ao, aeai?anith ?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? aaceaaeaey. Aiia cae/aeii iia’ycaia c ia?icoiiith
iie?oeeith o?yaeo.

A?eueo?noue aeiiii?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e i?eaiaeeoue a yeino? i?eeeaae?a
I?ea?aaoa ia??iaeo oeea?eueii? a?eie (33000% — na?aaeiuei??/iee i?e??no
oe?i) aai ae i?neyai?iio Oai?ueio, i?ioa iia?oi?e i?eeeaae c Na?a??th
iieacaa, ui oea ua aai ia iaaea. Aiane?aeie aeiiii?/iiai aiaa?ai
na?oiaiai noni?euenoaa i?ioe oe??? o ieioeiio nithcii? ?anioae?ee
THaineaai? ??/ia c?inoaiiy oe?i neeaaea? 3,000,000,000%, a, iai?eeeaae,
na?aaeiy ca?ia?oia ieaoa neeaaea? noio ??aio 1Dm i?e oiio, ui oe?ie
ae?inei ua a?eueoa, a aaaaoi i?iieneiaeo oiaa??a i?inoi cieeee ?c
i?iiiceoe??. Iiiaae oaeaeea c?inoaiiy oe?i ii a?aeiioaiith aei ??aiy
?ioeyoe?? iiaeia eaaei iiynieoe i?e aeiiiiic? oi?ioee MV=PQ.
Iacaaaeath/e ia ??ai?noue M ? V ia iiaeia caaoaaoe i?i iieaciee
oaeaeeino? ia?ao a?ioae V. Aiane?aeie oo?aoe o ainiiaea?nueeeo noa’?eo?a
aeia??e aei iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe ia?a a?ioae iaaecae/aeii
ca?eueoo?oueny, ui a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ??aiineeueia ca?eueoaiith ?o
e?eueeino?. A?aeiia?aeii e oe?ia ca?eueoo?oueny cia/ii a?eueoa, i?ae
e?euee?noue iayaieo a?ioae a ia?ao. A ?ice?o/oaaii? nii?aei
aiia?iioeyoe?? iaaecae/aeio ?ieue oaeiae a?athoue iioeyoe?ei?
i/?eoaaiiy.

An? oe? aeaee ?ioeyoe?? ?niothoue o?eueee i?e a?aee?eoiio ?? noai? —
oiaoi i?e a?aeiinii a?eueiiio ?eieo. I?e iiaeaaeai?e ae ?ioeyoe??
c?inoaiiy oe?i ia oiaa?e ? iineoae iiaea e ia niinoa??aaoeny, a
ciaoe?iaiiy a?ioae iiaea ae?aaeaoeny a aeao?oeeo? i?iiiceoe??.

A 50-60 ?iee ?ioeyoe?y i?ioiaeeea a a?eueoino? e?a?i iii??ieie oaiiaie.
A ca’yceo c iaooiaith e?ecith ii/aoeo 70o ?ie?a ?ioeyoe?y noaea
aeoiaeeoe c-i?ae eiio?ieth aea?aeaae, aeai?aaiicoth/e ii?iaeueiee
aeiiii?/iee i?ioean. Na?aaeiuei??/iee ??aaiue i?e?inoo ?icae??aieo oe?i
ca /an c 73 ii 80 ?. ?. i?aenei/ea a na?aaeiueiio ia 9%.

Oaaeeoey 1: Na?aaeiuei??/i? iieacieee oaiio c?inoaiiy ?icae??aieo oe?i
a aeayeeo e?a?iao c ?icaeiaiith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith.

1966-1974 1966-1974 1980-1987

NOA 1.7% 5.3% 9.3%

Aiae?y 3.1% 5.1% 15.8%

Ioaeiy 3.4% 6.0% 17.9%

O?aioe?y 5.0% 5.9% 10.9%

A e?ioe? 80o ?ie?a oaiie c?inoaiiy oe?i iiieceeenue aei (a na?aaeiueiio)
4% ia ??e, ui a?aeiia?aea? iiaeae? iii??ii? ?ioeyoe??. Oeueiio iiaeia
i?eaanoe aeae?eueea i?e/ei. A ?o /ene? — iaae?iiy na?oiaeo oe?i ia
iaooo, i?aeneeaiiy eiieo?aioe??, ia?aaeon?i a na?oiaiio ianooaa?,
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ?acii c ocaiaeaeaieie ae?yie o?yae?a
? i?ioni?eie ii oo?eiaiith ??ai?a ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ia ieioeiio ??ai?.

?nio? oaeiae ? iaaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c?inoaiiy oe?i ii ??ciiiai?oieo
oiaa?ieo a?oiao:

Caaeainiaaia ?ioeyoe?y. Oe?ie ??ciiiai?oieo oiaa?ieo a?oi a?aeiinii
iaeei iaeiiai ia ci?iai?. Oe?ie i?ae?eiathoueny aeineoue iia?eueii ? a
iaeii/an ia a?eueo?noue oiaa??a ? iineoa. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ii
?acoeueoaoao na?aaeiuei??/iiai c?inoaiiy oe?i i?ae?eia?oueny i?ioeaioia
noaaea aea?aeaaiiai aaiea ? oaeei /eiii neooaoe?y noa? ??aiineeueiith
neooaoe?? c? noaa?eueieie oe?iaie.

Iacaaeainiaaia ?ioeyoe?y. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oe?i oiaa?ieo a?oi
ci?iththoueny a ??cieo a?aenioeao ? ii-??ciiio ia eiaeiee oei oiaa?o.

?niothoue ? ?io? aeaee eeaneo?eaoe?? ?ioeyoe??, iai?eeeaae, ia i/?eoaaio
? iai/?eoaaio:

I/?eoaaio ?ioeyoe?th iiaeia ni?iaiicoaaoe ia aoaeue-yeee ia??iae /ano ?
aiia aeineoue /anoi ? i?yiei ?acoeueoaoii ae?e o?yaeo. sse i?eeeaae
iiaeia i?eaanoe eiaa?aeicaoe?th oe?i a ?in?? 1992 ?ieo ? a?aeiia?aeiee
i?iaiic c?inoaiiy oe?i, i?aeaioiaeaiee o?yaeii ?O iaia?aaeiaei? — a
a?oaei? 1991 ?ieo.

Iai/?eoaaia ?ioeyoe?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?aioiaei no?eaeii oe?i, ui
ieaco? iaaaoeaiee aoaeo ia nenoai? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? a?ioiaiai ia?ao. A
?ac? iayaiino? o ianaeaiiy iioeyoe?eieo i/?eoaaiue oaea neooaoe?y
aeeee/a ??cea ca?eueoaiiy iiieoo, ui naia ii nia? noai?th? o?oaeiiu? a
aeiiii?oe? ? aee?eaey? ?aaeueio ea?oeio noni?eueiiai iiieoo, ui aaaea
aei caith a i?iaiicoaaiii oaiaeaioe?e a aeiiii?oe? ? i?e aeaye?e
ia??oo/ino? o?yaeo ua neeuei?oa ca?eueoo? iioeyoe?ei? i/?eoaaiiy, ye?
aoaeooue i?aeao?thaaoe c?inoaiiy oe?i. I?ioa a ?ac?, eiee ?aioiaee
nea/ie oe?i ae??oueny a aeiiii?oe? ia ca?aaeaii? iioeyoe?eieie
i/?eoaaiiyie, oi aeieea? oae caaiee «aoaeo Iiao» — ??cea iaae?iiy iiieoo
o ianaeaiiy a iaae?? ia oaeaeea cieaeaiiy oe?i. Aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy
iiieoo ae?iaiee noa? aeiooaiee cieaeoaaoe oe?io ? ana aa?oa?oueny a noai
??aiiaaae

Aeiiii?/i? ? nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee ?ioeyoe??

Aeaa iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeaea?aea ?ioeyoe??, coiiaeaii? c?inoaiiyi aeo?ao —
oea ca?eueoaiiy iii?iaeueii? ca?ieaoe ? oe?i ia ne?iaeio ? aia?a?th.

?ioeyoe?y, aeeeeeaia i?aeaeuaiiyi ca?ieaoe, ? ??ciiaeaeii ?ioeyoe??,
coiiaeaii? c?inoaiiyi aeo?ao. Ca iaaieo ianoaaei aeaea?aeii ?ioeyoe??
iiaeooue noaoe i?ioni?eee. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui aiie yeithnue
i??ith cae?eniththoue eiio?ieue iaae iii?iaeueiith ca?ieaoith oeyoii
eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a. I?eionoeii, ui aaeee? i?ioni?eee aeiaaathoue ?
aeiiaaathoueny aaeeeiai i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ieaoe, oiae? oeei i?aeaeuaiiyi
aiie anoaiiaeyoue iiaee noaiaea?o ca?ieaoe ?ia?oiee?a, ui ia ? /eaiaie
i?ioni?eee. sseui i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ieaoe a ianooaa? an??? e?a?ie ia
o??aiiaaaeo?oueny yeeienue i?ioeae?th/eie /eiieeaie, oaeeie, ye
ca?eueoaiiy ianyao i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeionea?oueny ca iaeio aiaeeio, oi
ca?eueoaoueny aeo?aoe ia iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe??. Ae?iaieee aeaaeooue
a?aeiia?aeue ia oea nei?i/oaaiiyi ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a ? iineoa, ui
aeeeaeathoueny ia ?eiie. I?e iaci?iiiio iiieo? oea ciaioaiiy i?iiiceoe??
i?eaaaea aei i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy oe?i. Oeae oei ?ioeyoe?? iaceaa?oueny
?ioeyoe??th, aeeeeeaiith i?aeaeuaiiyi ca?ia?oii? ieaoe.

?ioeyoe?y, aeeeeeaia ii?ooaiiyi iaoai?cio i?iiiceoe??. Aiia ? iane?aeeii
ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa, a ioaea ? oe?i, ui iia’ycaia c
?aioiaei, iaia?aaeaa/aiei ca?eueoaiiyi aa?oino? ne?iaeie /e aeo?ao ia
aia?a?th.

A ?aaeueiiio na?o? neooaoe?y cia/ii neeaaei?oa, i?ae i?inoa ?icae?eaiiy
?ioeyoe?? ia aeaa oeie — ?ioeyoe?th, aeeeeeaio ca?eueoaiiyi iiieoo oa
?ioeyoe?th, coiiaeaio c?inoaiiyi aeo?ao. Ia i?aeoeoe? aaaeei ?ic??cieoe
oe? aeaa oeie.

A?eueo?noue aeiiiiino?a aaaaeathoue, ui ?ioeyoe?y, coiiaeaia c?inoaiiyi
aeo?ao oa ?ioeyoe?y iiieoo a?ae??ciythoueny iaeia a?ae iaeiiai ua a
iaeiiio aaaeeeaiio a?aeiioaii?. ?ioeyoe?y iiieoo o?eaa? aei oeo i??,
iiee ?niothoue iaaei??i? caaaeuei? aeaeaoee. ?ioeyoe?y, coiiaeaia
c?inoaiiyi aeo?ao aaoiiaoe/ii naia naaa iaiaaeo?, oiaoi aai iinooiiai
cieea?, aai ae naiiaee?eiao?oueny. ?ioeyoe?y, coiiaeaia c?inoaiiyi
aeo?ao ii?iaeaeo? niaae, oiae? niaae o naith /a?ao no?eio? aeiaeaoeiaa
ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao.

Naiee oaeo ?ioeyoe?? — oea cieaeaiiy iieoiii? ni?iiiaeiino? a?ioiai?
iaeeieoe?, oiaoi ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? oiaa??a ? iineoa, ui iiaeia
i?eaeaaoe ca oeth a?ioiao iaeeieoeth, — ia iaia’yceiai i?ecaiaeeoue aei
cieaeaiiy iniaiaiai ?aaeueiiai i?eaooeo /e ??aiy aeeooy. ?ioeyoe?y
cieaeo? iieoiio ni?iiiaeiino? a?ioiai? iaeeieoe?, i?ioa aao ?aaeueiee
i?eaooie /e ??aaiue aeeooy cieceoueny o?eueee a ioiio aeiaaeeo, yeui
iiiiiaeueiee i?eaooie aoaea a?aenoaaaoe a?ae ?ioeyoe??.

?ioeyoe?y ea?a? ethaeae, ui iaea?aeothoue a?aeiinii o?eniaaiee
iiiiiaeueiee i?eaooie. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, aiia ia?a?iciiae?ey? i?eaooie,
ciaiooth/e eiai o iaea?aeoaa/?a o?eniaaiiai i?eaooeo ? ca?eueooth/e eiai
o ?ioeo a?oi ianaeaiiy. Eeane/iei i?eeeaaeii ? e?oi? iiae?oaeaey, ye?
i?iaeeaathoue ia i?eaaoio iain?th /e ?aioo, ye? caaacia/othoue
o?eniaaiee uii?ny/iee ?ici?? iiiiiaeueiiai i?eaooeo.

?ioeyoe?y oaeiae iia??oeoue iieiaeaiiy caieaaeaniee?a, ui io?eiothoue
o?eniaaio ?aioo, oiio ui c ieeiii /ano aiie iaea?aeoaaoeiooue a?ioia?
iaeeieoe?, ye? iaoeiooue iaioo aa?o?noue. Iaioith i??ith aea?oaaie
?ioeyoe?? iieiyoueny aeaye? «a?e? eii??oe?», /anoeia neoaeaiaoe?a
aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o, i?eaooie yeeo aecia/athoueny o?eniaaiith oa?eoiith
n?oeith, a oaeiae o? ui aeeaooue ia o?eniaaiee i?eaooie ii nioe?aeueiiio
caaacia/aiith oa ?io? o?ainoa?oi? i?eaooee n?i’?.

Ethaee, ui i?iaeeaathoue ia iao?eniaaiee i?eaooie, ni?iiaaathoueny
aea?aoe a?ae ?ioeyoe??.

Iiiiiaeueiee i?eaooie oaeeo n?iae ni?iiaaathoueny ia?aiaoe ??aaiue oe?i
/e aa?o?noue aeeooy, aiane?aeie /iai ?o ?aaeueiee i?eaooie
ca?eueoeoueny. ?ia?oieee, caeiyo? a aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?, ui
?icaeaathoueny ? i?aaenoaaeai? iiooaeieie i?ioni?eeaie, ni?iiaaathoueny
aeiaeoeny, uia ?o iiiiiaeueia ca?ieaoa eoea a iiao c ??aiai ?ioeyoe?? /e
aeia?aaeaeaea eiai.

C ?ioiai aieo, a?ae ?ioeyoe?? no?aaeaeathoue ? aeaye? iaeiai? ?ia?oieee.
O?, ooi i?aoeth? a ia?aioaaaeueieo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino? ? iicaaaeai?
i?aeo?eiee neeueieo, aieiaeo i?ioni?eie, ni?iiaaathoueny iieieoeny a
oae?e neooaoe??, eiee c?inoaiiy ??aiy oe?i aeia?aaeeoue c?inoaiiy ?o
a?ioiaiai i?eaooeo.

Aea?ao a?ae ?ioeyoe?? iiaeooue iaea?aeaoe ea?oth/? o??i, ?io?
iaea?aeoaa/? i?eaooeo.

?ioeyoe?y iiaea oaeiae ?ic/a?oaaoe aeaniee?a caiuaaeaeaiue. C?
c?inoaiiyi oe?i ?aaeueia aa?o?noue /e iieoiia ni?iiiaei?noue
caiuaaeaeaiue, a?aeeeaaeaieo ia /i?iee aeaiue, ciaioo?oueny. I?ae /an
?ioeyoe?? ciaioo?oueny ?aaeueia aa?o?noue oa?i?iiaeo aeeaae?a a aaioe?
no?aoiaeo iiein?a, ui??/ii? ?aioe ? ?ioeo iaia?iaeo aeoea?a c
o?eniaaiith aa?o?noth, yeeo eieenue aenoa/aei, uia oii?aoenue c aaaeeeie
iaia?aaeaa/aieie ianoaaeiaie /e caaacia/eoe niie?eiee aeo?ae ia iain?th.

Noai Oe?a?ie a ia??iae ?ioeyoe??

Iniaeea?noth e?ece, o ye?e ca?ac ia?aaoaa? e?a?ia, ? oa, ui aiia aeiaaee
/an iiaeaaeyeany oeaio?ae?ciaaiith nenoaiith aee?aeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ca
?aooiie aenoaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a,
aenii?oo, ne?iaeie, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i, aiin?eiiai
o?iainoaaiiy ? o. ?. A 1989-1991 ?. ?. oe? aeaea?aea caa?aaeaiiy
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai aoee
ae/a?iai?. Ni?iae ae??oeoe i?iaeaie oeyoii ia?aaoaeiae
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?ecaaee aei ?iciaaeo
ainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a ? cai?ie aea?aeaaii? iiiiiie?? ia ei?ii?aoeaiee
ath?ie?aoe/iee ? e?ei?iaeueiee iiiiiieici.

Aeiaaiinooaaiiy e?ece aeicaiey? c? noia?aenioeiaith eiia??i?noth
i?iaiicoaaoe noeaia??e eiai ?icaeoeo ? aeoiaeo ?c iueiai. ? iao, ?
ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ?c iiae?aii? e?ece ia iiaeia
aeeoe aac ?aaeeeaeueiiai nei?i/oaaiiy a?enueeiaeo aeaeaoe?a ? ??oo/i?
eiiaa?ni?, aac neeaaeaiiy aacaeao?oeeoiiai athaeaeaoo. A a?aeiioaii?
a?ioiai? ?aoi?ie ? eiaa?aeicaoe?? oe?i aoee aeueoa?iaoeae. Aa?iai?y ?
?in?y i?iaiaeeee a?ioiao ?aoi?io, a i?neyai?iia ssiiiiy oa ?oaeiy i?.
A?aeiiaa a?ae a?ioiai? ?aoi?ie i?eaaea oe? e?a?ie aei aiia?iioeyoe??, ui
ia aeanyoe??//y iiieceea eo?n iaoe?iiaeueieo aaetho. Ioaea,
aeueoa?iaoeaa neeaaea?oueny o aeai?? i?ae a?ioiaith ?aoi?iith ?
?ioeyoe??th.

A iao?e e?a?i? eiaa?aeicaoe?y oe?iiooai?aiiy aaea cae?enith?oueny
i?ioyaii inoaii?o 25 ?ie?a. Nii/aoeo aecaieyeeny oe?ie ia i?iaeoeoe?th
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?ney oeueiai ia o?oeoe, iai/?, ea?oiiey. A 1991 ?.
eiaa?aeicaoe?y oe?i i?eeiyea eaaeiiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa?.

A?iioaoe/ii iiaeia ?ici??eiaoaaoe i?i oa, ui e?aua aoei ae cae?enithaaoe
eiaa?aeicaoe?th oe?i i?ney oi?ioaaiiy aacaeao?oeeoiiai athaeaeaoo,
eiiaa?ni? ? a?ioiai? ?aoi?ie. Aea ine?eueee eiaa?aeicaoe?y oe?i aaea
noaea oaeoii, caaaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny a oeeo oiiaao a nei?i/oaaii?
aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoo ? a iioe?aii? ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a.

Aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? no?eioaaiiy c?inoaiiy
oe?i ia i?iaeiaieuenoai ? iaeaaaeeea?oith aioeiioeyoe?eii? ?
aioee?eciaith i??ith. Iiieo ia i?iaeiaieuenoai iaei aeanoe/iee ii
a?aeiioaiith aei oe?i ? oiio i?e ?o eiaa?aeicaoe?? ia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th aiie iiaeooue aooe aeoaea
aenieeie. C?inoaiiy oe?i ia i?iaeiaieuenoai i?e aaeee?e /anooe? aeo?ao
ia iueiai a i?eaooeo ianaeaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy i?eaooeo,
caaacia/aiiai eeoa iioeyoe?eiith aiini?th. Aiia?iioeyoe?y ianooia? naia
oiae?, eiee a oiiaao niaaeo ae?iaieoeoaa aeiionea?oueny a?eueia
c?inoaiiy oe?i ia i?iaeiaieuenoai. Oiio ia aei?aaaeaiei ? i?aeo?ae aei
i?eaaoecaoe?? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, ye aei caniao aeoiaeo ?c
e?ece aac ??oaiiy i?iaeai aacaeao?oeeoiiai athaeaeaoo, eiiaa?ni?,
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae, e?eaiaeiinoi a?ioae ? o. ?.

Eiaa?aeicaoe?y oe?i ? i?eaooeo aoaea noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny iii??iith
?ioeyoe??th i?e iioe?aii? iinoa/aiue oiaa??a, aea i?ye ia i?e
nei?i/oaaii? oiaa?ii? iane. A oeueiio ca’yceo aeooaeuei? ianooii?
ieoaiiy:

*e noai?aia eiieo?aioia na?aaeiaeua aeey eiaa?aeicaoei? oe?i ?

*e ? oiiae aeey ia?aeeaaiiy eai?oaeo o ae?iaieoeoai aeao?oeeoii?
i?iaeoeoe?? ?

sseo ?ieue iiaea a?aoe eiiaa?niy a ooai?aii? ?eieiai? no?oeoo?e
aeiiii?ee?

Eiaa?aeicaoe?y oe?i a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? ia icia/a? aoaeue-yeo aie?
oe?iiooai?aiiy, a eeoa aieth, ui caaacia/o? eiieo?aioe?th ae?iaiee?a,
iioiaiai ? ?icae??aiiai eaie?a. Oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ui i?e ?eieo iaia?
iiiyooy niaeoeyoe??, iicaaaeai? i?aenoaa. A on?o e?a?iao c ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith ?nio? aioeiiiiiieueia aai i?yii aioeniaeoeyoeaia
caeiiiaeaanoai, ui caai?iiy? niaeoeyoe?th a oi?iao, ui caaaeathoue
caeoe?a ae?iaieeai i?iaeoeoe?? oeyoii iiiiiieueiiai ?icaeoaaiiy oe?i.
Oe? caeiie canoiniaothoueny a on?o ?eieiaeo caeeaaeao.

Ia?aaaaa aea?aeaaieo iinoa/aiue coiiaeea o ian ae?? aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei a ainiiaea?nuee?e noa?? ii caeiiao eeane/iiai iiiiiieicio. Ia
i?aei?e?inoaao oeyoii i?eienie, iia??oaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe??, aeieaaiiy
aeaoaaiai ani?oeiaioo, a a iioia?e ? ?icae??ai?e oi?a?ae? ca ?aooiie
inoaaiiy aeaoaaeo oiaa??a ? i?eoiaoaaiiy aei?iaeo noai?thaaany ?
a?aeoai?thaaany ooo/iee aeao?oeeo. Ia iueiai aeaooiaothoueny iiiiiieueii
aenie? oe?ie ye o?iueiaiai ?eieo, oae ? aea?aeaaieo eaiae?a ?aae?caoe??.

Eiieo?aioia na?aaeiaeua iiaeiii noai?thaaoeny ia iniia? anai??iiai
iioe?aiiy i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Iiee i?aei?e?iieoeoai o ian iineei oa?aeoa?
ia?a?niiai iaeiie/oaaiiy o?iainiaiai eai?oaeo ? iaeia iaae?iaie/iai
i?ecia/aiiy. Iioeyoe?eieie caniaaie ?eieia? no?oeoo?e iaeiie/eee aaea
iieuey?aei? eiooe. Aea oeae i?ioean ia iiaea oyaiooeny o?eaaeee ia??iae.
Aai iioeyoe?eiee eiia?oe?eiee eai?oae i?eeia aeoeaio oi?io ?iaanoeoe?e a
ae?iaieoeoai aeao?oeeoii? i?iaeoeoe??, aai ianoaia aiia?iioeyoe?y, ?
a?aeiiniee oiaa?iee aeao?oeeo ia?aeaea a aaniethoiee.

Ooai?aiiy oiaa?ieo ?eie?a iia’ycaia c ia?aoiaeii a?ae
aea?aeaaii-iiiiiieinoe/ieo no?oeoo? aei eiieo?aioieo. Ca?ac a aeiaei?e
aaeoc? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ianooue aeiiii?/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
caaeiaieaiiy iiieoo.

Iaa?oue a aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen?, aea i/aaeaeiee ca’ycie c e?ioeaaei
niiaeeaaiiyi, ia?aaaaa aea?aeaaieo iinoa/aiue aeicaiey? i?e aaeeeeo
?ano?nao i?iaeoeoe?? iaoe ?? iino?eiee aeao?oeeo.

A i?iieneiaino? iieiaeaiiy iineeth?oueny oei, ui a?eueo?noue
i?aei?e?inoa acaaae? ia i?aoeth? ia ?eiie, aai aeionea? i?iaeoeoe?th,
aea?aeio o ae?iaieoeoa?, aea ia aoaeoeaio /e iaa?oue iaiio??aio aeey
aeei?enoaiiy. Iiiiiieinoe/ii a?aeiioaiiy oa?aeoa?i? oaeiae aeey
aia?aaoeee, o?ainii?oo, ca’yceo, aoae?aaeueii? noa?e ia?ao. Uia ceaiaoe,
iiaeieaoe oeae caaaeueiee iiiiiieici, iio??aii onoiooe eiai
ia?oiaeaea?aei — i?yia aea?aeaaia ao?o/aiiy a aeiiii?eo. Ia?aaeon?i
iaiao?aeii nei?ioeoe a?enueeia? caiiae, ye? /a?ac i?aeaaeocaa? ca’ycee
i?iiecothoue ona ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai ?, ie??i i?yiiai aeo?a/aiiy
?ano?n?a, neoaeaoue aieiaiei eaoaeicaoi?ii iiiiiieinoe/ieo a?aeiinei.

A?aeiia, ui eiiaa?niy aaeeeeo a?enueeiaeo i?aei?e?inoa aeiaaa? /ano. A
iaeieo aeiaaeeao /an iaiao?aeii aeey oiai, uia a?ae aeioneo iaeeie/ieo
ae?ia?a iaeeo ? na?aaei?o na??e ia?aeoe aei ae?iaieoeoaa ianiaeie
na??yie. Oea a?aeiineoueny aei ae?iaieoeoaa eiii’thoa??a, cania?a
ca’yceo, aoaeii- ? aiaeai-oaoi?ee, aeaeo?ii?ee. A ?ioeo i?eeaeaoueny
ci?ithaaoe neeaae ae?ia?a o i?aei?e?inoa-iinoa/aeueiee?a, neaae?ii, i?e
ia?aoiae? a?ae aeioneo a?enueeiaeo e?oae?a ia oeea?euei?.

Eiiaa?niy iio?aao? aaeeeeo ?iaanoeoe?e, ye ? nei?i/oaaiiy a?i?? aeiaaa?
/eiaeeo aeo?ao ia nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy eieeoi?o
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a. A iaaeaiiio ca’yceo anoa? ieoaiiy i?i aeaea?aea
o?iainoaaiiy eiiaa?ni? ? a?enueeiai? ?aoi?ie. Athaeaeaoia o?iainoaaiiy a
aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iaaeioe?eueii ii ianooiiei i?e/eiai:

Oea ia aeicaieeei ae iicaaaeoeny a?ae athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo.

Iaia? i?yei? aa?aio??, ui athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy aoaeooue aeo?a/ai? ia
eiiaa?nith, a ia ia ae?iaieoeoai iaiio??aiiai ica?i?iiy.

I?iaeaia ae??oo?oueny i?e aeei?enoaii? aeey eiiaa?ni? ?
i?aoeaaeaoooaaii? a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a a?eueieo eai?oae?a
iaaea?aeaaieo i?aai?caoe?e, a oaeiae ca?oa?aeieo ?iaanoeoe?e. Oaeei
/eiii iia’ycaiiy noa? ?aeeiei oe?eei ??oaiiyi i?iaeaie aeao?oeeoo
athaeaeaoo, ?ioeyoe??, i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, ?iaanoeoe?e, eiiaa?ni? ? ?eieo.

Iniaeeaino? e?ece a Oe?a?i?

?ioeyoe?y — oea nai???aeiee iiaeaoie, yeei aea?aeaaa oeyoii aeioneo
i?/ei ia caaacia/aieo iaia?iaeo a?ioae iaeeaaea? a?ioia? caniae a
iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaetho? th?eaee/ieo ? o?ce/ieo in?a. A aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? aeei?enoiao?oueny iaa?oue oaeee oa?i?i «iioeyoe?eiee
iiaeaoie», oea a??oee c an?o aeae?a iiaeaoe?a, ai aiane?aeie eiai
canoinoaaiiy no?aaeaeathoue ia?aaeon?i o?ce/i? in?a c o?eniaaiei /e
iaaaeeeeie i?eaooeii (iain?iia?e, ?iaae?aee, aea?aeaai? neoaeaiaoe?,
i?aeoe/ii an? iniae iaeiaii? i?aoe? ).

Aei oeueiai iiaeaoeo caa?oathoueny ye aei inoaiiueiai caniao iie?eooy
athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo, eiee ?io? aeaea?aea iiiiaiaiiy eacie (i?yi? ?
iai?yi? iiaeaoee, caeie ia aioo??oiueiio ? ciai?oiueiio ?eieao, i?iaeaae
aea?aeiaeia ? o. ?.) ia aeicaieythoue iie?eoe iaaaeueii c?inoath/?
aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee. Ia?aaeuaiiy aeaeaoe?a iaae i?eaooeii, iiyaa ae??ee
a aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeao?, ianooaaia aiiniy ionoeo a?ioae, ia?aiiaiaiiy
eaiae?a a?ioiaiai ia?ao ? ao?oeeaee c?inoaiiy oe?i — ana oea yne?aai
niinoa??aa?oueny a ia??iaee a?ei, ?aaiethoe?e, ?ioeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo eaoaeeici?a.

C?inoaiiy a?ioiai? iane a Oe?a?i? a 1992 a. a a?eueo i?ae 16,9 ?ac?a
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aiia?iioeyoe?y a iao?e e?a?i? ? ?aaeuei?noth.

O?aaa aecia/eoe, ui iioeyoe?ei? i?ioeane a iao?e e?a?i? aeeeeeathoueny
ia o?eueee aeiiii?/iei niaaeii ? athaeaeaoiei aeao?oeeoii. Ia i?ioyc?
aeanyoe??/ caeeaaeaeeny ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nuee? aeeni?iii?oe?? (i?ae
aaeocyie i?iieneiaino?, ui ae?iaeythoue caniae ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?aaeiaoe
niiaeeaaiiy, i?ae aeiaoaieie ? ia?a?iaethth/eie aaeocyie aeiiii?ee, i?ae
i?iieneiaei ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei ae?iaieoeoaii ? o. ?.). Nthaee
ae iiaeia a?aeianoe ? iaaecae/aeio iieioa?ecaoe?th aeiiii?ee. Aiane?aeie
a aeiiii?/iiio i?aai?ci? aeaaii ii?ooeany iai?i ?a/iaei.

Aeayeee /an a?ioiaa iana a iao?e e?a?i? ooo/ii iaiaaeoaaeany. Caea?
a?io? aeeo/aeeny c ia?ao a iniiaiiio ca aeiiiiiaith ?iii?oo ? aeeiaieth.
Iio?i neooaoe?y ??cei ci?ieeany. ??cei nei?ioeeeny aaethoi?
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ?iii?o. Ciaioeany i?eaooie
aea?aeathaeaeaoo a?ae i?iaeaaeo aeeiaieueieo iaii?a (eaiiai?y ai?ioueae
ca caaaeueio oaa?ac?noue). Iaeii/anii aoee ?icai?ioo? oe?ie? nioe?aeuei?
i?ia?aie, ia i?aee??ieai? ?aaeueieie iaoa??aeueieie ?ano?naie. O ca’yceo
c ooai?aiiyi eiia?oe?eieo no?oeoo? (ia?aaeon?i aaie?a) noaa iaiiaeeeaei
i?noeaaee ?iciiae?e a?ioiaiai ia?ao ia iayaiee ? aacaio?aeiaee.
Aiane?aeie iaeeaaeaiiy an?o oeeo /eiiee?a aeoi? c aee?aeoeaiei
oi?aae?iiyi a?ioiaith ianith ie ia ?oaaae? 1989-1990 ?. ?. ai?eooe
i?ae?eoee aei aiia?iioeyoe??.

O?yae aoa ia a ciic? no?eiaoe iaaacia/i? iioeyoe?ei? yaeua. Aiie noaee
ia?inoaoe ye ni?aeiee eii, i?aeo?eiai? niaaeii ae?iaieoeoaa, ana
c?inoath/ith athaeaeaoiith aiini?th, iano?eiiith e?aaeeoiith aeniain??th
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a (o. c. e?aaeeoia ?ioeyoe?y), ?icaaeii ?aeeii?
a?ioiai? ? aaie?anueei? nenoaie e?a?ie. A i?aenoieo ie iaea?aeaee ioa,
ui ? iiaeii? aoee iaea?aeaoe — aiia?iioeyoe?th ia oii? ??ceiai niaaeo
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ia?aoai?aiiy a i?ao caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy, iai?ioieo eioo?a
i?aei?e?inoa, ciaoe?ithaaiiy aaie?anueeeo eai?oae?a ? aeoea?a ia oii?
a?ae’?iieo i?ioeaioieo noaaie, o?eaath/a iaae?iiy aaethoiiai eo?no
ea?aiaaioey, a?aenooi?noue ?iaanoeoe?e ? ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee o
i?aei?e?inoa, aaie?a, oa e o aea?aeaae, aacia?niaeoeai?noue ?eieo
oe?iieo iaia??a aiane?aeie iaieio/i? ao?aoe /anoeie aeeaaeaii? a aeoe??
oa iae?aaoe?? aa?oino?, aeoeniaiiy c ieao?aeiiai ia?ao ea?aiaaioey
aeiea?ii, caa?ica ia?aoiaeo a?ae oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei aei
iaoo?aeueiiai iai?io — inue oe? «?aaeiu?», ui iana aiia?iioeyoe?y.

Aiia?iioeyoe?y a Oe?a?i?.

Aeaye? eaaeooue, ui i?yei? aiia?iioeyoe?? a ian iaia?, ui o?aaa
i?aeo?eioaaoe ae?iaieoeoai ? ethaeae. Iia ae, ian eyeathoue ?ioeyoe??th,
uia ia aeaaaoe a?ioae ia nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie ? iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae
ae?iaieeai. ?io? aaaaeathoue, ui c aiia?iioeyoe??th oaae iiaeia aeeoe.

I?ae oei, aiia?iioeyoe?y icia/a?, ui a ian iaia? iaae?? ia i?aeeii
ae?iaieoeoaa. Oiio ao?a/a? aoaeue-yeee nain oi?ioea: aai i?aeo?eiea
ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeeoo?aiai ??aiy, aai i?eaeooaiiy ?ioeyoe??. I?e
aiia?iioeyoe?? iaae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa caaacia/aii oae naii, ye ? i?e
aino??e oea? a?ioae.

I?e/ei oiio aaaaoi. Ia?aaeon?i iaia? iaae?eiiai ea?aiaaioey. Ethaee
ao?a/athoue noeioe aei ae?iaieoeoaa, a?eueoa noeeythoueny aei ae??aii?
niaeoeyoe??, i?iaa?oathoue iia?aoe?? a ei?ioe? oa?i?ie, uia iaea?aeaoe
a?eueoa a?ioae ? ciiao iaaaeii aeeth/eoe ?o a ia?a.

Ao?aoa iieoiii? neee ea?aiaaioey a iaoiio iieiaeaii? icia/a?
iaoo?aeicaoe?th ainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei, iiaa?iaiiy aei aa?oa?o.

A oaeeo oiiaao ia o?eueee ia ianooieoue i?aeeii ae?iaieoeoaa, a e
i?iaeiaaeeoueny eiai niaae. Aiia?iioeyoe?y iaaacia/ia ua e oei, ui
aeeeeea? ia ei?ioei/anio, a o?eaaeo aeai?anith.

?iaanoeoe?eiee aieiae o?eaa? a e?a?i? aaea /ioe?e ?iee. ?iaanoeoe?e
aeae?ey?oueny iaioa, i?ae iaiao?aeii iaa?oue aeey i?inoiai a?aeoai?aiiy,
? aiie aeei?enoathoueny ana a??oa. sse ia aeeaii, iaaeiiiaanooaaiiy
ii/aeiny o ian ua a na?aaeei? n?iaeanyoeo ?ie?a. Oi/ iiiiiaeueiee ianya
oeeaaeaiue c?inoaa, aoaeoeai?noue iaaeaea, ? ?aaeueiee i?e??no eai?oaeo
cieaeoaaany.

I?ae ?ioeyoe??th ? aiia?iioeyoe??th ? iaaiee oaoi?/iee ei?aeii, yeee
neeaaea? 50 a?aenioe?a ia i?nyoeue. Iaoai?ci aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy oaeee,
ui ?ioeyoe?y ia? oaiaeaioe?th ?iciianthaeaeoaaoenue a?ae oeaio?o ii an?e
e?a?i?, ye oaee? a?ae eeiooiai a oeoee noaaie eaiaith. I?e oeueiio iaeia
?c aeanoeainoae iioeyoe?eiiai i?ioeano — aaaeei ieiathoueny ia?o? eiai
25 a?aenioe?a, oeyo aei ieo caea?oueny aeiaaei. Iaa?aoe ?io? 25
a?aenioe?a iaaaaaoi eaaoa, ui caeeoaia iieiaeia oeyoo noa? ei?iooith.
Aeinoaoiuei aoaeue-yeeo ineoieia?/ieo /eiiee?a, ci?ie iano?ith iieoioey,
ae?iaiee?a, oiiaineno?a ? o. ?., ui iineoueny a iia?o??, uia i?enei?eoe
iioeyoe?eiee ?oo.

Ia niaeao ?ioeyoe??, c?inoaiiy niiaeea/eo oe?i aaeeeee aieea iieieee
/enoi ineoieia?/i? /eiieee. Aiie ? iane?aeeaie iie?oe/ieo iiae?e a
e?a?i?. Oae ui c iiaiith i?aenoaaith iiaeia neacaoe, ui aiia?iioeyoe?y —
oea yaeua ia?aaeon?i iiaaae?ieiaa. Iiaeia ia aeinyaiooe e?eoe/ieo 50
a?aenioe?a, coieieoeny ia 30, a aiia?iioeyoe?y aaea iai/ii iii?oia.
Iiaeia ae?eoe ? aei 60 a?aenioe?a, a noai ia iiaeia iacaaoe
aiia?iioeyoe?eiei. Aeania, aiia?iioeyoe?y ianooia? iani?aaae?, eiee
niinoa??aa?oueny oa?aeoa?ia aeey ia? iiaaae?iea. Iniiaiee neaiae — oea
o?eaiiy a?ae ea?aiaaioey. sseui iaa?oue neaaeai? oe?ie ia?anoathoue
a?aeeyeoaaoe iieoioey, oiae? aiia?iioeyoe?y ii/aeanue.

Aioe?ioeyoe?eia iie?oeea oa iniiai? caniae ai?ioueae c ?ioeyoe??th

O?yaeo eiaeii? e?a?ie, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a e?ec?, ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe
aioeiioeyoe?eio iie?oeeo. Caniae ai?ioueae c ?ioeyoe??th iiaeooue aooe
ye i?yi? oae ? iai?yi?.

*ano?oa anueiai i?iyaey?oueny ianooiia caeiiii??i?noue — /ei a?eueo
e?eciaith noa? neooaoe?y, oei a?eueo aeooaeuei? i?yi? caniae aieeao
o?yaeo ? oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo ia aeiiii?eo ? a?ioiao iano, ye ??
neeaaeiao /anoeio.

Iai?yi? caniae

Iai?yi? caniae aeeth/athoue:

?aaoethaaiiy caaaeueii? iane a?ioae oeyoii oi?aae?iiy ieie oeaio?aeueiei
aaieii.

?aaoethaaiiy iiceeiaiai ? iae?eiaiai i?ioeano eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a /a?ac
oi?aae?iiy ieie oeaio?aeueiei aaieii.

Iaia’yceia? ?aca?ae eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, iia?aoe?? oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea
ia a?aee?eoiio ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a.

Iia?aoe?? oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ia a?aee?eoiio ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a.

?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeaioieo noaaie eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a /a?ac oi?aae?iiy
ieie oeaio?aeueiei aaieii.

Iai?yi? caniae ia iiaeooue i?aoethaaoe a iao?e aeiiii?oe? ia iiaio
iiooaei?noue ii i?e/ei? ?? iaaeinoaoiuei? «?eieiaino?». Iiaiioe?iiee
?eiie oe?iieo iaia??a, a oiio /ene? ?eiie aea?aeaaieo ciaia’ycaiue o ian
a?aenooi?e, a a?aeiia?aeii oeaio?aeueiee aaie ia iiaea aieeaaoe ia
a?ioiao iano e??cue eoieth-i?iaeaae oe?iieo iaia??a.

I?yi? caniae.

I?yi? caniae ?aaoethaaiiy iieoiii? ni?iiiaeiino? a?ioiai? iaeeieoe?,
oiaoi ai?ioueae c ?ioeyoe??th, aeeth/athoue a nia?:

I?yia ? aaciina?aaei? ?aaoethaaiiy aea?aeaaith e?aaeeo?a ? oei naiei —
a?ioiai? iane.

Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy oe?i.

Aea?aeaaia (ii oaiae? c i?ioni?eeaie) ?aaoethaaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe.

Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, iia?aoe?e c ?iicaiiei
eai?oaeii ? aaethoiiai eo?no.

I?aeoeea i?yiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?ioiai? iane oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaia ia
caoiae?. NOA iaiaeii?aciai a 60o-70o ?ieao caii?iaeoaaee oe?ie ia
/eneaii? oiaa?e. I?aoi?a aeanyoe??//y i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie
ciaaeiaeeiny e?a?iai cao?aeii? ?a?iie aeey ii/aoeo eiaa?aeicaoe?? oe?i,
oa iaa?oue iaiiaii?. O?aioe?y iiai?noth eiaa?aeicoaaea oe?ie ia
aioo??oiueiio ?eieo eeoa a 1986 ?ieo. O. ?ocaaeueo aeaiaeea NOA ?c
iaeaeeaoi? e?ece 30o oeyoii aei?noeiai aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee. A a?eueoino? e?a?i ?nioaaee niaoe?aeuei? caeiie, ui
iaiaaeothoue i?eaooie a?ae oi?aiaaeueiiai iina?aaeieoeoaa.

Ii?iae?caoe?y aaethoiiai eo?no ? aaniethoii iaiao?aeiith i??ith aeey
i?eieiaiiy on?eyeeo iaaeaiaaeaioieo i?aeia?iaeieo oi?aiaaeueieo
iia?aoe?e. ?aaeueii ioe?ithth/e iiaeeeaino? ?aaoethaaiiy aaethoiiai
eo?no ca ?aooiie ?ioa?aaioe?e oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea o?aaa neaoe, ui
iaae?e ia oni?o oaei? iie?oeee i?aeoe/ii ia ?nio?. I/aaeaeii, ui eo?n
aeiea?o c?inoa? no?eaeaie — a aeayeee iiiaio oeaio?aeueiee aaie ia ia?
iiaeeeainoae no?eioaaoe eo?n ? eiai ye ae «i?i?eaa?». Inoaii?e /an
oeaio?aeueiee aaie iaa/eany aeei?enoaoe e?ecia? iie?oe/i? iiiaioe aeey
oaeeo no?eae?a.

Aei oeo ii?, iiee ?iicaiia aaethoa ia aoaea aeei?enoaoeny eeoa aeey
caaeiaieaiiy ?iii?oo ? ?ioeo iioi/ieo ieaoaae?a iie?oeea «?a?e ia
iiieaeaiiy» i?e?a/aia ia ii?aceo.

A oe?eiio, ne?ae aecia/eoe, ui ?aaeueii a iaoiio nueiaiaei?oiueiio
iieiaeaii? ?aaeueii aoaeoeai? o?eueee i?yi? caniae ai?ioueae c
?ioeyoe??th — ?aaoethaaiiy e?aaeeo?a, oe?i ? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe,
?aaoethaaiiy aaethoiiai eo?no ? ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?. I?ioa noiae? ae??
oeueiai o?yaeo ia i?aaenoaaeythoueny iiaeeeaeie, aiie ua a?eueoa
iioeoioee ae iieiaeaiiy ? aac oeueiai caciaaoo ii?acee ia aeai?ao
«o?yaeiao» ia?o?th. Ae?? o?yaeo ca inoaii? i?aoi?a ?iee ciooothoue eiai
oaia? iaoaoeny i?ae no?eioaaiiyi a?ioiai? aiini? ? ?icaea/ath e?aaeeo?a
i?ney /a?aiaiai aenooio i?iieneiaino?.

Ia?oi/a?aia? aioeiioeyoe?ei? caniae.

Caeaaoe oaiie ?ioeyoe?? — oi nei?i/oaaoe ??cieoeth i?ae a?ioiaith ?
oiaa?iith ianith a ainiiaea?noa?. Aeey oeueiai i?aeoiaeyoue an? o?
caniae, ui aaaeooue aeiiii?eo aei ??aiiaaae. Aei ia?oi/a?aiaeo i??
a?aeiinyoueny inue oae?:

Caaacia/aiiy e?a?ie o aeinoaoi?e e?eueeino? i?iaeiaieuenoaii. Oea
iaeia?oa oiiaa aoaeue-yeeo ?aoi?iaoi?nueeeo coneeue. Aeey
iaeaaiaeaeoaaiiy i?iaeiaieue/i? ni?aae a e?a?i? ne?ae ieacaoe aea?aeaaio
o?iainiao aeiiiiiao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei i?aei?e?inoaai an?o aeae?a
aeaniino? ? i?iaanoe i’yeo ?aoi?io eieaini?a ? ?aaeaini?a:

anoaiiaeaiiy ii?yaeeo iaaeaaaiiy e?aaeeo?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei
i?aei?e?inoaai i?ae aaenaey c iiaaoaiiyi ?o ca ?aooiie i?eeaeaoiueiai
a?iaeath;

anoaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo caeoi?aaeueieo oe?i, a oaeiae oe?i ia ?ano?ne,
ui niiaeeaathoueny a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? ia ??ai?,
ui caaacia/o? ?aioaaaeueio ?iaioo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a ? ooai?aiiy nenoaie
eiio?aeoii? oi?a?ae? i?iieneiaeie oiaa?aie a iai?i ia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th.

A?aeoai?aiiy c?oeiiaaiiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iiey ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa,
aac yeiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?ee noa? iaiiaeeeaei. A oeeo oe?eyo
ne?ae ia?aaeon?i a?aeoai?eoe oeyoii iiaeaenoaaiiy ia aaie?anueeeo
?aooieao i?aei?e?inoa aii?oecaoe?ei? noie ? aeanieo iai?ioi? a?ioia?
eiooe caaoaeai? /a?ac ??cea c?inoaiiy oe?i ? ciaoe?ithaaiiy ea?aiaaioey.

Iaeaaiaeaeoaaiiy iinoa/aeueii-caooiaeo ca’yce?a i?ae i?aei?e?inoaaie.
Ainiiaea?nuee? ca’ycee i?aei?e?inoa a ?eieiaiio ?aaeei? iaea?eueo
aoaeoeai? a iniiaiiio /a?ac nenoaio aaeeeeo iioiaeo eoioe?a-neiaeeeao?a.
Oe? no?oeoo?e iiaeooue ooieoe?iioaaoe ye a ?aieao ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a, oae
? a caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiio ? i?aeaea?aeaaiiio ianooaa?.

Cai?noue iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaoeiao aa?o?noue, ui noeioeth? a no/anieo
oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i? c?inoaiiy ?ioeyoe?? ? ae?ae aaaeei
eiio?ieth?oueny iiaeaoeiaeie ?iniaeoe?yie, aecia/eoe iniiaiei ieaoaaeai
a athaeaeao iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie, aeeoa?aioe?thth/e eiai noaaee caeaaeii
a?ae c?inoaiiy ?aioaaaeueiino? ? c?inoaiiy ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa, ui aoaea
iaoe?ethaaoe ae?iaiee?a ia c?inoaiiy iane, a ia o?eueee ii?ie i?eaooeo.

Ia /an e?ece iaiao?aeii oeaio?ae?coaaoe aaie?anueeo nenoaio e?a?ie,
iath/e ia oaac? iaia’yceiaa aeeiiaiiy eiia?oe?eieie ? ?iaanoeoe?eieie
aaieaie aee?aeoea Oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo ii i??i?eoaoiinoi ? i?eueaiaino?
e?aaeeooaaiiy ?aa?ii?a, aaeocae, i?aei?e?inoa, aeiaea?aeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo
oa?i?i?a aeieoiaioiia?ao.

Aeey noaaieicaoe?? niiaeea/iai ?eieo aeioe?eueii:

noai?eoe nenoaio noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ae??aiiai a?ciano a noa??
ae?iaieoeoaa ? iineoa. Aaanoe aea?aeaai? e?aaeeoe ia i?aiaeo ae?iaie/eo
i?ei?uaiue ? eiceiaiaee e?aaeeo ia i?aiaeo onoaoeoaaiiy (c iiaeeea?noth
iine?aeiaiiai aeeoio), a oaeiae aaanoe iaia’yceiaa no?aooaaiiy iaeeo
i?aei?e?inoa ia ia?o? 3-5 ?ie?a ae?yeueiino?, eiee ?ecee ?oeioaaiiy
iniaeeai aaeeeee;

noai?eoe oiiae aeey oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?aeaeueii c ?nioth/ith
nenoaiith oi?a?ae? niiaeea/eo eiiia?aoea?a ia i?aei?e?inoaao, a
caeeaaeao ? ii i?noeth i?iaeeaaiiy aeey caeoiee ? ?aae?caoe??
i?iaeiaieue/eo ? i?iieneiaeo oiaa??a /eaiaie eiiia?aoeao (ii iayaiiio ?
aacaio?aeiaiio ?ic?aooieo) ii aaci?eaooeiaei ?icae??aiei oe?iai. Oaeiai
?iaeo eiiia?aoeaiee ?oo oe?iei ?icaeiaiee a aaaaoueio iiaeono?iaeueieo
e?a?iao. Aac iueiai iaiiaeeeai oyaeoe ?o aeiiii?eo. Niiaeeaeiiia?aoe?y
aoaea ni?eyoe ii?iae?caoe?? oe?i ? iica eiiia?aoeaiiai naeoi?o.

I?ioyaii e?eciaiai ia??iaeo o?aaa oaeiae i?iaiaeeoe ?aoe?iiaeueio
aea?aeaaio iie?oeeo caoenoo aioo??oiueiai ?eieo ? noai?iai eiio?ieth
i?eaaoii? aenii?oii? ae?yeueiino?. An? aenii?oi? iia?aoe?? iiaeii?
cae?enithaaoenue /a?ac e?eueea aaeeeeo o??i ? neiaeeeao?a, ui
eiio?ieththoueny aea?aeaaith ? aeeiiothoue aenii?oi? iia?aoe?? ia
eiiinieieo iiaeaoeao.

Aeniiaie

Cae?i/ai? iaaaea/ath ni?iae o?iainiaiai icaei?iaeaiiy ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa ye ia?oiai e?ieo a cae?eniaii? ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee o?eueee iineeeee oyaee?noue o?iainiaiai iieiaeaiiy e?a?ie.
?aeay, caeeaaeaia a iniiao a?eueoino? «icaei?ia/eo» i?ia?ai, oeeaaeaeany
a i?eaiaeaeaii? iaoa??aeueii-?a/iaeiieo e oe?iiaeo i?iii?oe?e o
a?aeiinii ??aiiaaaeia noaiiaeua oa cae?eniaii? ia oe?e iniia?
eiaa?aeicaoe?? oe?i. I?eioneaeiny, ui aaeanoueny oieeiooe ?o iaaaeueiiai
c?inoaiiy.

I?aaenoaaey?oueny, i?ioa, ui a iniiao iaaeaii? ?aeae aoea iieeaaeaia
iiieeeiaa iineeea, ine?eueee ??aiiaaaa i?e aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ea?iaai?e ?
?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? aeinyaa?oueny a ??ciiiai?oieo oi/eao aeiiii?/iiai
i?inoi?o. Naia a oeueiio aa/aoueny i?e/eie iaaaeaeeo i?? ii o?iainiaiio
icaei?iaeaiith ? oiai iia??oaiiy caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ii? ? o?iainiai?
neooaoe??, ui iaei i?noea a 1989-1991 a. a., ui ae?aceeinue a
iaei?oei?oiio no?oi? ?ioeyoe??.

Aeaea?aea iioeyoe?eieo yaeu ei??iyoueny a neeaaeaieo ? iino?eii
a?aeoai?thaaieo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo aeeni?iii?oe?yo; o noai?aii? a
aaei?i?no?aoeai?e aeiiii?oe? oi?i? oi?aae?iiy, ui coiiaeth? iiaeaeue
oe?iiooai?aiiy, can?a i?eeiyooy ?iaanoeoe?eieo oa ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo
??oaiue; a niaoeeo?/i?e iiaeae? athaeaeaoii-o?iainiai? ?
e?aaeeoii-a?ioiai? iie?oeee. ?icae?eaiiy aeeaeiieo i?e/ei ?ioeyoe?? ia
no?oeoo?i?, ea??aieoeuee? ? iiiaoa?i? aeoaea oiiaii, ine?eueee an? aiie
o?nii aca?iiiia’ycai? ? aca?iicoiiaeai?, i?ae ieie ?niothoue /eneaii?
i?yi? ? cai?ioi? ca’ycee. Iae?iaeiiii?/ia no?oeoo?a aecia/a? oa?aeoa?
iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy ? aeyaey? ?noioiee aieea ia o?iainia? i?iii?oe?? ?
a?aeiineie.

O oeueiio aeniiaeo iaiao?aeii o?aaa aecia/eoe, ui caniae ?aaoethaaiiy
?ioeyoe?? aoaeooue aoaeoeai? eeoa a ?ac? ?o aaeaeaaoii? a?aeiia?aeiino?
?? nooi?i i?e/eiai. Ine?eueee ?ioeyoe?y a iao?e e?a?i? iineoue,
ii-ia?oa, no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiee oa?aeoa?, oiaoi ii?iaeaeaia no?oeoo?ith,
ui neeaeany aeiiii?ee ? ae?th/i? o?eaaeee /an nenoaiith oi?aae?iiy
ainiiaea?noaii, ? o?eueee ii-ae?oaa, o?aaeeoe?eieie iiiaoa?ieie
/eiieeaie, i?aeieie ?aaoethaaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano iiaeii? aacoaaoeny ia
ciyoo? an?o aa?’???a ia oeyoo ae?? ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a, caaacia/aii?
oiia no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee ? aeeth/aoe a nia? oe?ieee niaeo?
e?aaeeoii-a?ioiaeo ? athaeaeaoii-o?iainiaeo ?aaoeyoi??a.

Iioeyoe?? oa aeiiii?/ieo e?ec ia oieeioea aeiaeia e?a?ia. Iaa?oue
iaeaaae/? e?ece cae?i/oaaeeny, ye i?aaeei, iiiaeaiiyi aeiiii?ee ? ??
i?aeeiiii. Oiio a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a ?icaeeaeythoueny e?ece ye
ia?aeiiiee iiiaio a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio, nioe?aeueiiio, iie?oe/iiio ?
aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo. ?noi?e/i? neooaoe?? ia iiaoi?ththoueny
iaeiicia/ii, ? oiio iaa?oue aeaniee aeina?ae iio?aao? ia?ainieneaiiy a
oiiaao nueiaiaeaiiy. Caniae, ui aeiiiiiaee ?ioei e?a?iai aeeoe ?c e?ece
? iiaeieaoe ?ioeyoe?th, iaaooue, iiaeii? ii-?ioiio aeei?enoaoeny
noiniaii aei eiie?aoii? neooaoe??.

Ia?aaeon?i, ne?ae ii iiaeeeaino? iaea?eueo oi/ii iinoaaeoe ae?aaiic,
yeiai aeaeo ?ioeyoe?th ? e?eco ie ia?aaeeaa?ii. Oiae? iiaeia aoaea
ioe?ieoe aeueoa?iaoeae aeoiaeo c neooaoe??, ui neeaeany.

E?oa?aoo?a:

Aiinia A. ?ioeyoe?y ? e?eca: oeyoe aeoiaeo — I.: I?ana, 1992.

Aaeaaaiia ?. O. Aaethoi? iia?aoe?? — I.: O?iaine ? noaoenoeea, 1993.

Ai?iiii Ae. «?ioeyoe?y — a??oee c iiaeaoe?a» //Ae?ei ?2, aeiiii?/iee
aeiaeaoie aei aacaoe «?in?enuee? a?no?».

Aeaaeaeia A. TH. ?ioeyoe?y a aeiiii?oe?: na?oiaee aeina?ae oa iao?
i?iaeaie — I.: ?anioae?ea, 1991.

Aeieai A. Iae?iaeiiii?ea — N.-Iaoa?ao?a: ?iaeaen, 1994.

?ea??iiia A. «O?iainiaa noaa?e?caoe?y a ?anioae?eao a ?anioae?eao NIA»
//Ieoaiiy aeiiii?ee ?2, 1996.

E?eeia A. «I?iaeaie ?aaoethaaiiy a?ioiai? iane»
//»?in?enueeee aeiiii?/iee aeo?iae», ?11, 1992.

Eo/oeiaa I. N. «Iiooe no?aoaa?? caaacia/aiiy o?iainiai? noaa?eueiino?»
//A?io? ? e?aaeeo ?5, 1993.

Eooei N. ?. «Ca?aee?ey acyeanue ?ioeyoe?y?» //O?iaine ?9, 1992.

Iaeeiiiae ?., A?th N. E.. Aeiiii?en: i?eioeeie, i?iaeaie, iie?oeea — I.:
?anioae?ea, 1992.

Iaiaae/ A. ?., Ia?eaioo?ia A. E. «I?i iioeyoe?eio iie?oeeo» //O?iaine
?8, 1993.

Iie?oe/ia aeiiii?y. I?ae?o/iee aeey aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.
Ca ?aaeaeoe??th I?aea?ae?aa A.A. — I.: Iieioicaeao, 1988.

Io???a ?. I. A?io?, aaiee oa a?ioiai-e?aaeeoia iie?oeea
— I.: O?inoao?ioi?i, 1995.

I?icaiee A. «Iae?iaeiiii?/ia noaa?e?caoe?y a Oe?a?i?: I?aenoiee oa
i?iaeaie ia?oiai ?ieo» //Ieoaiiy aeiiii?ee ?2, 1996.

Naioaeuenii I., Ii?aeaaoc A. Aeiiii?ea. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1994.

Necia A. «Aeiiii?ea ?in?? oa ?io?o no?ai NIA ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a»
//Ie?iaay yeiiiieea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey ?7, 1993.

Oeiio??a A. «Aei ieoaiiy aioe?ioeyoe?eiiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy e ?aaoethaaiiy
oe?i a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei» //Aeiiii?ea
Oe?a?ie ?1, 1993.

O?oa? N., Aei?iaoo ?. Aeiiii?ea — I.: I?ana, 1993.

Eo?n aeiiii?/ii? oai???. I?ae ?aaeaeoe??th *aio?iia I. I.
— I.: Iie?o?caeao, 1993.

*oa?e?i A. Ae., Aei?o???aa A.A. Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy oe?i a
eai?oae?noe/ieo no?aiao — I.: Iie?o?caeao, 1991.

ssnii ?. ?c i???ae e?ece aea?aoeny iiaeia. //Ae?ei ?2, aeiiii?/iee
aeiaeaoie aei aacaoe «?in?enuee? a?no?».

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