O?ith ??? ??? y ??? ????y (????iy) ????i?oe?a (???? ??). N?a ?? ??a
??ey?? ?? ???e ?i?i ???y. I?? ??ae ????e, ? ?? ???y ? ??? ???i ? ??????,
?? y ?? ??ey?? ????iy ????? ?ae????a, a ????: ?? ?????th, ????, ?th
?ae?th, ? ??iy o ?e ??? a ?????o ???? ?? ????a ?????iy.

I?a, ?? ? ?a ??a ?????, ? ? ????????.

I???????i – ? ?????a, ????e? ??????-????a ?y???ue ???yi, ??y??? ? ????y
???? (???) ? ???ith??ny ?ae ??i ??? ? ???e ??e ? ?ae ?ith ???? ???o
????????ue ?i ae ?ae ??? ? ?ae ???o ????????ue th???? ??e – ??????i
(??????).

ss?i ?y???ue ???? ?i th???? ??a ? ?’y??o c ????yi ????, ? ?? ? ?? ????y
???????ith A???. Ui ???y? ?????y ??ae ??? ???a ????? e???? ?y????, — ?
?????ue ??’y????ue ????y ???i ??o.

N??? ?????a ??a ???? ???????i ye ????e ?ae ?y????, a ?i?o y?? ????? ??
???:

— ??i? ??? ??y??a ? ???a ?y????, ???????ue o ??iy?? ???;

— ????a ?y???ue ???a ???o;

— ??????y ? ?ny?a?y ??????i ??? (??o);

— ??????? ???? ?y????.

I???????i – ? ?? ????e ?ae ?y????, a e ??? ??ue ? ?i ??????? ????e, y?e
?????:

— ???????ue ? ??e ??????? ??? o ??? ???o;

— ??a??ue i????y ? ???e ??e;

— ????ue ? ????a ??????y;

— ????y????ue ? ???????ue o ?????e ?y????.

E?i ??, ???????i – ? ???? ????o ???e, ?????o a ????? (????o ??????),
??y???e ? ?????iy ???? ? ??????y ??????? ????o, ????a ????y ?????
????thth?o ?a’?e?a, ????y ???????i ?ey ?y????.

N?’???e ???????? ?y???? ??? ??:

v ??aaey? O??? ? ??? ???;

v th???? ??e – i??????a (??????) ??o ?? ?????.

C?????? O??? ????? ??? ????y ?? ?????y ???????a. C???, ? ???y??ny ????y
?????yi ????i???? ?y???? ??i ????yi ???yi, ????????oeyi, ????i ??? ???a
?????e, ??, ????? ???e, ?????o ??a, ????? ????o, ????? ?o???o, a ??ae
???a ????? ??e e ?????y, y? ???ithth? ???? ? ????th ?????? ? ?????e.

Ia’???e ???????? ae?y???? ??? ??:

v ???;

v ???o;

v ???a.

I???????a ?y???ue ???ith??ny ???i c ??? ???????:

— ?c ?????iy ???? ???;

— c ?????iyi ???? ???;

— ?c ????y th???? ??e;

— c ????yi th???? ??e.

A?????i ? ??? «I? ??????a a O???» ??a ????e:

· ??a?a ???????a (???a) ??????i;

· ????? c ????th ????????th ????? ????? ????i ??);

· ????? ????? ????? ??.

E?i ??i ??i ???y? ????y ???i ? ????? (?????) ???n?a, a ??ae ?’???ue
??????. ss?i ? ??ai ???? ??? ???? ? ?????? ??????a, a ??ae ?, ???
????oth? ? ??? ??? ? ??? ??a ????e ?????e, ? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??
???????? ?y??n?.

A??? ????e, ? ???????o ?y???ue ??a ???ith?? e ?c ???y ???o th???? ??e.
I?oa ?? ??a ???????a ?? ?????? ?? ??’y??? ???:

1. ??o???ue ?????iy ??a?? ???;

2. ??’y??a ??????y a ???? ???o ??e ye ???????? ???? ?y????.

I?? ??ae ???th?? ?????e ye ????? c ????th ????????th. I? ??? ??? ??e
???????? ?y???? ??a ?????e ???ae ? ?? e??? ??e ?????? ???o.

I???????a ??y. ?? ???a ? ??? ???

I?a, c??????y i???????? ?y???? ???ith??ny ?????i ? ??? ?????? ????y
???o, ? ? ?????ith ?y ???i ?????i ???o ? ???? ?ae ??e ???? ?y????. I??
??e ?????? ??????i e ?a??? ?????, ????? ??e ?y????, ??oth? ? ???? ????,
c y?? ?ny? ?? ??? ??????. I???th c ??? ??o ???i ? ??e ???????? ?ae?.

I? ????? ?????? ?th? ?? a???? ????? ?? ???? ?y????.

I???a ?? ?????y ?? ????y ? ???y:

· ??i?iy y??? ??? ???;

· ??th?? ???;

· ???? ?? ????i;

· ???? o ????o ???? ???? ??y – ??? ??’?? ? ?i’th, ???a ??;

· ????y ??, ?a ??? ???e ?? ???????, ???i o ????e ??? ???????? ?y????.

O????y ae ?????? ??e ???????a – ??? ???? ?????e. A?i i? ?? ????? ?
?????e:

· ??a??? ???ae ????? ????? ??? ??e ???a;

· ?????y ?y??? o ???o ???? ??? o ?????e ????? ???a (????a, ??oa);

· ??????iy ??? ????? ?????a ??.

A??? ?? ?th? ?? ?????e ? ?????, ?????ue ? ?????ue o ??? ?????. I?????
??i ???th???.

Aei ?o ??a ???? ??:

· ??o????ue;

· ???????ue ?i ??????ue;

· ????y;

· ????? ?????;

· ????;

· ??e.

N????? ?? ?th? ?????? ??? ???i, a ?? ??:

— ?????? ? ????i ???th???;

— ??????e? o ??, ??i ?? ????? ???? ??????y;

— ??????ie, ????i ?ny??e ? ??????? ?c ????oy? ??e;

— ???i ?????e ? ????th??;

— ???????e ????.

O?? ?? ??i ???e ?????e ?????e, ? y?? ?????? ?? ????e ??? ?????? ???
??o??? ?y????.

I?????y ????y, ?????y ? ??i???y ?y???? ??? ??????a

C????? ?? O???, ????? ??y?i ????o ??a, ???y? ?????th ???? (????e)
??????i c ??-y?th o??th ?????. N???iy ??o ?????? o ????? ? ??o ???, ye
???i, ???ith??ny ??c ????iy ??o ???c???? ???? ???????? ?y???? – ??o
??????. O ?’y?o c ?i ?? ?????i ? ?????? ???iiy ??ey?? ?????th ?????? ???
i??????a.

I?? ??????a (??i????? ????y ??? ???o) ??? ?a?th??ny ? ??? ??-y?? ??e
????? ????e ? th????e ???e (??a??e, ????e, ???????, ????? ???a??e
???????e, ??????? ?????y? ? ?o ???????e, ????? ????, ??????? ???y? ????i
???). I????? ??/? ? th???? ??e ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??????a, ??i ??, ?i
???? ???y ?i ?? ????y.

I?? ??????a ??oue ???th??ny ? ?? ?????o ?????a ?th?o ??????, a ??ae ?y?i
??o??y ??o ??????i-??????o ????.

N???iy ??? ??????a ????e a?????y ?????o ?????a ?? ???itha??ue c ????iyi
??o ??:

§ ?y???ue ???y ????i ????o ?????? ????? ?i ????y ??? ??????a ? ?? ??ae ?
??? ?th?? ??????a;

§ ??a ???? ??a ?????? ?????;

§ ????y ??? ?y?o ??????? ????? ??a’y??.

E????i ?????i ??? ??????a ??? ????e ye ?? ???y?i, ?e ? ??e ?? ?i’? ?i
??? ??e, ??? ???? ??? ??????ue? ?y???ue. ss?i ?? ??????i ???th??ny ???th
???ith ??ith ?i ?i’?th, ? ?? ?a????ny ???????? ? ????i ???????. E?e ae
?? ??????i ????a ??a ?i ???th ????th ???yi, ? ?? ??? ??? ?????o, ???i
?????, ????? c ????th ????????th (c ????th EOAe), ?????? ?????.

A?????i ? ???i ??????a ????ue ?????a ? ???th??o ?? ?????? ? ?????ny.
C?????i ?? ???? ????? ?i? ????? c ????th ????????th e ?????? ?????. A?i
?? ???th?? ??i ?????i ??????i 625 ? 1250 ?????i ????? ???, ??aey? c
?????? n??e ? ??? ????y ???? ????a.

A? o ??e ??? y ??? c ?????e ??o ? ????? ????ai ??????a c ??i ?????i.

TH???a ???a ????y ????? ?ae????a c ??i ?????i

A?ith ?y ????y ??? ??????i-???? ??e, ye ???? ??????i, AE O??? (?. ?.
63, 113). OeE O???, ?? ? ? ???ue ??? ??e, ??a ?? ????iy ??a ????? ?????
? ?? ?’???a (?.. 325).

I?y?y ????? ?ae????a c ??i ?????i

N??y 113 AE O??? ???ue ???? ????iy ????? ??????a ye c ??i, ?e ? c ?????
????e ??????, ?????i ? y?? ????i ??????? ????ny ??????i, ? ?? ? ???
????? ????? ??? ?i ???o ???yi, ?????a, ?i ??a ?c ???y??a ? ?? (?o) ??? ?
c a?????yi ???? ???. I???ei ? ??ae ??????i, ? ?? ? ??? ????? ?????
?a’??a ????th??y – th???? ??e. C??th? ? ?, ? o ??o ??o?? ??ey?th?ny ??
????? ??????a, ? y?o, ???a, ???? ? ???ia ??????i c ??i ?????i, ????
??????a c ????? ?????? ? ???? ??ey?? ??.

O??????a ????? ??????a c ??i ?????i

1. I??o? ??????i c ??i ?????i ?? ia ??? ????? ????? ???? ?i th???? ??e –
?a’??a ????th?iiy.

C??i ? ?. 325 OeE O??? ?a’???e ??a ????? ????? ? ?c?? ? th???? ??e. A?e
??? ?? ????? ??-y?? ??a, ? ?iy?? ???o ??a ??a, y? ?????i ? ?e?o ? ??? ?i
????. O???i oe ????e ????? ?? ?????y ??-yea ??i, ? ? ?????y o ????e ?i
?????e ?????.

O?o ?y ????iy ????i ???o ????? ??????a ??????i ? ?????iy ???? ????? ??a,
? ?????ny ye ?a?e ? ?? ????? ??o – ?i i? ?? ?? ??i, ? ?????y o i????e ?,
?????i, ? ?????y o e?????e ?i ????e ?????.

C????? ????? ??????a ?? ?? ???a ??a (???? ??e – ?e ????? ????? ??????a c
????? ??????) – ???y?i O???, ????? ?i ??a ?c ???y??a ?i th???a ??a, ? ??
??? ?a’??a ??????? ?y???? (?. 55 AE O???). N???? ????iy ????? ??????a
??/?? ? th????e ???e, a ??ae ????? th????e ???e, ? ???? ?ae ???????
?????, ??????i ? ?????.

2. I??o? ??????i c ??i ?????i ?? ye ? ??? ??? ?? ?????, ?e ? c ?????iyi
???? ???. C?i????i ? ???iy? (? ? ????) ?n???o ?????i ????y ??? ?y????,
?????e ???? ????? ??????a. O ?? ????y ? ??? ?y???? ??? ??a ? ??? ????i
???? ?o ???iy ???ith??ny ? ????o ? a ??y?o, ??????o ??????? O??? ?i
??th.

??? ??? ????? ??????a ???th?ny ?c ????? ???? ??????a ye ??????i-???? ??e
????th??y, ??ey??? ?? ???.

Ui ae ????ny ??????, ? i?y?e ???a?y ????? ?????? th???? ? ???eo
??a-??????a ?eth??, ???a:

§ ????o ??????? ???i?a, y? ??th?ny ????? ??????, ? ???e ?????, ? ????
a ???????e ???;

§ ????o ?????a, y? ?aeath?ny ??a??o ??????, ? ?????ue ???a ?y ??i?
o ????? ????? ??????;

§ ???iy ????? ?i th???? ??o ?i ???o ??o — ?????y ? ???? ?????
????;

§ ????iy ? ??? ????aa ?i ???? ?????th ? ???e c ???? ?????i ????.

Ae?a?e

No. 42 Ae????, ? ?aeath?ny ?y ????iy ????? ?????? ???? ??e, y? ?? ???
??e ??????

1. Aeey ?i???y ????? ?????? ???a ??a, y? ?? ??? ??e ?????? ? ??
????????? ???, ?i ?????? ?th ??a (?? — ?ya?e) ???a ??? ???? (????e
??????? ??? c ??? ????y) ?i ??c ?????? ??o ????? ??n???o ? ???
????iy ?? ae????:

O ??a?? ??????o ??? ? ????iy ????? ?????????? ??e — ?????y;

O e??th ???e ?i ?eth??y ?y??a ? Ae????i ???? ???? ??a — ??i??a ????a
? ??? ??’y??? i???a;

O ae???o, ? ?????? ??a?y ???????i ??o ? ????iy ????? ?????? ???? ??e
— ?????y;

O i?????i ?????o ???? ??o ???a (???eth??a) ?i ??????a, ?i ??? ??? ?
????iy, y?i ?y??? ? ???a ??a, y? ?ny?a ????y? ??a ? ?? ???y ????y
???????ith ?y???th

2. Aeey ????iy ????? ?????? ???a ??a, y? ??c ?? ????? ?i ???
?????y ?????y ?ae ??iy?y ??i??????i ???a, ????i ????? ?i ? ??????
???? ???, ?? ????o o ???? ? ??? ??e ??????, ???a ??? ??th?i ????:

O ????o ??????o ??? ? ????iy ae???? ?????? ???? ??e — ?????y;

O ????, ? ?????? ???iy ???????i ??o ? ????iy ????? ?????? ???? ??e
— ?????y.

3. Ae????o ?????? ?a??y??ny ???? ??o?? ????e ?y ????iy ??a??
?????? ???? ??e — ?????y, y?i ?? ? i????? ????e ??ith ? ??ith ???
???.

4. ss?i ????e ?y ??a??y ????? ?????? ??th?ny ?y??? ??e?i,
?????o ?????? ????i ??’y?y??ny ???o. O???a i??, y? ??c ?? ????? ?i
??? ?????y ?????y ?ae ?e?y?y ?????????i ???, ????i ????? ?i ?
?????? ??? ????? ??e, ???a ???? ??’y?? ????? ?????? ???o ?c ?????ith
????ith. O?????a ??a ???a ??’y?? ??e ???o ? ????, ? ????? ?? ?????iy.

5. Ae????, y? ??th?ny ?y ????iy ????? ?????? ???? ??e —
?????y, ???th?ny ? ???, ??y y?? a ?? ?????y ??i??a ????ny (?????ny
??????? ???) ?y??o c ????ith ?i ?? ?????y ?????a.

6. Ae?a ?????y ?????a ? ????iy ????? ?????? ???? ??e —
????ioey ????y ? ???o ??? ????oe??? ?e. Ae???? ?????? ?? ??i ????
?c ??ey? ????e, y? ??? ?y ????iy ????? ?????? ???? ??e — ?????y, y?i:

O ????e ??? ? ????? ??? ????iy ????? ?????? ???? ??e — i?????y;

O ????e ? ?????th? ???i ??? ??? ? ??? ??? 8 ? ???e i’y?? ??? 10 ??i
C??o;

O ????e ??? ? o ???o ?ny?.

7. I? c???iy ?????a, y? ????ny ?y ????iy ????? ?????? ???? ??e —
?????y, ?c ??ey? ?y??o ? ???? ????? ???? ?y c ?? ?????y ?????a
????i ??????i ??th?ny (?????ny ??????? ?n?i c ??? ????y) ?????a
?????iy ?c ????iyi ???a ????y ?????a, y? ????ny ?y ????iy ?????
?????? ???? ??e — ?????y, ?c ??ey? ? ????e, ? ????ny ?y ????iy
????? ?????? ???? ??e — ?????y, ?????i ? ??o.

8. C???iy ?????a, y? ????ny ?y ????iy ????? ?????? ???? ??e —
?????y, ?c ??ey? ? ?????? ????? ????th ?y??a ? ????? ??????
a ????io ??y?o i??y ???iy ???, ? ?? ????th ?y ????y ?o ?????a ?c
??ey?.

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