OAIA 1. E?EI?IIEIA?ss ssE IAOEA, ?? ?NOI??ss ? NO*ANIEE NOAI

Ieai

1. Iiiyooy e?ei?iieia?? ye iaoee, ?? i?aaeiao.

2. I?noea e?ei?iieia?? a nenoai? iaoe.

3. ?noi??y ? no/aniee noai e?ei?iieia??.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey: O/aaiee / I.A.Aaeyaa e ae?. – NIa., 1992.

2. E?eieiieiaey: O/aaiee / Iiae. ?aae. A.A.Eeoieiaa e A.I.Oeeiiiaa. –
Eeaa, 1997.

3. Caeeineee A.O. E?eieiieiaey: Eo?n eaeoeee. – Oa?ueeia, 1996.

Ieoaiiy 1. Iiiyooy e?ei?iieia?? ye iaoee, ?? i?aaeiao

Naia neiai e?ei?iieia?y icia/a?, ui oea iaoea i?i cei/eii?noue. Crimen
(eao.) – oea cei/ei, cei/eii?noue, a logos (a?aoe.) – a/aiiy.

Aeieeiaiiy iaoee i?i cei/eii?noue iia’ycothoue c aeoiaeii o na?o o 1764
?ioe? iaaaee/ei? eieaeee 26-e?oiueiai ?oae?enueeiai th?enoa *aca?a
Aaeea??a (1738-1794). Oey eieaeea iaceaaeanue «I?i cei/eie ? iiea?aiiy».
?aea?, ui aoee aeeeaaeai? a i?e, iaaecae/aeii oaeaeei iioe?eeenue ii
anueiio na?oo ? ni?aaeee ae??oaeueiee aieea ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
iaoee ? i?aeoeee ai?ioueae ?c cei/eii?noth.

Aea iacao «e?ei?iieia?y» iaoea i?i cei/eii?noue io?eiaea i?ci?oa, i?ney
oiai ye o 1885 ?. ?oae?enueeee a/aiee ?aoaaeue Aa?ioaeei aeaeaa eieaeeo,
yea iaceaaeanue «E?ei?iieia?y».

Aei aeieeiaiiy e?ei?iieia?? ye niaoe?aeueii? aaeoc? iaoee i?iaeaie
cei/eiiino? ?icaeyaeaeenue o o?einio?? ? ?ae?a??, ui ?icaeaaee aoe/i?
i?iaeaie, ia yeeo aaco?oueny i?aainoaeaey.

I?e aecia/aii? ui ? i?aaeiaoii, yeei caeia?oueny e?ei?iieia?y, ne?ae
iaoe ia oaac? ianooiia. Eiei aeaiaio?a, c yeeo neeaaea?oueny i?aaeiao
e?ei?iieia?? ia iiaea aooe iaci?iiei, iaeiicia/ii aecia/aiei. Ci?no
i?aaeiaoo e?ei?iieia??, eiai no?oeoo?a ci?iththoueny c ?icaeoeii iaoee ?
i?aeoeee. A oie aea /an ia? ?nioaaoe iaaiee e?eoa??e, c aeiiiiiaith
yeiai iiaeia aoei a a?aeiineoe o? /e ?io? oaeoi?e aei i?aaeiaoo
e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai e?eoa??th, e?ei?iieia?th
iiaeia aecia/eoe ianooiiei /eiii.

E?ei?iieia?y – oea iaoea, ui aea/a? i?e?iaeo cei/eiiino? aeey i?ciaiiy
i?e/ei ? oiia, eio?? ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue ? ?ic?iaey? ia
i?aenoaa? oeueiai aoaeoeai? caniae i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?

A oeueiio aecia/aii? iiiyooy e?ei?iieia?? ? i?noeoueny e?eoa??e oiai, ui
iiaea aooe aeeth/aii aei i?aaeiaoo e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee.

Ia nueiaiaei? aei i?aaeiaoo e?ei?iieia?? ca?aeii c ?? aecia/aiiyi, ye
i?aaeei, aeeth/athoue oae? aeaiaioe:

1. Cei/eii?noue ye nioe?aeueia yaeua.

2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue (e?ei?iiaaii? oaeoi?e
– oae ?o ua iaceaathoue).

3. Iniaeno?noue cei/eioey.

4. Iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?.

5. AEa?oaa cei/eio.

Aei i?aaeiaoo e?ei?iieia?? iiaeooue aeeth/aoeny oaeiae ?io? aeaiaioe,
aea/aiiy yeeo ? iaiao?aeiei aeey aeeiiaiiy ?o iniiaiiai caaaeaiiy:
ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy e?ei?iieia?y iiaeiia iaoe ianooii?
ooieoe??: 1) iieniao; 2) iiynithaaeueio; 3) i?iaiinoe/io; 4)
?aaoeyoeaio.

Ieoaiiy 2. I?noea e?ei?iieia?? a nenoai? iaoe

Aeey ?ice?eooy nooiino? e?ei?iieia?? ye iaoee ne?ae aeynieoe oaeiae ??
i?noea a nenoai? iaoe.

Oi/a e?ei?iieia?y o?nii iia’ycaia c iaoeith e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, aea
aiia ia ? /anoeiith oe??? iaoee. E?ei?iieia?y ? naiino?eiith iaoeith, ui
ia? na?e aeaniee i?aaeiao, a?aei?iiee a?ae i?aaeiaoo iaoee
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa. I?aaeiaoii e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? i?aaia?aeiineie
c i?eaiaeo eiie?aoiiai cei/eio ? anoaiiaeaia caeiiii e?ei?iaeueia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iueiai. I?aaeiao e?ei?iieia?? – cei/eii?noue, ??
i?e/eie ? oiiae, iniaeno?noue cei/eioey, iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/ei?a ye
?ai?aneaieie, oae ? ia?ai?aneaieie caniaaie.

E?ei?iieia?th ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe eeoa i?aaiaith iaoeith, ai ?? i?aaeiao
aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? i?aaeiaoo th?eaee/ii? iaoee, i?aaeiaoii yei? ? i?aai
ye nioe?aeueia yaeua.

Ine?eueee cei/eii?noue ye i?aaeiao e?ei?iieia?? ? ca nai?th i?e?iaeith
yaeuai, ui ia? nioe?ieia?/i? ? ineoieia?/i? aeanoeaino?, oi iaoea
e?ei?iieia?y, ui aea/a? oea yaeua, ia? a?aeiia?aeii aooe naiino?eiith
eiiieaeniith nioe?ieiai-ineoieia?/iith iaoeith, eio?a aeei?enoiao? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy cei/eiiino? aeinyaiaiiy ?ioeo iaoe: o?einio??, aeiiii?ee,
th?eni?oaeaioe??, iaaeaaia?ee ? o.i.

E?ei?iieia?y ia eeoa aeei?enoiao? aeai? ?ioeo iaoe, a e caaaa/o? ?io?
iaoee nai?ie aeanieie aeniiaeaie.

Ine?eueee cei/eii?noue ca’ycaia ?c aeiiii?eith, e?ei?iieia?y ia iiaea
ia?eoenue aac aca?iiae?? c aeiiii?/iith iaoeith.

Nooo?aith ian aooe aca?iiae?y e?ei?iieia?? c th?eni?oaeaioe??th.
TH?eni?oaeaioe?y aecia/a? iiaeeeaino? ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocae
caeiiiaeaanoaa (ia eeoa e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa) o noa?? iiia?aaeaeaiiy
cei/eiiino?. Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui ?aaoeth?
aeiiii?/ia aeeooy, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Inoaii?i /anii, iniaeeai o cao?aeieo e?a?iao, e?ei?iieia?y o?nii
aca?iiae?? c a?ieia?/ieie iaoeaie ? iaaeeoeeiith, eio?? a?aee?eaathoue
caniae aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo in?a, ui a/eiythoue cei/eie, a oaeiae
aeine?aeaeothoue aieea aeeiaie?cio ? ia?eiiai??, ?ioeo iaoieia?/ieo
oaeoi??a ia e?ei?iaeuei? i?iyae.

Ieoaiiy 3. ?noi??y ? no/aniee noai e?ei?iieia??

?noi??th e?ei?iieia?? iiaeia ?icaeoe ia o?e aoaie: 1) aoai eeane/ii?
oeiee XVIII no.; 2) aoai iiceoea?nonueei? oeiee e?ioey XIX no. ? 3)
e?ei?iieia?y iia?oiueiai /ano (c na?aaeeie XX no.).

Ca?aeii c eaiiiaie eeane/ii? oeiee ethaeeia naia eiio?ieth? naith aeieth
a?aeiia?aeii aei naiaiaee aie?. Noni?euenoai iiaeiia ?aaaoaaoe ia cei/ei
oae, uia cioneoe iniao ca aeaniith aieath a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae cei/eiii?
iiaaae?iee ? aea?aoe iacei/eiio, aae ia aooe iiea?aiei, n.49 o Oiena.
I?aaenoaaieee: *aca?a Aaeea??y, a?eoainueeee e?ei?iieia Aeaeii Aiaa?ae.

Iiceoea?nonueea oeiea e?eoeeo? oaeee niin?a aieeao ia cei/eii?noue,
aaaaeath/e eiai iai?iaeoeoeaiei. Ca?aeii c ?? ?aeayie iiaaae?iea
ethaeeie aecia/a?oueny aaaaoueia o?c?ieia?/ieie, ineoieia?/ieie ?
nioe?aeueieie oaeoi?aie, eio?? ia iiaeia iaeo?ae?coaaoe ?ai?aneaieie
caniaaie.

I?aaenoaaieee: *.Eiia?ici, Ai??ei Oa???, Oa?ae oa ?io?.

Oiio caaaeaiiyi e?ei?iieia?? ? aea/aiiy oeeo oaeoi??a ? ?ic?iaea
a?aeiia?aeieo ?i cania?a, caeaoieo cioneoe ethaeeio aooe
aeia?iii?yaeiith, i?ioan?eii ei?eniith noni?euenoao ?
aeenoeeie?iiaaiith. (I?i Eiia?ici).

sseui eeane/ia oeiea caa?oaea iniiaio oaaao ia ae?yiiy, oi
iiceoea?nonueea oeiea – ia cei/eioey, eiai aeanoeaino?. Eeane/ia oeiea
i???ioiaaia ia caoeno ?ioa?an?a noni?euenoaa, iiceoea?nonueea – ia
aei?aaeaiiy aeanoeainoae cei/eioey.

E?ei?iieia?y iia?oiueiai /ano a?aee?eea aeey naaa iiaee iai?yi aea/aiiy
?aaeoe?? noni?euenoaa ia cei/eii?noue: caa?ioeanue aei aeine?aeaeaiue
iioa?i?eiai (aea?oae cei/eio) ? iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth.
Oaia? aaea aei i?e/ei cei/eiiino? i?aeoiaeyoue ia o?eueee c oi/ee ci?o
oa?aeoa?enoeee cei/eiiiai ae?yiiy ? aeanoeainoae cei/eioey. I?e/eie
aeaiaeyoueny c nioe?aeueiiai i?ioeano, a yeiio caae?yi? ? cei/eiaoeue, ?
iioa?i?eee, ? noni?euenoai. Iniaeeai aeine?aeaeothoueny i?ioeane a
noni?euenoa?, a neeo yeeo iiaaae?iea ethaeae ? nai? ethaee aecia/aoueny
ye cei/eii?.

I?aaenoaaieee: Iia? Naoa?eaiae, Naee?i, Ia?oii.

A Oe?a?i?, yea aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia???, aei ?aaiethoe??
1917 ?ieo e?ei?iieia?y ?icaeaaeanue ye ?icae?e e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai?
oai???.

I?ney ?aaiethoe?? o 1924 ?ioe? a Iaean? aeiee Eaa?iao ii aea/aiith
cei/eiiino? ? iniae cei/eioey c o?e?aeaie o Oa?eia? ? Ee?a?. O 1931
?ioe? Eaa?iao aoei ia?aoai?aii ia Anaoe?a?inueeee e?ei?iieia?/iee
?inoeooo o i. Oa?eia?. Aeey e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o??? ii?e
oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeinyaiaiiy a?ieia??, ineo?ao???, ineoieia??,
oai??y Aaoo???aa ? Iaaeiaa.

Ii/eiath/e c 1929 ?. aei na?aaeeie 30-o ?ie?a oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinueea
e?ei?iieia?y iioa?i?ea ?ica?ii. I?eaiaeii noaea caeioaa/aiiy o
i?iiaaaiae? ?aeae *.Eiia?ici i?i i?e?iaeaeaiith cei/eioey.
E?ei?iieia?/i? eaa?iaoe aoee e?ea?aeiaai?, a ?inoeoooe ii aea/aiith
cei/eiiino? ia?aoai?ai? a onoaiiae ii aea/aiith e?ei?iaeueii? iie?oeee ?
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa.

A?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee ii/aeinue o 1956 ?., i?ney c’?caeo
EI?N, c 1964 ?. aaiaeeoueny aeeeaaeaiiy e?ei?iieia?? a th?eaee/ieo
aocao. A Oe?a?i? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?ei?iieia?? iia’ycaia c ?iaiai i?io.
I.I.Ieoaeeaiea. A 1964 ?. a?i aeaeaa o ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?.Aaeueoaiaeii
iiiia?ao?th «I?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea i?anooieaiee – iniiaa ai?ueau ca
enei?aiaiea i?anooiiinoe».

Cia/iee aeeaae o ?icaeoie e?ei?iieia?? aianee a/ai? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? o i. Oa?eia?, Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o
ni?aa o i. Ee?a?, ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ca?ac oe?a?inueea e?ei?iieia?y ia?aaeeaa? e?eco, coiiaeaio caiaiaaeii
e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaeiae…

OAIA 2. IAOIAeEEA E?EI?IIEIA?*IEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Ieai

1. Iaoiaeieia?/iee i?eioeei e?ei?iieia??. Iiiyooy ? aeaee
e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

2. Aeaea?aea e?ei?iieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaoiaee ?o i?ciaiiy.

3. I?aai?caoe?y e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey: O/aaiee / Iiae ?aae. A.A.Eeoieiaa e A.I.Oeeiiiaa. –
Eeaa, 1997.

2. Einiiea/aa I.I. Iaoiaeu e?eieiieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. – I, 1985.

Ieoaiiy 1. Iaoiaeieia?/iee i?eioeei e?ei?iieia??. Iiiyooy ? aeaee
e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

Iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiei iaoiaeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii i?ciaiiy nioe?aeueieo
yaeu ? i?eioeei nioe?aeueiiai iaoo?ae?cio, ui ciaeoia iniaeeaee ?icaeoie
o i?aoeyo o?aioeocueeiai nioe?ieiaa Ai?ey Aeth?eaaeia. A?aeiia?aeii aei
iueiai nioe?aeuei? yaeua, aoaeo/e aeuith oi?iith ?icaeoeo i?e?iaee
?niothoue oae naii ca caeiiaie i?e?iaee, ye ? o?ce/i? oa a?ieia?/i?
yaeua. Caeiie nioe?aeueii? i?e?iaee ? aeuith oi?iith ?nioaaiiy o?ce/ieo
? a?ieia?/ieo caeii?a. Aeaeaoiee aianie a ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?eioeeio
nioe?aeueiiai iaoo?ae?cio aianee oae? ieneeoae?, ye: Aeaeii Eiee, A?oo?
Oiiaiaaoa?, Iathno Eiio, Ai?eue Aeth?eaaei, Ceaioiae O?aeae oa ?io?.

Ia i?eioeei? nioe?aeueiiai iaoo?ae?cio a th?eni?oaeaioe?? aoea caniiaaia
?aeay i?e?iaeiiai i?aaa.

E?ei?iieia?y iiaeiia oae naii, ye ? th?eni?oaeaioe?y nie?aoeny o
i?ciaii? cei/eiiino? ia i?eioeei nioe?aeueiiai iaoo?ae?cio.

Iaoiaeeea e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia? ocaiaeaeoaaoenue c
i?eioeeiii nioe?aeueiiai iaoo?ae?cio.

E?ei?iieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy – oea i?ioean io?eiaiiy iiaeo ciaiue i?i
cei/eii?noue, ?? i?e/eie ? oiiae, iniaeno?noue cei/eioey aeey ?ic?iaee ?
cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeae??
cei/eiiino?. E?ei?iieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ca
ianooiieie e?eoa??yie:

— oe?eueiaa ni?yiiaai?noue;

— ianya aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

— i?ciaaaeueiee ?ino?oiaioa??e;

— i?eioeei aecia/aiiy ia’?eoa;

— ianooaa;

— aeaee cei/ei?a.

Ii oe?eueia?e ni?yiiaaiino? – e?ei?iieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiae?eythoueny ia oai?aoe/i? ? i?eeeaaei?. Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie e?ei?iieia?/ii? oai???, a i?eeeaaei? – ia
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeoeee ai?ioueae ?c cei/eii?noth.

Ii ianyao aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? – aeine?aeaeaiiy iiae?eythoueny ia iiai?
(nooe?euei?) ? aea??eia?. Nooe?euei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/athoue o naaa
aea/aiiy on?o iaeeieoeue aaia?aeueii? noeoiiino? (iai?eeeaae: on? aac
aeeeth/aiiy cei/eie ia aeai?e oa?eoi???). Aea??eia? – oea aea/aiiy
iaaii? /anoeie aaia?aeueii? noeoiiino?.

Ii i?ciaaaeueiiio ?ino?oiaioa??th – ?ic??ciythoue aeenoeeie?ia?i? ?
eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo i?iaeaia aea/a?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith e?ei?iieia?/ieo cania?a ? iaoiae?a. O ae?oaiio –
aeei?enoiaothoueny ia eeoa e?ei?iieia?/i? caniae ? iaoiaee, aea ? aeai?
?ioeo iaoe ( iai?eeeaae: nioe?ieia??, ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?ee ? o.i.).

Ii i?eioeeio aecia/aiiy ia’?eoa aea/aiiy – aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?eyoueny ia
oa?eoi??aeuei? ? aaeocaa?.

Ii ianooaaai – ?anioae?eainuee?, ?aa?iiaeuei?, i?noeaa?.

Ieoaiiy 2. Aeaea?aea e?ei?iieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaoiaee ?o i?ciaiiy

I?ae e?ei?iieia?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th ?icoi??oueny noeoii?noue a?aeiiinoae
i?i cei/eii?noue, ?? i?e/eie ? oiiae, iniaeno?noue cei/eioey,
ae?yeuei?noue o noa?? i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?. sse ? aoaeue-yea
?ioi?iaoe?y – e?ei?iieia?/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe ianooiiei
aeiiaai: iiaiioa, oi/i?noue, aeinoia??i?noue, ei?eni?noue,
ii??aithaai?noue, nai?/ani?noue. Aeaea?aea e?ei?iieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??
caeaaeii a?ae aeae?a iiae?eythoueny ianooiiei /eiii:

1) io?oe?eia ?ioi?iaoe?y;

2) iaio?oe?eia ?ioi?iaoe?y.

?. Io?oe?eia ?ioi?iaoe?y – oea ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui aeoiaeeoue a?ae
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ? ioi?ieaia ca
anoaiiaeaieie i?aaeeaie. Io?oe?eia ?ioi?iaoe?y, o naith /a?ao,
iiae?ey?oueny ia:

a) ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao;

a) ca?oio;

a) i?ioeanoaeueio (e?ei. ni?aae, i?ioieiee, iaaeyaeia? iaoa??aee ?
o.i.);

a) iia?aoeaii-neoaeaiao (ni?aae iia?aoeaieo ia?aa??ie, aeieoiaioaoe?y
iia?aoeaii-?icooeiai? ?iaioe);

ae) aeia?aeeiao (i?ioieiee ? o.i.);

a) iaoiaee/io (iaeyaee, iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??);

ae) i?aai?caoe?eii-neoaeaiao (ieaie ?iaioe, iia?aoe?e ? o.i.)

II. Iaio?oe?eia ?ioi?iaoe?y – oea a?aeiiino?, ui aeoiaeyoue a?ae ie?aieo
in?a ? a?aeia?aaeathoue ?o iniaenoo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oaeo?a.

I?ae iaoiaeii e?ei?iieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ne?ae ?icoi?oe ocaiaeaeaio
c i?eioeeiii e?ei?iieia?/iiai i?ciaiiy noeoii?noue i?eeii?a, ui
canoiniaothoueny aeey i?ciaiiy cei/eiiino?, ?? i?e/ei ? oiia,
iniaenoino? cei/eioey ? ?ic?iaee caoiae?a i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?.

Iaoiaeeea e?ei?iieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy – oea nenoaia iaoiae?a, ui
canoiniaothoueny aeey – c?a?aiiy, ia?iaee, aiae?co ? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
e?ei?iieia?/ii cia/oui? ?ioi?iaoe??. Iaoiaee e?ei?iieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiae?eythoueny ia oae? a?oie:

1) aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoiae;

2) iieooaaiiy;

3) niinoa?aaeaiiy;

4) aenia?eiaio.

Aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoiae iieyaa? a aeei?enoaii? ?ioi?iaoe??, cao?eniaaii?
ia iaia??, oioi-, e?iiie?aoe?, iaai?oi?e ie?aoe? oa ?ioeo iin?yo.
Cie?aia aei oeueiai iaoiaeo a?aeiinyoueny aieaooaaiiy e?ei?iaeueieo
ni?aa. Iieooaaiiy iiae?ey?oueny ia aeaa aeaee:

1) ?ioa?a’th;

2) aieaooaaiiy a?iiaaeyi.

?ioa?a’th iiaea aooe oaeeo aeae?a: a?eueia, ni?yiiaaia, iaiaeueia (oiaoi
iiaoi?ia /a?ac aeayeee /an), a?oiiaa.

A?eueia ?ioa?a’th – i?iiiio?oueny oaia, ii yeee ?aniiiaeaio o a?euei?e
oi?i? aaaea ?iciia?aeue.

Ni?yiiaaia ?ioa?a’th – a?aeiia?ae? ia /?oei noi?ioeueiaai? caieoaiiy.
A?aeiia?ae? o?enothoueny neiaaie «oae» /e «i?», aaeaie (1, 2, 3…..),
aai ciaeaie «+», «-«.

Iaiaeueia, aai iiaoi?ia, ?ioa?a’th – iiaoi?ia aan?aea c iaei??th ? o??th
ae iniaith /a?ac aeayeee /an.

A?oiiaa ?ioa?a’th – aan?aea ia c iaei??th, a c a?oiith in?a.

Iaoiae aieaooaaiiy – iieyaa? a io?eiaii? a?aeiiinoae o aeaeyae?
ienueiiaeo a?aeiia?aeae ia caieoaiiy niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaii? aieaoe.

Ae?oaee iaoiae iieooaaiiy – oea iaea?eueo c?o/iee ? aoaeoeaiee iaoiae
cae?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ca i?ioeaaeo?ith i?iaaaeaiiy, aieaooaaiiy iiae?ey?oueny ia i/ia ?
cai/ia, iiaia ? aea??eiaa, a?aee?eoa ? aiii?iia.

Ieoaiiy a aieaoao oi?ioeththoueny aeaiia niiniaaie:

1) a?aee?eoei, – eiee aiie aeiaaathoue a?aeiia?aeue o a?euei?e oi?i?;

2) cae?eoei, – eiee aiie aeiaaathoue aea?aoe a?aeiia?aeue ?c
cai?iiiiiaaiiai a aieao? iaai?o («oae», «i?»).

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ye iaoiae c?a?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? iieyaa? a
aaciina?aaeiueiio ni?eeiyoo? aeine?aeieeii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai yaeua.

Aenia?eiaio – ye iaoiae cae?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ye iaoeiai
iinoaaeaiee aeine?ae, ui aeicaiey? o niaoe?aeueii noai?aieo oiiaao
aeyaeoe ? aei??yoe e?ei?iieia?/ia cia/ei? oaeoe.

Oea aoee iaoiaee cae?aiiy e?ei?iieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

A oaia?:

Iaoiaee ia?iaee ? aiae?co c?a?aii? e?ei?iieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? – oea
niaoe?aeuei? i?eeiie oii?yaeeoaaiiy, nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey
oiai, uia iaea?aeaoe iia? aeniiaee.

Oii?yaeeoaaiiy c?a?aiiai iaoa??aeo cae?enith?oueny oeyoii a?oioaaiiy ii
iaeiioeiiei eaoaai??yi, ?iciiae?eo a noaoenoe/i? ?yaee oa ?ioeie
i?eeiiaie, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny iaoeith e?ei?iaeueii? noaoenoeee.

Ia?iaea ?ioi?iaoe??, ye i?aaeei noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny neeaaeaiiyi a?ao?e?a,
oaaeeoeue, ae?aa?ai. Ia?iaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y ia? aooe ?ioa?i?aoiaaia.
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iieyaa? o aeaaaeaii? ?c iaea?aeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeo
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo aeniiae?a.

Ieoaiiy 3. I?aai?caoe?y e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

E?ei?iieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c ianooiieo aeaiaio?a:

1) ?ic?iaea i?ia?aie ? ieaio aeine?aeaeaiiy;

2) i?aeaioiaea iaiao?aeieo cania?a;

3) cae?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe??;

4) ia?iaea iaea?aeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

5) ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iaea?aeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

6) ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? i?iiiceoe?e ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?ia?aia e?ei?iieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy – oea aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
caaea/, i?eioeei?a ? a?iioac aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae iaoiaeeee
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?ia?ai? aeeeaaeathoueny: oaia, iaoa ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?iothoueny a?iioace, ye? iaiao?aeii
ia?aa??eoe, anoaiiaeth?oueny i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, uiaei yeiai o?aaa
c?a?aoe ?ioi?iaoe?th, iienothoueny iaoiaee ? iaoeiaee ?ino?oiaioa??e
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy – oea iaoeiai ia??oioiaaia ia?aaeaa/aiiy, ui
oi?ioeth?oueny noiniaii aeine?aeaeoaaeueieo yaeu. Aeey oiai, uia oey
a?iioaca ia?aoai?eeanue c ia?aaeaa/aiiy o aeinoia??ia ciaiiy, aiia ? ia?
aooe ia?aa??aia ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia oaeoaie o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?iioaca oi?ioeth?oueny ia i?aenoaa? aecia/aiiy i?iaeaie yeo o?aaa
?ica’ycaoe. A?iioaca ia? ocaiaeaeoaaoenue c iaaieie e?ei?iieia?/ieie
eiioeaioe?yie ? i?eioeeiaie.

Caaaeaiiy, oe?e? e?ei?iieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae caniae ?o
aeinyaiaiiy iathoue ocaiaeaeoaaoenue i?ae niaith.

On? caniae cae?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeii? i?ieoe aei?iaoaaiiy aeey
aecia/aiiy ?o i?eaeaoiino? o aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii?. C oe??th iaoith
i?iaiaeyoueny oae caai? i?eioaaei? (iiooeia?) aeine?aeaeaiiy, eio??
aeiiiiaaathoue ooi/ieoe ci?no caieoaiue a aieaoao, ianya aea??ee,
oa?aeoa? a?iioace ? o.i.

OAIA 3. CEI*EII?NOUe

Ieai

1. Iiiyooy cei/eiiino?.

2. Iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue cei/eii?noue.

3. Eaoaioia cei/eii?noue.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. I?ae?o/ieee c e?ei?iieia??.

Ieoaiiy 1. Iiiyooy cei/eiiino?

Cei/eii?noue – oea yaeua, yea i?eiee ia ia?anoaaaei oaeethaaoe
ethaenoai. C i?eaiaeo aecia/aiiy cei/eiiino? caaaeaee ?nioaaee aino??
aeeneon??. ?ica?aeiino? o iiaeyaeao ia i?e?iaeo cei/eiiino? aoee ia eeoa
uiaei naiiai iiiyooy cei/eiiino?, ui oaea cei/eii?noue, aea e uiaei oiai
/e iiaeeeai c iath oni?oii ai?ioeny, /e ? aiia iino?eiei ?
iaa?aeai?ioiei noiooieeii ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa, /e iiaeia ??
iiaeieaoe. O? a/ai? ? ieneeoae?, ye? ?icaeyaeaee ethaenueea noni?euenoai
ye oaea, ui i?aeaea?oueny aaeineiiaeaiith, aiai?eee i?i iiaeeea?noue
onoiaiiy cei/eiiino? acaaae?. Oae ia?iaeaeoaaeenue ooii?/i? ?aea?
Eiiiaiaee, A.Ii?a oa ?ioeo ?aeaieia?a, ui ia?oeyee noni?euenoao, eio?a
aoaea ne?aeoaaoe ?o ?aoeaioai, aeeooy aac cei/eiiino?.

Ia?eneci-eai?i?ci oaae noaa?aeaeoaaa aonoaie ?aaeyinueeeo ?aeaieia?a oa,
ui a eiioi?noe/iiio noni?euenoa? cei/eii?noue cieeia.

?io? ieneeoae?, iaaiaee, aaaaeaee, ui noni?euenoai ?nioaaoe aac
cei/eiiino? ia iiaea, cei/eii?noue – oea yaeua «aeanoeaa anyeiio
caei?iaiio noni?euenoao» (A. Aeth?eaaei).

Aea ca aoaeue-yeeo i?aeoiae?a o ?icoi?ii? i?e?iaee cei/eiiino?, aiia
aecia?oueny yaeuai, eio?a oae /e ?iaeoa ia? nioe?aeuei? ei?ai?.

Aia?oa ia iiaeeea?noue ?ic?aooaaoe caeaaei?noue cei/eiiino? a?ae
nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a aeacaa ciaiaieoee iaoaiaoee ? ano?iiii Aaeieueo
AEae Eaoea. Aenooiath/e 9 o?aaiy 1831 ?. ia can?aeaii? aaeuea?enueei?
Ei?ie?anueei? aeaaeai?? o A?thnnae?, a?i cayaea, ui ie iiaeaii
?ic?aooaaoe cacaeaeaa?aeue ne?eueee ?iaeea?ae?a oiethoue ?oee e?ia’th
nai?o ni?aa?iiaaeyi. Ooo ia?aae iaie ?aooiie ne?eueee ethaeae noaiooue
oao?ayie, ne?eueee noaiooue io?oeieeaie, iaeaea oae, ye ie iiaeaii
i?ae?aooaaoe ne?eueee ethaeae ia?iaeeoueny ? ne?eueee iii?a. Ooo ia?aae
iaie ?aooiie, ienaa a?i, ii yeiio ie ieaoeii c aeaoeeaith ?aaoey?i?noth,
ie ieaoeii oth?iaie, eaioethaaie, oeaaieoeyie.

E??i nioe?aeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy i?e?iaee cei/eiiino? a
e?ei?iieia?? ? i?noea ? aeey aecia/aiiy a?ieia?/ieo aniaeo?a i?e?iaee
cei/eiiino?. *anoi oe? aeaa i?aeoiaee i?ioenoaaeythoueny, aea nueiaiaei?
noa? ana a?eueo i/aaeaeiei, ui iio??aia eiioeaioe?y, eio?a aecia/eea a
yeei /eiii o i?e?iae? cei/eiiino? ii?aeiothoueny nioe?aeueiee ?
a?ieia?/iee aniaeoe. Iiee ui oaei? eiioeaioe?? iaia?. Aea i?e aecia/aii?
iiiyooy cei/eiiino? ne?ae eiai oi?ioethaaoe oae, uia o iueiio aoei
i?noea ia eeoa aeey nioe?aeueiiai aniaeoo, a e aeey a?ieia?/iiai. I?e
aecia/aii? iiiyooy cei/eiiino? ne?ae oaeiae iaoe ia oaac?, ui cei/eie –
oea ciai?oi?e i?iya o aeaeyae? noni?eueii-iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy aie? ?
na?aeiiino? ethaeeie, eio?a ?o a/eiy?. Ii?iaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?
nioe?aeueieie ? a?ieia?/ieie oaeoi?aie ia iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny aac o/ano?
aie? ? na?aeiiino? ethaeae, ui noathoue cei/eioeyie.

Ia iiaeia ia?eoenue i?e aecia/aii? cei/eiiino? ? aac a?aooaaiiy oiai
oaeoo, ui cei/eiii aecia?oueny eeoa oa ae?yiiy, eio?a ia?aaeaa/aia o
e?ei?iaeueiiio caeii?.

Aeoiaey/e c iacaaieo iciae, iiiyooy cei/eiiino? iiaea aooe
noi?ioeueiaaia ianooiiei /eiii:

Cei/eii?noue – oea nioe?aeueia yaeua, ui iieyaa? o i?iya? aie? ?
na?aeiiino? ethaeae o aeaeyae? noni?eueia iaaacia/ieo ae?yiue,
caai?iiaieo e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii.

A e?oa?aoo?? aeeeaaeathoueny ??ciiiai?oi? aecia/aiiy cei/eiiino?, aea
aiie iathoue aaaaoi iaaeie?e?a, ye? a?o/eciyia e?ei?iieia?y ciaia’ycaia
iinooiiai iiaeieaoe.

Ieoaiiy 2. Iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue cei/eii?noue

Cei/eii?noue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ianooiieie ia?aiao?aie (iieacieeaie):

1) ??aaiue cei/eiiino?;

2) aeeiai?ea cei/eiiino?.

Noai cei/eiiino? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o naith /a?ao /a?ac aeaa iieacieee:

1) ??aaiue cei/eiiino? – oea e?euee?niee iieaciee;

2) no?oeoo?a cei/eiiino? – oea ye?niee iieaciee.

??aaiue cei/eiiino? – oea e?euee?niee iieaciee cei/ei?a, a/eiaieo ia
iaai?e oa?eoi??? ca iaaiee ia??iae. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ??aiy
cei/eiiino? iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe aaniethoia /enei cei/ei?a. Aeey a?eueo
ii??aithaaiiai aecia/aiiy ??aiy cei/eiiino? a ??cieo ?aa?iiao
aeei?enoiaothoue oaeee iieaciee ye eiao?oe??io cei/eiiino?, aai ?iaeaen
cei/eiiino?.

Eiao?oe??io cei/eiiino? aei??th?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi /enea cei/ei?a
(aai /enea cei/eioe?a) aei /enea ianaeaiiy, ocyoiai a oeny/ieo,
aeanyoeoeny/ieo aai noioeny/ieo aeieyo.

Aeey a?eueo oi/iiai aecia/aiiy ??aiy cei/eiiino? o?aaa a?aoiaoaaoe ia
ana ianaeaiiy, a eeoa o? a?eia? a?oie, i?aaenoaaieee yeeo iiaeooue
i?eoyaaoeny aei e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Oaeee eiao?oe??io aecia/a? ?ioaineai?noue i?iya?a cei/eiiino? ia aeai?e
oa?eoi??? ca iaaiee /an. Caaaeueia oi?ioea aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa
cei/eiiino? ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

E = 3 (0) * 1 oen. (/e 10 oen., /e 100 oen.)

I (a?ae 14 ?ie?a)

Aea 3 – aaniethoia /enei cei/ei?a,

I (iniae) – aaniethoia /enei cei/eioe?a,

I – /enaeuei?noue ianaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai a?eo.

Ii?yae c aaniethoiei /eneii cei/eioe?a eiao?oe??io cei/eiiino?
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ??aiy cei/eiiino?. – e?euee?niiai
iieacieea noaio cei/eiiino?.

Noai cei/eiiino? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeiae no?oeoo?ith cei/eiiino?, eio?a
? ye?niei iieacieeii noaio cei/eiiino?.

No?oeoo?a cei/eiiino? – oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaeaie cei/ei?a,
a/eiaieo ia aeai?e oa?eoi??? ca iaaiee /an.

sse? aeaee cei/ei?a ne?ae ni?aa?aeiineoe i?ae niaith caeaaeeoue a?ae
iio?aa eiie?aoiiai aecia/aiiy noaio cei/eiiino?. ?niothoue ianooii?
i?aeoiaee o aecia/aii? no?oeoo? cei/eiiino?:

1) ii i?inoi?iaei /e /aniaei iciaeai cei/ei?a;

2) ii nooiaith noni?eueii? iaaacia/iino? (oyaee? cei/eie, iaio oyaee?,
cei/eie, ui ia iathoue aaeeei? noni?eueii? iaaacia/iino?);

3) ii oi?i? aeie (iaaieni?, iaiaa?aaei?);

4) ii iciaeai iniae aeiiiai (ae?ii/a, /ieia?/a, iaiiaiie?oi?o,
?aoeeaeeaia ? o.i.);

5) ii oi?i? ni?ao/ano? (?iaeea?aeoaeueia, a?oiiaa).

Oaeeie ? iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai cei/eiiino? e?euee?nii ?
ye?nii. E??i noaio cei/eiiino? aaaeeeaei iieacieeii, ui oa?aeoa?eco?
cei/eii?noue ? oaeiae aeeiai?ea cei/eiiino?.

Aeeiai?ea cei/eiiino? – oea ci?ie e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
noaio cei/eiiino?, a oaeiae ?? no?oeoo?e ia i?ioyc? iaaiiai /ano.

Aeeiai?ea iiaea i?iyaeyoeny a ?ino? ??aiy cei/eiiino? /e cieaeaii? eiai,
a iia??oaii? no?oeoo?e cei/eiiino? /e iie?auaii? ??, a eieeaaii? ??aiy ?
no?oeoo?e caeaaeii a?ae ii?e ?ieo ? o. i.

Ieoaiiy 3. Eaoaioia cei/eii?noue

Eaoaioia cei/eii?noue – oea /anoeia on??? cei/eiiino?, yea ia
ca?a?no?iaaia a onoaiiaeaiiio ii?yaeeo.

??aaiue eaoaioii? cei/eiiino? aecia/a?oueny e?euee?noth cei/ei?a, ui
caeeoeeenue aac ?a?no?aoe??.

Eaoaioi?noue /anoeie cei/eiiino? ? ia?aoeiaeith aeey ai?ioueae c iath,
cieaeo? aoaeoeai?noue caoiae?a i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?, ii?ooo? i?eioeei
ni?aaaaeeeaino?.

Oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy ??aiy eaoaioii? cei/eiiino?, a
oaeiae i?e/ei eaoaioiino? c iaoith ?o onoiaiiy.

Ca aeaieie niinoa?aaeaiue i?aceaeaionueei? eii?n?? ii aeine?aeaeaiith
cei/eiiino? a NOA ?a?no?o?oueny eeoa eiaeia 4oa c?aaeooaaiiy ? eiaeai
6ee iaiaae c iaoith caaieiae?iiy iaeiii.

Ca aeine?aeaeaiiyie oao?aoe?a o ssiii?? ?aaeueiee ianya cei/eiiino? a
e?auiio aeiaaeeo o 2 ?ace ia?aaeuo? aeai? noaoenoeee.

A Oe?a?i? neooaoe?y c eaoaioiith cei/eii?noth iaaaaaoi a??oa, aea
??aaiue ?? ia aea/aany.

A th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ?ic??ciythoue eaoaioi?noue aeaio aeae?a:

1) i?e?iaeio;

2) ooo/io.

I?ae i?e?iaeiith eaoaioi?noth ?icoi?thoue noeoii?noue aeiaaee?a, eiee
i?aaiioi?iiiei i?aaiai ia noaa a?aeiiei oaeo a/eiaiiy cei/eio.

Ooo/ia eaoaioi?noue ioiieth? aeiaaeee, eiee i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie, iath/e
iaiao?aeio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i a/eiaiiy cei/eio ia noaaeyoue eiai ia iae?e,
aae ia caeiaoenue eiai ?icne?aeoaaiiyi, iieaaoeoe nia? i?aoeth, noai?eoe
aeaeei?noue aeaaiiieo//y o ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth.

Iaoiaee, c aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia aeyaeoe eaoaioio cei/eii?noue, ?
oae?:

1. Caaaeuei?: aea/aiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee i?i noai cei/eiiino?;
aenia?oia ioe?iea i?e iieooaaii? oao?aoe?a; aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eieo i?aai?a, iaaee/ieo
onoaiia ? o. i.

2. Niaoe?aeuei?: aiae?c aeeiai?/ieo ?yae?a cei/ei?a; aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia??iaeo a?ae ?o a/eiaiiy aei ?ice?eooy ? canoinoaaiiy naieoe??,
aeno?aiieyoe?y ? o. i.

I?aeoeea ?iaioe i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a iieaco?, ui iiaeia ?ic??ciyoe
??ai? eaoaioiino?:

a) iecueeee ??aaiue – cei/eie, i?eoiaoaaoe ye? aeoaea neeaaeii (
aaeanoaa, ?icai?, e?aae?aeee);

a) na?aaei?e ??aaiue – cei/eie, ye? iaio i/aaeaei? aai iioeaaoe?y
cayaeaiiy i?i ye? o iioa?i?eeo neaaea;

a) aenieee ??aaiue – ui, ye i?aaeei, ia i/aaeaei?, a iioa?i?e? ia
noeeuei? i?i ieo cayaeyoe (c?aaeooaaiiy).

OAIA 4. I?E*EIE ? OIIAE, UI II?IAeAEOTHOUe CEI*EII?NOUe

Ieai

1. Iiiyooy i?e/ei ? oiia , ui ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue.

2. No/ani? eiioeaioe?? i?e/ei ? oiia, ui ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue.

3. I?e/eie ? oiiae cei/eiiino? a no/aniiio na?o? ? a Oe?a?i?.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey: O/aaiee / Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.A.Eeoieiaa e A.I.Oeeiiiaa.
– Eeaa, 1997.

2. Caeeineee A. O. E?eieiieiaey: Eo?n eaeoeee. – Oa?ueeia, 1996.

3. Oiaeaea? A.E. E?eieiieiaey. – Iineaa, 1994.

Ieoaiiy 1.Iiiyooy i?e/ei ? oiia, ui ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue

I?e/eiith a iaooe? acaaae? i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe yaeua, yea ca iaaieo oiia,
ii?iaeaeo? ?ioa yaeua, eio?a ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iane?aeie.

Oiiaa, ia a?aei?io a?ae i?e/eie, oea oaeoi?, eio?ee nai ia ii?iaeaeo?
iane?aeie, aea ? iaiao?aeiei aeey oiai, uia i?e/eia ii?iaeaeoaaea
iane?aeie. Oiiaa – oea na?aaeiaeua, ianoaiiaea, neooaoe?y, iieieaoenue a
yeeo, i?e/eia ni?aoeueiao?.

*anoi a e?ei?iieia?? i?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue,
ia’?aeiothoueny i?ae caaaeueiei oa?i?iii «e?ei?iiaaii? oaeoi?e». I?ioean
ii?iaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino? oaeiae iaceaathoue aeaoa?i?iaoe??th, a oaeoi?e,
ui ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue – aeaoa?i?iaioaie. Oaeoi?e, eio??
ae?thoue iaaiaee – i?ioe cei/eiiino? – iaceaathoue a?aeiia?aeii
aioee?ei?iiaaiieie oaeoi?aie.

I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue o? /e ?io? yaeua, ae?thoue ? o
o?ce/i?e, ? o a?ieia?/i?e, ? o nioe?ieia?/i?e oi?iao i?e?iaee. Aea ne?ae
iaoe ia oaac?, ui o eiaei?e c oeeo oi?i i?e?iaee i?e/eie ? oiiae
ae?thoue ii-??ciiio, iathoue nai? iniaeeaino?, ye? o?aaa a?aoiaoaaoe.

Aeey ae?? i?e/ei ? oiia a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? oa?aeoa?iei ? oa, ui ae?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac aieth ? na?aeii?noue ethaeae.

Ine?eueee cei/eii?noue ? nioe?aeueiei yaeuai, oi i?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ??
ii?iaeaeothoue, oaae ae?thoue /a?ac aieth ? na?aeii?noue ethaeae.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui i?e/eia ? oiiae i?iyaeythoueny o iane?aeeao, ye?
aiie ii?iaeaeothoue, oi i?ciaoe i?e/eie ? oiiae iiaeia ?icaeyaeath/e
iane?aeee.

Aeey oiai, uia i?ciaoe i?e/eie ? oiiae, eio?? ii?iaeaeothoue
cei/eii?noue, iio??aii aeine?aeaeoaaoe aeanoeaino? cei/eiiino? ye ?o
iane?aeeo.

Cei/eii?noue, ca aecia/aiiyi, – oea nioe?aeueia yaeua, ui iieyaa? o
i?iya? aie? ? na?aeiiino? ethaeae o aeaeyae? noni?eueii-iaaacia/ieo
ae?yiue, caai?iiaieo e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii. Ioaea, aeoiaey/e c oeueiai,
?icoi?iiy cei/eiiino?, i?e/eie ? oiiae, eio?? ?? ii?iaeaeothoue – oea
oaeoi?e, ui ni?e/eiythoue ? coiiaeththoue i?iya aie? ? na?aeiiino?
ethaeae o aeaeyae? cei/ei?a.

Aeey oiai, uia aiey ? na?aeii?noue ethaeeie i?iyaeeenue o aeaeyae?
cei/eio o?aaa:

ii-ia?oa, uia aiie ciaoiaeeeenue iiia?aaeiuei o oaeiio noai?, yeee iiaea
ii?iaeaeoaaoe cei/ei;

ii-ae?oaa, o?aaa, uia aeieeee oiiae, ca yeeo oeae noai iiaea i?iyaeoeny
(?aae?coaaoeny) o aeaeyae? cei/eio.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, i?e/eie cei/eiiino? iiaeia aecia/eoe ye oaeoi?e,
eio?? i?eaiaeyoue aieth ? na?aeii?noue ethaeeie o e?ei?iiaaiiee noai,
oiaoi o noai, yeee iiaea i?iyaeyoeny o ii?iaeaeaii? naia cei/eiiiai
ae?yiiy.

Oiiae, a?aeiia?aeii, – oea oaeoi?e, ye? iaiao?aei? aeey oiai, uia
e?ei?iiaaiiee noai aie? ? na?aeiiino? ethaeeie i?iyaeany naia o aeaeyae?
cei/eiiiai ae?yiiy.

Ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe iiiyooy i?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue
acaaae?, – ? i?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue eiie?aoi? cei/eie. Aiie
ni?aa?aeiinyoueny i?ae niaith ye caaaeueia ? ie?aia (aeaeiaa). I?e/eie ?
oiiae cei/eiiino? a Oe?a?i? ? i?e/eie ? oiiae, iai?eeeaae, aaeanoa a
Oe?a?i? – a?ae??ciythoueny oei, ui ae?oaa ? ie?aiei i?iyaii
(??ciiaeaei?noth) ia?oiai.

Ieoaiiy 2. No/ani? eiioeaioe?? i?e/ei ? oiia, ui ii?iaeaeothoue
cei/eii?noue

No/anieo eiioeaioe?e i?e/ei ? oiia cei/eiiino? aaaaoi ? aeoaea
??ciiiai?oi?, ui na?ae/eoue: c iaeiiai aieo, i?i iaaecae/aeio
neeaaei?noue naii? i?iaeaie i?e/ei ? oiia cei/eiiino?; a c ?ioiai aieo,
i?i iaaeinoaoiuei aeeaiea iiee ui i?ciaiiy i?e?iaee cei/eiiino?. On?
eiioeaioe?? i?e/ei ? oiia cei/eiiino? iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia o?e aeaee:

?. Nioe?ioeaio?e/i? – a yeeo oeaio?aeueieie, aecia/aeueieie aeciathoueny
oaeoi?e nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ethaeae.

II. A?ioeaio?e/i? – a yeeo oeaio?aeueieie aeciathoueny oaeoi?e
a?ieia?/ii? i?aai?caoe?? ethaeae.

III. Eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/i? – a yeeo oeaio?aeueieie aeciathoueny oaeoi?e
ethaenueei? eoeueoo?e. (Eiioeaioe?? – ocaiaeaeaiiy c Aiaii,
i?ina?oieoeoai, oii?yaeeiaai?noue aeeooy ethaeae a?aeiia?aeii aei
caeii?a i?e?iaee). Iaaeie?eaie nioe?ioeaio?e/ieo ? a?ioeaio?e/ieo
eiioeaioe?e ? ianooiia. Nioe?ieia?/i? ? a?ieia?/i? oaeoi?e aacoiiaii
a?ae?a?athoue eiaeai naith ?ieue o ii?iaeaeaii? cei/eiiino?, aea oe?
?ie? iathoue iaai? iaae?, ye? o?aaa oi/ii aecia/eoe. Ia iath/e oaeiai
aecia/aiiy, nioe?ioeaio?e/i? ? a?ioeaio?e/i? eiioeaioe?? niioai?ththoue
?ieue nioe?aeueieo ? a?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a o ii?iaeaeaii? cei/eiiino?.
Oea aaaea aei e?aeiiu?a, aoeueaa?ecaoe?? o iiyniaii? i?e/ei ? oiia
cei/eiiino?. E??i oeueiai, nioe?ioeaio?e/i? ? a?ioeaio?e/i? eiioeaioe??
a e?ei?iieia?? caeeoathoue iica oaaaith caeaaei?noue nioe?ieia?/ieo ?
a?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a a?ae eoeueoo?e ethaeae. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai,
iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieie ne?ae aeciaoe eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/i? eiioeaioe??
i?e/ei ? oiia cei/eiiino?.

?niothoue ??ci? aecia/aiiy eoeueoo?e. Aea iaea?eueo ooiaeaiaioaeueiei
iiaeia aaaaeaoe oa, ca yeei eoeueoo?a ?icoi??oueny, ye i??a
ocaiaeaeaiino? aie? ? na?aeiiino? ethaeae c caeiiaie i?e?iaee.

Ae?y aoaeue-yeeo nioe?ieia?/ieo ? a?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a o noni?eueiiio
aeeoo?, a oiio /ene? o ii?iaeaeaii? cei/eiiino?, aecia/a?oueny aieath ?
na?aeii?noth, a oa ye naia aiey ? na?aeii?noue aecia/athoue ae?th
aeacaieo oaeoi??a – caeaaeeoue a?ae eoeueoo?e ethaeae. Oiio
ni?aaaaeeeaith ? oi?ioea: «Eoeueoo?a ethaeae aecia/a? ?o aeeooy».

Cei/ei – oea i?iya aie? ? na?aeiiino?, eio?? ciaoiaeyoueny o noai?
iaocaiaeaeaiino? c caeiiaie i?e?iaee, oiaoi o noai? aaceoeueoo?’y.
Aoaeue-ye? oaeoi?e, eio?? i?ioeae?thoue ocaiaeaeaiith aie? ? na?aeiiino?
ethaeae ?c caeiiaie i?e?iaee, ne?ae aaaaeaoe i?e/eiaie cei/eiiino?
(iai?eeeaae, a?aenooi?noue ?eieo, aac?ia?ooy ? o.i.). ? iaaiaee:
oaeoi?e, ui ni?eythoue oaeiio ocaiaeaeaiith – ? aioee?ei?iiaaiieie
oaeoi?aie. Aiie ? iathoue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?.

Oaeoi?e nioe?ieia?/i? ? a?ieia?/i?, eio?? ? iaiao?aeieie aeey ae??
i?e/ei cei/eiiino? ? oiiaaie cei/eiiino?. (Iai?eeeaae, aeeiaie?ci,
ineo?/i? aiiiae?? ? o.i.). A nioe?ieia?/i? ? a?ieia?/i? oaeoi?e, eio?? ?
iaiao?aeieie aeey ae?? aioee?ei?iiaaiieo i?e/ei – ? oiiaaie i?ioeae??
cei/eiiino?.

Ciaoiaey/enue o noai? iaocaiaeaeaiino? c caeiiaie i?e?iaee, aiey
ethaeeie iaae?a? oi?io naaaie?, a na?aeii?noue – oi?io ?ethc?e,
ooai?thth/e oae caaiee eiiieaen naaaie? ? ?ethc?e. Naia eiiieaen naaaie?
? ?ethc?e i?iyaey?oueny ca iaaieo oiia o aeaeyae? cei/eio.

Ioaea, a?aeiia?aeii aei eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/ii? eiioeaioe?? oaeoi?e, ui
aeeeeeathoue oi?ioaaiiy o ethaeae eiiieaeno naaaie? ? ?ethc?e – ?
i?e/eiaie cei/eiiino?, a oaeoi?e, ui ni?eythoue i?iyao oeueiai eiiieaeno
o aeaeyae? cei/eio – ? oiiaaie cei/eiiino?. ?ieue i?e/eie ? oiiae
cei/eiiino? e?ei?iiaaiiiai oaeoi?o iiaeooue aeeiioaaoe iae??ciiiai?oi?o?
/eiieee o aoaeue-ye?e noa?? aeeooy, aieiaia, uia aiie iaee aeanoea?noue
ni?eyoe oi?ioaaiith ? i?iyao naaaie? ethaeae o aeaeyae? cei/ei?a.

Ioaea, i?e/eie cei/eiiino? a on? /ane: ? a ieioeiio, ? nueiaiaei?, ? a
iaeaooiueiio, a oaeiae a on?o ia?iae?a iaei? ? o? ae ca nai?th
aeanoea?noth – ni?eyoe oi?ioaaiith ? i?iyao naaaie? ethaeae o aeaeyae?
cei/ei?a. Aea ca ??cieo /an?a ? o ??cieo ia?iae?a caeaoi?noue io?eioaaoe
oeth aeanoea?noue ? noaaaoe e?ei?iiaaiieie iiaeooue ??ci? oaeoi?e.
Iai?eeeaae, o na?e /an ?aanoai iiaei ni?e/eiyoe cei/eie, o ?io? /ane –
e??iaoeoai, nueiaiaei? – aac?ia?ooy. A?eie – caaaeaee ni?e/eiythoue
cei/eie a on?o ia?iae?a. Oa?aeoa? ethaeae caaaeaee aoa oiiaith aeey oiai
/e ?ioiai cei/eiiiai i?iyao.

Noai ocaiaeaeaiino? aie? ? na?aeiiino? ethaeeie c caeiiaie i?e?iaee,
oiaoi noai ?o eoeueoo?iino?, iaceaathoue ua caei?iaei aeocaeii. Oiio
eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/io eiioeaioe?th i?e/ei ? oiia cei/eiiino? iiaeia
iacaaoe ua ?iaeoa eiioeaioe??th «caei?iaiai aeocaeo» aai eiioeaioe??th
«iacaei?iaiai aeocaeo». Oaeoi?e, ui ia?aoeiaeaeathoue oi?ioaaiith o
ethaeeie caei?iaiai aeocaeo ? ? e?ei?iiaaiieie oaeoi?aie. Eiiieaen
naaaie? ? ?ethc?? icia/a?, ui o ethaeeie a?aenooi?e caei?iaee aeocae,
oi/ aiia ? ? i?e oeueiio inoaeiith, ? iiaea iaoe iaee?aua ineo?/ia
caei?ia’y.

Ine?eueee iniiaieie eaiaeaie ocaiaeaeaiiy aie? ? na?aeiiino? c caeiiaie
i?e?iaee ? oi?ioaaiiy caei?iaiai aeocaeo ?: 1) naiaiaea aeeoe ca
caeiiaie i?e?iaee ? 2) iaoo?ae?noe/ia ? ?ae?a?eia i?ina?oieoeoai, oi
iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i?e/eiaie cei/eiiino? ? oaeoi?e, eio??
ia?aoeiaeaeathoue ethaeei? ei?enooaaoeny oeeie eoeueoo?ecoth/eie
eaiaeaie, oiaoi: 1) naiaiaeith aeeoe ca caeiiaie i?e?iaee; 2)
iaoo?ae?noe/iei ? ?ae?a?eiei i?ina?oieoeoaii.

Ieoaiiy 3. I?e/eie ? oiiae cei/eiiino? a no/aniiio na?o? ? a Oe?a?i?

A?aeiia?aeii aei eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/ii? eiioeaioe?? i?e/ei ? oiia
cei/eiiino? ?ieue e?ei?iiaaiieo oaeoi??a a no/anieo e?a?iao aeeiiothoue
iae??ciiiai?oi?o? /eiieee. Oe? oaeoi?e anoaiiaeththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith
e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui e?ei?iiaaii?
oaeoi?e a no/aniee ia??iae ae?thoue a?eueo aeoeaii, oi/ o ??cieo e?a?iao
nooi?iue oe??? aeoeaiino? ??cia. Oeae aeniiaie aeieeaa? c ?inoo
cei/eiiino? a on?o e?a?iao, oi/ ? ii-??ciiio. Eiai iiaeia iiynieoe
ianooiiei /eiii. C ?icaeoeii iiaeo oaoiieia?e ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?
c’yaeythoueny iia? nooiai? (iia? iiaeeeaino?) aeey ethaenueei? naiaiaee,
aeey aeai?o oeo /e ?ioeo ae?e. Nueiaiaei? ethaee iiaeooue ?iaeoe oa, ui
?ai?oa aiie oaoiieia?/ii c?iaeoe ia iaee iiaeeeaino?. Iai?eeeaae,
aee?anoe i?eueeii aeiea??a c aaieo ia aeoiaey/e c aeanii? eaa?oe?e ca
aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?a. Oea ca?eueoaiiy naiaiaee ? coiiaeth?
ca?eueoaiiy cei/eiieo i?iya?a. Iai?eeeaae, ca?eueoaiiy i?aaeiao?a, eio??
iiaeia ae?anoe (aaoiiia?e?, a?aeaiaia?aoo?a, a?io?, aei?iaioe?iiino? ?
o. i.) oaeiae ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith cei/eiieo i?iya?a.

Ca?eueoaiiy naiaiaee ni?ey? oaeiae ? ca?eueoaiith aeia?i/eiieo i?iya?a,
caeiiiiineooieo ae?yiue. Aea ine?eueee oe? ae?yiiy ia ?a?no?othoueny oae
ye cei/eii?, oi neeaaea?oueny oeaia a?aaeaiiy, ui i?ia?an noni?euenoaa
ii?iaeaeo? eeoa ca?eueoaiiy cei/eiiino? ? oiio a?i ? iaaaoeaiei
oaeoi?ii.

Oioae?oa?eci, ui iaa i?noea o XX noie?oo? (noae?inueeee, ionnie?inueeee,
a?oea??anueeee) ia onoaa? i?e/ei ? oiia cei/eiiino?, a?i ?aea ?ioei
oeyoii o ai?iouea? ?c cei/eii?noth – iaiaaeo? naiaiaeo aie?. Oaeei
oeyoii iiaeia aeinyaoe iaaecae/aeii iecueeiai ??aiy cei/eiieo i?iya?a,
aea oaeee niin?a ?c cei/eii?noth ? i?ioei?e?iaeiei, ? oiio ?oeio?
noni?euenoai.

Iniaeea?noth cei/eiiino? a no/ani?e Oe?a?i? ? oa, ui o ian a ?acoeueoao?
e?ece, noai?eeeny ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy o ethaeae naaaie?, ?
i?iyao ?? o aeaeyae? cei/ei?a. Oeae noai noni?euenoaa iaceaa?oueny
e?ei?iae?ciii. Eiai oi?ioea oaea: eiaeai ioneoue aeae?aoe iaeia c aeaio
cie, – aai noaoe cei/eioeai, aai aooe iioa?i?eei a?ae cei/eioe?a, –
o?aoueiai ia aeaii. Oey iniaeea?noue ae?? i?e/ei ? oiia cei/eiiino?
ii?iaeaeo? ? iniaeea?noue cei/eiiino? a Oe?a?i?. ?ai?aneai? caniae a
oeeo oiiaao ia iiaeooue aooe aoaeoeaieie, cei/eii?noue ia ia? aa?aa?a.
E?ei?iiaaiieie oaeoi?aie, ui coiiaeththoue noai e?ei?iae?cio a Oe?a?i? ?
oaeoi?e, eio?? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue ethaeyi ei?enooaaoeny: 1) naiaiaeith
aeeoe ca caeiiaie i?e?iaee; 2) iaoo?ae?noe/iei ? ?ae?a?eiei
i?ina?oieoeoaii. Oea ni?ey? iaaecae/aeiiio iioe?aiith o noni?euenoa?
eiiieaeno naaaie? ? ?ethc?e, eio?ee ? i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? cei/ei?a.
Ethaee ia iiaeooue aeeoe ca ii?iaie caei?iaiai aeocaeo.

OAIA 5. INIAENO?NOUe CEI*EIOess

Ieai

1. Iiiyooy iniaenoino? cei/eioey ? caeiiii??iino? ?? oi?ioaaiiy.

2. Nioe?aeueia ? a?ieia?/ia a iniaenoino? cei/eioey.

3. E?ei?iieia?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y cei/eioe?a.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey. O/aaiee iiae ?aae. A.A.Eeoieiaa E A.I.Oeeiiiaa. – E.,
1997.

2. Eo?n niaaoneie e?eieiieiaee. – I., 1985.

3. Caeeineee A.O. E?eieiieiaey. – Oa?ueeia, 1996.

Ieoaiiy 1. Iiiyooy iniaenoino? cei/eioey ? caeiiii??iino? ?? oi?ioaaiiy

Aac i?ciaiiy iniaenoino? cei/eioey, aeanoeainoae i?eoaiaiieo oe?e
iniaenoino?, iaiiaeeeai i? i?ciaoe i?e/eie ? oiiae cei/eiiino?, i?
?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeai? caoiaee i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?. A oeueiio iieyaa?
e?ei?iieia?/ia cia/aiiy aea/aiiy iniaenoino? cei/eioey.

Aeey oiai, uia neeanoe iiiyooy i?i iniaeno?noue cei/eioey, o?aaa ciaeoe
a?aeiia?aeue ia aeaa ieoaiiy:

1. *ei a?ae??ciy?oueny iniaeno?noue cei/eioey a?ae ?ioeo ethaeae?

2. sse oi?io?oueny iniaeno?noue cei/eioey?

Cei/ei, ye ? aoaeue-yea ?ioa iiaaae?iea ethaeeie, – oea i?iya ?? aie? ?
na?aeiiino?. Ioaea: ii-ia?oa, iniaeeaino? cei/eioey ne?ae ooeaoe naia o
aeanoeainoyo, i?eoaiaiieo eiai aie? ? na?aeiiino?; ii-ae?oaa,
aeanoeaino?, i?eoaiaii? aie? ? na?aeiiino? cei/eioey iathoue
noi?ioaaoenue ? ?nioaaoe o iueiai aei a/eiaiiy cei/eio, uia o oeueiio
cei/ei? aiie iiaee i?iyaeoenue. C oeueiai iiaeia iiiyooy iniaenoino?
cei/eioey aecia/eoe ianooiiei /eiii: iniaeno?noue cei/eioey – oea
noeoii?noue iaaieo aeanoeainoae, i?eoaiaiieo aie? ? na?aeiiino?
ethaeeie, eio?a a/eiy? cei/ei.

sse? ae naia oe? «iaai? aeanoeaino?, i?eoaiaii? aie? ? na?aeiiino?
cei/eioey»?

Oe? aeanoeaino? iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie: 1) aeanoeaino?,
caaaeuei? aeey on?o cei/eioe?a; 2) aeanoeaino?, eio?? a?ae??ciythoue
iaeieo cei/eioe?a a?ae ?ioeo – ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/e aeanoeaino?.

Caaaeueieie aeanoeainoyie, i?eoaiaiieie aie? ? na?aeiiino? on?o
cei/eioe?a, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo ethaeae ?:

a) iniaeeaee noai aie?, eio?ee ie iaceaa?ii noaiii naaaie?;

a) iniaeeaee noai na?aeiiino?, eio?ee ie iaceaa?ii noaiii ?ethc?e.

Noai naaaie? ? noai ?ethc?e noai?ththoue o? caaaeuei? aeanoeaino? aie? ?
na?aeiiino? cei/eioey, eio?? iiaeia iacaaoe oa?i?iii «eiiieaen naaaie? ?
?ethc?e». ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eie aeanoeainoyie, ca yeeie iaei? cei/eioe?
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?ioeo ?: i?e?iaeaeai? ? iaaoo? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
aeanoeaino?, eio?? ?iaeea?aeoae?cothoue e?ei?iaeueiee i?iya eiiieaeno
naaaie? ? ?ethc?e o eiaeiiai cei/eioey. Aei oaeeo aeanoeainoae
a?aeiinyoueny: noaoue, a?e, noai o?ce/iiai ? ineo?/iiai caei?ia’y,
aeeoo?aee aeina?ae, cae?aiino?, aeoiaaiiy ? aace?/ ?ioeo.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oe??? eiioeaioe?? iniaenoino? cei/eioey ieoaiiy «*iio
a/eiythoueny cei/eie?» neeaaea?oueny c aeaio ieoaiue:

1. *iio ethaeeia a/eiy? aoaeue-yeee cei/ei acaaae??

2. *iio ethaeeia a/eiy? naia oeae cei/ei, a ia yeeenue ?ioee?

A?aeiia?aeue ia ia?oa ieoaiiy ia? aooe oaea: «Oa, ui ethaeeia a/eiy?
aoaeue-yeee cei/ei acaaae?, iiynith?oueny iayai?noth o ia? eiiieaeno
naaaie? ? ?ethc?e”.

A?aeiia?aeue ia ae?oaa ieoaiiy ianooiia: «Oa, ui ethaeeia a/eiy? naia
oeae cei/ei, a ia yeeenue ?ioee, iiynith?oueny ?? i?e?iaeaeaiith ?
iaaooith ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noth (a?e, noaoue, o?ce/ia ? ineo?/ia
caei?ia’y, aeeoo?aee aeina?ae, cae?aiino?, aeoiaaiiy ? o i.).

Cia/aiiy aeeeaaeaii? eiioeaioe?? iniaenoino? cei/eioey iieyaa? o oiio,
ui aiia aeiiiiaaa?: ii-ia?oa, a?ae??cieoe cei/eioe?a a?ae ?ioeo ethaeae
ca iaaieie aeanoeainoyie aie? ? na?aeiiino?; ii-ae?oaa, ?ic??ciyoe o
oi?ioaaii? cei/eioey: a) oaeoi?e, ui oi?iothoue eiiieaen naaaie? ?
?ethc?e, ?o ie iaceaa?ii i?e/eiaie cei/eiiino?; a) oaeoi?e, eio??
oi?iothoue ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue i?iyao aie? ? na?aeiiino? cei/eioey, ?o
ie iaceaa?ii oiiaaie, ui ni?eythoue cei/eiiino?.

E??i oiai ca ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eie aeanoeainoyie cae?enith?oueny
eeaneo?eaoe?y cei/eioe?a ia iaai? a?oie.

Ieoaiiy 2. Nioe?aeueia ? a?ieia?/ia a iniaenoino? cei/eioey

Cei/eiaoeue, ye ? aoaeue-yea ?ioa ethaeeia, ? ?noioith, o eio??e
ii?aeiothoueny iaaiei /eiii ? a?ieia?/ia, ? nioe?aeueia ia/aei. Aeey
e?ei?iieia?? iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaith ? i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy ?ie? eiaeiiai
c oeeo ia/ae nioe?aeueiiai ? a?ieia?/iiai ia/aea ethaeeie o ia?iaeaeaii?
cei/eiiino?. Oea ia? cia/aiiy aeey ?ic?iaee cania?a i?ioeae??
cei/eiiino?.

?nio? o?e i?aeoiaee aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai ? a?ieia?/iiai o iaoai?ci? ii?iaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?: 1)
nioe?ieia?/iee; 2) a?ieia?/iee; 3) nioe?aeueii-a?ieia?/iee.

Nioe?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae iieyaa? o iaaeaii? ae??oaeueiiai cia/aiiy o
ii?iaeaeaii? cei/eiiino? nioe?aeueiei aeanoeainoyi ethaeeie. Oea
icia/a?, ui cei/eii?noue ii?iaeaeo?oueny nioe?aeueieie oaeoi?aie, a
na?aaeiaeu? yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny ethaeeia. Ioaea, cei/eiaoeue oea aeoa??
na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio a?i aeeaa.

Oaeiai i?aeoiaeo, cie?aia, aeiaaee /an i?eo?eioaaeanue ?aaeyinueea
e?ei?iieia?/ia iaoea. Oaeei /eiii ia?aa?eueooaaeanue ?ieue nioe?aeueieo
oaeoi??a ? caia?a/oaaeanue ?ieue a?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a o iaoai?ci?
ii?iaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?.

A?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae iieyaa? o iaaeaii? ae??oaeueiiai cia/aiiy
a?ieia?/iei (oiaoi o?c?ieia?/iei ? ineoieia?/iei) aeanoeainoyi ethaeeie.
Oea icia/a?, ui cei/eii?noue ii?iaeaeo?oueny aeeeth/ii a?ieia?/ieie
oaeoi?aie.

Oeae i?aeo?ae caii/aoeoaaa ?oae?enueeee noaeiaee ineo?ao? ? e?ei?iae?no
*aca?a Eiia?ici, ?iaeiia/aeueiee aio?iiieia?/iiai iai?yio o e?ei?iieia??
(eiia?ic?ainoaa). A?i iaiaaaany ia??oiooaaoe iieiaeaiiy i?i ?nioaaiiy
iniaeeaiai oeio ethaeeie, noeeueii? aei a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a a neeo
i?e?iaeaeaieo a?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

Nioe?aeueii-a?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae iieyaa? o aeciaii? oiai oaeoo, ui ?
nioe?aeuei? aeanoeaino? ? a?ieia?/i? aeanoeaino? a?ae?a?athoue iaaio
?ieue o ii?iaeaeaii? cei/eiiino?. Iaeiae, ia nueiaiaei? i?ea?/ieee
oeueiai i?aeoiaeo ua ia aecia/eeenue yeo naia e?ei?iiaaiio ?ieue ? a
yeeo iaaeao a?ae?a?athoue nioe?aeuei? ? a?ieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ethaeeie.

Aeina?ae ? ?icaeoie e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee cana?ae/eee, ui ye
nioe?ieia?/iee, oae a?ieia?/iee i?aeoiaee ? aacia?niaeoeaieie. Ie?aeiei
iiaea aooe nioe?aeueia – a?ieia?/iee i?aeo?ae ca oiiae i?ciaiiy ?ieae ?
iaae ae?? nioe?aeueiiai ? a?ieia?/iiai /eiiee?a a no?oeoo?? ethaeeie, o
oiio /ene? ? cei/eioey.

Aeoiaey/e c aecia/aiiy cei/eio ye nioe?aeueiiai yaeua, ui iieyaa? o
i?iya? ca iaaieo oiia aie? ? na?aeiiino? ethaeeie o aeaeyae? cei/eiiiai
ae?yiiy, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ieae nioe?aeueiiai ? a?ieia?/iiai o
ii?iaeaeaii? cei/eio iiaea aooe aecia/aii ianooiiei /eiii.

Nioe?aeueiei /eiieeii a no?oeoo?? cei/eioey ye ethaeeie ? eiiieaen
naaaie? ? ?ethc?e, eio?ee aeeiio? ?ieue i?e/eie cei/eiiiai ae?yiiy.

A?ieia?/iei /eiieeii a no?oeoo?? cei/eioey ye ethaeeie ? o?c?ieia?/i? ?
ineoieia?/i? aeanoeaino?, eio?? aeeiiothoue ?ieue oiia: 1) aeey
oi?ioaaiiy o aeaii? ethaeeie eiiieaeno naaaie? ? ?ethc?e; 2) aeey i?iyao
oeueiai eiiieaeno o aeaeyae? oiai /e ?ioiai iaaiiai cei/eio. Ioaea,
i?ye? o?c?ieia?/i? /e ineoieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ethaeeie ia iiaeooue
aaaaeaoeny i?e/eiaie cei/eiiino?, aea aiie iiaeooue a?ae?a?aaaoe ?ieue
eeoa oiia.

Ieoaiiy 3. E?ei?iieia?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y cei/eioe?a

E?ei?iieia?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y cei/eioe?a iaiao?aeia aeey ?ic?iaee
eiie?aoieo iaoiaeee i?ioeae?? cei/eioeyi, i?enoiniaaieo aei eiie?aoieo
cei/ei?a. Eeaneo?eaoe?y cei/eioe?a ? iiaeeeaith caaaeyee ?nioaaiith o
iniaenoino? cei/eioey iaaieo ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eo aeanoeainoae, ca yeeie
iaei? cei/eioe? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?ioeo.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y caniiao?oueny ia iiaeeeaino? aeae?eyoe oeiia?
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aeanoeaino?, i?eoaiaii? a?oiai in?a. Oei iniaenoino? –
ii Iaeaaiao, «ia?ac, ui i?noeoue oa?aeoa?i? caaaeuei? ?ene yei?-iaaoaeue
a?oie in?a».

Oeiieia?y o?eno? ia aoaeue-ye? ?ene, a eeoa oa aieiaia, aac /iai ia
iiaeia ae??cieoe iniaeno?noue iaaiiai oeio. ?niothoue ??ci? aeaee
eeaneo?eaoe?? cei/eioe?a. I?aenoaae eeaneo?eaoe?? ??ciiiai?oi? ?
caeaaeaoue a?ae iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue. Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie ? ianooii?:

1. Eeaneo?eaoe?y caniiaaia ia aeeeth/ii aeaiia?ao?/ieo aeaieo: ca
noaooth, ca a?eii, ina?oith ? o.ae.

2. Eeaneo?eaoe?y caniiaaia ia aeaieo i?i nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua ? ??ae
caiyoue: ?ia?oieee, naeyie, neoaeaiaoe?, iain?iia?e, iai?aoethth/? ? o?,
ui iaa/athoueny.

3. Eeaneo?eaoe?y, ui a?aoiao? i?noea i?iaeeaaiiy (i?noi, naei), i?noeaa?
aeeoae?, i?e?aeaeae?.

4. Eeaneo?eaoe?y ca noaiii iniae a iiiaio a/eiaiiy cei/eio (noai
aeeiaieueiiai ni’yi?iiy, ia?eioe/iiai caoaeaeaiiy, ia?aaoaaiiy a
onoaiia?, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny iiea?aiiy, ia ?iai/iio i?noe?, i?e
aeeiiaii? neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a ? o.i.).

5. Eeaneo?eaoe?y ii ?ioaineaiino? cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino? (iiaoi?i?noue,
?aoeeaeea).

6. Eeaneo?eaoe?y ii oa?aeoa?o cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee (ianeeueieoeuee?,
ei?eneea?, iinaaeia? ? o. i.).

Aeey aeae?eaiiy iaaieo oei?a cei/eioe?a, ?o oeiieia?caoe??,
eeaneo?eaoe?y aoaeo?oueny ca ianooiieie i?aenoaaaie: a) ca ci?noii
e?ei?iaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino?; a) ca oi?iith i?iyao oe??? ni?yiiaaiino?.

Ca ci?noii e?ei?iaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? cei/eioe?a iiae?eythoue ia oae?
oeie:

1. Ianeeuenoaaii? (aa?aneai?) cei/eioe?, ui iinyaathoue ia aeeooy,
caei?ia’y, /anoue, a?aei?noue ethaeeie. Oea aaeaoe?, ianeeueieee,
ooe?aaie.

2. Ei?eneea? cei/eioe?, ui a/eiythoue e?aae?aeee, oaaa?ieee,
eiio?aaaiaeenoe, oaeueoeaiiiiaoieee ? o. i.

3. Ei?eneeai-ianeeuenoaaii?: aaiaeeoe, a?aa?aeieee, aeiiaaoae?,
ei?eneea? aaeaoe?.

4. Iniae, ye? i?iyaeee i?e a/eiaii? cei/ei?a i?aaiaee i?a?e?ci,
a?iiaaenueeo iaiiei?o, ?aii?oaaiiy nai?o a?iiaaeyinueeeo ? neoaeaiaeo
iaia’yce?a. Cei/eie i?ioe ii?yaeeo oi?aae?iiy, neoaeaia? cei/eie
(oaeaoi?noue).

5. Iniae, ui a/eieee cei/eie c iaiaa?aaeiino?.

Ca oi?iith i?iyao e?ei?iaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? cei/eioe?a iiae?eythoue ia
oae? oeie:

1. Aeiaaeeia? (iniae, ye? aia?oa nei?ee cei/eie, ui noia?a/aoue ?o
iiceoeai?e ni?yiiaaiino?, ? ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iiia?aaeiueith
iiceoeaiith iiaaae?ieith).

2. Neooaoe?ei? (iniae, ye? aia?oa nei?ee oyaee? cei/eie i?ae aieeaii
iani?eyoeeaiai ca?ao ciai?oi?o ianoaaei ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iiceoeaii o
iiaoo?, ia ?iaio?).

3. Iano?ee? (iniae, ye? nei?ee cei/eie aia?oa, aea ?ai?oa aeiioneaee
i?aaiii?ooaiiy oa ?io? aii?aeuei? i?inooiee).

4. Ce?ni? (iniae, ye? iaiaeii?aciai a/eiyee cei/eie, o oiio /ene? ?
?ai?oa noaeei?).

5. Iniaeeai iaaacia/i? (iniae, ye? i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae eaoaai??th
iniaeeai iaaacia/ieo ?aoeeaeea?no?a).

O?aaa iaoe ia oaac?, ui iaeaaei?noue eiie?aoieo in?a aei oiai /e ?ioiai
oeio ia ? aaniethoiith.

OAIA 6. I?E*EIE ? OIIAE EIIE?AOIIAI CEI*EIO

Ieai

1. Iiiyooy i?e/ei ? oiia eiie?aoiiai cei/eio.

2. Iaoai?ci cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee.

3. Eiie?aoi? aeeoo?a? ianoaaeie, a yeeo oi?io?oueny iniaeno?noue
cei/eioey.

4. Eiie?aoia aeeoo?aa neooaoe?y, a ye?e a/eiy?oueny cei/ei.

5. A?eoeiieia?/iee aniaeo cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey. O/aaiee. Iiae ?aae. A.A.Eeoieiaa e A.I.Oeeiiiaa. –
Eeaa, 1997.

2. Caeeineee A.O. E?eieiieiaey. – Oa?ueeia, 1996.

Ieoaiiy 1. Iiiyooy i?e/ei ? oiia eiie?aoiiai cei/eio

I?e/eie ? oiiae cei/eiiino?, ye? ?niothoue a noni?euenoa?, ae?thoue ia
eiie?aoio ethaeeio /a?ac eiie?aoi? ianoaaeie ?? aeeooy, a yeeo aiia
oi?io?oueny, a oaeiae /a?ac eiie?aoio neooaoe?th, a ye?e aiia ae??.

Aeey oiai, uia oni?oii i?ioeae?yoe cei/eiiino? ia ??ai? eiie?aoieo
cei/ei?a, iaiao?aeii oi?oe ae?aaiinooaaoe (aecia/eoe) e?ei?iiaaii?
oaeoi?e a eiie?aoieo aeeoo?aeo ianoaaeiao, i?ae ae??th yeeo ethaeeia
oi?io?oueny, a oaeiae a eiie?aoi?e aeeoo?a?e neooaoe??, a ye?e aiia
ae??. E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai ciaia’yco? ne?ae/iai,
ae?ciaaa/a, i?ieo?i?a ? noae ii eiie?aoieo ni?aaao anoaiiaethaaoe
i?e/eie oa oiiae cei/ei?a oa aeiaaaoe a?ae a?aeiia?aeieo in?a ?o
onoiaiiy (no. 23, 231, 232 EIE Oe?a?ie).

I?e/eie ? oiiae eiie?aoiiai cei/eio o? ae nai?, ui ? i?e/eie ? oiiae
cei/eiiino? acaaae?. Aea i?e/eie ? oiiae eiie?aoiiai cei/eio
eiie?aoecothoueny /a?ac oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy ? ae?yeueiino? iaaii?
ethaeeie. Oiaoi, /a?ac ianoaaeie oi?ioaaiiy ethaeeie a eiie?aoi?e n?i’?,
neooaoe?th, a ye?e ethaeeia iieieeany a eiie?aoiiio i?noe?, a eiie?aoiee
/an, ? oaea ?ioa. Ioaea, i?e/eie ? oiiae eiie?aoiiai cei/eio, oea
e?ei?iiaaii? oaeoi?e, ao?eai? a eiie?aoi? aeeoo?a? ianoaaeie ? a
eiie?aoi? aeeoo?a? neooaoe??, a yeeo iieiy?oueny ethaeeia.

Ieoaiiy 2. Iaoai?ci cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee

Aeey i?ioeae?? cei/eiiei ae?yiiyi iaiao?aeii ciaoe ia eeoa i?e/eie ?
oiiae eiie?aoieo cei/ei?a, a e oa, ye naia oe? e?ei?iiaaii? oaeoi?e
ae?thoue o i?ioean? ii?iaeaeaiiy cei/eiiiai ae?yiiy.

I?ioean ii?iaeaeaiiy cei/eiiiai ae?yiiy iaceaathoue iaoai?ciii cei/eiii?
iiaaae?iee. Iaoai?ci cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee neeaaea?oueny c ianooiieo 4-o
aoai?a:

? aoai – I?ae ae??th aeeoo?aeo ianoaaei, a yeeo ao?eai? e?ei?iiaaii?
oaeoi?e, o ethaeeie oi?io?oueny iniaeno?noue cei/eioey, oiaoi eiiieaen
naaaie? ? ?ethc?e.

II aoai – I?ae aieeaii eiiieaeno naaaie? ? ?ethc?e ethaeeia aeae?a? naia
cei/eiiee niin?a caaeiaieaiiy nai?o iio?aa, a ?acoeueoao? /iai o ia?
aeieea? cei/eiiee iioea.

III aoai – I?ae aieeaii eiiieaeno naaaie? ? ?ethc?e ethaeeia noaaeoue
nia? oe?eue – aeeiiaoe iaai? ae??, iaiao?aei? aeey caaeiaieaiiy ??
iio?aa naia cei/eiiei niiniaii.

IV aoai – I?ae aieeaii cei/eiiiai iioeao ? cei/eiii? oe?e? ethaeeia
a/eiy? cei/eiia ae?yiiy a oiiaao eiie?aoii? aeeoo?ai? neooaoe??, ui
ni?ey? cei/eiiiio i?iyao.

Aeey oiai, uia ia aeaoe ni?aoethaaoe iaoai?cio cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee,
ne?ae ae?yoe iaaiei /eiii ia eiie?aoi? aeeoo?a? ianoaaeie, a yeeo
ao?eai? e?ei?iiaaii? oaeoi?e, a oaeiae ia eiie?aoio aeeoo?ao neooaoe?th,
yea i?noeoue oiiae, ni?eyoeea? aeey cei/eiieo i?iya?a.

Ieoaiiy 3. Eiie?aoi? aeeoo?a? ianoaaeie, a yeeo oi?io?oueny iniaeno?noue
cei/eioey

Ia?aeiiei nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai, a yeiio ae?thoue eiie?aoi? aeeoo?a?
ianoaaeie, ui oi?iothoue iniaeno?noue ethaeeie acaaae? ? n?i’y. Naia
n?i’y ? oei i?e?iaeiei ooai?aiiyi, o yeiio iathoue ae?yoe
aioee?ei?iiaaii? oaeoi?e, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeaee a oi?ioaaiith eiiieaeno
naaaie? ? ?ethc?e o ethaeeie, oiaoi iniaenoino? cei/eioey. Aea a
ae?eniino? ia eiaeia n?i’y aeeiio? oeth aioee?ei?iiaaiio ooieoe?th.

?nio? aaaaoi oae caaieo iaaeaaiiieo/ieo n?iae, a eio?eo ianoaaeie
neeaaeathoueny oae, ui n?i’? ia eeoa ia i?ioeae?thoue oi?ioaaiith
naaaie? o ae?oae, a iaaiaee – oi?iothoue ??. E??i oeueiai, o
iaaeaaiiieo/ieo n?i’yo, aea aaoueee /e ?io? aei?ine? aeiioneathoue
aii?aeuei? iinooiee /e i?aaiii?ooaiiy, ae?oe iiaeooue ia ?o i?eeeaae?
iaa/aoeny noa?aioeiai naaa?eueii? iiaaae?iee, oiaoi iaae?aoeny
e?ei?iaeueiiai aeina?aeo.

Eiie?aoi? aeeoo?a? ianoaaeie, ui oi?iothoue iniaeno?noue cei/eioey,
iiaeooue iaoe i?noea ? o aeaaiiieo/ieo n?i’yo, aea aaoueee ? ?io?
aei?ine? ? aeia?iii?yaeieie ethaeueie, aea a neeo oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei ia
noai?ththoue a n?i’? oaeoi?e, ye? a ia?aoeiaeaeaee oi?ioaaiith o ae?oae
eiiieaeno naaaie? ? ?ethc?e. A oaeeo n?i’yo o ae?oae oi?io?oueny naaaiey
/a?ac ?o ?icaauaiiy, aai /a?ac iiaio ?o aacaeiaeyaei?noue ?
a?ae/oaeai?noue.

Cia/io e?ei?iiaaiio ?ieue iiaeooue aeeiioaaoe eiie?aoi? aeeoo?a?
ianoaaeie, ui neeaaeathoueny o iaoi?iaeueieo a?oiao aeey oeo, ooi aei
ieo aoiaeeoue. Aiie oaeiae iiaeooue aooe aeaea?aeii iaa/aiiy noa?aioei?a
naaa?eueii? iiaaae?iee. Cie?aia, e?ei?iiaaiiei oaeoi?ii, ui iiaea
aieeaaoe ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? cei/eioey ? iaeaeeae/a ioi/aiiy:
ae?oc?, non?aee, oae caai? ?aoa?aioi? a?oie. Aeai?ia? ? aoee/i? eiiiai??
i?aee?oe?a, ui noeo?eii aeieeathoue aeey ni?eueiiai i?iaaaeaiiy
aeica?eey, ia??aeei ia?aoai?ththoueny a ia?a?iaeuei? aai cei/eii? a?oie.

Iaoi?iaeuei? ia’?aeiaiiy iieiae? /anoi eoeueoeaothoue naiaiaeo
iiaaae?iee, yea ia? oi?io naaaie?, oi/ ? ia caaaeaee i?iyaey?oueny o
aeaeyae? cei/ei?a. Aei oaeeo iiaeia a?aeianoe: ?iea??a, oooaieueieo
oaiao?a, iaie?a, iaoae?no?a ? o.i.

Ciaoiaeaeaiiy i?ae aieeaii oeeo ia’?aeiaiue iiaea noaoe eiie?aoiith
aeeoo?aith ianoaaeiith, eio?a aoaea oi?ioaaoe iniaeno?noue cei/eioey.
Oea ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe a ca’yceo c oei, ui ye iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, a
iaoi?iaeueieo iieiae?aeieo ia’?aeiaiiyo ??cii? ni?yiiaaiino? ia?aaoaa?
30-35% iieiaeeo ethaeae o a?oe? aei 25 ?ie?a.

Eiie?aoi? aeeoo?a? ianoaaeie iiaeooue i?noeoe ia eeoa i?e/eie oi?ioaaiiy
naaaie? o ethaeae, a e oiiae, ui ni?eythoue oaeiio oi?ioaaiith. Oaeeie
oiiaaie iiaeooue aooe: ia?aianai? oai?iae, oiiae, ui iaaaoeaii aieeioee
ia o?c?ieia?/iee ? ineoieia?/iee ?icaeoie, iaai? o?aaeeoe?? ? cae/a?,
iaaeineiiae?noue aeoiaaiiy, a?aei?noue, i?iiaaaiaea noa?aioei?a
naaa?eueii? iiaaae?iee c ae?ai?a oaeaa?ci??a ? o.i.

Ieoaiiy 4. Eiie?aoia aeeoo?aa neooaoe?y, a ye?e a/eiythoueny cei/eie

Cei/eie, ye ? aoaeue-ye? ?io? ae?yiiy, a/eiythoueny a iaaiiio i?noe?, a
iaaiee /an, ye? ? ooai?ththoue iaaio neooaoe?th. Eiie?aoia aeeoo?aa
neooaoe?y aieeaa? ia oa, a?aeaoaeaoueny /e ia a?aeaoaeaoueny cei/eiiee
i?iya, oiaoi /e ni?aoeth? iaoai?ci cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee ia inoaiiueiio
aoai?.

A iaeieo aeiaaeeao iniaa naia aeae?a? neooaoe?th, yea ? ni?eyoeeaith
aeey a/eiaiiy cei/eio. A ?ioeo, ia ia?aaeaa/oaaia ca?ai? neooaoe?y, ui
neeaeany (iacaeaaeii a?ae aeai?o iniae) iiaea ni?eyoe ?aae?caoe??
cei/eiiiai i?iyao, yeee cacaeaeaa?aeue ia ia?aaeaa/aany iaa?oue naiei
cei/eioeai.

Neooaoe?y, a ye?e a/eiy?oueny cei/ei, iiaea iaoe iciaee, eio?? a
e?ei?iaeueiiio i?aa? eaae?o?eothoueny ye «ianoaaeie, ui iii’yeoothoue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue” (no.40 EE) ? «ianoaaeie, ui iaoyaeothoue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue” (no.41 EE).

Neooaoe??, a yeeo ni?aoeueiao? iaoai?ci e?ei?iaeueii? iiaaae?iee,
iiaeooue eaae?o?eoaaoeny ii aeaea?aeai aeieeiaiiy ianooiiei /eiii:

1) noai?ai? naiei cei/eioeai;

2) oae?, ui aeieeee c aie? ?ioeo in?a;

3) noai?ai? noeo?eieie iiae?yie (iiaeaae?, aaa???, iiaai?, ai?aeai?? ?
o.i.) oa ?io?.

Ca oa?aeoa?ii aieeao ia ae?th/o iniao e?ei?iiaaii? neooaoe??
iiae?eythoueny ia:

1) aeno?aiaeuei?;

2) i?iaieoth/?;

3) ni?eyoeea?;

4) iani?eyoeea?;

5) iaeo?aeuei?.

Aea/aiiy e?ei?iiaaiieo neooaoe?e – aaaeeeaa ia?aaeoiiaa aoaeoeaii?
i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? caniaaie, i?eoaiaiieie i?aaiioi?iiiei i?aaiai.

Ieoaiiy 5. A?eoeiieia?/iee aniaeo cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee

sse iieaco? i?aeoeea cia/io ?ieue o iaoai?ci? cei/eiii? iiaaae?iee, ?
iniaeeai o oi?ioaaii? e?ei?iiaaiii? neooaoe?? iiaea a?ae?a?aaaoe
iiaaae?iea iioa?i?eiai, aai aea?oae. Iaeei ?c aeine?aeiee?a i?iaeai
a?eoeiieia?? E.A.O?aie, iai?eeeaae, aeyaea, ui i?eaeecii eiaeiee
/aoaa?oee ?c /enea iioa?i?eeo a?a naaa «iaiaeaaeiei /eiii.» Ii cei/eiao
i?ioe iniae (aaeanoaa, oyaee? o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy, c?aaeooaaiiy)
i?iaieaoe?y c aieo aea?oa niinoa??aa?oueny o 20-60 i?ioeaio?a aeiaaee?a.
Oiio aea/aiiy ?ie? aea?oae ye iaeiiai c iaeaaaeeea?oeo no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a e?ei?iiaaiii? neooaoe?? iaae?a? aaeeeiai cia/aiiy.

Ia?oa ni?iaa aeine?aeeoe oaiiiai aea?oae cei/eio aoea cae?eniaia o 1948
?ioe? i?iaoeueeei a/aiei Aainii Aaoeaii a ?iaio? «Cei/eiaoeue ? eiai
aea?oaa». Oae aoei caii/aoeiaaii iniaeeaee iai?yi o e?ei?iieia??
«a?eoeiieia?y”, a?ae eaoeinueeiai victima – aea?oaa. A?eoeiieia?y aea/a?
?ieue aea?oae o aeieeiaii? e?ei?iiaaiii? neooaoe?? ? ?ic?iaey? oae
caaiee a?eoeiieia?/iee aniaeo iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/ei?a. A?eoeiieia?y
iieeeeaia ?ic?iaeyoe oeyoe aei iaeneiaeueiiai nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino?
e?ei?iiaaiieo neooaoe?e, noai?aieo naiei iioa?i?eei. Nooue
a?eoeiieia?/iiai aniaeoo iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/ei?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui
iaiao?aeia i?io?eaeoe/ia ?iaioa ia eeoa c iioaioe?aeueieie
i?aaiii?ooieeaie, aea e ? c iioaioe?eieie aea?oaaie-ethaeueie, /ey
iiaaae?iea, niin?a aeeooy, ca’ycee, n?iaeia noaiiaeua, ??ae caiyoue
noai?ththoue aeey ieo i?aeaeuaiee ?ecee noaoe aea?oaith cei/eiiiai
iinyaaiiy.

Ne?ae iaoe ia oaac?, ui a?eoeiia iiaaae?iea, ia iaia’yceiai iai?aaeeueia
? inoaeia. E?ei?iiaaiia neooaoe?y iiaea aeieeiooe ? a ?acoeueoao?
iinooiea a ii?aeueiiio ? i?aaiaiio a?aeiioaii? iaeo?aeueiiai.
(Iai?eeeaae, i?iya aaci?aenoaaii? aeia??eeaino? aei iaciaeiiiai
/ieia?ea, ui i?eeoia o ae?i).

A?eoeiieie noathoue ?iiae? ? ae?? iiai?noth i?aaii??i? ? ii?aeuei?,
iai?eeeaae, i?e caoeno? ae?iee a?ae i?enoaaaiue ooe?aai?a. ?niothoue
i?ioan??, iia’ycai? c i?aeaeuaiith iaaaciaeith noaoe aea?oaith cei/eiieo
iinyaaiue: i?e?oe?iia?e, ioi?iioe?, ?ieanaoi?e, oaenenoe, a nueiaiaei?
oaeiae a?cianiaie, aeo?iae?noe, iie?oeee.

A?eoeiieia?y aeine?aeaeo? oaeiae eiiieaen ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c
a?aeiineiaie i?ae cei/eioeyie ? aea?oaaie ?o iaiaae?a. Oea noino?oueny
ia?o ca ana i?i e?ei?iieia?th n?iaeieo a?aeiinei, i?i aeei?enoaiiy
neoaeaiai? caeaaeiino? aea?oae a?ae cei/eioey, yeee ? iinaaeiaith
iniaith ? o. i.

Ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii a?eoeiia iiaaae?iea iiaea aooe:

• eiioe?eoiith, eiee iioa?i?eee noai?th? eiioe?eoio neooaoe?th aai
aeoeaii aa?a o/anoue o eiioe?eo? (iai?eeeaae, aenooia? ca/eiueeii
a?eee), iniaeeaa ??ciiaeaei?noue – iaiao?aeia iai?iia, cao?eiaiiy
cei/eioey.

• i?iaieoth/ith (aeaiiino?aoe?y aaaaonoaa, eieaoeea?noue, aeno?aaaaaioia
ciai?oi?noue ? a?aee?eoee iaeya ae?iee, ui noai?th? a?aaeaiiy ??
aeinooiiino?, aeaicia/ia iiaaae?iea ? o.i.).

•eaaeiaaaeiith (aeia??eea?noue, aacoo?aioeea?noue, ia?ai?noue
iaiiaiie?oi?o ? o.i.).

OAIA 7. I?IOEAe?ss CEI*EIIINO?

Ieai

1. Iiiyooy ? oi?ie i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?.

2. Nenoaia i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?.

3. Noa’?eoe i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey. O/aaiee. iiae ?aae. Eeoieiaa e Oeeiiiaa. – Eeaa, 1997.

2. A.O.Caeeineee. E?eieiieiaey: Eo?n eaeoeee. – Oa?ueeia, 1996.

3. A.E.Oiaeaea?. E?eieiieiaey. – I., 1994.

4. Oaieiaiia iaeacaiea. – Eeaa-Aeiiaoee, 1997.

Ieoaiiy 1. Iiiyooy ? oi?ie i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?

Oa, yeith ia? aooe i?ioeae?y cei/eiiino? caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae
cei/eiiino?, a oaeiae a?ae oeo e?ei?iiaaiieo oaeoi??a, ui ii?iaeaeothoue
cei/eii?noue. I?ioeae?y cei/eiiino? – oea ae?yeuei?noue, ni?yiiaaia ia
onoiaiiy ae?? e?ei?iiaaiieo oaeoi??a oeyoii:

1) ?aaaoaaiiy ia nai? oe? oaeoi?e ? 2) ?aaaoaaiiy ia a/eiai? cei/eie.
Oaeei /eiii ne?ae ae??ciyoe aea? oi?ie i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?: 1 oi?ia –
?aaaoaaiiy ia e?ei?iiaaii? oaeoi?e, ui oi?iothoue iniaeno?noue cei/eioey
? ni?eythoue i?iyao ?? o a/eiaiith cei/eio iaceaa?oueny iiia?aaeaeaiiyi
cei/eiiino? aai i?io?eaeoeeith cei/eiiino?; 2 oi?ia – ?aaaoaaiiy ia
a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a iaceaa?oueny ?ai?an??th, aai ea?aeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth.

sseui ?aaaoaaiiy ia cei/eii?noue o oi?i? iiia?aaeaeaiiy (i?io?eaeoeee) ?
o oi?i? ?ai?an?e (ea?e) cae?enith?oueny aaeaeaaoii, iaeaaeiei /eiii – oi
oea iaceaa?oueny eiio?ieue iaae cei/eii?noth. Eiee oeueiai iaia?, oi
eaaeooue i?i ao?aoo eiio?ieth iaae cei/eii?noth. Eiio?ieue iaae
cei/eii?noth ? ii?iaeueiei, yeui a?i ia ia?aoeiaeaea? naiaiae? ?
aeaiie?aoe/iiio ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. ?iaeoa aoaa? i?e oioae?oa?eci?.

Ine?eueee ?nioaaiiy i?e/ei ? oiia cei/eiiino? coiiaeaia i?e?iaeieie
aeanoeainoyie aie? ? na?aeiiino? ethaeeie, ?? caeaoi?noth aei aeai?o, oi
i?ioeae?y cei/eiiino? ia iiaea iieyaaoe a iaiaaaii? iiai?noth onoiooe
e?ei?iiaaii? oaeoi?e ? cei/eii?noue, yeo aiie ii?iaeaeothoue.
Ii?iaeueiith ? i?ioeae?y, ui iieyaa? a iaiaaaii? anoaiiaeoe eiio?ieue
iaae cei/eii?noth oeyoii noai?aiiy iaee?aueo oiia aeey oi?ioaaiiy ?
i?iyao ii?iaeueii?, aeia?i/eiii? oi?ie aie? ? iaea??oeo oiia aeey
oi?ioaaiiy ? i?iyao iaii?iaeueii?, cei/eiii? oi?ie aie?, oiaoi naaaie?.

AEiaeia noni?euenoai ia iiaea aeei?aieoe iiai?noth cei/eii?noue, aea
aiii ia? i?ioeae?yoe ?e iaeaaeiei /eiii. A?aeiia?aeii aei ?icaeoeo
naiiai noni?euenoaa ci?iththoueny ? caniae i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?. *ei
oeea?e?ciaai?oa noni?euenoai, oei oeea?e?ciaai?o? ? caniae i?ioeae??
cei/eiiino?.

A no/anieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny oeea?e?ciaaiei
oeyoii, eiio?ieue iaae cei/eii?noth cae?enith?oueny aeaiie?aoe/ieie
caniaaie, ye? ia ia?aoeiaeaeathoue a?eueiiio ?icaeoeo ethaeeie ?
noni?euenoaa. Aeey oioae?oa?ieo noni?euenoa aeanoeaei ? oa, ui eiio?ieue
iaae cei/eii?noth cae?enith?oueny caniaaie, ye? iathoue oioae?oa?iee
oa?aeoa?. Oe? caniae iiaeooue i?eaiaeeoe aei a?aaeath/iai cieaeaiiy
noaoenoe/iiai ??aiy cei/eiieo i?iya?a. Oae aoei i?e ?aaeeiao Noae?ia,
Ionnie?i?, A?oea?a. Aea oioae?oa?i? caniae eiio?ieth ae?thoue oeyoii
iaiaaeaiiy naiaiaee on?o a?iiaaeyi, a ia eeoa cei/eioe?a, oiio aiie ?
i?ioei?e?iaeieie ? ?oeiothoue iaoai?ci ii?iaeueiiai ?nioaaiiy
noni?euenoaa, ui ? i?aeoaa?aeeeinue ?noi?e/iei aeina?aeii.

No/ania e?ei?iieia?y iiee-ui ia ae?iaeea aeineiiaei? eiioeaioe??
i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?. sseui ocaaaeueieoe ?aeath A.N.Iaea?aiea i?i oa,
ui «ainiiaea?/ee ?ic?aooiie – aeaeaoiee iaaeaaia», ? ?aeath
O.I.Aeinoi?anueeiai i?i oa, ui «ii?iee ethaenuee? ii?iaeaeothoueny
iaae?eiaeo?noth», oa ?io? ?aea? ? oaeoe, oi iiaeia ae?eoe ianooiiiai
aeniiaeo.

Iniiaieie i?e?iaeieie eoeueoo?ecoth/eie caniaaie, ui ae?thoue i?ioe
i?e/ei ? oiia, ye? oi?iothoue iniaeno?noue cei/eioey, ?: 1) caei?iaa,
ocaiaeaeaia c caeiiaie i?e?iaee i?aei?e?iieoeoai; 2) iaoo?ae?noe/ia ?
?ae?a?eia i?ina?oieoeoai.

I?aei?e?iieoeoai ? oei eaiaeii, /a?ac yeee o ethaeeie oi?io?oueny oa, ui
ie iaceaa?ii «caei?iaei aeocaeii», oiaoi ii?iaeueia aeia?i/eiia oi?ia
aie? ? na?aeiiino? ethaeeie. Oey aeanoea?noue ?iaeoue i?aei?e?iieoeoai
?acii c i?ina?oieoeoaii iniiaieie i?e?iaeieie caniaaie iiia?aaeaeaiiy
(i?io?eaeoeee) cei/eiiino?, oiio ui caiyooy ieie ciooo? ethaeeio
ocaiaeaeoaaoe naith aieth ? na?aeii?noue ?c caeiiaie i?e?iaee ? ae?yoe
ca oeeie caeiiaie.

E??i oiai, ye iieaco? ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae, aoaeoeai?noue ?ai?aneaii?
oi?ie i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? caeaaeeoue a?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy a
noni?euenoa? ocaiaeaeaiiai c caeiiaie i?e?iaee i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a oiiaao
oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo. Aac oaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ?ai?an?y,
ae?yeuei?noue ?ai?aneaieo i?aai?a noathoue iaaoaeoeaieie ? ao?a/athoue
naith ?ieue. I?aei?e?iieoeoai ? i?e?iaeiei eiieo?aioii cei/eiiino?, a
oaeiae oiiaith aoaeoeaiino? ?ai?an?? cei/eioe?a, ioaea aiii caaacia/o?
ii?iaeueiee eiio?ieue iaae cei/eii?noth.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai o ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa IAI Oe?a?ie
?ic?iaey?oueny oae caaia i?aei?e?iieoeueei-?ai?aneaia iiaeaeue i?ioeae??
cei/eiiino? ca oi?ioeith «i?aei?e?iieoeoai iethn ?ai?an?y». Ca?aeii c
i?aei?e?iieoeueei-?ai?aneaiith iiaeaeeth ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe cei/eii?noue
2-o oei?a:

I-e oei – cei/eii?noue noni?euenoa, ui iathoue oae caaiee oeea?e?ciaaiee
?eiie, a yeiio aea?aeii aooe /aniei i?aei?e?ioeai;

?I-e oei – cei/eii?noue noni?euenoa, ui ia iathoue oaeiai ?eieo.

Ia?oee oei cei/eiiino? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei, ui ca iayaiino? i?ioeae??
?e c aieo ?eieiaiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aiia i?aeaea?oueny oaeiae eiio?ieth
c aieo aea?aeaae. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ae?oaiai oeio cei/eiiino? ?
oa, ui ca a?aenooiino? i?ioeae?? c aieo ?eieiaiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aiia
ia i?aeaea?oueny eiio?ieth c aieo aea?aeaae. Ine?eueee a Oe?a?i?
nueiaiaei? iaia? ni?aaaeiueiai (oeea?e?ciaaiiai) ?eieo, eiee /aniei
i?aei?e?ioeai aooe aea?aeii, oi ? ia?ii cei/eii?noue ae?oaiai oeio, yea
i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? e?ei?iae?cio.

Ia?oi/a?aiaa caaaeaiiy o noa?? i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? a Oe?a?i? iieyaa? o
oiio, uia ia?aaanoe cei/eii?noue ?c ae?oaiai oeio o ia?oee. C?iaeoe oea
iiaeia oeyoii ?icaeoeo oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo, yeee ia? i?e?iaeio
caeaoi?noue iaiaaeoaaoe cei/eii?noue iaaieie aa?aaaie, ni?yiiaoaaoe ?? o
iaai? ?aiee. Oea c?iaeoue ?? aeinooiiith aeey eiio?ieth, oiaoi aeey
aaeaeaaoiiai ?aaaoaaiiy c aieo aea?aeaae.

Oeea?e?ciaaiee ?eiie ia? caeaoi?noue eaiaethaaoe cei/eii?noue, oiaoi
ni?yiiaoaaoe ?? o iaaiee eaiae, aac /iai aiia noa? iaiaiaaeaiith
(«aani?aaeae») ? ia i?aeaea?oueny eiio?ieth.

Iaeiia?oi?oith, no/aniith iiaeaeeth i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? ia Caoiae? ?
oae caaia iiaeaeue «?icaeoeo a?eii». Aiia iieyaa? o oiio, ui aeey oiai,
uia ia neithaaeenue cei/eie, o?aaa yeiaeaeoeai?oa i?ioeae?yoe
aoaeue-yeei ae??aiei i?aaiii?ooaiiyi ? i?inooieai, i?iyaai aaceoeueoo?’y
ye a iiaoo? oae ? a a?iiaaenueeeo i?noeyo. Oey iiaeaeue ciaeoea
aenia?eiaioaeueia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a Iueth-Ei?eo a 1997 ?ioe?. Iiaeaeue
«?icaeoeo a?eii» ? ?? aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/io eiioeaioe?th cei/eiiino?, aai, ia?acii eaaeo/e,
eiioeaioe?th oi?ioaaiiy «caei?iaiai aeocaeo».

Ieoaiiy 2. Nenoaia i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?

Ine?eueee i?e/eie ? oiiae cei/eiiino? ? eiie?aoieo cei/ei?a ae?thoue ye
iaaia e?ei?iiaaiia nenoaia, oi ? i?ioeae?y ?i iiaeiia iaoe oa?aeoa?
iaaii? aioee?ei?iiaaiii? nenoaie.

Nenoaia i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? neeaaea?oueny c ??ciiiai?oieo
ae?yeueiinoae, ui i?ioeae?thoue oi?ioaaiith eiiieaeno naaaie? ? ?ethc?e,
a oaeiae i?iyao oeueiai eiiieaeno o aeaeyae? cei/eio.

Aoaeue-yea ae?yeuei?noue, ui iiaea i?ioeae?yoe oi?ioaaiith eiiieaeno
naaaie? ? ?ethc?e, a oaeiae eiai cei/eiiiio i?iyao ia? aeeth/aoeny aei
nenoaie i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?.

Nenoaia i?ioeae?? neeaaea?oueny c ianooiieo aeaiaio?a:

?. Iiia?aaeaeaiiy (i?io?eaeoeea) cei/eiiino?. Aiii ia? aeaa aeaee:

a) caaaeueia iiia?aaeaeaiiy – aeiei??iia onoiaiiy i?e/ei ? oiia
cei/eiiino? a noni?euenoa?;

a) ?iaeea?aeoaeueia iiia?aaeaeaiiy – onoiaiiy i?e/ei ? oiia, ui
ii?iaeaeothoue eiie?aoi? cei/eie ia ??ai? eiie?aoieo aeeoo?aeo ianoaaei
? eiie?aoii? aeeoo?ai? neooaoe??.

II. ?ai?an?y cei/eiiino? – ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a, ui cae?eniththoue
?ai?an?th. Caaaeueia ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueia iiia?aaeaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny o
aeaio oi?iao: ianiaoeeo?/ia ? niaoeeo?/ia.

Ianiaoeeo?/ia i?io?eaeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue – oea ae?yeuei?noue,
niaoe?aeueii ia ni?yiiaaia ia i?ioeae?th cei/eiiino?, aea nai?i
iane?aeeii iiaea iaoe aioee?ei?iiaaiiee aoaeo.

Niaoeeo?/ia i?io?eaeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue – oea ae?yeuei?noue,
niaoe?aeueii ni?yiiaaia ia i?ioeae?th cei/eiiino?. ??ciiaeaeiinoyie
niaoeeo?/ii? i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ?:

a) caiia?aaiiy cei/eiai – nenoaia ae?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia ia?aoeiaeaeaiiy
cae?eniaiith cei/eiiiai iai??o eiie?aoiith iniaith aei ii/aoeo iinyaaiiy
ia noaae?yo aeyaeaiiy oieneo aai i?eaiooaaiiy aei cei/eio;

a) i?eieiaiiy cei/ei?a – iieyaa? a ae?yo, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?eieiaiiy aaea
?icii/aoi? cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino? ? a?aeaa?iaiiy cei/eiieo iane?aee?a;

a) ioi?iiia ae?yeuei?noue – iieyaa? a ioi?ii? oeo /e ?ioeo ia’?eo?a a?ae
cei/eiieo iinyaaiue.

Ieoaiiy 3. Noa’?eoe i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?

Noa’?eoe i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? – aea?aeaai? ? iaaea?aeaai? ?inoeoooe??
(i?aai?caoe??) ? iniae, ui iiaeooue nai?th ae?yeuei?noth ianiaoeeo?/ia
/e niaoeeo?/ii i?ioeae?yoe cei/eiiino?. Noa’?eoe i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?
iiaeooue aooe: 1) ianiaoeeo?/ieie; 2) niaoeeo?/ieie.

Ianiaoeeo?/ieie noa’?eoaie i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? ? ?inoeoooe?? ? iniae,
ae?yeuei?noue yeeo ia ni?yiiaaia ia i?ioeae?th cei/eiiino?, aea iiaea
iaoe aioee?ei?iiaaii? iane?aeee (iai?eeeaae, I?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?
oi?aae?iiy, Aa?oiaia ?aaea, I?aceaeaio, Eaa?iao I?i?no??a, i?i?noa?noaa
? a?aeiinoaa oa ?o i?aaie, i?noeaa? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe??,
i?aaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy), iaaea?aeaai? ?inoeoooe?? –
ia’?aeiaiiy a?iiaaeyi, ?ae?a?ei? i?aai?caoe?? ? o.i.).

Niaoeeo?/ieie noa’?eoaie i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? ? ?inoeoooe?? ? iniae,
ae?yeuei?noue yeeo ni?yiiaaia ia i?ioeae?th cei/eiiino? (iai?eeeaae,
i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie, i?aaie IAN, i?ieo?aoo?e, noaeo, ui ciaia’ycai?
ca?aeii c no.23 EIE aeyaeyoe i?e/eie ? oiiae cei/eiiino?).

I?aaie e?ei?iaeueii? ?ai?an?? (aeea. no.4 EIE) ? iaeii/anii ca caeiiii ?
niaoeeo?/ieie noa’?eoaie iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?. Niaoeeo?/ieie
noa’?eoaie i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? ? oaeiae i?aaie, ye? ia ? i?aaiaie
e?ei?iaeueii? ?ai?an??, aea ae?yeuei?noue ?o ni?yiiaaia ia i?ioeae?th
cei/eiiino?: eii?aeeioth/? eii?oaoe ii ai?iouea? ?c cei/eii?noth, ??ci?
eii?n?? ii ai?iouea? ?c cei/eii?noth ? oaea ?ioa, oiiaee niaoe?aeuei?,
eii?oaoe ? neoaeae o ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o (oeaio?? ? ia i?noeyo) oeiee
? i?ioo/eeeua nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iaiiaiie?oi?o, oeaio?e
iaaeeei-nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iaiiaiie?oi?o ? o.i.

OAIA 8. I?AEIA?IAeIA NI?A?IA?OIEOeOAI O I?IOEAe?? CEI*EIIINO?

Ieai

1. Iniiai? iai?yiee ? oi?ie i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o i?ioeae??
cei/eiiino?.

2. I?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e ye i?aaiaa iniiaa ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o i?ioeae??
cei/eiiino?.

3. Ni?a?ia?oieoeoai aea?aeaa o i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? a ?aieao III.

4. I?aeia?iaeia i?aai?caoe?y e?ei?iaeueii? iie?oe?? «?ioa?iie».

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey: O/aaiee. Iiae ?aae. Eeoieiaa e Oeeiiiaa. – Eeaa, 1997.

2. Oiaeaea? A.E. E?eieiieiaey. – I., 1994.

Ieoaiiy 1. Iniiai? iai?yiee ? oi?ie ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o i?ioeae??
cei/eiiino?

Cei/eii?noue ia iaiaaeo?oueny iaoe?iiaeueieie ei?aeiiaie. ?icoe?aiiy
naiaiaee ia?anoaaiiy a?iiaaeyi a oiiaao c?inoaiiy inoaii?i /anii
aca?iica’yce?a i?ae aea?aeaaaie ?a?iie ? anueiai na?oo –
aeei?enoiao?oueny cei/eioeyie ana aeoeai?oa aeey cei/eiieo oe?eae. Oiio
aeooaeueii ? aino?i iinoa? ieoaiiy i?i ia’?aeiaiiy coneeue on?o e?a?i c
iaoith i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?. Aeieeiaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo cei/eiieo
i?aai?caoe?e caa?iaeo? naiiio ?nioaaiith i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaiii?yaeeo.

A neeo iaiao?aeiino? i?ioeae?? i?aeia?iaeiei cei/eiai aea?aeaae
anooiathoue o aaaaoinoi?iii? i?aeia?iaei? oaiaee, ye? aecia/athoue
aca?ii? i?aaa ? iaia’ycee o/aniee?a a?aeiinii i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?. On?
aeciai? ia nueiaiaei? i?aeia?iaei? cei/eie iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia e?eueea
a?oi:

? a?oia – cei/eie, eio?? ni?e/eiythoue oeiaeo ie?iiio ni?a?ia?oieoeoao ?
ii?iaeueiiio cae?eniaiith i?aeia?iaeieo aea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei. Aei ieo
a?aeiinyoueny: oa?i?eci, iaeiainoai, oaii iia?o?yieo noaeai, iacaeiii?
?aae?iia?aaea/?.

II a?oia – cei/eie, eio?? iaiinyoue oeiaeo i?aeia?iaeiiio aeiiii?/iiio ?
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiio ?icaeoeo. Oea «aee?aaeaiiy oai??a ienoaoeoaa”
eii?aaaiaea, iioe?aiiy ? oi?a?aey ia?eioeeaie, i?ae?iaea a?ioae ?
oe?iieo iaia??a, a oaeiae iaeaaaeueia ai?a?aoe?y.

I? a?oia – cei/eie, eio?? iaiinyoue oeiaeo inia?, aeaniino? /e
ii?aeueiei oe?iiinoyi. Oea caoaao caeiaeiee?a, oi?a?aey ethaeueie,
iioe?aiiy ii?iia?ao??, i??aonoai.

IV a?oia – cei/eie on? ?io?. Iai?eeeaae, c?oeiaiiy noaeai o ii??, ia
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae o ii??, cei/eie, a/eiai? ia ai?oo iia?o?yiiai noaeia.

Aca?iiaeiiiiiaa aea?aeaa o i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? cae?enith?oueny o oaeeo
i?aai?ciaaieo oi?iao:

1) aeainoi?iiiueiai ? aaaaoinoi?iiiueiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa aea?aeaa o
ai?iouea? ?c cei/eii?noth ia iniia? oaiae ii ai?iouea? ?c ie?aieie
aeaeaie cei/ei?a ? oaiae i?i iaaeaiiy i?aaiai? aeiiiiiae ii
e?ei?iaeueiei ni?aaai;

2) aeei?enoaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, 00I oa ?ioeo.

Ieoaiiy 2. I?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e ye i?aaiaa iniiaa ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o
i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino?

Iniaeeaa i?noea caeiathoue aaaaoinoi?iii? oaiaee noiniaii ai?ioueae c
i?aeia?iaeieie cei/eiaie. Iniiaieie oe?eyie ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa e?a?i
ca?aeii c iieiaeaiiyie oeeo eiiaaioe?e, ? caiia?aaiiy, i?eieiaiiy ?
iiea?aiiy cei/eioe?a. Cae?enithth/e ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ia iniia? oeeo
eiiaaioe?e, aea?aeaae ae??oothoue aaciina?aaeiuei ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

1) aecia/a?oueny iniaeeaa iaaacia/i?noue a?aeiia?aeieo ae?yiue, ui
iinyaathoue ia i?aeia?iaeiee ? iaoe?iiaeueiee ii?yaeie;

2) cae?eniththoueny ocaiaeaeaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?e cei/eiieo ae?yiue, ?
oaeei /eiii, aecia/a?oueny ia’?eo ? ia’?eoeaia noi?iia, a oaeiae
noa’?eoe oeeo cei/ei?a. Noa’?eoeaia noi?iia, ye i?aaeei, ia
aecia/a?oueny, ai oea a?aeianaii aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa e?a?i-o/anieoeue;

3) eiiaaioe?? i?noyoue ii?ie ii anoaiiaeaiith th?enaeeeoe?? aea?aeaa
iaae cei/eiaie ? cei/eioeyie;

4) iieiaeaiiy eiiaaioe?e i?noyoue aaciina?aaei? ciaia’ycaiiy e?a?i ii
eii?aeeiaoe?? cania?a ae?yeueiino? ii caiia?aaiith ? i?eieiaiith
i?aeia?iaeieo cei/ei?a;

5) eiiaaioe?? i?noyoue ii?ie i?i iaaeaiiy oe?iei? i?aaiai? aeiiiiiae o
ni?aaao, ye? aeieeathoue o ca’yceo c a/eiaiiyi i?aeia?iaeieo cei/ei?a.
Aei oaeeo eiiaaioe?e, cie?aia, iaeaaeaoue:

1. AEaiaanueea eiiaaioe?y ii ai?iouea? c i?ae?iaeith a?ioiaeo ciae?a,
i?eeiyoa 1929 ?ieo (Oe?a?ia o/anieoey c 1932 ?., no.79 EE Oe?a?ie).

2. Iueth-Ei?enueea eiiaaioe?y ii ai?iouea? c oi?a?aeath ethaeueie ?
aenieoaoaoe??th i?inoeoooe?? o?ao?ie iniaaie 1950 ?.

3. AEaiaanueea eiiaaioe?y ii i?eieiaiith iioe?aiiy ii?iia?ao?/ieo
aeaeaiue ? oi?a?ae? ieie a?ae 1923 ?.

4. ?aeeia eiiaaioe?y i?i ia?eioe/i? caniae 1961 ?ieo.

5. Eiiaaioe?y i?i ineoio?iii? ?a/iaeie 1971 ?ieo.

6. Eiiaaioe?y 00I ii ai?iouea? c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ?
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei 1988 ?ieo.

7. Aaaanueea eiiaaioe?y ii ai?iouea? c iacaeiiiei caoaaoii iia?o?yieo
noaeai, 1970 ?ieo.

8. Iii?aaeuenueea eiiaaioe?y ii ai?iouea? c iacaeiiieie aeoaie,
ni?yiiaaieie i?ioe aaciaee oeea?eueii? aa?aoe?? 1971 ?ieo (no.2171EE
oaii iia?o?yieo noaeai).

9. Eiiaaioe?y i?i iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? iiea?aiiy ca cei/eie i?ioe in?a, ye?
ei?enoothoueny i?aeia?iaeiei caoenoii, o oiio /ene? aeeieiiaoe/ieo in?a
(a EE Oe?a?ie – no.59).

Oe?a?ia ? o/anieoeath on?o oeeo eiiaaioe?e.

Ia nueiaiaei? Oe?a?iith i?aeienai? ? ae?thoue oaiaee i?i
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai IAN Oe?a?ie c IAN Oai?ueie, ?oioi??, Eaoa??, Eeoae,
Anoii??, Iieueu? oa ?ioeo e?a?i (onueiai a?eueoa CI aea?aeaa). NIAe
ie?aii – Eiiaaioe?y 1994 ?ieo ii oeea?eueieo, e?ei?iaeueieo ? n?iaeieo
ni?aaao.

Ieoaiiy 3. Ni?a?ia?oieoeoai aea?aeaa o i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? a ?aieao
00I

Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?ae aea?aeaaaie o ?aieao 00I ?
iai?i aeina?aeii o noa?? iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/eiiino?, ai?ioueae c iath ?
ni?eyiiy aoiaiiiio iiaiaeaeaiith c i?aaiii?ooieeaie. A iniiaiiio
ae?yeuei?noue a oeeo ieoaiiyo cae?enith?oueny i?ae aa?aeith Aaia?aeueii?
Anaiaea? oa Aeiiii?/ii? ? Nioe?aeueii? ?aaee. A?aeiia?aeii aei noaoooo
00I Aaia?aeueia Anaiaeay ?icaeyaea? aeiiia?ae? Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa?y
00I, a ye? aeeth/ai? iaeaaaeeea?o? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ii iiia?aaeaeaiith cei/eiiino?, ai?ioueae c iath ?
iiaiaeaeaiith c i?aaiii?ooieeaie.

Aeiiii?/ia ? Nioe?aeueia ?aaea caaacia/o? ae?yeuei?noue 00I ii ai?iouea?
c cei/eii?noth ? i?aeia?iaeieie cei/eiaie. ?aaea aecia/a? no?aoaa?th ?
oaeoeeo i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ? ae?yeueiino? 00I a oe?e noa??:
i?eeia? ??oaiiy i?i noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?a,
aecia/a? ?o noaoon, ?aaeaiaio, iai?yiee ae?yeueiino?, neeeea? nan?? ?
eiioa?aioe??, noaaeth? aeiaai, na?aaeiuei oa ei?ioeino?ieia? i?ia?aie
ae?yeueiino? 00I a ai?iouea? ?c cei/eii?noth, aioo? aeey Aaia?aeueii?
Anaiaea? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, i?iaeoe i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae c eiie?aoieo
ieoaiue ? oaea ?ioa.

Aeiiii?/ia ? Nioe?aeueia ?aaea neeaaea?oueny ?c /eneaiieo eii?n?e, ui
niaoe?ae?cothoueny ii eiie?aoiei iai?yieai ai?ioueae ?c cei/eii?noth, oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia.

Ieoaiiy 4. I?aeia?iaeia i?aai?caoe?y e?ei?iaeueii? iie?oe?? «?ioa?iie»

I?aeia?iaeieo th?eaee/ieo ca’yce?a ooieoe?iiothoue ??ciiai i?io?eth ?
i?ecia/aiiy ia’?aeiaiiy iie?oeaenueeeo nenoai, onoaiia ? i?aoe?aiee?a:
I?aeia?iaeia iie?oeaenueea anioe?aoe?y oa ?io?.

Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae ieo caeia? I?aeia?iaeia i?aai?caoe?y
e?ei?iaeueii? iie?oe??, ui ia? iacao ?ioa?iie. Oea iaea?eueo
i?aaenoaaieoeueea ? aoaeoeaia i?aeia?iaeia iie?oeaenueea neoaeaa.
Oe?a?ia aoea i?eeiyoa a i?aai?caoe?th «?ioa?iie» ia 61 nan?? ??
Aaia?aeueii? Anaiaea? a eenoiiaae? 1992 ?ieo. E?euee?noue e?a?i-/eai?a
?ioa?iieo aeinyaea 169.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c no.2 Noaoooo, oe?eyie ?ioa?iieo ?:

a) caaacia/eoe ? ?icaeaaoe aca?iia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai on?o i?aai?a
(onoaiia) e?ei?iaeueii? iie?oe?? a ?aieao ?nioth/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa
e?a?i a aeon? Caaaeueii? aeaeea?aoe?? i?aa ethaeeie;

a) ooai?thaaoe ? ?icaeaaoe onoaiiae, ye? iiaeooue oni?oii ni?eyoe
iiia?aaeaeaiith ? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia?e ai?iouea? c caaaeueiith
cei/eii?noth (e??i iie?oe/ii?).

?ioa?iie i?aai?co? ni?a?ia?oieoeoai o ai?iouea? ia?o ca ana c? an?ia
i?aeia?iaeieie cei/eiaie, a oaeiae c? cae/aeieie cei/eiaie, ye? iathoue
i?aeia?iaeiee oa?aeoa? (aaeanoaa, aee?aaeaiiy ethaeae,
oaeueoeaiiiiaoieoeoai, ia?eicei/eie, caoaao caeiaeiee?a, oaii e?oae?a,
eiii’thoa?ia cei/eii?noue, oa?i?eci, aee?aaeaiiy aei?iaeo aaoiiia?e?a ?
o. ?.).

I?aai?caoe?eia iiaoaeiaa ?ioa?iieo. Aeuei ieaia?iei i?aaiii ?
Aaia?aeueia Anaiaeay. Aeuei aaei?i?no?aoeaiei i?aaiii ? Aeeiiaa/ee
eii?oao. Iino?eii ae?th/ee ?iai/ee aia?ao – Aaia?aeueiee nae?aoa??ao ia
/ie? c Aaia?aeueiei nae?aoa?ai. Oeaio?aeueia oi?aae?iiy (ooaa-eaa?oe?a)
?ioa?iieo ?ici?uaia ia aeaiee /an o E?ii? (O?aioe?y). Na?aae 4-o
a?aeae?e?a Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa??aoo: 1) aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai; 2)
iie?oeaenueeiai; 3) iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai; 4) oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy –
aieiaiei ? iie?oeaenueeee a?aeae?e, o yeiio iaeiie/o?oueny ?
i?aeaea?oueny aiae?co ony ?ioi?iaoe?y ii cei/eiai, ye? a/eiai? aai
aioothoueny.

Iie?oeaenueeee a?aeae?e neeaaea?oueny c 3-o i?aea?aeae?e?a, ye?
caeiathoueny a?aeiia?aeii:

1) cei/eiaie i?ioe iniae, aeaniino? ? i?aeia?iaeiei oa?i?eciii;

2) oaeueoeaiiiiaoieoeoaii, aeiiii?/ieie ? o?iainiaeie cei/eiaie;

3) ai?ioueaith c iacaeiiiei iioe?aiiyi ia?eioee?a. E??i oeueiai o neeaae
a?aeae?eo aoiaeeoue iniaeeaa a?oia ii ai?iouea? c i?aai?ciaaiith
cei/eii?noth.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ae?yeueiino? ?ioa?iieo ? ooai?aiiy
niaoe?aeueieo i?aai?a – Iaoe?iiaeueieo oeaio?aeueieo ath?i, ye? ae?thoue
a iaaeao iie?oeaenueeeo no?oeoo? aea?aeaa-o/anieoeue ? iaeii/anii ?
no?oeoo?ieie iaeeieoeyie ?ioa?iieo.

Iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ? 220 a?ae 25 aa?aciy 1993 ?ieo a
IAN Oe?a?ie oaeiae ooai?aiee niaoe?aeueiee i?ae?icae?e – Oeaio?aeueia
Iaoe?iiaeueia Ath?i ?ioa?iieo.

Eiaeia Oeaio?aeueia Iaoe?iiaeueia Ath?i cae?a? o nai?e e?a?i?
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i cei/eie i?aeia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?o, ca aei?o/aiiyi
?ioa?iieo aiie ia?aaeathoue iie?oeaenueeei i?aaiai nai?? e?a?ie iaeace
i?i ?icooe, cao?eiaiiy oa a?aoo cei/eioe?a, a oaeiae i?eeiathoue ?
ia?aneeathoue a ?ioa?iie i?inueao nai?o e?a?i i?i ?icooe ? cao?eiaiiy
cei/eioe?a, ui ia?aoiaothoueny. Aiie oaeiae ni?eythoue cai?iaaaeaeaiith
o aeeooy a nai?o e?a?iao ??oaiue ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ea??aieo i?aai?a
?ioa?iieo.

OAIA 9. I?AAI?CIAAIA ? I?IOAN?EIA CEI*EII?NOUe

Ieai

1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aai?ciaaii? ? i?ioan?eii?
cei/eiiino?.

2. I?e/eie ? oiiae i?aai?ciaaii? ? i?ioan?eii? cei/eiiino?.

3. Iniiai? iai?yiee i?ioeae?? i?aai?ciaai?e ? i?ioan?ei?e cei/eiiino?.

E?oa?aoo?a

1 .E?eieiieiaey: O/aaiee. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.A.Eeoieiaa e A.I.Oeeiiiaa.
–Eeaa, 1997.

2.Caeeineee A.O. E?eieiieiaey: Eo?n eaeoeee. – Oa?ueeia, 1996.

3.I?aaieciaaiiay i?anooiiinoue. – Iineaa, 1989.

Ieoaiiy 1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aai?ciaaii? ? i?ioan?eii?
cei/eiiino?

I?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue – oea oi?ia cei/eiiino?, ui i?iyaey?oueny a
cei/eiao, eio?? a/eiythoueny cei/eiieie i?aai?caoe?yie. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
i?inoi? a?oiiai? cei/eiiino?, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ocaiaeaeaii?noth ae?e
e?eueeio in?a, i?aai?ciaaia cei/eiia ae?yeuei?noue – oea ae?yeuei?noue
a?oie in?a, ia’?aeiaieo a i?aai?caoe?th, yea ia? no?oeoo?o, niaoe?aeueii
i?enoiniaaio aeey nei?iiy cei/ei?a. O ??cieo e?a?iao ? a ??ci? /ane
i?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue caeaaeii a?ae oiia iaaoaa? ??cieo oi?i.
Oa?i?iii «iao?y» iicia/a?oueny oi?ia i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?, ui
aeieeea ia ino?ia? N?oe?e?y ? noaea a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueieo,
aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo iniaeeainoae ?oae??. A ?ioeo e?a?iao ? ca
?ioeo /an?a ?nioaaee oae? oi?ie i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?, ye
oe?aonoue??nuee?, ei?na?nuee?, i??aonuee? iaueie (o ii?nueeeo e?a?iao a
XVII-XVIII no.), cei/eiieoeuee? iaueie a ?in??, ui iaceaaeenue «oaeeaie»
oiui.

sse ? aeey aoaeue-yei? i?aai?caoe??, aeey cei/eiii? i?aai?caoe??
aeanoea? ianooii? ?ene:

a) ???a?o?/i?noue ? naiioi?aae?iiy;

a) ?iciiae?e ?ieae ? ooieoe?e;

a) iayai?noue noaoooieo i?aaee iiaaae?iee, eio?ei /eaie i?aai?caoe??
iathoue i?aeei?yoeny;

a) naiicaaacia/aiiy on?i iaiao?aeiei aeey aaoiiiiiiai ?nioaaiiy;

ae) ae?yeuei?noue ni?yiiaaia ia aeinyaiaiiy aecia/aii? e?ei?iaeueii?
iaoe. Iciaeaie, ui a?ae??ciythoue naia cei/eiio i?aai?caoe?th a?ae ?ioeo
?:

1. I?ioei?aai? caniae aeinyaiaiiy cei/eiieo oe?eae;

2. I?ioan?iiae?ci e?ei?iaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o;

3. Caeiini??iaai?noue ni?aaaeiuei? cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino? i?ae aeaeyaeii
eaaaeueii?;

4. Niaoe?aeueia nenoaia i?ioeae?? ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a.

Oe? iciaee i?iyaeythoueny a no/ani?e i?aai?ciaai?e cei/eiiino? a
ianooiieo i?iyaao:

1. sse i?aaeei, i?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue caaeiaieueiy? iio?aae
ianaeaiiy a iaeaaaeueieo oiaa?ao (e?aaeaieo /e caai?iiaieo – aaoiiia?e?,
ia?eioeee, ca?iy ? o.i.) ? iineoaao (i?inoeoooe?y ? o. i.).

2. I?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue cae?enith? naith ae?yeuei?noue ia canaaeao
?aa?iiaeueiino? ? ieaiii??iino?.

3. Aeey caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ooai?ththoueny niaoe?aeuei?
i?ae?icae?ee.

4. Cei/eiia i?aai?caoe?y ia iiaea ia?eoenue aac i?ioan?iiae?a – oiaoi
ethaeae, eio?? iathoue iaaeee cei/eii?. Aiie ?icaeaathoue o nai?io eie?
e?ei?iaeueio nenoaio oe?iiinoae, iaiaaathoueny iaeneiaeueii oaacia/eoe
cei/eiio ae?yeuei?noue a?ae ?ice?eooy ? ia aeiionoeoe ao?o/aiiy o naith
ae?yeuei?noue io?oe?eieo ?inoaioe?e eiio?ieth, cie?aia i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a.

5. Eiaeia cei/eiia i?aai?caoe?y ciaoiaeeoueny o no?iai oeai?ae?ciaaiiio
i?aeei?aii? aei ea??aii? no?oeoo?e, yea aaaea iiooe iiaeeeainoae aeey
e?ei?iaeueieo ae?e, ieaio? ? eiio?ieth? cei/eiio ae?yeuei?noue.

6. Ii?yae c ???a?o?/iith no?oeoo?ith, cei/eiia i?aai?caoe?y iaia’yceiai
ia? iaai? ii?iaoeai? i?aaeea iiaaae?iee aeey nai?o /eai?a – na?e noaooo,
ii?ooaiiy yeiai noai?i ea?a?oueny.

7. Iaeo?ae?caoe?y e?ei?iaeueiiai ia?ane?aeoaaiiy aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii
aeenoaioe?thaaiiy ea??aieoeoaa cei/eiii? i?aai?caoe?? a?ae
aaciina?aaei?o aeeiiaaoe?a oeo /e ?ioeo cei/ei?a. Oiio, ye i?aaeei,
i?aaiioi?iiiei i?aaiai ??aeei aaea?oueny aee?eoe ae?yeuei?noue
ea??aiee?a cei/eiieo i?aai?caoe?e.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui i?iaeaia i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino? noaea
iaaecae/aeii aino?ith aeey Oe?a?ie, CI /a?aiy 1993 ?. aoei i?eeiyoi
Caeii «I?i i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? iniiae ai?ioueae c i?aai?ciaaiith
cei/eii?noth». No.1 Caeiio aecia/a? i?aai?ciaaio cei/eii?noue ianooiiei
/eiii: oea «noeoii?noue cei/ei?a, ui a/eiythoueny o ca’yceo c noai?aiiyi
? ae?yeuei?noth cei/eiieo oa?oioaaiue». Oaea aecia/aiiy ? iaaeineiiaeei
oiio, ui ia ?iciaaeiao? i?inoo a?oiiao cei/eii?noue ? cei/eii?noue
cei/eiieo i?aai?caoe?e.

I?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue iia’ycaia c i?ioan?eiith cei/eii?noth, ia
iiaea aac ia? ?nioaaoe, aea nai? i?ioan?ei? cei/eioe? iiaeooue caeiaoeny
cei/eiiith ae?yeuei?noth ? ia a i?aai?ciaai?e oi?i?, oiaoi ia aoaeo/e
/eaiaie cei/eiieo i?aai?caoe?e.

Aia?oa oa?i?i «i?ioan?eiee cei/eiaoeue» aoa caniiaaiee o 1897 ?ioe? ia
Aaeaeaeueaa?cueeiio c’?cae? i?aeia?iaeiiai nithco e?ei?iae?no?a. Oeae
oa?i?i iicia/ea caeiyooy cei/eii?noth ye i?ioan??th, oiaoi i?ioan?eii.

I?ioan?eio cei/eii?noue oa?aeoa?ecothoue 4 iniiai? iciaee:

a) no?eeee aeae cei/eiiiai caiyooy (niaoe?ae?caoe?y);

a) iaai? ciaiiy ? iaaeee (eaae?o?eaoe?y) ;

a) cei/eie ye aeaea?aei cania?a aei ?nioaaiiy;

a) ca’ycie c e?ei?iaeueiei na?aaeiaeuai.

I?ioan?ei? cei/eioe?, ye? ia ? /eaiaie iaaieo cei/eiieo i?aai?caoe?e,
aeey caaacia/aiiy nai?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ciooai?
i?eo?eioaaoenue iaaieo ii?i ni?a?nioaaiiy c ?ioeie oaeeie naieie
cei/eioeyie. A ca’yceo c oeei o e?ei?iaeueiiio na?o? aeieeee iaai?
caaaeuei? ii?ie iiaaae?iee – ai?ianuee? caeiie. I?ioan?ei? cei/eioe?,
ye? nai? noai?i i?eo?eioaaeenue oeeo caeii?a ? caaaeyee nai?io cia/iiio
aeina?aeo iiaee caaacia/oaaoe ?nioaaiiy oeeo caeii?a, – ooai?eee
cei/eiio ae?oo, yea aeieeea a eieeoiueiio ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? i?ae
iacaith «ai?e o caeii?».

I?ioan?ei? cei/eioe?, e??i «ai?ianueeeo caeii?a», iathoue ua ? na?e
aea?aii: «oaiy». Ia iia? oeueiai aea?aiio i?ioan?ei? cei/eioe?
iaceaathoueny «aeaoa?yie». Cei/eioe? ii aeaeai niaoe?ae?caoe??
iiae?eythoueny oae: «aeiiooieee» (eaa?oe?i? e?aae?aeee), «ea?iaiieee»
(iiae?eythoueny ia «eieano?e?a», iaaaceiuee?a», “e?io?a» a iao?i),
«?eii/iee?a «, «aoee/ieo», «oaao?ae?a», «ia?aeoa??a» – eeoa aaaaoeo
iae?aaeathoue, «ueia/?» – a?oia , c a?aeaie?eaiiyi oaaae aea?oae,
«iena??» – ??aeooue ea?iaie, «o?ynoie» – aeo?ynathoue c aioo??oi?o
ea?iai?a aoiaaeieee c a??oie i?aeooiaooaaiiyie ? o.i.); «eaoaee» –
(oao?a? a ?ai?iiio a?cian?, ea?oi/i? «ooea?e», «iaia?noi/ieee» – oaia?),
«aiiieee» (a?aa?aeieee ? ?ica?eieee); «eoeieueieee» (oao?a?, ui ?iaeyoue
«eoeee» – ?i?oaoe?? ia/ee a?ioae); «oa?iaciiueee» – iao?iaoe?? c
oaeueneo?eaoe??th aei?iaioe?iiinoyie); «e?ea?aeaoi?e» – (e?ea?e);
?aeaoe?e ? o.i.

I?ioan?eia cei/eii?noue ci?ith?oueny, i?enoiniaoth/enue aei no/anieo
oiia.

Ieoaiiy 2. I?e/eie ? oiiae i?aai?ciaaii? ? i?ioan?eii? cei/eiiino?

Aoaeo/e iniaeeaith oi?iith ni?ao/ano? o a/eiaii? cei/ei?a, i?aai?ciaaia
cei/eii?noue ia? o? ae i?e/eie, ui ? cei/eii?noue, yea ia ia? iciae
i?aai?ciaaii?. ?acii c oei, ?niothoue iaai? oaeoi?e, ye? ni?eythoue aai
ia ni?eythoue oiio, ui cei/eii?noue iaae?a? naia i?aai?ciaaii? oi?ie.

Iniaeea?noth cei/eiiino? a i?aai?ciaai?e oi?i? ? oa, ui aiia iiaea
?nioaaoe eeoa ca iayaiino? iaaieo aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo oiia: /ei
a?eueoa oeeo oiia – oei a?eueo iioe?aia i?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue.
Ca?aeii c eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/iith eiioeaioe??th cei/eiiino? ?nioaaiith
cei/eiiino? a i?aai?ciaai?e oi?i? ni?ey? iaaeinoaoi?e ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e
aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, a o aeiaaeeo nioe?aeueieo e?ec ? aeaeoeueoo?ecaoe?y
aeiiii?ee, oiaoi iaocaiaeaeai?noue aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy ?c i?e?iaeieie
caeiiaie aeiiii?ee. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui eaaaeuei? oi?ie
aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeae noathoue iaeiieo?aioiicaeaoieie o
ii??aiyii? c iaeaaaeueieie (cei/eiieie).

I?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue ?nio? ca ?aooiie oeo noa? noni?eueiiai aeeooy,
aea /aniee a?cian aai iaiiaeeeaee, iai?eeeaae, ia?a ia?eioee?a, aai ia
iiaea eiieo?oaaoe ?c cei/eiiei «a?cianii» a ?acoeueoao? a?aenooiino?
iaeaaeieo oiia aeey caei?iai? ?eieiai? eiieo?aioe??. Naia oea ?
ni?e/eiy? nueiaiaei?oi?e ??aaiue iioe?aiino? i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino? a
Oe?a?i? oa ?ioeo e?a?iao eieeoiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco. Oeei aea
ni?e/eiy?oueny iioe?ai?noue i?ioan?eii? cei/eiiino?. Aei oiia, ui
ni?eythoue iioe?aiith i?aai?ciaaii? ? i?ioan?eii? cei/eiiino? ne?ae
a?aeianoe aieiaiei /eiii iaaoaeoeai?noue ?ai?aneaii? aai ea?aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae, ui oaae ? iane?aeeii aeaci?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?ee.

Ieoaiiy 3. Iniiai? iai?yiee i?ioeae?? i?aai?ciaai?e ? i?ioan?ei?e
cei/eiiino?

Iniiaieie iai?yieaie i?ioeae?? i?aai?ciaai?e ? i?ioan?ei?e oi?iai
cei/eiiino? ?:

1) caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai
aeeooy ethaeae a?aeiia?aeii aei i?e?iaeieo caeii?a aeiiii?ee, oiaoi
ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e aeiiii?ee. Cie?aia, oea caoiaee, ui
ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo oeea?e?ciaaiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, /aniiio a?ciano ia
?eieiaeo canaaeao, caeaoiiai eiieo?oaaoe ?c cei/eiieie oi?iaie
ae?yeueiino? o noa?? aeiiii?ee;

2) aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae o noa?? ai?ioueae c
i?aai?ciaaiith ? i?ioan?eiith cei/eii?noth. Cie?aia, aaeineiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a a oiiaao ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei.

OAIA 10. EI?ENEEAA CEI*EII?NOUe ? I?IOEAe?ss ?E

Ieai

1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ei?eneeaeo cei/ei?a oa ?o
eeaneo?eaoe?y.

2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue ei?eneeao cei/eii?noue.

3. I?ioeae?y ei?eneea?e cei/eiiino?.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey. O/aaiee. Iiae ?aae. A.A. Eeoieiaa e A.I.Oeeiiiaa. –
Eeaa, 1997 .

2. Caeeineee A.O. E?eieiieiaey. Eo?n eaeoeee. Oa?ueeia, – 1996.

3. Oiaeaea? A.E. E?eieiieiaey. – I., 1994.

Ieoaiiy 1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ei?eneeaeo cei/ei?a oa ?o
eeaneo?eaoe?y

Ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue – oea cei/eie, ni?yiiaai? ia iacaeiiia
caaieiae?iiy iaeiii /e iacaeiiia iaea?aeaiiy iaeiiaeo aeaiae c
ei?eneeaeo niiioeaiue.

Ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue ca nai?th ieoiiith aaaith caeia? ia?oa i?noea a
no?oeoo?? cei/eiiino? aoaeue-yei? no/anii? e?a?ie. Ca aeaieie 00I a
e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny iaeiia? cei/eie noaiiaeyoue 49%, a cei/eie
i?ioe iniae 43%. A ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noaiiaeoue:
82% – iaeiia? cei/eie, 10% – cei/eie i?ioe iniae. A Oe?a?i? aei 1989 ?.
ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue neeaaeaea 1/3 on?o cei/ei?a, i?ney 1989 ?ieo oeae
aeae cei/eiiino? c??n ia nueiaiaei? aei 2/3 caaaeueii? iane on?o
cei/ei?a.

Ca e?ei?iieia?/iith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ei?eneea? cei/eie iiaeia
eeaneo?eoaaoe ia ianooii? a?oie:

1. Caaaeueiie?ei?iaeueia ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue;

2. Aeiiii?/ia ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue.

Caaaeueiie?ei?iaeueia ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue – oea ei?eneeaa
cei/eii?noue, ui i?iyaey?oueny o ii?ooaii? iaeiiaeo i?aa ? ?ioa?an?a
aeaniee?a.

Aeiiii?/ia ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue – oea ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue, ui
i?iyaey?oueny o ii?ooaii? caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea ?aaoeth? noni?euei?
a?aeiineie o noa?? aeiiii?ee.

Oe? aeaa aeaee ei?eneeai? cei/eiiino? ?iaeoa iaceaathoue a?aeiia?aeii
ua:

1) ei?eneea? cei/eie i?ioe aeaniino?;

2) ei?eneeaeie ainiiaea?nueeeie cei/eiaie.

Caaaeueiie?ei?iaeueia ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue, ui o nenoai? IAN ia
a?aoiao?oueny ea?iei ?icooeii, noaiiaeoue aeecueei 60% a?ae /enea
cei/ei?a ca?a?no?iaaieo a Oe?a?i? a 1995 ?. A?eueoa 85% iaeiiaeo
cei/ei?a – oea e?aae?aeee, 3% – oaeoe oao?aenoaa, aeecueei 10% –
a?aaaae? oa ?icai?, 2% – aeiaaaoaeuenoaa.

E?aae?aeee neeaaeathoue aeecueei 60% on?o ca?a?no?iaaieo cei/ei?a, ?c
ieo aeecueei 40% – oea e?aae?aeee c eaa?oe? oa aeii?aie a?iiaaeyi.
Ianeeueieoeuee? ei?eneea? cei/eie (a?aaaae?, ?ica?ei? iaiaaee,
aaiaeeoeci, aeiaaaoaeuenoai, oienia aaeanoai c ei?eneeaeo iioea?a) –
noaiiaeyoue aeecueei 6% on?o ca?a?no?iaaieo cei/ei?a.

Aeiiii?/ia ei?eneeaa cei/eii?noue – oea a iniiaiiio oae caaia
«a?eieii??oeaaa» cei/eii?noue iinaaeiaeo in?a, iaiaaeaea??a,
i?aei?e?ioe?a, a oaeiae ei?eneea? ainiiaea?nuee? cei/eie aac
aeei?enoaiiy neoaeaiaiai noaio. Aei cei/ei?a oe??? a?oie a?aeiinyoueny:

1) ?ice?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai aai eieaeoeaiiai iaeia oeyoii i?eaeaniaiiy,
?ico?aoe aai ceiaaeeaaiiy neoaeaiaei noaiii;

2) ei?eneea? neoaeaia? cei/eie aac iciae ?ice?aaeaiiy: oaaa?ieoeoai,
iiai?e, ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, iaiai iieoioe?a, caiiaiee?a
oiui;

3) ei?eneea? cei/eie a oi?a?ae?, ae?iaieoeoa? oa ?ioeo noa?ao aeiiii?ee,
ui a/eiythoueny aac iciae ?ice?aaeaiiy ? aac aeei?enoaiiy neoaeaiaiai
noaio (oaeueoeaiiiiaoieoeoai, ii?ooaiiy i?aaee i?i aaethoi? iia?aoe??,
eiio?aaaiaea, o?eoeaia i?aei?e?iieoeoai, oao?aenoai c o?iainiaeie
?ano?naie, o?eoeaia aaie?oonoai, i?ioeae?y caeiii?e i?aei?e?iieoeuee?e
ae?yeueiino? oiui).

Aeiiii?/ia cei/eii?noue noaiiaeoue aeecueei 10% on?o ca?a?no?iaaieo
cei/ei?a. Aeiiii?/ia cei/eii?noue iia’ycaia c o?iueiaith aeiiii?eith,
yea ia aeaiee /an ia?aaeuo? iieiaeio anueiai a?ioiaiai ia?ao a Oe?a?i? ?
nooo?ai aieeaa? ia no/aniee noai noni?euenoaa.

Ieoaiiy 2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue ei?eneeao cei/eii?noue

Iniiaiith i?e/eiith ei?eneeai? cei/eiiino? (ca?aeii c
eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/iith eiioeaioe??th cei/eiiino?) ? iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
eoeueoo?e caaeiaieaiiy ethaeueie nai?o iio?aa iaeiiaiai oa?aeoa?o. sse
na?ae/eoue aeina?ae, a oaeiae no/ani? e?ei?iieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
??aaiue ei?eneeai? cei/eiiino? ia ciaoiaeeoueny a i?yiiio ca’yceo ?c
??aiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo o??? /e ?ioi? e?a?ie /e c ??aiai
aac?ia?ooy. Ca?ac iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeiaaaeaiei, ui cei/eii?noue, a oiio
/ene? ? ei?eneeaa, c?inoa? ye a ia??iae i?aeeiio aeiiii?ee oae ? a
ia??iae niaaeo. Ci?ie aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? ye a e?auo noi?iio oae ? a
a??oo i?aeaeuo? ??aaiue cei/eiiino?. A aeiiii?/ia noaa?euei?noue
iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia ??aaiue cei/eiiino? (Aeea. Oiaeaea? A.E.
E?eieiieiaey. – 1994. – N.254).

sseui a?aooaaoe, ui aeiiii?/ia noaa?euei?noue ? i?iyaii iaeaaeiiai ??aiy
eoeueoo?e caaeiaieaiiy ethaeueie nai?o iaeiiaeo iio?aa, oi ne?ae c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui naia ??aaiue oe??? eoeueoo?e aieeaa? ia aeeiai?eo
ei?eneeai? cei/eiiino?.

Ca oe??th ae caeiiii??i?noth aecia/a?oueny ??aaiue ei?eneeai?
cei/eiiino? a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?.

Oiiaith, ui ni?ey? c?inoaiith ei?eneeai? cei/eiiino? a Oe?a?i? ?
iaaeinoaoi?e ?icaeoie caeiiiaeaa/iai caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai ii?yaeeo
a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae iaaoaeoeai?noue i?aaiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ieoaiiy 3. I?ioeae?y ei?eneea?e cei/eiiino?

Iniiaieie a i?ioeae?? ei?eneea?e cei/eiiino? ? caoiaee, ui ni?eythoue
oi?ioaaiith iaeaaeii? eoeueoo?e caaeiaieaiiy a?iiaaeyiaie nai?o iaeiiaeo
iio?aa. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii cie?aia noai?thaaoe ye iaeni?eyoeea?o?
oiiae, uia yeiaea?eueoa a?iiaaeyi iiaee caeiaoeny /aniei
i?aei?e?iieoeoaii ? a?cianii. ?icaeoie oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo, eiee
/aniei aooe aea?aeii i?ecaiaeeoue aei caoaeaiiy iiey aeey ei?eneeai?
cei/eiiino?, aei aeo?niaiiy inoaiiuei?. Eeoa ca oeeo ia?aaeoiia
c’yaey?oueny oaeiae iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aoaeoeaiith i?aaiioi?iiio
ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae.

OAIA 11. IANEEUeIEOeUeEA CEI*EII?NOUe

Ieai

1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ianeeueieoeueeeo cei/ei?a.

2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue ianeeueieoeuee? cei/eie.

3. I?ioeae?y ianeeueieoeuee?e cei/eiiino?.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey: O/aaiee. Iiae ?aae. A.A.Eeoieiaa e A.I.Oeeiiiaa. –
Eeaa, 1997.

2. Caeeineee A.O. E?eieiieiaey. Eo?n eaeoeee. – Oa?ueeia, 1996.

Ieoaiiy 1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ianeeueieoeueeeo cei/ei?a

Ianeeueieoeuee? cei/eie – oea cei/eie, ni?yiiaai? ia caiiae?yiiy oeiaee
iaai?e inia? /e noni?euenoao oeyoii canoinoaaiiy o?ce/iiai /e ineo?/iiai
ianeeuenoaa uiaei ia? aaciina?aaeiuei /e uiaei ?ioeo in?a aai ?a/ae, ye?
iathoue aeey ia? cia/aiiy.

Ianeeueieoeuee? cei/eie iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia ianooii? a?oie:

1. Cei/eie i?ioe aeeooy, caei?ia’y, noaoaai? naiaiaee, /ano?, a?aeiino?,
aie?, ui a/eiythoueny oeyoii o?ce/iiai /e ineo?/iiai ianeeuenoaa:
aaeanoaa, aeiaaaeaiiy aei naiiaaeanoaa, o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy, iiai? ?
ii?aeoaaiiy, iia?ica aaeanoaii, caaaeooaaiiy, ioaeieicoai, iacaeiiia
iicaaaeaiiy naiaiaee, caoaao caeiaeiee?a, iaeeai, ia?aca oa ?io?
cei/eie.

2. Ei?eneea? ianeeueieoeuee? cei/eie: aaiaeeoeci, ?ica?e, a?aa?ae,
aeiiaaoaeuenoai.

3. Ianeeueieoeuee? iinyaaiiy ia aea?aeaao, a?iiaaenueeo aaciaeo,
a?iiaaenueeee ii?yaeie ? ii?yaeie oi?aae?iiy: oa?i?enoe/i? aeoe ?
aeeaa?n??, iia’ycai? c caaeaaeeth ethaeae /e ni?e/eiaiiyi oeiaee
caei?ia’th, ooe?aainoai, iinyaaiiy ia aeeooy iinaaeiaeo in?a, ii??
i?aaenoaaieeai aeaaee, a oaeiae ?io? ianeeueieoeuee? ae?? ? iia?ice
uiaei iinaaeiaeo in?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy 00I aeacothoue ia oa, ui i?e ?ino? cei/eiiino? o an?o
e?a?iao cei/eie ianeeueieoeuee? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ianooiiei /eiii:

a) aiie caeiathoue ae?oaa i?noea o no?oeoo?? on??? cei/eiiino? i?ney
iaeiiaeo cei/ei?a;

a) a i??o aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie iaeiia? cei/eie,
iniaeeai e?aae?aeee, /ano?oathoue, a cei/eie i?ioe iniae, iniaeeai
cei/eie i?ioe aeeooy, noathoue ??aeoeie. Oae, iai?eeeaae, i?e cai??
aeaieo ii 70 e?a?iao ca ia??iae c 1975 ii 1980 ?.?. aoei aeyaeaii, ui
e?euee?noue ianeeueieoeueeeo cei/ei?a o na?o? iiaeai?eanue, a iaeiiaeo –
iaeaea iio?i?eanue.

A Na?aaeiueia?/i?e ?a?ii? iia?aaoaaiiy (a?ey 10%) ? iniaeeai aaeanoaa
neeaaeaee a?eueoo /anoeio cei/ei?a. Cei/eie i?ioe aeeooy ioiiethaaee aei
20% on?o e?ei?iaeueieo ae?yiue, oiae? eiee ca?ac (iai?eeeaae, a O?I)
aiie nei?ioeeenue 0,1%.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea oyaeeeo cei/ei?a i?ioe aeeooy ? caei?ia’y a Oe?a?i?. A
no/anieo oiiaao ianeeueieoeueea cei/eii?noue, ye ? ?io? aeaee
cei/eiiino?, c?inoa?, oi/ oaiie c?inoaiiy a ??ci? ?iee ? ??cieie.
Ui??/iee i?e??no iaaienieo aaeanoa ca inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy – a?ey 5%.

A 70-80 ?iee a e?ei?iieia?/i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ianeeueieoeueeeo cei/ei?a
i?aee?anethaaany ?o iiaooiaee oa?aeoa?. O 90-? ?.?., a ?iee ?iciaaeo
oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie ? nioe?aeueii? e?ece nooo?ai ci?ieeanue iioeaaoe?y
e?ei?iaeueiiai ianeeuenoaa. Ca?eueoeeanue aeiey ianeeueieoeueeeo
cei/ei?a c ei?eneeaith iioeaaoe??th, iioe?aiiy iaaoaathoue aaeanoaa «ia
caiiaeaiiy».

Eiaeia o?ao? aaeanoai a/eiy?oueny c ei?eneeaeo niiioeaiue, «iiaooia?»
aaeanoaa neeaaeathoue a?ey 35%, c iiinoe – 12%, c ?aaiino? – 8%, c
ooe?aainueeeo iioea?a – 2%, ia naenoaeueiiio a?oio? – 1-2%. Canoinoaaiiy
aiaiaiaeueii? ca?i? aeey aaeanoaa /ano?oa? c eiaeiei ?ieii ? noaiiaeoue
nueiaiaei? a?ey 20%. A?ey 60% aaeanoa a/eiy?oueny a noai? ni’yi?iiy.
Iaeaea 5% aaeaoeue – iaiiaiie?oi?.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea c?aaeooaaiue oa ?ioeo noaoaaeo cei/ei?a.

Ca noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie ieoiia aaaa ca?a?no?iaaieo caaaeooaaiue
inoaii?i /anii ??cei ciaioeeanue. Oea iiaea aooe iiyniaii: ii-ia?oa,
??ceei i?aeaeuaiiyi /enea ?ioeo cei/ei?a; ii-ae?oaa – i?aeaeuaiiyi
eaoaioiino? caaaeooaaiue. A?ey o?aoeie neeaaeathoue a?oiia?
c?aaeooaaiiy. Iaeaea 25% caaaeooaaiue a/eiaii iaiiaiie?oi?ie. O a?eueo,
i?ae iieiaeie aeiaaee?a caaaeooaaiue ia? i?noea ni?eyoeeaa a?eoeiia
iiaaae?iea iioa?i?eeo. ?io? noaoaa? cei/eie a e?ei?iaeuei?e noaoenoeoe?
caeiathoue aeineoue iacia/io aeieth.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ooe?aainoaa, ii?aeiaiiai c ianeeuenoaii.

Inoaii?i /anii aeiey ooe?aainoaa na?aae ianeeueieoeueeeo cei/ei?a,
ca?aeii ?c noaoenoeeith, nei?i/o?oueny. I?ioeaio i’yieo na?aae ooe?aai?a
iaea?eueo aenieee – a?eueoa 90 %.

Ieoaiiy 2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue ianeeueieoeuee? cei/eie

I?e/eiith ianeeueieoeueei? cei/eiiino?, – ca?aeii c
eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/iith eiioeaioe??th cei/eiiino?, – ? a?aenooi?noue o
iniae iaeaaeiiai ??aiy eoeueoo?e a?aeiinei c ?ioeie ethaeueie, ui
i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? iaiiaaae aei o?ce/ii? ? ineo?/ii?
iaaeioi?eaiino? ethaeeie.

Oiiaaie, ui ni?eythoue ianeeueieoeuee?e cei/eiiino? ?: iaaeinoaoiy
aoaeoeai?noue i?aaiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae, a oaeiae
o?aai?caoe?y, iaaeie?ee n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy, aiiiae?? ineo?ee,
aeeiaie?caoe?y, i?iiaaaiaea eoeueoo ianeeuenoaa o caniaao ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?io? oaeoi?e.

Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny, cie?aia, no/anieie e?ei?iieia?/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie. A e?ei?iieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ca
inoaii? 800 ?ie?a ianeeueieoeuee? cei/eie, ? iniaeeai, cei/eie i?ioe
aeeooy, iaooeeueii nei?i/oaaeenue. sseui o Na?aaei? a?ee ianeeueieoeuee?
cei/eie neeaaeaee 1/5 /anoeio on?o cei/eiieo ae?yiue, oi ia aeaiee /an
?o aeiey ia ia?aaeuo? 1% (oeae iieaciee iiaea cia/ii eieeaaoenue a
ie?aieo no/anieo e?a?iao). E?ei?iieiae aaaaeathoue, ui oe? ci?ie ?
iane?aeeii i?aeaeuaiiy nioe?aeueii? ? aoe/ii? oe?iiino? ethaenueeiai
aeeooy. I?ia?an oeea?e?caoe?? ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaiee c ?inoii
ciai?oiueiai ? aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth ca i?iyaaie ianeeuenoaa.
Ianeeuenoai caai?iiy?oueny ye ia ii?aeueiiio, oae ? ia i?aaiaiio ??ai?.
Iioe?ththoueny ii?ie iiaaae?iee, a yeeo ooaa?aeaeo?oueny iaiao?aei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy iaianeeueieoeueeeo cania?a aeinyaiaiiy aoaeue-yei? iaoe.
Ii?iaeaeoaaiee ?icaeoeii oeea?e?caoe?? i?ioean i?aeaeuaiiy /ooeeaino?
ethaeae aei ianeeuenoaa iiee ui iioe?th?oueny a?eueoith /anoeiith ia
aeu? ? na?aaei? oa?e noni?euenoaa. Ieae/? oa?e ia anoeaathoue canai?oe
oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe??, ui no?eiothoue ianeeey. Iniaeeaino?, aeanoea?
iniaai iieiaeiai a?eo, oaae ia ? ni?eyoeeaeie aeey oi?ioaaiiy
iaianeeueieoeueeeo oi?i iiaaae?iee, oiio a?eueo?noue cei/eioe?a ? aea?oa
cei/ei?a iaianeeueieoeueeiai oa?aeoa?o – iniae iieiaeiai a?eo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no/anieo e?ei?iieia?a ia i?aeoaa?aeeee a?iioaco i?i oa,
ui aieiaia i?e/eia cei/eiiino?, ? cie?aia ianeeueieoeueei? cei/eiiino? –
? a?aei?noue. Iaa?oue, eiee aeeoaeyi i?nueeeo iao??a («o?ouia»)
iaaeathoueny aeineoue i?inoi?? ? aeia?ioi? eaa?oe?e, nioe?iiaoieia?/i?
yaeua na?aae ieo ia i?eieiythoueny. Oiio oea aeyaey?oueny iaaeinoaoi?i
aeey i?io?eaeoeee cei/eiiino?. I?nuee? iao?? («o?ouiae») – oea ia eeoa
i?noea, a e noeeue aeeooy, eio?ee canaith?oueny ? ia?aaea?oueny c
iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy. No?aoaa?y aeaeeaaiiy a iao?yo caniiaaia ia
ianeee?. Canai?iiy aeeoaeyie aaooi oe??? no?aoaa?? ? coiiaeth?
no?ee?noue e?ei?iaeueieo noa?aioei?a aeeooy.

Ieoaiiy 3. I?ioeae?y ianeeueieoeuee?e cei/eiiino?

Iniiaiei caniaii i?ioeae?? ianeeueieoeuee?e cei/eiiino? ? ni?eyiiy
oi?ioaaiith o iniae oaei? eoeueoo?e aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ethaeueie,
eio?a i?iyaeyeanue ae o iiaac? aei o?ce/ii? ? ineo?/ii? iaaeioi?eaiino?
ethaeeie, aeciaii? ?? iaeaeuith oe?ii?noth o noni?euenoa?.

sse na?ae/eoue ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae iaiao?aeieie oiiaaie aeey oi?ioaaiiy
oaei? eoeueoo?e ?: ii-ia?oa, ?icaeoie oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo, eio?ee ia?
aeanoea?noue eoeueoo?ecoaaoe aeeooy ethaeae; ii-ae?oaa, ?ae?a?eia ?
iaoo?ae?noe/ia i?ina?oieoeoai. Aeacai? oaeoi?e caeaoi? onoaaoe i?e/eio
ianeeueieoeueei? cei/eiiino?.

Aeey onoiaiiy oiia, ui ni?eythoue ianeeueieoeuee?e cei/eiiino?
iaiao?aeii aaeineiiaethaaoe i?aaiioi?iiio ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae,
ciaiooaaoe iaaaoeai? iane?aeee o?aai?caoe??, aaeineiiaethaaoe n?iaeia
aeoiaaiiy, caaacia/oaaoe ineo?/ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, i?ioenoiyoe
aeeiaie?caoe??, i?iiaaaiae? aei?noieino? o caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
oaea ?ioa.

OAIA 12. CEI*EIE, UI A*EIssTHOUeNss C IAIAA?AAEIINO?

Ieai

1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea cei/ei?a, ui a/eiythoueny c
iaiaa?aaeiino?.

2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie.

3. I?ioeae?y iaiaa?aaei?e cei/eiiino?.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey. O/aaiee. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Eeoieiaa e Oeeiiiaa.

2. I?anooiiay iainoi?iaeiinoue (oaieiaii-i?aaiaia e e?eieiieiae/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea). – Eeaa, 1992.

Ieoaiiy 1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea cei/ei?a, ui a/eiythoueny c
iaiaa?aaeiino?

No/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia eeoa no??ieeie
oaiiaie ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?e, aea ? ?o oneeaaeiaiiyi, ui
coiiaeth? ia?inoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iioaioe?eieo iaaaciae.

I?aeaeuaia aeooaeuei?noue ai?ioueae c iaiaa?aaeiith cei/eii?noth iieyaa?
a oiio, ui cei/eiia iaiaa?aaei?noue ni?e/eiy? ia iaio?, a ?ieiee ?
a?eueo oyaee? iane?aeee, i?ae oieni? cei/eie.

Iniaeea?noth iaiaa?aaeieo cei/ei?a ? oa, ui aiie iia’ycai? c ii?ooaiiyi
i?aaee iaa?aaeiino?, aaciaee o aeei?enoaii? oaoi?/ieo cania?a oa ?ioeo
aeaea?ae i?aeaeuaii? iaaaciaee, c iaiaeaaeiei, iaia?aaeaa/eeaei
noaaeaiiyi aei i?ioan?eieo ? neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a, i?aaee iiaaae?iee o
iiaoo?.

Noni?eueia iaaacia/i?noue iaiaa?aaeii? cei/eiiino? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iniaeeai oyaeeeie iane?aeeaie. Oae, /enei nia?oae ? o?eanieo
ooeiaeaeaiue a?ae iaiaa?aaeieo cei/ei?a iaa?oue ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/i?
iieacieee aeey oienieo cei/ei?a i?ioe aeeooy ? caei?ia’y ethaeae,
cie?aia, naia iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie aeathoue a?eueoa 60% on?o aeiaaee?a
nia?o? iioa?i?eeo a?ae cei/ei?a. ??aaiue o?eanieo ooeiaeaeaiue ?
nia?oaeueieo aeiaaee?a a?ae iaiaa?aaeieo, aieiaiei /eiii o?ainii?oieo,
cei/ei?a ia?aaeuo? oeiaeo a?ae on?o oienieo cei/ei?a i?ioe aeeooy ?
caei?ia’y ?acii ocyoeo.

Iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieie ca oyaee?noth iane?aee?a ? iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie o
noa?? aca?iiae?? ethaeeie c oaoi?eith. A?ey 75% cei/ei?a, nei?ieo c
iaiaa?aaeiino?, i?eiaaeathoue ia aaoiiia?eueiee o?ainii?o; 10-15%
neeaaeathoue cei/eii? ii?ooaiiy i?aaee ioi?iie iaeia, oaeaoi?noue; 4-6%
– ii?ooaiiy i?aaee ioi?iie i?aoe? ? oaoi?ee aaciaee; 3-5% – iaiaa?aaei?
cei/eie i?ioe iniae (aaeanoaa, o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy).

Iniaeeao iaaaciaeo aeey noni?euenoaa noaiiaeyoue iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie o
noa?? ioi?iie i?e?iaee, cie?aia i?i oea cana?ae/o? aaa??y ia
*i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN.

A caaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? cei/eiiino? iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie neeaaeathoue
i?eaeecii 13%. Iaeiae a inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aa?oueny no?eea oaiaeaioe?y
aei ?inoo ? iioe?aiino? iaiaa?aaeieo cei/ei?a.

A e?ei?iieia?/i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? iniaenoino? i?aaiii?ooiee?a, ye?
neiththoue iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie ne?ae a?aecia/eoe ianooiia.

Iniaai, ui a/eiythoue iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie, aeanoeaeie ? iaaeie?ee
nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e, ui i?iyaeythoueny a iai??? caaeiaieueieoe nai?
iio?aae oaeei /eiii, ui oea iaaacia/ii aeiaaeeiaei iaianaiiyi oeiaee
aeeooth. caei?ia’th /e ?ioa?anai ?ioeo ethaeae. A oie /an ye aeey
oienieo cei/eioe?a aeanoeaei ? iai?? iaianoe oeiaeo aeeooth, caei?ia’th
/e ?ioa?anai ?ioeo in?a, uia oaeei /eiii caaeiaieueieoe nai? iio?aae.

Iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie, ye ? oieni?, ? i?iyaii eiiieaeno naaaie? ? ?ethc?e
iniae, aea:

a) i?e iaiaa?aaeiiio cei/ei? eiiieaen naaaie? ? ?ethc?e iniae
i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? iai??o caaeiaieueieoe nai? iio?aae oaeei /eiii,
ui oea iaaacia/ii aeiaaeeiaei iaianaiiyi oeiaee aeeooth, caei?ia’th /e
?ioa?anai ?ioeo ethaeae;

a) i?e oieniiio cei/ei? eiiieaen naaaie? ? ?ethc?e i?iyaey?oueny o
aeaeyae? iai??o iaianoe oeiaeo aeeooth, caei?ia’th /e ?ioa?anai ?ioeo
ethaeae, uia oaeei /eiii caaeiaieueieoe nai? iio?aae.

Aeaoaeoe nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e in?a, ui a/eiythoue iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie
i?iyaeythoueny oaeiae a iaaeiioe?ioe? noni?eueii? iaaacia/iino?
ii?ooaiue oaoi?ee aaciaee, i?aaee ioi?iie i?e?iaee ? o.i., oaeaoiei
noaaeaiiyi aei ?o aeeiiaiiy. E??i oeueiai aeey iaiaa?aaeieo cei/ei?a
oa?aeoa?iei ?: aai?ci, aaeaeoaea noaaeaiiy aei iane?aee?a nai?o a/eie?a,
yeui aiie oyaeythoueny inia? aea?aeieie /e c?o/ieie; ciaaaaeeeaa
noaaeaiiy aei i?aaee aenieoaoaoe?? aeaea?ae i?aeaeuaii? iaaaciaee oa
?ioa.

Iaaia /anoeia iaiaa?aaeieo cei/ei?a iia’ycaia c iaciaiiyi (iaiiaiei
ciaiiyi) i?aaee aaciaee i?ioan?eii? /e iiaooiai? ae?yeueiino?, aai c
iaai?iiyi ?o canoinoaaoe a eiie?aoi?e neooaoe??, iai?eeeaae, ?c-ca
iaaeinoaoiuei? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, iaaeinoaoiueiai aeina?aeo. Aea
ia iaio 55-60% ii?ooaiue a/eiythoueny ona?aeiieaii, a cae/i?e, a ia
aeno?aiaeuei?e neooaoe??.

Noaeiaa i?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui o ni?aaao i?i ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aaciaee o
86% aeiaaee?a aoei anoaiiaeaii eaaeiaaaeia a?aeiioaiiy aei nai?o
iaia’yce?a. Iioe?aia oaeiae yaii caaeuaia naiiioe?iea nai?o iiaeeeainoae
? caeaoiino? aei aacia/ieo ae?e a neeaaeieo neooaoe?yo. Iaeaea 60% in?a,
ui a/eieee iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie, iia’ycai? c i?ioan?eiith ae?yeuei?noth,
?ai?oa aaea aeiioneaee noiae? ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aaciaee. 35 %
iaiaa?aaeieo aaeanoa a/eiythoueny o iaoaa?aciio noai?.

Oe? aeai? e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
iaiaa?aaeia cei/eii?noue ? i?iyaii niaoeeo?/ieo aeaoaeo?a nioe?aeueii?
eoeueoo?e a?iiaaeyi. Ii??aiyeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaa?aaeii?
cei/eiiino? a ??cieo e?a?iao na?ae/aoue i?i ?nioaaiiy ianooiii?
caeiiii??iino?: /ei ieae/a nioe?aeueia eoeueoo?a a?iiaaeyi a e?a?i?, oei
aeuee ??aaiue iaiaa?aaeii? cei/eiiino?.

Ua a 1989 ?ioe? N?N? ii ??aith aaa??eiino? aeeoia ia ia?oa i?noea o
na?o?. A??ia?aei?noue iiianoe a aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oio i?eaiaeo ?c
nia?oaeueieie iane?aeeaie aaea oiae? a N?N? aoea a 5 ?ac?a aeua, i?ae o
?icaeiooeo e?a?iao. Nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i? neooaoe?y iaaaaaoi a??oa.

Ieoaiiy 2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie

I?e/eiith iaiaa?aaeieo cei/ei?a ? aeaoaeoe nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e
ethaeae, ui i?iyaeythoueny o iai??? caaeiaieueieoe nai? iio?aae oaeei
/eiii, ui oea iaaacia/ii aeiaaeeiaei iaianaiiyi oeiaee aeeooth,
caei?ia’th /e ?ioa?anai ?ioeo in?a. Oey i?e/eia oi?io? a?aeiia?aeio
iioeaaoe?th iaiaa?aaeieo noni?eueia iaaacia/ieo ae?yiue, aeey yei?
aeanoeaa aai?noe/ii-niiaeeaaoeueea aai eaaeiaaaeii – aaca?aeiia?aeaeueia
a?aeiioaiiy aei i?aaee aaciaee.

Aeaoaeoe nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e ? ??oioii aeey oi?ioaaiiy: ea?’??ecio,
aaaioth?ecio oa ?ioeo oi?i ia?aaaaeaiiy aeanieo ?ioa?an?a iaae
nioe?aeueieie; iaaeenoeeie?iiaaiino?, niioai?aia noaaeaiiy aei
i?eioeei?a ? caeii?a oeea?e?ciaaii? i?aai?caoe?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

Oiiaaie, ui ni?eythoue iaiaa?aaei?e cei/eiiino?, ?: iaaeie?ee ?
ii?ooaiiy anoaiiaeaiiai aacia/iiai ii?yaeeo a?aeiia?aeii? ae?yeueiino?;
iaaeie?ee ? oiouaiiy a eiio?ie? ca aeeiiaiiyi i?aaee aaciaee, a
i?aeai??, iaa/aii?, aeoiaaii? eaae??a; ii?ooaiiy i?eioeeio
iaa?aeai?ioiino? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aaciaee;
oaoi?/i? ? oaoiieia?/i? iaaeie?ee ae?iaieoeoaa ? aenieoaoaoe?? iaoei ?
iaoai?ci?a ? oaea ?ioa.

Ieoaiiy 3. I?ioeae?y iaiaa?aaei?e cei/eiiino?

Iniiaiei iai?yiii i?ioeae?? iaiaa?aaei?e cei/eiiino? ? cae?eniaiiy
caoiae?a ii onoiaiith oeo aeaoaeo?a nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e a?iiaaeyi,
eio?? ii?iaeaeothoue iaiaa?aaei? cei/eie. Cie?aia oaeeie ? caoiaee, ui
ni?eythoue oi?ioaaiith o ethaeae oae caaiiai caei?iaiai aeocaeo.
Iniaeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? caei?iaiai aeocaeo a?iiaaeyi ? onoiaii?
aeaoaeo?a nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e a?ae?a?athoue oeea?e?ciaai? ?eieia?
a?aeiineie. sse na?ae/eoue aeina?ae ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, cie?aia
I?ia//eie, ssiii??, Aiae??, /ei aeuee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, oei ieae/ee ??aaiue iaiaa?aaeii? cei/eiiino?.

Aeey onoiaiiy oiia, ui ni?eythoue iaiaa?aaei?e cei/eiiino?, aeioe?eueiei
? cae?eniaiiy ianooiieo caoiae?a: ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo,
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo cania?a ? i?aaee oaoi?ee aaciaee ? ioi?iie
i?e?iaee; aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aaciaee; aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino?;
aeoiaia ?iaioa c iniaaie, noeeueieie aei iaiaa?aaeieo cei/ei?a;
i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy eaae??a oa ?io? caoiaee.

OAIA 13. CEI*EII?NOUe IAIIAIIE?OI?O

Ieai

1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o.

2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue iaiiaiie?oi?o.

3. Iniiai? iai?yie i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey. O/aaiee. Iiae ?aae. A.A.Eeoieiaa e A.I.Oeeiiiaa. –
Eeaa, 1997.

2. A.O.Caeeineee. E?eieiieiaey: Eo?n eaeoeee. – Oa?ueeia, 1996.

3. A.E.Oiaeaea?. E?eieiieiaey. – I., 1994.

Ieoaiiy 1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o

Na?aae in?a, ui a/eieee cei/eie, iaiiaiie?oi? noaiiaeyoue aeecueei 13%.
Ui??/iee i?e??no aeeoy/i? cei/eiiino? iaeaea aaea?/? ia?aaeuo? i?e??no
on. cei/eiiino?. Eiaeai i’yoee cei/ei a/eiaiee i?aee?oeaie,
a?aeiineoueny aei eaoaai??? oyaeeeo.

Iniaeea?noth cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o ? oa, ui no?oeoo?ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ?ioa, i?ae o aei?ineeo, oiio, ui aeaye? aeaee cei/ei?a
iaiiaiie?oi? acaaae? a/eiythoue – iai?eeeaae, iinaaeia? cei/eie,
ainiiaea?nuee? cei/eie, o?ainii?oi? aeaye? ?io?.

A e?ei?iieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? a?aecia/a?oueny oaeiae iniaeea?noue
iioeaaoe?? cei/ei?a, ui a/eiythoueny iaiiaiie?oi?ie. Cie?aia, nooi?iue
i?iyao a iioeaaoe?? «aeeoeiiino?» – oiaoi, eaaeiaaaeia noaaeaiiy aei
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo caai?ii a?ae??ciy? cei/eii?noue iaiiaiie?oi?o a?ae
cei/eiiino? aei?ineeo. Aeaye? iioeaaoe?? cae/aei? aeey cei/ei?a
aei?ineeo, ? a?aenooi?ie a aeeoy/?e cei/eiiino? (ei?enoiethanoai,
?aaiiu?).

A oie aea /an cia/ii /ano?oa, i?ae o cei/eiao aei?ineeo, cono??/athoueny
iioeaaoe?? nie?aea?iino?, naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy o nai?e a?oi?, iane?aeoaaiiy
iiaaae?iee. sse? ? iaeaea ?aeeiei iioeaii aeey e?aae?aeie, a/eithaaieo
aei?ineeie (e?aae?aeee a/eiythoueny ye i?iya ia?aceoecio), oi noiniaii
e?aae?aeie, a/eithaai? ae?oueie, ei?eneea? iioeae iathoue i?noea eeoa a
eiaeiiio o?aoueiio aeiaaeeo, a ?aoo? – iioeae nie?aea?iino?,
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, cacae?ino? a ii?aeiaii? c a?eiaa eaaeiaaaei?noth.
Cia/ia aeiey iioea?a o i?aee?oe?a i?eiaaea? ia i?aeiiaieoeoai c ai
aei?ineeo, a oaeiae noa?oeo iaiiaiie?oi?o.

Neooaoeai?noue i?eoaiaiia a?eueoino? cei/ei?a iaiiaiie?oi?o.
Cei/eii?noue iaiiaiie?oi?o ia? ia?aaaaeii a?oiiaee oa?aeoa?. Aeiey
a?oiiaeo cei/ei?a iaiiaiie?oi?o i?eaeecii a 2 ?ace aeua aiaeia?/ieo
iieaciee?a aei?inei? cei/eiiino? ? neeaaea? a?ey 70% a no?oeoo?? on???
cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeacothoue ia oa, ui iaaio ?ieue a aaiacen? cei/eiii?
iiaaae?iee iaiiaiie?oi?o i?aaiii?ooiee?a a?ae?a?athoue ineo?/i? aiaeia??
(a?aeoeeaiiy), oi/ a ??cieo aeaea?aeao oey ?ieue ioe?ith?oueny ii
??ciiio. Iieuenueeee e?ei?iieia A.Xien aaaaea?, ui 46% iaiiaiie?oi?o
i?aaiii?ooiee?a ? ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeie. ?ioee aeine?aeiee A.?.Ee/ei
aeyaea a?aeoeeaiiy o iiaaae?ioe? a 49% ineoiiaoe/ieo in?a i?aee?oeiaiai
a?eo.

Cei/eii?noue iaiiaiie?oi?o a?eueo cia/iei /eiii i?ae o aei?ineeo
aecia/a?oueny aoiinoa?ith n?i’?, a ye?e aiie aeeaooue. O n?i’yo
i?aaiii?ooiee?a, o ii??aiyii? eiio?ieueieie a?oiaie, aeine?aeieee
/ano?oa o?enothoue iaocaiaeaeai?noue ae?e aaouee?a o ieoaiiyo aeoiaaiiy
ae?oae; iai?iaeoiai?noue aeoiaieo caoiae?a; ooeeaiiy a?ae aeoiaaiiy;
aeei?enoaiiy aeineoue iaiaaeaiiai iaai?o aeoiaieo caoiae?a aieeao
(aan?aea, oaiai?e aai caoiaee o?ce/iiai iiea?aiiy).

Ieoaiiy 2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ii?iaeaeothoue cei/eii?noue iaiiaiie?oi?o

Iniiaiith i?e/eiith cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o ? oo?oaeiaiiy oi?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e o ieo, coiiaeai? iniaeeainoyie, ui aeanoea? ?o
a?eo.

Oiiaaie, ui ni?eythoue cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o, cie?aia ?: iaaeie?ee
n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy, iaaoaeoeaia ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae ? iaaea?aeaaiei
?ino?oeoe?e o noa?? aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy; iaiaeaaeiee
noai ineo?/iiai caei?ia’y iaiiaiie?oi?o; i?iiaaaiaea ianeeey, a oaeiae
noii?ae: noa?aioei?a iiaaae?iee ? oe?iiinoae o caniaao ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei eaiaeii, /a?ac yeee a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy o ethaeei?
nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e ? iineeueia o/anoue ?? a ainiiaea?nuee?e
ae?yeueiino?, ocaiaeaeai?e caeiiaie aeiiii?ee. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
cie?aia on?i iaaeaaia?/iei aeina?aeii A.N.Iaea?aiea.

Iai?eeo/aiiy iaiiaiie?oi?o aei oeueiai eaiaeo nioe?aeueiiai
ieoeueoo?aiiy: (/a?ac ?o a?eia? iniaeeaino?) ia? nai?i iane?aeeii
oi?ioaaiiy o ieo eiiieaen) naaaie? ? ?ethc?e, eio?ee ? i?iyaey?oueny
cie?aia o aeaeyae? e?ei?iaeueii? iiaaae?iee Oeae eiiieaen naaaie? ?
?ethc?e aoa iii?/aiee o aaci?eooeueieo iaiiaiie?oi?o A.N.Iaea?aieii.
Aeacaiee eiiieaen A.N.Iaea?aiei iieno? ianooiiei /eiii «Oaeei /eiii ie
io?eio?ii ae?oae, a yeeo ? i?aaia? aiioe??, ?aoeaene, ca?aeii yeeie
oeii/ee aiaaiaiee, ui an? ciaia’ycai? eiai aiaeoaaoe, iaeyaaoe ? o.ae.,
a a?i aeiaeieo iaia’yce?a uiaei noni?euenoaa ia ia?. Oea cae/aeiee oei
aaci?eooeueieea. O aeayeeo oeii/ee?a ia?aaeeaaiiy iio?aae ia?aoiaeyoue o
i?aaia?: yeui a?i ia ia? /ia?o, oi a?i oea ia?aaeeaa? ye i?aai ae?anoe
/iaioe». Naia oiio A.N.Iaea?aith ae?eoia aeniiaeo, yeee ia? iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaa e?ei?iieia?/ia cia/aiiy: ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue n?i’? ?
aaaeeea?oith a?aiith aeoiaii? ?iaioe.

Ieoaiiy 3. I?ioeae?y cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o

Iniiaiei o i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o ? caoiaee, ia oi?ioaaiiy
o ieo nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e. Na?aae oeeo caoiae?a iaeaaaeeea?oei ?
caeo/aiiy iaiiaiie?oi?o (c o?aooaaiiyi ?o a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae) aei
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao n?i’? ? noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio.
Oeae cao?ae ia? caeaoi?noue aaciina?aaeiuei onoaaoe i?e/eio cei/eiiino?
iaiiaiie?oi?o. Aeina?ae canoinoaaiue eiai aeaeaoiei oe?a?inueeei
iaaeaaiaii A.N.Iaea?aieii, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai caoiaeo o NOA,
ssiii?? oa ?ioeo e?a?iao na?ae/eoue i?i eiai iacai?ii?
aioee?ei?iieia?/i? aeanoeaino?.

E??i onoiaiiy i?e/eie cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
oaeiae onoiaiiy oiia, ui ni?eythoue ?e. Oea cie?aia – aaeineiiaeaiiy
n?iaeii? aeoiaaiiy; i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae o
noa?? aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoeiaiai iieie?iiy; iie?auaiiy ineo?/iiai ?
o?ce/iiai caei?ia’y iaiiaiie?oi?o; i?ioeae?y i?iiaaaiae? a caniaao
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? eoeueoo ianeeeth noii?aieo nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae,
caeaoi?iiaaieo noa?aioei?a iiaaae?iee ? oae ?ioa.

Aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ? neoaea o
i?ioeae?? cei/eiiino? aaeeea cia/aiiy iiaea iaoe Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i
i?aaie ? neoaeae ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o ? niaoe?aeuei? onoaiiae aeey
iaiiaiie?oi?o» a?ae 21 n?/iy 199_ ?ieo.

Caeiiii ia?aaeaa/ai? ianooii? niaoe?aeuei? noa’?eoe iiia?aaeaeaiiy
cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o:

1) Eii?oao o ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o i?e Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a, neoaeae o
ni?aaa iaiiaiie?oi?o o?yaeo ?anioae?ee E?ei oa aeeiieii?a iaeanieo oa
?aeiiieo ?aae.

2) Caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee oa i?ioan?ei? o/eeeua nioe?aeueii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? iaiiaiie?oi?o i?aai?a ina?oe.

3) Oeaio?e iaaeeei-nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iaiiaiie?oi?o i?aai?a
ioi?iie caei?ia’y.

4) I?eooeee aeey iaiiaiie?oi?o neoaea o ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o.

5) Noaee.

6) E?ei?iaeueia i?e?oe?y o ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o i?aai?a aioo??oi?o
ni?aa.

7) I?eeiaeueieee-?iciiae?eueieee i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

8) Aeoiaii-o?oaeia? eieii?? IAN.

Eii?oao o ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o i?e Eaai?i? Oe?a?ie cae?enith?
ea??aieoeoai, eiinoeueooaaiiy ? eiio?ieuei? ooieoe?? a?aeiinii neoaea o
ni?aaa iaiiaiie?oi?o an?o ??ai?a. Ie?aii ia?aaeaa/aii i?aai Eii?oaoo ?
neoaeae aoiaeeoe c iiaeaiiyi i?i canoinoaaiiy naieoe?e ca i?iaeaae
ii?iia?ao?/ia i?iaeoeoe?? ? i?iiaaaiaeo ianeeuenoaa, aei?noieino?,
?icionoe. Eii?oao ? neoaeae ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o eiio?ieththoue
aeiaea?aeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa a?aeiinii iaiiaiie?oi?o, ?o oo?eiaiiy o
AOE, oeieao ? i?ioan?eieo o/eeeuao nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??, a
oeaio?ao iaaeeei-nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??.

Caeiiii noai?aii i?ae?icae?e e?ei?iaeueii? i?e?oe?? — e?ei?iaeueia
i?e?oe?y o ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o, ia ia? iieeaaeai? iaia’ycee:

– i?iaiaeeoe ?iaioo ii iiia?aaeaeaiith i?aaiii?ooaiue iaiiaiie?oi?o;

– aeyaeyoe, coieiyoe, ?ice?eaaoe cei/eie iaiiaiie?oi?o;

– i?iaiaeeoe ae?ciaiiy ? aeyaeyoe e?ei?iiaaii? ianoaaeie ii
e?ei?iaeueiei ni?aaai;

– ?icooeoaaoe iaiiaiie?oi?o, ui caeeoeee nai? n?i’? ? o/aiai-aeoiai?
caeeaaee;

– aeyaeyoe aei?ineeo, ui aoyaothoue i?aee?oe?a o cei/eiio ae?yeuei?noue,
i?inoeoooe?th ieyoeoai, ia?eiiai?th, aeaa?aoeoai;

– aeyaeyoe aeaea?aea iioe?aiiy ii?iia?ao??, aeaeaiue, ui i?iiaaothoue
aei?noie?noue, ianeeey, ?icionoo;

– aanoe i?io?eaeoe/iee iae?e aeae?ieaaio?a;

– a?aea?aeoaaoe iaiiaiie?oi?o i?aaiii?ooiee?a ? aan?aeoaaoe c ieie, ?o
aaoueeai ? ii?eoiaie;

– cao?eioaaoe ? o?eiaoe a niaoe?aeueieo, aeae?eaieo aeey oeueiai
i?ei?uaiiy iaiiaiie?oi?o o a?oe? aei 15 ?ie?a, ui caeeoeeenue aac ii?ee,
ia ia??iae aei ia?aaea/? ?o caeiiiei i?aaenoaaieeai /e aeaoooaaiiy.

Oeei caeiiii oaeiae ia?aaeaa/a?oueny iaia’ycie e?ei?iaeueii? i?e?oe??
aiineoe iiaeaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue onoiaiiy i?e/ei ? oiia, ui
ni?eythoue i?aaiii?ooaiiyi iaiiaiie?oi?o.

Caeiiii ia?aaeaa/a?oueny oaeiae ooai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo noae?a aai
aecia/ai? ie?aieo noae?a aeey ?icaeyaeo e?ei?iaeueieo ?
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ni?aa i?i iaiiaiie?oi?o.

Ca?aeii c caeiiii a oeiee ? o/eeeua niaoe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iiaeooue
aooe iai?aaeai? iniae, ui nei?ee cei/eie o a?oe? aei 18 ?ie?a, aai
a/eieee ia?aaeaa/aia e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii ae?? aei aeinyaiaiiy a?eo
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aea ia iieiaeo? 11 ?ie?a. A oeieo
nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iai?aaeythoueny ca ??oaiiy noaeo iaiiaiie?oi?
o a?oe? a?ae 11 aei 14 ?ie?a, a a i?ioo/eeeua – o a?oe? a?ae 14 ?ie?a.
Oa?i?ie ia?aaoaaiiy aecia/a? noae, aea ia a?eueoa, i?ae ia 3 ?iee.

I?eooeee aeey iaiiaiie?oi?o neoaea o ni?aaao iaiiaiie?oi?o i?ecia/ai?
aeey oei/aniaiai, aei 30 ae?a, ?ici?uaiiy iaiiaiie?oi?o a?eii a?ae 3 aei
18 ?ie?a, ye?: iio?aaothoue caoenoo aea?aeaae (iieeioo?, ne?ioe,
aeeo/ai? noaeii ?c n?i’?, nai? caa?ioeenue o i?eooeie). Caaaeaiiyi
i?eooee?a ? noai?aiiy oiia aeey aeeooy iiaeaeueoiai aeaoooaaiiy,
iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy aacaeiaeyaeieo i?aee?oe?a.

Aeacaiee caeii ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy i?ioeae??
cei/eiiino? iaiiaiie?oi?o.

OAIA 14. CEI*EIE, IIA’ssCAI? C IA?EIOECIII

Ieai

1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea cei/ei?a iia’ycaieo c ia?eioeciii.

2. I?e/eie ? oiiae, ui ni?eythoue cei/eiai, iia’ycai? c ia?eioeciii.

3. I?ioeae?y cei/eiai, iia’ycaiei c ia?eioeciii.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. E?eieiieiaey: O/aaiee. Iiae ?aae. Eeoieiaa e Oeeiiiaa. – Eeaa, 1997.

2. Ia?eioeci e i?anooiiinoue. – Eeaa, 1994.

Ieoaiiy 1. E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c
ia?eioeciii

Ia?eiiai?y – oea ia o?eueee oyaeea caoai?thaaiiy, a e iaaecae/aeii
iaaacia/ia nioe?aeueia yaeua, yea iioe?th?oueny o anueiio na?o? a oiio
/ene? a Oe?a?i?. Aei aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a caeo/athoueny ia?aaaaeii iniae
iieiaeiai a?eo. Ceiaaeeaaiiy ia?eioeeaie i?ae?eaa? caei?ia’y ethaeeie,
aeeeeea? aeaa?aaeaoe?th iniae, ao?aoo iath nioe?aeueiiai noaoono.

O ca’yceo c oeei, a onueiio na?o?, a oiio /ene? ? a Oe?a?i?, aaaeaoueny
ai?ioueaa c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioee?a. Cie?aia, 15 ethoiai 1995 ?ieo
a Oe?a?i? i?eeiyoi Caeii «I?i caoiaee i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a oa ceiaaeeaaiiy
ieie».

Iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioee?a coiiaeth? oi?ioaaiiy o ethaeae ia?eioe/ii?
caeaaeiino?, ui ia? ianooii? noni?eueii-iaaacia/i? iane?aeee:

1) ?oeio? caei?ia’y ethaeeie ? ?? nioe?aeueiee noaoon;

2) coiiaeth? a/eiaiiy ia?eicaeaaeieie iniaaie cei/ei?a oa ?ioeo
i?aaiii?ooaiue.

Oa?i?iii «cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eioeciii» ioiieththoueny 2 a?oie
cei/ei?a:

1 a?oia – cei/eie, ye? ni?e/eiythoueny noaiii ia?eioe/ii? caeaaeiino?.
Oea ia?aaaaeii iaeiia? cei/eie oa ianeeueieoeuee? cei/eie i?ioe iniae.

2 a?oia – cei/eie, ui ni?eythoue ooai?aiith noaio ia?eioe/ii?
caeaaeiino? o ethaeae. Oea ae?yiiy, iia’ycai? c iacaeiiiei ia?aii
ia?eioee?a, cie?aia, oae caaiee «ia?eia?cian».

Ca i?ae?aooieaie aenia?o?a a Oe?a?i? ia aeaiee /an aeecueei 700 oen.
in?a, ui ceiaaeeaathoue ia?eioeeaie.

Aeai? nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui iniiaieie iioeaaie
aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a, ia?aaaaeii o iieiae?, ?: oe?eaa?noue, aaaeaiiy
ia?aa??eoe ia nia? ?o aeoi??eio ae?th. O iiaeaeueoiio ia?eioe/i? caniae
aaeeaathoueny aeey i?aeiyooy iano?ith.

Ca aeaieie IAN, ??aaiue cei/eiiino?, iia’ycaii? c iacaeiiiei ia?aii
ia?eioee?a, noaiiaeoue iiiaae 80 aeiaaee?a ia 100 oen. ianaeaiiy. Oea
eiaeai aeanyoee cei/ei ii e?i?? ea?iiai ?icooeo.

Ca aeaieie IAN, ia?eiiaiaie oa iniaaie a noai? ni’yi?iue o 1992 ?ioe?
a/eiaii 2 oen. cei/ei?a, a a 1996 ?ioe? – aaea 16 oen. cei/ei?a, oiaoi –
c??no o 8 ?ac?a.

Iaeiioe?ai?oei cei/eiii o noa?? iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioee?a ? iacaeiiia
ae?iaeaiiy, aeaioiaeaiiy, i?eaeaaiiy, caa??aaiiy, ia?aaacaiiy,
ia?aneeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a (no.2296 EE Oe?a?ie). Ca oe? ae?yiiy,
a/eiai? aac iaoe caooo ia?eioe/ieo cania?a /e ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, o
1996 ?ioe? canoaeaeaii 85,7% in?a a?ae caaaeueiiai /enea canoaeaeaieo ca
cei/eie o noa?? iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioee?a.

Iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a
yaey? niaith ae?yiiy, iia’ycai? c eoeueoeaoaaiiyi ?ineei, ui i?noyoue
ia?eioe/i? ?a/iaeie, ae?iaeaiiyi, aeaioiaeaiiyi, caa??aaiiyi,
?iciiae?eii, oi?a?aeath, aeei?enoaiiyi, ia?ai?uaiiyi ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie oa ca ?? iaae? oeeo cania?a ? ?a/iaei, ye? cae?eniththoueny c
ii?ooaiiyi aeiia Caeiio «I?i ia?a a Oe?a?i? ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, ?o aiaeia?a ? i?aeo?ni??a» .

Cei/eii?noue, iia’ycaio c ia?eioeciii oa?aeoa?eco? ianooiia:

1. C ii/aoeo 60 ?ie?a a Oe?a?i? a?aei?/a?oueny iaaieiiee ??no ia?eiiai??
? cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eioeciii .

2. I?e/eia ?icea?oo ia?eia?ciano iieyaa? a eiai aeeeth/i?e
i?eaooeiaino?.

3. I?iaiico?oueny c?inoaiiy ia?eiiai?? ? cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c
ia?eioeciii.

4. Cei/eiiee ia?eia?cian a Oe?a?i? iaae?a? ana a?eueo ?icaeiooeo
i?aai?ciaaieo oi?i.

A?ae ?ioeo i?aai?ciaaieo a?oi, a?oie, ui caeiathoueny ia?eia?cianii,
a?ae??ciythoueny ianooiiei:

— a?eueo aeniea nooi?iue i?aai?ciaaiino?;

— noai?ith ???a?o??th ? /?oeei ?iciiae?eii ?ieae (ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iaia’yce?a);

— a?aeie?aieai?noth a?ae ?ioeo cei/eiieo oa?oioaaiue;

— ?aa?iiaeueiei ?iciiae?eii noa?e ae?yeueiino?;

— noai?ith eiini??aoeai?noth;

— aeia?a iaeaaiaeaeaiith ioi?iiii-eiio??ica?aeoaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth;

— iathoue aaeee? a?ioia? ? aaethoi? ?ano?ne;

— a?ae??ciythoueny aenieei ??aiai caaacia/aiino? aiaiaiaeueiith ca?i?th,
caniaaie ca’yceo ? o?ainii?oii;

— i?e i?eeii? iiaeo /eai?a cae?enith?oueny noai?ee a?aea?? eaiaeeaeao?a,
?o ia?aa??ea.

E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea iniaenoino? ia?eiiaia iieyaa? a
ianooiiiio: a?eueoa iieiaeie 58,3% ia?eiiai?a ?c /enea oeo, ooi ? ia
iae?eo – noaeei?, 18,7% ?c ieo iia’ycothoue a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a
aaciina?aaeiuei c ia?eiiai??th.

Aeaee cei/ei?a, ui a/eiythoueny ia?eiiaiaie:

?. Ianeeueieoeuee? cei/eie :

— oieni? aaeanoaa – 1,6%

— oyaee? o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy – 5,2%

— iia?ica aaeanoaii – 1,1%

— c?aaeooaaiiy – 1,8%

— ooe?aainoai – 16,6%

?io? – 4,1 %

Anueiai: 30,4%

II. Ei?eneea? ? ei?eneeai-ianeeueieoeuee? cei/eie :

— e?aae?aeea aea?aeaaiiai ? iniaenoiai – 21,7% iaeia

— a?aaaae? – 7,9%

— ?ica?e – 3,6%

— niaeoeyoe?y ? oao?aenoai – 3,2%

aeiiaaoaeuenoai – 20 %

Anueiai: 63%

I?. ?io? cei/eie :

– caa??aaiiy ca?i? – 13%

– oo?eiaiiy i?eoii?a ?icionoe ? – 3,6% aeeiaieueii-ia?eioe/ieo i?eoii?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei /iai ? iathoue ?ic?iaeyoeny caoiaee i?ioeae??
ia?eiiai?? ? iia’ycaieo c iath cei/ei?a.

Ieoaiiy 3. I?ioeae?y cei/eiai, iia’ycaiei c ia?eiiai??th

Iniiaiei iai?yiii i?ioeae?? cei/eiai, iia’ycaiei c ia?eioeciii, ?
caoiaee ii onoiaiith aeaoaeo?a nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e in?a, eio??
aeaoa?i?iothoue aea?? naia ?ethci?iiai aeinyaiaiiy ianieiaee c
aeiiiiiaith ia?eioee?a.

E??i oeueiai, iaiao?aeii oaeiae cae?enithaaoe caoiaee ii onoiaiith oiia,
ui ni?eythoue ia?eiiai?? ? cei/eiai, iia’ycaiei c iath.

Cie?aia, oea :

— caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia ai?ioueao c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioee?a;

— aei?aaeaiiy ? ci?ia na?aaeiaeua, ui ni?ey? aaeeaaiith ia?eioee?a;

— niaoe?aeueia ?iaioa c iniaaie, noeeueieie aei aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a oa
?ioa.

I?ea?iaeueio iaoiaeeeo ai?ioueae c ia?eiiai??th ?ic?iaea eao?aao
Iiaae?anueei? i?ai?? 1992 ?ieo aia?eeainueeee a/aiee-aeiiii?no Aa?? N.
Aaea?. Ia?eiiai?th a?i i?iiiio? «e?ea?aeoaaoe» aeiiii?/ieie caniaaie.
sseui aeiiii?/ia ca?ioa?aniaai?noue ia?aaaaeeoue «ia?aaaae» ?ethci?ii?
ianieiaee a?ae ia?eioee?a, oi, ia eiai aeoieo, c i?iaeaiith ia?eiiai??
aoaea iie?i/aii aac i?eioniaeo caoiae?a.

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