Eiio?ieueia ?iaioa

I?aeoiaee aei aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a

Ie aeeaaii a aiioo, eiee a noni?euenoa? oa a na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a
a?aeaoaathoueny ?aaeeeaeuei? ia?aoai?aiiy. Aaaaoi ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae,
ui c?iaeee cia/iee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? aeae?eueeio
iieie?iue ethaeae, nueiaiaei? i?aeaeathoueny ia?ainieneaiith oa
ia?aioe?ioe?. Cie?aia, niinoa??aa?oueny ci?ia oyaeaiue i?i aoe/io
oe?ii?noue ? ineoieia?/iee ci?no i?aaiai? iiaaae?iee. Neeaaeia
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia ? aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y 90-o ?ie?a XX noie?ooy
ii?iaeeea iiaooi? nioe?aeuei? ? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? /eiieee
aeanoaa?e?caoe?? i?aaiai? na?aeiiino?. O iaea?eueo?e iaaaciaoe?
iieieeeny ae?oe i?aee?oeiaiai oa thiaoeueeiai a?eo (A.A. Aeiiia, A.A.
An??a, A.I. C?i/aiei, A.A. Ciaeia, A.I. Iei?y?ia).

O iania?e na?aeiiino? a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia oyaeaiue i?i iaae?
i?eionoeiiai a nioe?aeuei?e iiaaae?ioe?, i?i i?aaeea ? ii?ie iiaaae?iee
a noni?euenoa? (A.A. Ciaeia).

Iaaaoeaia aeeiai?ea ianiai? i?aaiai? na?aeiiino?, ca?eueoaiiy i?aaiai?
iaienueiaiiino? oa i?a?e?cio o iieiae? a?aeaoaathoueny ia oe?
iaoiaeieia?/iiai ? iaoiaee/iiai a?aenoaaaiiy ineoieia?? ? iaaeaaia?ee a
aaeoc? i?iaeai i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy (?.A. Iaanueeee, I.I. ss?ooeei). Ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa eiai iaeaaaeeea?oith iaoith oa
oiiaith iiaeaeueoiai ?nioaaiiy ? iiaoaeiaa i?aaiai? aea?aeaae. Iaeia c
iniiaieo caaaeaiue, ?ica’ycaiiy yeiai caaacia/o? iinooiaeueia oiaea aei
aeinyaiaiiy oe??? no?aoaa?/ii? iaoe, ? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?aaiai?
na?aeiiino? noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio oa eiaeiiai ?? noa’?eoa. I/aaeaeii,
ui ?aaeueia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? noni?euenoaa iiaeeeai
o?eueee oeyoii noai?aiiy nenoaie i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy iieiae?.

I?iaeaia iieyaa? o a?aenooiino? oe?e?nii? nenoaie i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy a
ina?o?, ui ? iaei??th c i?e/ei iecueeiai ??aiy i?aaiai? na?aeiiino?
noni?euenoaa (TH.I. Aioiiyi, N.A. Aae?/?aa, A.A. Aaneeueaa, E.I.
Aieoaaaa, TH.A. Eeaeaa?a, ?.A. Iaanueeee, I.I. ss?ooeei). I?i oea
na?ae/eoue e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy cei/eiiino? acaaae? oa i?ioei?aaii?
iiaaae?iee iieiae? cie?aia. A?aei?oeii, ui aino?ioa neooaoe?? a aaeoc?
i?aaiai? ina?oe iia’ycaia c nioe?aeueieie, aeiiii?/ieie, iie?oe/ieie
e?eciaeie i?ioeanaie, eiee eieeoi? nenoaii? ca’ycee c?oeiiaai?, a
iaiao?aei? nioe?aeuei? iaoai?cie, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, ia noi?iiaai? (N.A. Aieii?ia).

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui i?iaeaia anioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee
iaiiaiie?oi?o ? iieiae?, ui noia?a/eoue i?eeiyoei o noni?euenoa?
i?aaiaei ? aoe/iei ii?iai, aeooaeueia ia o?eueee aeey iaoi? e?a?ie, aea
e aeey an?o i?iieneiai ?icaeiaieo e?a?i (L. Kolberg, E. Lehman, S. R.
Smith, G. Stewart, D. P. Zarrington). I?ioa a Oe?a?i? neooaoe?y iiaea
aooe aeciaia e?eoe/iith, caaaeath/e ia eaoano?io?/ia ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy
i?aee?oeiai? cei/eiiino? ia oe? nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy aeaii?
a?eiai? eaoaai???. I?e oeueiio i?aaenoaaey?oueny aaaeeeaei ?nioaaiiy
oaeoo noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, ui ?ice?eaa? i?e??no cei/eiiino? na?aae
iaiiaiie?oi?o ca inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy a aeaa ?ace i?e e?euee?niiio
ciaioaii? i?aee?oeiai-thiaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy ia 15-20 %. Ca aeaieie
noaoenoeee eiaeai aeanyoee cei/ei a e?a?i? neith?oueny naia noa’?eoii
i?aee?oeiaiai a?eo.

Aeooaeuei?noue iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeoii ei??iii?
e?euee?nii? oa ye?nii? ci?ie no?oeoo?e e oa?aeoa?o i?aee?oeiai?
cei/eiiino?. Cnoa no?oeoo?e i?aee?oeiai? cei/eiiino? oa?e oyae/eo ?
nioe?aeueii ia aacia/i?oeo i?aaiii?ooaiue, c?inoaiiy ia?eiiai?? na?aae
iieiae?, oi?ioaaiiy e?ei?iaeueii? iieiae?aeii? noaeoeueoo?e ia o?eueee
oo?oaeiththoue ?aae?caoe?th iaoiaee/ii ? ineoieia?/ii a??ieo caoiae?a
uiaei i?io?eaeoeee e ai?ioueae c i?aaiii?ooaiiyie, aea nii/aoeo
ni?eythoue ?iciianthaeaeaiith i?aaiaiai i?a?e?cio. I?e oeueiio aei?ine?
(iaaeaaiae, ineoieiae, i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie), ui i?aoeththoue c
iaeie?oi?ie i?aaiii?ooieeaie, ineoieia?/ii ia aioia? a?aoiaoaaoe no??ieo
?? aeeiai?eo, c /iai aeo?eathoue na?eici? oiouaiiy a i?io?eaeoe/i?e
aeoiai?e ?iaio? (I.A. Aeaianueeei, A.I. Aeiacia, A.N. Aaeeei, A.I.
Iaooia, I.I. ss?ooeei).

I?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? iieiae? iieyaa? a oiio, ui
caeo/aiiy aei cei/eiiiai na?oo, eiai i?ioei?aaieo ii?i ca no/anieo oiia
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia aeoaea ?aiiueiio a?eiaiio aoai?, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aaeueie no?eei? caeiiii??iino?: /ei ?ai?oa ethaeeia noa? ia cei/eiiee
oeyo, oei oaeaeoa aeinyaa? ??aiy iaaacia/iiai ?aoeeaeea?noa. Iieiaeee
?aoeeaeea?no iaea?eueo iaaacia/iee aeey noni?euenoaa, ine?eueee, ae?th/e
a a?oi?, ci?aai?ciao? cei/eii? ni?aoiaa?enoaa a iieiae?aeiiio
na?aaeiaeu?, aei yeiai a?i aeecueeee ca a?eii ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aeey
yeiai ? ineoieia?/ii cia/ouei aaoi?eoaoii, ui, o naith /a?ao, ni?e/eiy?
ca niaith ca?eueoaiiy i?ioei?aaieo a/eie?a ? cei/eiiino? na?aae
iaiiaiie?oi?o (TH.I. Aioiiyi, A.A. Ai/ea?aaa, A.A. Aieia/aiei, ?.?.
Ea?iaoe, A.O. Eiiae?aoaiei, E.A. O?eiiia, A.O. Ie?eaee?a).

Oaeei /eiii, aea?? oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaiee noia?a/i?noth
i?ae ?aaeueiei noaiii i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? iieiae? oa iaaeinoaoiuei
aeine?aeaeaieie iaoai?ciaie e caeiiii??iinoyie eiai oi?ioaaiiy.
I?aaiaiiy ciaeoe oeyoe ae??oaiiy aeacaiiai i?ioe??//y aecia/eei i?iaeaio
iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. O oai?aoe/iiio ieai? oea i?iaeaia eiiieaeniiai
i?aeoiaeo aei i?ioeano ?icaeoeo i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a. O
i?aeoe/iiio ieai? oea i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia
aeaoi?iaoe?th i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a.

O ?on? aeine?aeaeaiiy ian oe?eaaeee, ia?o ca ana, o? /eiieee ?icaeoeo
i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c
aeoeai?noth i?aee?oea, ui aeyaey?oueny a i?e?ina?aaeiaeuao eiai
nioe?aeueiiai aoooy. Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?aaiaa na?aeii?noue
i?aee?oe?a. I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy: aieea ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
/eiiee?a ia ?icaeoie i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a.

Iaoith iaoeiai? noaoo? ? aiae?c i?aeoiae?a aei aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae
oa /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a
oa ?ic?iaea ineoieia?/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th c aeyaeaiiy ??aiy
noi?iiaaiino? i?aaiai? na?aeiiino?. Iaoiaeieiai-iaoiaee/iith iniiaith
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?eioeei ?aeiino? na?aeiiino? oa ae?yeueiino?; i?eioeei
aeaoa?i?i?cio; i?eioeei ?icaeoeo ineo?ee a ae?yeueiino?; i?eioeei
nenoaiiino? a i?aaia?e ineoieia??.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeey iinoaiiaee iniiaieo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?iaeai ? oai??y ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino? E.A.
Aaoeueoaiiai?-Neaanueei?; eiioeaioe?y aoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy E. Eieaa?aa;
eiioeaioe?y aeaniiai iaeaooiueiai N.A. Ai?aaoiai oa A.Ae. Eenueeiaa;
“oai??y y?eee?a” ?. Aaeea?a; oai??y iniaiaeo eiino?oeo?a Aeae. Eaee?;
eiioeaioe?? iaa/aiiy A. Aaiaeo?e, Aeae. ?iooa?a; oai??y o?ainaeoe?eiiai
aiae?co A. Aa?ia.

I?aaina?aeii?noue i?aee?oea caeaaeeoue a?ae no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae n?i’?, a ye?e a?i aeoiao?oueny. Aeaoi?iaoe?y i?aaiai?
na?aeiiino? oa, a?aeiia?aeii, aeaa?aioia (iaeaooiaai?noue ia
iai?aaii??io) iiaaae?iea i?aee?oe?a (ia ieooaoe c aeaa?aioiith
i?aaina?aeii?noth ye oeiiai i?aaiiaeaooiaaiei oaiiiaiii ia?ao?aeiiai
noni?euenoaa!) ? iieacieeaie ?o n?iaeiiai iaaeaaiiieo//y, a iniia? yeiai
eaaeeoue iaaaoeaia iiaaae?iea aaouee?a. Iaoai?ciii, ui ca’yco? oa aai
?ioa iaaeaaiiieo//y n?i’? oa aeaoaeo eiie?aoiiai aeaiaioa
i?aaina?aeiiino?, ? ii?ooaiiy aeoiaii? ooieoe?? n?i’?, oi?ioaaiiy
iaaaoeaieo noee?a aeoiaaiiy, ye? iaieio/a i?ecaiaeyoue aei ??cieo
aa??aio?a ineoieia?/ii? o?aaiaoecaoe?? aeeoeie, ui ni?ey? ?? aeaa?aioi?e
iiaaae?ioe?.

A?aeiioaiiy aei i?aaa oi?io?oueny o aeeoeie, ia?o ca ana, a n?i’? ia
iniia? a?aeiioaiiy aei aei?ineeo. Iniaeeaino? aeeoy/i-aaouee?anueeeo
a?aeiinei oi?iothoue a?aeiioaiiy aeeoeie aei aei?ineiai ye iin?y
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo ?icii?yaeaeaiue.

Aeecooieoe?eii-i?aaia? a?aeiineie a n?i’?, a oaeiae aeenaa?iii?ei? noee?
n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy oi?iothoue o aeeoeie i?aaiaee iaaaoea?ci, a?ae/oooy
ia?ace, ui iae?noioi?oei /eiii niioai?th? i?ioean i?aaiai?
nioe?ae?caoe??: i?aaia? ii?ie oa aeiiae iiaiaeeoeny a?aeiia?aeii aei
oeeo ii?i a?aeeeaeathoueny i?aee?oeii, ine?eueee oaea eiai iiceoe?y
a?aeiioaiiy aei aei?ineeo acaaae?.

I?aaineooiyi?noue, ui aeyaey?oueny a aioiaiino? ?iaeea?aea iiaiaeeoeny
a?aeiia?aeii aei ii?i i?aaa, oi?io?oueny ye?nii, yeui o i?aee?oea iaia?
ia?ace ia naith n?i’th oa i?aeic??eino? ii a?aeiioaiith aei aei?ineeo,
ye? eiai aeoiaothoue.

Ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii, ui aeaoi?io? i?aaina?aeii?noue i?aee?oe?a,
oi?ioth/e e?ei?iiaaiio ni?yiiaai?noue iniae, ? ai?iae?noue ye oi?ia
a?aeiioaiiy aei na?oo.

Ai?iae?noue ye niaoeeo?/ia ni?yiiaai?noue iniae iaiiaiie?oi?o
i?aaiii?ooiee?a oi?io?oueny a nenoai? n?iaeieo a?aeiinei, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aiioe?eiei a?aeeeaeaiiyi i?aaeeueii? ?aaeueiino? oa
?ea?aei?noth. Ca?eueoaiiy a?aeoeeaiue o iiaaae?ioe? i?aee?oe?a iia’ycaia
c ia?aoiaeii a?ae ia?aaaaeaiiy aa?aaeueii? aa?an?? aei o?ce/ii? ia oe?
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?iaeino?. I?e/eia iecueei? aoaeoeaiino? iaaeaaia?/ieo ae?e
iieyaa? o aeiaaeeiaiio, aacnenoaiiiio oa?aeoa?? aeoiaiiai i?ioeano,
iecueei? ineoieia?/ii? ?ioi?iiaaiino? iaaeaaia?a, ui aecia/a? i?iaeaio
?o aioiaiino? aei oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? o ?o aeoiaaioe?a.

Aieea ia i?aaina?aeii?noue i?aee?oea iaoi?iaeueieo a?oi iaeiie?oe?a,
noeeueieo aei anioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee, i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?ia?anoth/i?
oaiaeaioe?? aeene?ei?iaoe?? i?inioe?aeueieo a?oi c eiai aieo.
Canoaeaeaiiy oaeeo i?aee?oe?a noni?euenoaii ca cae?eniaia i?aaiii?ooaiiy
ni?eeia?oueny i?aee?oeii ye iani?aaaaeeeaa, ui i?aeneeth? aioaaii?ci
i?aee?oea oa noni?euenoaa, ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith eiai ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? c
anioe?aeueiith a?oiith. ?aeaioeo?eoth/e naaa c anioe?aeueiith a?oiith,
i?aee?oie ii/eia? ni?eeiaoe naaa ye anioe?aeueiiai noa’?eoa.
Noaa?e?caoe?y oaeiai naiini?eeiyooy ? iiiaioii aeai?o e?ei?iaeueii?
ea?’??e. ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y c anioe?aeueiith a?oiith ? iaoai?ciii
aeaoi?iaoe?? i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a. I?aaiaa na?aeii?noue ?
aeuei ??aiai a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy i?aaiai? ae?eniino?, aea ia iaia’yceiai
ia?aeaeueii aaoaioe/iei ca ooieoe??th.

Iaea?eueo ?noioieie ineoieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?aaina?aeiiino? ?:

1. Caeaoi?noue ?aoeaen??, oiaoi aioiai?noue i?aaina?aeiiino? aei
?noeiiiai i?ciaiiy ?ioeo ineo?/ieo yaeu, aei naiii?ciaiiy.

2. Iayaia oyaeaiiy oa oyaeaiiy ae?eniino?. I?e oeueiio a na?aeiiino?
a?aeaeaathoueny ia ana, ia ana aeiaaeeiai, a o?eueee iniiaia, nooi?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaeiao?a, iiae?e oa yaeu.

3. Cae?ai?noue i?aaina?aeiiino? aei eiioi?eaoe??, oiaoi ia?aaea/? ?ioei
iniaai oiai, ui ona?aeiieth? aeaia ethaeeia ca aeiiiiiaith iiae oa ?ioeo
ciaeiaeo nenoai.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei aniaeoii i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? ?iaeea?aea, ui caaacia/o?
iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai nioe?aeueiiai aoooy, ? i?aaiaa na?aeii?noue.
I?iaeaia i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? oa oaiiiai i?aaina?aeiiino?
?icaeyaea?oueny c iiceoe?? ??cieo iaoeiaeo aeenoeeie?i: o?einio??,
nioe?ieia??, ineoieia??, eoeueoo?ieia??, iaaeaaia?ee, e?ei?iae?noeee.
Oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? caa?iaia ia iiooe:

1) ao?eaooeaieo iciae i?aaina?aeiiino? (A.E. Aaneeue?a);

2) e?eoa???a i?aaina?aeiiino? ye oi?ie noni?eueii? na?aeiiino? (I.I.
ss?ooeei);

3) ni?aa?aeianaiiy nioe?aeueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai a no?oeoo?? ?
ci?no? i?aaina?aeiiino? (A.A. I?oeeaae/, A.I. Iaooia);

4) no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a i?aaina?aeiiino? (A. ?. ?aoeiia);

5) ia?aiao??a noa’?eo?a i?aaina?aeiiino? (?. ?. Ea?iaoe, A. M.
sseiae?a).

?acii ?c oei, oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?niiai ?ioaa?aeueiiai oyaeaiiy i?i nooue
i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? ua aeaeaei a?ae naiai caaa?oaiiy. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui
cia/iei aianeii o ae??oaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie iiaei a aooe, ii-ia?oa,
aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae i?aaina?aeiiino? ia ??cieo a?eiaeo
aoaiao, a, ii-ae?oaa, aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae aca?iica’yceo i?ae
aeaiaioaie no?oeoo?e na?aeiiino? oa iniaeeainoae i?aaina?aeiiino?
?iaeea?aea. Oaeei /eiii, a aeai?e iaoeia?e noaoo? ie ia?ii iai??
aena?oeeoe ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a
c ??cieo ieoaiue i?aaina?aeiiino?, ?icaeyiooe a?eia? iniaeeaino?
i?aaina?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a ? i?iaiae?coaaoe aieea iniaeeainoae
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino? ia i?aaina?aeii?noue ?iaeea?aea.

Ne?aeoth/e o?aaeeoe??, ui neeaeany a iaooe?, ii/iaii iao aiae?c c
iaaiai?aiiy i?iiiiiaaieo ??cieie aaoi?aie aecia/aiue i?aaina?aeiiino?.
Iaea?eueo ?ic?iaeaia aecia/aiiy oeueiai iiiyooy iiaeia ciaeoe o A.E.
Aaneeue?aa. Ca?aeii eiai oi/ee ci?o, i?aaina?aeii?noue — oea iaeia c
oi?i noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?, ui a?aeia?aaea? noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ye?
?aaoeththoueny aai iiaeii? aooe a?aaoeueiaai? ii?iaie i?aaa, /ee ci?no ?
?icaeoie coiiaeththoueny iaoa??aeueieie oiiaaie ?nioaaiiy noni?euenoaa1
. O nai?io aecia/aii? A. E. Aaneeue?a aeoeaioo? oaaao ia oiio, ui
i?aaiaa na?aeii?noue ? oi?iith noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?, aaciina?aaeiuei
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?? ci?noo oa ia’?eoeaieo oiia aeeooy noni?euenoaa.
I/aaeaeii, ui ia?aae i?aaiaith iaoeith, o oaeiio ?ac?, iaieio/a aeieea?
ieoaiiy i?i oae? iciaee i?aaiai? na?aeiiino?, ui aeicaieythoue
a?ae??cieoe ?? a?ae ?ioeo oi?i noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?, ui o?enothoue ??
niaoeeo?eo. ?ic?iaeaia nenoaiia oyaeaiiy i?i iciaee i?aaina?aeiiino? ie
ciaoiaeeii a ?iaioao I.I. ss?ooeeia. A?i a?aecia/a?, ui
i?aaina?aeii?noue ye oi?ia noni?eueii? na?aeiiino? aieiae?? ianooiieie
iciaeaie:

1) aoaeo/e aeuei ??aiai a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei ethaeae, ae?aaeaieo a caeiiao noni?euenoaa, aiia e
a?aeia?aaea? nioe?aeueio ae?eni?noue, aeoeaii ia ia? aieeaa?;

2) aiia caaaeaee ae?aaea?oueny /a?ac ae?oao neaiaeueio nenoaio, oiaoi
iaoai?ciii i?aaina?aeiiino? ? iiaiiieneeoaeueia i?aaiaa ae?yeuei?noue
ethaeae, ui a?aeia?aaea? nenoaio i?aaiaeo ciaiue oa iiiyoue,
?aaoethth/eo noni?euei? a?aeiineie;

3) aiia ia iiaea ?nioaaoe aac eiie?aoii? ethaenueei? iniae, a?oi,
eieaeoea?a, ui ia’?aeiothoueny ca iciaeith ni?eueiino? ona?aeiieaiiy
i?aaiaeo ii?i a noni?euenoa?.

?noioiei o iiceoe?? I.I. ss?ooeeia aeey ian ?, ia?o ca ana, aeoeaiee
oa?aeoa? i?aaina?aeiiino?, ui aeyaey?oueny a oiio, ui i?aaina?aeii?noue
ia o?eueee a?aeia?aaea? nioe?aeueio ae?eni?noue, aea e aieeaa? ia ia?.
I?aee?aneeii, ui aeoeai?noue i?aaina?aeiiino? iia’ycaia ia o?eueee c
aeoeai?noth naiiai i?ioeano a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy, aea e a oiio, ui
ia?aoai?th? nenoaio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?aaicanoiniaii?
iiaaae?iee noa’?eo?a i?aaina?aeiiino? — ?iaeea?ae?a, a?oi, eieaeoea?a.
Ia iaio aaaeeeaei o iiceoe?? I. I. ss?ooeeia ? oa, ui iaoai?ciii
i?aaina?aeiiino? i?aaenoaaey?oueny “iiaiiieneeoaeueia ae?yeuei?noue
ethaeae!. sseui ia?oa c aeacaieo I. I. ss?ooeeiei iciae aea?
iiaeeea?noue a?aeiia?noe ia ieoaiiy i?i oi?ie ?iaioe c oi?ioaaiiy
i?aaina?aeiiino? (?iaeea?aeoaeueia e a?oiiaa oi?ie ?iaioe), oi ae?oaa
iciaea i?noeoue a nia? i?yio aeac?aeo ia iaoiaee i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy.
I/aaeaeii, ui iiaeiii eoeny i?i ??ci? oi?ie eieaeoeaii?
ieneaae?yeueiino? (iiceiaee ooo?i, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee o?ai?ia,
a?oiiaa aeeneon?y, ae?eia? ?a?e oa ?i.).

Ia?aoo?, ua iaeia aaaeeeaa ianoaaeia iieyaa?, ia iao iiaeyae, o
aeae?eaii? oa?aeoa?o ona?aeiieaiiy i?aaiaeo ii?i a noni?euenoa? ye
iaei?e c iiaeeeaeo iniia nioe?aeueiiai a?oiiooai?aiiy. Oaeei /eiii,
iaeaaaeeea?oa nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia caaaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia
iaa/eoe ae?oae aeae?aoe ?aoa?aioi? a?oie, a?oie /eainoaa oa eieaeoeae,
aea i?aaicanoiniaia iiaaae?iea ? a?oiiaith ii?iith.

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe i?e oeueiio, ia iao iiaeyae, aaaeeeaee iiiaio
aca?iica’yceo i?ae i?aaina?aeii?noth ? i?ioeanii i?aaiai?
nioe?ae?caoe??, ui a?aeia?aaea?, c iaeiiai aieo, aieea aeeoo?aiai
aeina?aeo e i?aeoeee ethaeeie ia oi?ioaaiiy ?? onoaiiaie ? oe?ii?nieo
i???ioaoe?e o noa?? i?aaa oa, c ?ioiai aieo, i?yia ae?y i?aaina?aeiiino?
ia iioeaaoe?th iiaaae?iee ethaeeie. Aiae?c aca?iica’yceo
i?aaina?aeiiino? oa i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? ?icai?oa? nooi?nia ?aei?noue
nioe?aeueiiai ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai. Cia/iee ?ioa?an c oe??? oi/ee ci?o
aeeeeeathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino?, i?iaaaeai?
i?ae ea??aieoeoaii E.A. Aaoeueoaiiai?-Neaanueei?.

Ii?aeiaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa ?ioaa?aeueiiai i?aeoiae?a a oai?aoe/ieo
? aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeicaieeei ?icaeyiooe ca’ycie na?aeiiino?
oa ona?aeiieaiiy c? an?ia noi?iiaie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie. Oae,
E.A. Aaoeueoaiiaith-Neaanueeith noaaeoueny i?iaeaia aioiaiino?
?iaeea?aea aooe noa’?eoii ooaaeaiiy i?aaiaeo ??oaiue, ye? noinothoueny
eiai aeaniiai aeeooy.

Iieacaii, ui /a?ac ianoaaeie, ui ?noi?e/ii neeaeeny, aioiai?noue
?iaeea?aea aooe aaoi?ii nai?? aeie? ia aoea cao?aaoaaia. Ie aaaaea?ii,
ui aeyaeaia E.A. Aaoeueoaiiaith oa ?? ni?a?ia?oieeaie ianoaaeia ?noioii
aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? /eai?a noni?euenoaa. Ie
aaaaea?ii, ui aooe noa’?eoii i?aaina?aeiiino? icia/a? iiaeeea?noue iniae
a eiaeiee eiie?aoiee iiiaio /ano aeae?aoe ia ei?enoue i?aaicanoiniaii?
iiaaae?iee na?aeiia, a?aeiia?aeaeueia oa a?eueia iaiaaeaiiy nai?o
?iioeuenieo ?aaeoe?e. ?noioio ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee
a?ae?a?a? nioe?aeueia ieneaiiy, ui ?icoi??oueny ye noeoii?noue niinia?a
i?aaiaiai inieneaiiy ?iaeea?aeii nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?. Iieacaii, ui
no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueiiai ieneaiiy ??cieo oei?a ethaeae ?ic??ciythoueny ca
caeaoi?noth noaaeoe oa ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaie noni?eueiiai aeeooy
eiino?oeoeaii, i?iaeoeoeaii, i?ea?iaeueii oa i?iaiinoe/ii. I?aaiaa
ieneaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeaiai na?aeiiino? eiino?oeoa ”ss —
noni?euenoai”. Aa??aioe oeueiai eiino?oeoa iathoue aeinoaoiuei oe?ie?
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aa??aoe??, aiae?c yeeo iieaco? ca’ycie
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ? noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?. C’?aeiaiiy nenoaiiiai oa
noa’?eoiiai i?aeoiae?a aei iniae aeicaieeei E.A. Aaoeueoaiia?e ?ic?iaeoe
eiioeaioe?th iniae ye noa’?eoa aeeoo?aiai oeyoo. Iieacaii, ui eiaeia
iniaa ??ciith i??ith noa? noa’?eoii aeeooy, aieiae?? ??ciei nooiaiai
aeoeaiino?. C iiaeyaeo i?aaeiaoa iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeaee ?ioa?an
i?aaenoaaey? aiae?c aeeoo?aiai oeyoo iniae c e?ei?iaeueiith
ni?yiiaai?noth. I?i iayai?noue oaeiai oeio iniae aiai?eoue aenieee
a?aenioie ?aoeeaeeao na?aae oeo, ooi iaiaeii?aciai cae?enithaaa
i?aaiii?ooaiiy, aoa canoaeaeaiee oa a?aeaoaaa iiea?aiiy. Ia aeaeue, a
?iaioao E.A. Aaoeueoaiiai? oey i?iaeaia ia ciaeoea naiai aena?oeaiiy.
Iai i?aaenoaaey?oueny oe?eaaith c?iaeaia E.A. Aaoeueoaiiai? ni?iaa
aiae?co ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino? /a?ac ?? ooieoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo —
nioe?aeueii ci???ioiaaia ieneaiiy. O ?? ?iaioao i?iaeaiiino?iaaia
iiaeeea?noue aea/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino? oeyoii c?noaaeaiiy
?? aano?aeoii? ?aeaaeueii? no?oeoo?e c ?? ?aaeueiith no?oeoo?ith,
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi ? ci?iith. ??ai? na?aeiiino?, ni?aa?aeianaiiy ??
eiai?oeaiiai oa aoe/iiai, i?aaiaiai e aoe/iiai aniaeo?a, aeyaeai? ca
iaei??th nioe?ieoeueoo?iith aeai?eith, aeyaeeeny ?ioeie a ?ioeo
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo na?aaeiaeuao. Oaeei /eiii, aeyaey?oueny oa?aeoa?
caeaaeiino? i?ae no?oeoo?aie noni?euenoaa, noni?eueiith oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiith na?aeii?noth: a?aenooi?noue ia ??ai? noni?euenoaa oa
eiai na?aeiiino? i?aaiaeo ? aoe/ieo ii?i i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?o o?aineyoe??
ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ??aaiue, aea th?eaee/i? ii?ie i?aei?iythoueny
aoe/ieie. *anoeia ianaeaiiy, oaeei /eiii, aeeaa ia ca caeiiaie, a ca
“iiiyooyie”. Inoaiiy ianoaaeia iieaco? i?eioeeiiao iaiiaeeea?noue
ioioiaeiaiiy i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy oa aoe/iiai, ioaea, i?yi? aiaeia??, ye
i?ae aniaeoaie na?aeiiino?, oae ? i?ae i?aaiaei ? aoaeue-yeei ?ioei
aniaeoii ? na?aeii?noth a oe?eiio iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei ao?aoe
niaoeeo?ee aniaeoo. ??ci? aniaeoe na?aeiiino? aa/aoueny iaie ye
iaeeieoe? oe?eiai, nooue yeeo ia iaaeeaeaia i? aei oe?eiai, i? aei
aoaeue-yei? eiai /anoeie.

A.A. I?oeeaae/ oa A.I. Iaooiaa aeacothoue ia oa, ui “i?aaina?aeii?noue
iniae ? nieaaii nioe?aeueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai, ui a?aeia?aaea?
ia’?eoeai? oiiae aeeooy, a?aeiineie, a ye? aeeth/aiee ?iaeea?ae, a
oaeiae aeanoeaino? oa yeino? naii? iniae (ineoieia?/i?, a?io?c?ieia?/i?,
aeaiia?ao?/i?”). ?ioeie neiaaie, i?aaina?aeii?noue ?aeaioeo?eo?
?icoi?iiy ethaeueie i?aaiaeo ii?i, th?eaee/ieo i?aa ? iaia’yce?a,
caeiiiino? aai iacaeiiiino? ??cieo a/eie?a, ?o a?aeiioaiiy aei caeiio
i?aaiaeo yaeu ? aeiia ye eiai iane?aeeo.

C iiaeyaeo A.?. ?ao?iiaa, aeey iiaiiai ?ice?eooy noo? i?aaina?aeiiino? ?
iaiao?aeiei ?? aea/aiiy ca oiia aaaaoiieaiiaiai niaeo?a ?icaeyaeo, ui ?
oaiaeaioe??th aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae ??cieie i?iaeoeoaie
a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy i?aaiai? ae?eniino? oa aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e
i?aaina?aeiiino? a oe?eiio. A?aeiia?aeii, e no?oeoo?a i?aaiai?
na?aeiiino? i?aaenoaaeaia A.?. ?ao?iiaei a yeiaeiiai?oiio ia’?i? ia
??ai? iae?iaiae?co o aeaeyae? aace?/? neeaaeieo ooai?aiue, neeaaeiaeo ??
noo?. A.?. ?ao?iia ?icaeyaea? i?aaiao na?aeii?noue c iiaeyaeo i?aaeiaoa
a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy. Aeaiee aniaeo aiae?co aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe noa?e
i?aaina?aeiiino?, a?aeiia?aei? ??ciei aaeocyi i?aaa oa ??ciei aeaeai
i?aaina?aeiiino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia noaoo? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e i?iaiae?ciaai? no/ani?
i?aeoiaee aei:

1) aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae aieeao ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo /eiiee?a ia
?icaeoie i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a (no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino? n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy; oiiae oe?eueii? nioe?ae?caoe??; a?oie
iaeiie?oe?a iaoi?iaeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy);

2) ?ice?eooy aaiaceno aeaoi?iaoe?? i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? oa e?ei?iaeueii?
ni?yiiaaiino? iniae i?aee?oe?a. Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoe?ththoue iaoeia?
oyaeaiiy i?i /eiieee, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue aeaoi?iaoe?th i?aaina?aeiiino?;
ni?eythoue ?icoi?iith caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo i?aaiai? na?aeiiino?
i?aee?oe?a a ??cieo nioe?aeueieo na?aaeiaeuao ? aoaeoeai?oiio
?ica’ycaiith aeooaeueieo ieoaiue i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe
iaoeiai? noaoo? ni?eythoue oaeineiiaeaiith i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai?
na?aeiiino? aeeoeie ca oiia ia?aeiii? i?aaiai? nioe?ae?caoe??;
aeicaieythoue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano ae?aaiinoe/iiai
ianoaaeaiiy i?aaiai? na?aeiiino? i?aee?oe?a ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?e ?ic?iaoe? ye ei?aeooaaeueieo i?ia?ai, oae e nenoaie i?aaiaiai
aeoiaaiiy a oe?eiio. Aeoia?ii, ui iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy eiioaenooaeueii?
oaiaoeee cia/ii iioei?coaaoeia ??ciiieaiia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
i?aaina?aeiiino?.

Noaooy ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei ae?oeo eaoaae?ith i?aaiaiai noi?iaiaeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe Oi?aa?neoaoo iene? (i?ioieie ? 17 a?ae 15 o?aaiy
2006 ?ieo)

E?oa?aoo?a

1. Aaneeueaaa A.E. Iaeioi?ua caia/aiey i i?aaiaii niciaiee. — I.:
TH?enou, 2006. — N. 34.

2. ss?ooeeia I.I. I?aaiaaaeaiea. — NIa, 2005. — N. 2-3.

3. Oi?aa?neoaonuee? iaoeia? caienee, 2007, ? 4 (24), n. 26-31.

4. Aaoeueoaiiaa-Neaaneay E.A. I?ieaiu i?aaiaiai niciaiey // Nai?iee
iao/iuo o?oaeia. — ss?ineaaeue, 2004. —

5. N. 112-113.

6. Ieoeeaae/ A.A., Iaooiaa A.I. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia i?aaiaia niciaiea
iiae?inoeia. — NIa, 2003. — N. 78.

7. ?aoeiia A.?. Oai?aoe/aneea aniaeou i?aaa. — *aeyaeine, 2004. — N. 26.

8. Oi?aa?neoaonuee? iaoeia? caienee, 2007, ? 4 (24), n. 26-31.

Похожие записи