Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y i?ieo?aoo?e Oe?a?ie

Aeiiia?aeue

ia oaio:

Eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaee noaoon A?E

I?aeaiooaaea:

iaa?no?aioa 1-ai eo?no a?oie ?7

Eicae ?.I.

Ee?a, 2008

E?ei ia??iaee/ii noa? i?inoi?ii iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a. Ua iai’yoi? o?
/ane, eiee ?in?y e Oe?a?ia eiioe?eooaaee c i?eaiaeo
a?enueeiai-ii?nueeiai oeioo. I?ney a?aaoethaaiiy ieoaiiy uiaei oeioo
aeaye? ?in?enuee? io?oe?ei? iniae (? iaa?oue caeiiiaeaa/ee i?aai ?in??)
i?iaeaiiino?oaaee noii?a o aea?aeaai?e i?eiaeaaeiino? E?eio. Iio?i aeiee
eiioe?eo c i?eaiaeo noaoono oaoa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy a E?eio. Ooinue
noeeueiee aa/eoe a oeueiio eiioe?eo? eeoa i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae
?aoi?iaoi?nueeeie e?ieaie o?yaeo oa eiina?aaoeaieie e?aeie, a ca?ac ua ?
i?i?in?enueei iaeaooiaaieie neeaie e?einueeiai ia?eaiaioo. Ooinue
noeeueiee ?icaeyaeaoe e?einueeee eiioe?eo ye ieoaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee.

Iaeiae, neooaoe?y iaaaaaoi neeaaei?oa, a i?ae o?eueee iie?oe/ia
i?ioenoiyiiy a ?aieao ?aa?iiaeueiiai eiioe?eoo. E?ei – oea ia i?inoi
?aa?ii na?aae ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a aea?aeaae. Ia?aaoaath/e o neeaae? Oe?a?ie,
E?ei noeeueiee aei aieeao ?in?? oa Oo?a//eie ia iaioa, i?ae aieeao
Oe?a?ie. E?ei – noa’?eo ia ?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, a aaiiie?oeee. ? oey
neooaoe?y oa?oue o nia? aeae?eueea caa?ic, c i?eaiaeo yeeo ? iaiao?aeii
c?iaeoe ??oo/? e?iee ia iaeaeuiio aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?. Uia iiee aeineoue
noaa?eueia neooaoe?y a E?eio oaeith ? caeeoaeany.

?nio? /ioe?e iniiai? caa?ice E?eio – aeniain?ii?ci ?in??, aieea e?aeo
iano?i?a, ?neainueeee /eiiee oa i?iaeaia iiaa?iaiiy e?einueeeo oaoa?.
Ai?aca?nia e?ei?iaeueia aeoeai?noue o E?eio, yea ia oae aeaaii aeaaaea
aaaaoi ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey aeo?iae?no?a ? aoea ?aaeueiith caa?icith
noaa?eueiino?, inoaii?i /anii ia? no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy.
Aeoeaiooaaiiy oaaae ia i?e a?aeaoaa?oueny aeineoue ooo/ii, ?
e?ei?iaeueio neooaoe?th iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe o?eueee ye /eiiee iie?oe/ieo
niaeoeyoe?e. O nenoaiiiio ae aiae?c? cei/eii?noue ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny
ye nenoaiia i?iaeaia, yeui ia ? ?acoeueoaoii /e??nue no?aoaa??, /e??nue
oe?eani?yiiaaii? ae?yeueiino?. O oie /an ye no?aoaa?/ii ae?th/? /eiieee
– ?in?y, e?a? iano?i? ianaeaiiy, iiaa?iaiiy aenaeaieo oaoa? ? oae caaiee
«?neainueeee /eiiee».

Iaoith aeaii? aeiiia?ae? ? aeine?aeeoe no/ani? iie?oe/i? i?ioeane a
E?eio oa /eiieee, ye? ?o aecia/athoue, a oaeiae ?ieue E?eio ye
aeanoaa?e?coth/iai oaeoi?o a Oe?a?i?.

Caaaeaiiy aeiiia?ae?:

O aeine?aeeoe ?ieue oa noaoon E?eio a neeaae? Oe?a?ie;

O i?iaiae?coaaoe iniiai? /eiieee, ui oi?iothoue eiioe?eoio neooaoe?th a
A?E;

O ?icaeyiooe E?ei ye iniiaio i?iaeaio oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo noinoie?a.

Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei ? iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith Oe?a?ie.
Ci?no aaoiiii?? E?eio aecia/aii o noaooyo 134—139 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie,
yeeie anoaiiaeaii iiaiiaaaeaiiy Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, a oaeiae ??
a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?a.

Iniiai? aea?aeaai? iciaee E?eio caiaeyoueny aei oaeiai: 1) E?ei ?
aea?aeaaiei ooai?aiiyi — ?anioae?eith; 2) a?i ia? naith Eiinoeoooe?th;
3) ye ?aa?iiaeueia ae?? nenoaia aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei ia /ie? c Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith ? ?aaeith i?i?no??a; 4)
aea?aeaai? i?aaie Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, ianaiia?aae Aa?oiaia ?aaea
? ?aaea i?i?no??a, aeaeathoue o iaaeao nai?o iiaiiaaaeaiue a?aeiia?aei?
i?aaia? aeoe, ye? neeaaeathoue ?aa?iiaeueio nenoaio i?aaiaeo aeo?a
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei.

Aiaeii/an E?ei ia? eiinoeoooe?eiee noaoon aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee, ui a
oe?eiio ae?noa? aeya o ?yae? nooo?aeo iaiaaeaiue, ye? iia’ycai? naia c
oeei noaoonii. Aei oeeo iaiaaeaiue iaeaaeaoue oae?: 1) iaae?
iiaiiaaaeaiue Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei aecia/athoueny Eiinoeoooe??th
Oe?a?ie; 2) ?? Eiinoeoooe?th caoaa?aeaeo? Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie; 3)
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe iaeaeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei ia iiaeooue noia?a/eoe Eiinoeoooe?? ? caeiiai Oe?a?ie ?
i?eeiathoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie oa aeo?a ?? iaeaeueo
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee (caeiie, aeoe I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ? Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie) oa ia ?o aeeiiaiiy; 4) iiaiiaaaeaiiy oa ii?yaeie
oi?ioaaiiy ? ae?yeueiino? iaeaeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei aecia/athoueny Eiinoeoooe??th ? caeiiaie Oe?a?ie, a
oaeiae ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee
E?ei c ieoaiue, a?aeianaieo aei ?? eiiiaoaioe??; 5) noaee Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei iaeaaeaoue aei ?aeeii? nenoaie noae?a Oe?a?ie; 6)
Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie aecia/a? o? ieoaiiy, ii?iaoeaia-i?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy yeeo ia? i?aai cae?enithaaoe Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei; 7)
Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie aecia/a? ieoaiiy, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei a?aeaiiy
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei.

Oeae ia?ae?e na?ae/eoue i?i aeineoue oe?ie? iiaiiaaaeaiiy Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei. E??i oiai Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie (no. 138) anoaiiaeth?,
ui “caeiiaie Oe?a?ie Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei iiaeooue aooe
aeaeaaiaai? oaeiae ?io? iiaiiaaaeaiiy”, ye? aeioe?eueii aoaea iaaeaoe ?e
c oeo /e ?ioeo i??eoaaiue.

O?aaa acyoe aei oaaae e oa, ui ca?aeii c? no. 137 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie
I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie iiaea coieiyoe ae?th ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, yeui aiie ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue Eiinoeoooe?? oa caeiiai Oe?a?ie. O oaeiio ?ac?
I?aceaeaio iiaeiai iaeii/anii caa?iooeny aei Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo
Oe?a?ie c iaoith aecia/aiiy eiinoeoooe?eiino? aeo?a, ye? aoee iei
coieiai?.

Aeiaaio?eaaeee eiioe?eo iaaeiei aecia/aiiy i?aaiaiai noaoono E?eio
oaeoe/ii caaa?oeany 23 a?oaeiy 1998?., eiee Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie
ooaaeeea Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i caoaa?aeaeaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei», iiia?aaeiuei i?eeiyoee ia ae?oa?e nan?? Aa?oiaii?
?aaee A?E 21 aeiaoiy 1998?. Cacia/aiee caeii noaa iie?oeei-i?aaiaei
eiii?ii?nii i?ae ??cieie iie?oe/ieie neeaie ye a Oe?a?i? caaaeii, oae ?
a E?eio.

Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy cacia/aiiai caeiio noia?a/aoue ii?iai Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie.

Ii-ia?oa, noaooy 137 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie i?noeoue aeeeth/iee ia?ae?e
ieoaiue, c yeeo Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei cae?enith? ii?iaoeaia
?aaoethaaiiy. ?icoe?aiiy oaeiai ia?ae?eo caeiiaie Oe?a?ie, ye oea
ia?aaeaa/aii a Eiinoeoooe?? A?E (/. 1 no. 18), ia a?aeiia?aea?
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie.

Ii-ae?oaa, caaaeueiee ii?yaeie anooio a ae?th ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a
aoaeue-yeeo i?aai?a aecia/aii a noaoo? 57 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie. Oiio
anoaiiaeaiiy ?ioiai ii?yaeeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
A?E (/.5 no.27 Eiinoeoooe?? A?E) noia?a/eoue Iniiaiiio Caeiio Oe?a?ie.

Ii-o?ao?, aei nenoaie i?aeca?oiino? e i?aeeiio?ieueiino? i?aai?a
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, aecia/aii? ?icae?eii VI Iniiaiiai Caeiio Oe?a?ie, ia
aeeth/aii ?aaeo I?i?no??a A?E. Ioaea, i?aai ?aaee I?i?no??a A?E
neaniaoaaoe aeoe aie?a i?noeaaeo aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e (/.a no.38
Eiinoeoooe?? A?E) ia a?aeiia?aea? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie (/.8 no. 118).

Ii-/aoaa?oa, Eiinoeoooe?y A?E iaaea? Aa?oiai?e ?aae? E?eio iaai?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy anoia?a/ iieiaeaiiyi Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, Caeiio Oe?a?ie
«I?i Aa?oiaio ?aaeo Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei» oa ?ioeo caeii?a, a
naia:

O a?aeiia?aeii aei Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie (i.16 /.? no.92), niaoe?aeueiee
noaoon i?no aecia/a?oueny aeeeth/ii caeiiaie Oe?a?ie. Oiio aecia/aiiy
iniaeeainoae noaoono I.N?ioa?iiiey aeoaie Aa?oiaii? ?aaee A?E (/.2 no.8
Eiinoeoooe?? A?E) ? iai?aaii??iei;

O i?aai?caoe?y oa ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiiy aeai??a aecia/athoueny aeeeth/ii
caeiiaie Oe?a?ie (i.20 /. 1 no.92 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie), oiio
a?aeianaiiy ieoaiue i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy aeai??a aei a?aeaiiy A?E
(i.6/.?no.18 Eiinoeoooe?? A?E) noia?a/eoue Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie.

Ii-i’yoa, iiaiiaaaeaiiy oa ii?yaeie ae?yeueiino? O?yaeo A?E
aecia/athoueny Eiinoeoooe??th oa caeiiaie Oe?a?ie, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeie
aeoaie Aa?oiaii? ?aaee A?E c ieoaiue, a?aeianaieo aei ?? eiiiaoaioe??
(/.4 no. 136 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie). Oiio aecia/aiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa
ii?yaeeo aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?e ? iiaiiaaaeaiue ?aaee I?i?no??a A?E aeoaie
(aac o?aooaaiiy eiiiaoaioe??) Aa?oiaii? ?aaee A?E (/.7 no.38
Eiinoeoooe?? A?E) noia?a/eoue Iniiaiiio Caeiio Oe?a?ie.

Ii-oinoa, Eiinoeoooe?y A?E a?aeiineoue aei a?aeaiiy Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei, ?? i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai i?aaio, iaai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy,
iaaeaiiy yeeo ia ia?aaeaa/aia Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie, Caeiiii Oe?a?ie
«I?i Aa?oiaio ?aaeo Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei» oa ?ioeie caeiiaie,
cie?aia:

O o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? oa cae?eniaii? iniiaieo i?eioeei?a
ciai?oiuei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?ie (i.C /.? no.18 Eiinoeoooe??
A?E) oa ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ciai?oi?o ciinei (i.11 /.2,
/.C no.18; aa.13 /.2 no.38 Eiinoeoooe?? A?E);

O ae??oaiiy ieoaiue ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iaoee, oaoi?ee,
noai?aiiy a?eueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii, e?oeaicoaaiiy ? eaiooaaiiy aenii?oo
i?iaeoeoe?? oiui; ?ic?iaea ? i?iaaaeaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? iie?oeee
(i.11,20 /.? no.18 Eiinoeoooe?? A?E).

27 ethoiai 2001?. Eiinoeoooe?eiee Noae Oe?a?ie aaea aeciaa
iaeiinoeoooe?eieie a?ey 30 noaoae /ioe?ueio ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee A?E – ?? ?aaeaiaioo, iinoaiia i?i eaae?iao ?iaioo, i?i
?aooieiao iaeaoo A?E, i?i oi?aae?iiy iaeiii. Oea, a naith /a?ao, ia?
i?ecaanoe aei iiaeaeueoiai neanoaaiiy ii?i ie?aieo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeo?a, i?eeiyoeo Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith A?E ia i?aenoaa? iaeiinoeoooe?eieo
iiaiiaaaeaiue.

Nueiaiaei? ianaeaiiy E?eio aac iniaeeaiai aiooc?acio ioe?ith? aieea
i?eeiyooy Eiinoeoooe?? A?E ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a E?eio: iaeaea
iieiaeia ?aniiiaeaio?a (46,6%) aaaaeathoue, ui i?eeiyooy Eiinoeoooe??
A?E ia aieeioei ia neooaoe?th a aaoiiii??; eeoa eiaeai i’yoee (19,8%)
aaaaea? oeae aieea iiceoeaiei; iaoii?noue, iaaaoeaiei eiai aaaaeathoue
13,3% iieoaieo.

Iayai?noue i?ioe??/ i?ae Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie, ?? caeiiaie oa
Eiinoeoooe??th A?E, ca iaaieo oiia, iiaea ni?e/eieoe caaino?aiiy
a?aeiinei i?ae Ee?aii ? N?ioa?iiieai, oneeaaeieoe iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a
aaoiiii??.

Iacaaeiaieaiiy iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo aeiia e?einueeeo oaoa?.

Ca aeaieie Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy IAN Oe?a?ie a E?eio, a eenoiiaae? 2005?.
a A?E i?iaeeaaee iiiaae 260 oen. aeaii?oiaaieo a?iiaaeyi ? ?o iauaaee?a
(c ieo c 256959 – aeaii?oiaai? e?einuee? oaoa?e). Caaaeueia
/enaeuei?noue e?einueeeo oaoa? ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie noaiiaeoue ua aeecueei
50 oen. /ie. I?eieea ?aiao??aio?a iii?oii ciaioo?oueny: a 1997?. i?eaoei
5300 e?einueeeo oaoa?; a 1999?. – 2500; o ia?oiio i?a??//? 2003?. – 1100
/ieia?e.

Iaea?eueo aino?ith i?iaeaiith A?E ? ?ioaa?aoe?y e?einueeeo oaoa? o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy aaoiiii??. Aenieee ??aaiue eiioe?eoiiai
iioaioe?aeo iaeiie/aii a ca’yceo c iacaaeiaieaiiyi ?yaeo
iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo aeiia e?einueeeo oaoa? uiaei: aeciaiiy io?oe?eiiai
noaoono e?einueeeo oaoa? ye ei??iiiai ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie; aeciaiiy
Iaaeaee?no ye i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai i?aaio e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo;
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? Oe?a?ie ca aeaii?oaoe?th e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai
ia?iaeo a 1944?., a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a, ni?e/eiaieo
aeaii?oaoe??th; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ni?iuaii? i?ioeaaeo?e aeoiaeo
?aiao??aio?a ?c a?iiaaeyinoaa ?ioeo e?a?i c iaoith io?eiaiiy
a?iiaaeyinoaa Oe?a?ie. Na?aae ?ioeo iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo ieoaiue, ia
ae??oaii? yeeo iaiieyaathoue i?aaenoaaieee e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo
– anoaiiaeaiiy eaioe i?aaenoaaieoeoaa e?einueeeo oaoa? o Aa?oiai?e ?aae?
A?E, aeciaiiy e?einueeioaoa?nueei? iiae a yeino? io?oe?eii? iiae
aaoiiii?? oiui.

Aei oeeo i?? ia iaeaaiaeaeaii iino?eiiai e a?aee?eoiai ae?aeiao i?ae
aeaaeieie i?aaiaie oa Iaaeaee?nii e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo, ui ia
ni?ey? i?aaiaiio e oeea?e?ciaaiiio ae??oaiith aeacaieo i?iaeai.

Iiaa Eiinoeoooe?y A?E i?aeoe/ii aeeeth/eea e?einueeeo oaoa? ?c
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy: aiie iaeaea ia i?aaenoaaeai? o Aa?oiai?e
?aae? A?E (eaioe aa?aioiaaiiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa e?einueeeo oaoa? aoee
neaniaai? i?ae /an aeai??a aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee A?E o 1998?.), a i?aaiao
aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee oa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Nueiaiaei?
iniiaia e?i?y i?ioenoiyiiy o ae??oaii? i?iaeai e?einueeeo oaoa?
i?ioiaeeoue ii e?i?? «aieiaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee A?E – Iaaeaee?n
e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo».

?acii c oei, iaeaea iieiaeia ianaeaiiy A?E (47,2%) ia?aeiiai?, ui i?aaa
e?einueeeo oaoa? caaacia/ai? aeinoaoiueith i??ith, 4% – noeeythoueny aei
aeoiee, ui i?aaa e?einueeeo oaoa? ia caaacia/ai? acaaae?. Oea
na?ae/eoue, ui ianaeaiiy E?eio, /anoea e?einueeeo oaoa? a yeiio neeaaea?
aeecueei 12%, ia aaaaea? caaeiaieaiiy i?aa e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo
i??i?eoaoiei caaaeaiiyi aea?aeaae.

Ieae/a i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai? iie?oeei-i?aaia? aeiiae
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo.

1). Aeiiae uiaei aeciaiiy io?oe?eiiai noaoono e?einueeeo oaoa? ye
ei??iiiai ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie.

A Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ae?enii aaeeaa?oueny oa?i?i «ei??ii? ia?iaee».
Ia?aaeaa/aii (no. 11), ui aea?aeaaa ni?ey? eiinie?aeaoe?? oa ?icaeoeia?
aoi?/ii?, eoeueoo?ii?, iiaii? oa ?ae?a?eii? naiiaooiino? an?o ei??iieo
ia?iae?a ? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae iaoe?iiaeueia
caeiiiaeaanoai iiee ui ia aecia/a? iaeaaeiei /eiii iiiyooy «ei??ii?
ia?iaee», ?o noaoon, i?aaa oa iaia’ycee.

Ia aeoieo aenia?o?a, aeciaiiy e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo ye
ei??iii?» iiaea aeeeeeaoe a ia?niaeoea? iiaeeea? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee.

Ii-ia?oa, aiie iia’ycai? c ?aae?caoe??th i?aaa ia naiiaecia/aiiy –
noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae e?einueeeo oaoa?, ine?eueee ia III
Eo?oeoa? e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo aaea aoei cayaeaii, ui «e?einuee?
oaoa?e aoaeooue aeiaeaaoeny aecia/aiiy noaoono E?eio a neeaae? Oe?a?ie
ca iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueiei i?eioeeiii». Oea, a naith /a?ao, iiaea
i?ecaanoe aei aenoiaiiy aeiia caaacia/aiiy i?aaa aeaniino?
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo ia caieth, ?? iaae?a, aiaei? oa ?io?
i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne oiui. Aei oiai ae, ca ioe?ieaie aeaiia?ao?a, o
?aeiiao, aea /anoea e?einueeeo oaoa? neeaaea? 20-25% ianaeaiiy, ?o
/enaeuei?noue i?ioyaii ianooiieo 10 ?ie?a iiaea ca?eueoeoeny aei 40%. A
iiaeaeueoiio oe? ?aeiie iiaeooue noaoe iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino? e?einueeeo oaoa?.

Ii-ae?oaa, oea iiaea noai?eoe i?aoeaaeaio aeey ?ioeo ia?iae?a ?
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, ui iiaea i?ecaanoe aei iiaeaeueoi? aaoiiii?caoe??
Oe?a?ie, iinoaaeoe i?ae noii?a ?? ?nioaaiiy ye oe?e?nii? aea?aeaae.

Ii-o?ao?, aeciaiiy e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo ye ei??iiiai iiaea
ni?e/eieoe c?inoaiiy iie?oe/ii? iai?oae a A?E, ine?eueee oaea ??oaiiy
iaa?yae /e ciaeaea i?aeo?eieo ianaeaiiy A?E. Caaaeii, eeoa 14,2%
?aniiiaeaio?a aaaaeathoue ca iio??aia iaaeaoe e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiio
ia?iaeo noaoon ei??iiiai ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie; iaeaea o?e /aa?o? e?ei/ai
(73,4%) ia?aeiiai?, ui oeueiai ?iaeoe ia iio??aii.

2). Aeiiae uiaei aeciaiiy Eo?oeoath oa Iaaeaee?no ye i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo
i?aai?a e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo (i?aai?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy).

sse oaea cacia/aeiny. Iaaeaee?n e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo aei oeeo
i?? ia ca?a?no?iaaiee a i?aaiao aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee Oe?a?ie.
Aiaeii/an, ea??aieoeoai e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i aeciaiiy Eo?oeoath oa Iaaeaee?no
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeie i?aaiaie e?einueeeo oaoa? ye iaeio c iniiaieo nai?o
aeiia. Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie noai?aia ?aaea i?aaenoaaiee?a
e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo, ui iiaeia ?icoe?ithaaoe ye ia?oee e?ie
aei iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai aeciaiiy Iaaeaee?no ye i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai i?aaio
e?einueeeo oaoa?. Iaeiae, aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? aeiiae a iiaiiio ianyc?
? iaai? i?aaia? iaiaaeaiiy.

Eiinoeoooe??th oa caeiiaie Oe?a?ie aecia/aia nenoaia i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo
oa ?ioeo i?aai?a o aea?aeaa?. Iaaeaee?n ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye i?aai
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee /e i?aai i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Ca aenia?oieie
ioe?ieaie, a?i iiaea aooe eeoa ia’?aeiaiiyi a?iiaaeyi ca iaoe?iiaeueiith
iciaeith, a a?aeoae – ia? ?a?no?oaaoeny ia i?aenoaaao, aecia/aieo no. 14
Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ia’?aeiaiiy a?iiaaeyi».

A?eueoa /aa?o? e?ei/ai (28,4%) aaaaeathoue, ui Iaaeaee?n
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo ia? aooe io?oe?eii ca?a?no?iaaiee a
i?aaiao thnoeoe?? Oe?a?ie, iaeiae cia/ii a?eueoa (43,1%) iieoaieo
iathoue i?ioeeaaeio aeoieo.

Aeciaiiy Eo?oeoath oa Iaaeaee?no a yeino? i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo iiaea i?ecaanoe aei oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i?
aeueoa?iaoeaieo aeaaeieo i?aai?a, ia eaaeo/e aaea i?i iiaeeea?noue
aenoiaiiy aiaeia?/ieo aeiia c aieo ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

3). Aeiiae uiaei a?aeiiaeaiiy i?aa e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo,
ii?ooaieo aeaii?oaoe??th a 1944?., a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ni?e/eiaieo iath
iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a.

E?einuee? oaoa?e iaiieyaathoue ia a?aeiiaeaii? ?o i?aa oa iaaii?
?anoeoooe?? aeaniino?, ui aoea eiio?neiaaia a 1944?. Oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaaa, ooai?aia i?ney ?iciaaeo eieeoiueiai N?N?, ia iiaea ianoe
iie?oe/io oa oi?iaeueio th?eaee/io a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
aeaii?oaoe?th. Iaeiae, i/aaeaeii, ui i?iaeaie iaeaoooaaiiy e?einueeeo
oaoa?, caaeiaieaiiy ?o iio?aa iaiao?aeii ae??ooaaoe – c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaeeeainoae aea?aeaae, i?aa ?ioeo a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie.

4). Aeiiae uiaei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ni?iaoeaii? i?ioeaaeo?e iaaoooy
a?iiaaeyinoaa aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a aeaii?oiaaieo ia?iae?a.

A?iiaaeyiaie Oe?a?ie ? iiiaae 30 oen. aeaii?oiaaieo e?einueeeo oaoa?, ui
neeaaea? 88,3% a?ae ?o caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? a Oe?a?i?. Ca aeaieie
Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy IAN Oe?a?ie a E?eio, nueiaiaei? ia oa?eoi???
i?aino?iaa i?iaeeaathoue iiiaae 20 oen. aeaii?oiaaieo, ui ? a?iiaaeyiaie
?ioeo aea?aeaa NIAe: ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? – a?eueoa 10 oen,
Eacaonoaio – 2774, Oaaeaeeeenoaio – 2630, Ee?aecnoaio –1531 , A?oc?? –
1013 oa ?i. Noaiii ia eenoiiaae 2005?., ?c 64178 in?a, ye? ae?oaee c
Ocaaeenoaio aei A?E, ni?iuaiith i?ioeaaeo?ith aeoiaeo c a?iiaaeyinoaa ?
i?eeiyooy a?iiaaeyinoaa Oe?a?ie nei?enoaeeny 83,6% aeaii?oiaaieo.

I?iaeiaaeo?oueny ?iaioa c? noai?aiiy oiia aeey ni?iuaiiai io?eiaiiy
a?iiaaeyinoaa Oe?a?ie aeey e?einueeeo oaoa? c Eacaonoaiii,
Oaaeaeeeenoaiii, Oo?eiaienoaiii, Ee?aecnoaiii ? ?in??th.

Iaae??oai?noue iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai e?einueeeo oaoa? i?iaieo? ?o
?aaeeeaeuei? ae??. Iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui caaeiaieaiiy ie?aieo aeiia
e?einueeeo oaoa? iiaea aecaaoe i?ioeae?th c aieo cia/ii? /anoeie
ianaeaiiy A?E, a a ia?niaeoea? — i?ecaanoe aei iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ianooaao.

3.3. Iaae??oai?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieo i?iaeai
e?einueeeo oaoa?

Iaeaoooaaiiy oa ?ioaa?aoe?y a oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai aeaii?oiaaieo
a?iiaaeyi, iniaeeai e?einueeeo oaoa? (caaacia/aiiy aeeoeii, ?iaioith,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?einueeioaoa?nueei? iiae ? eoeueoo?e) iaeaaeaoue aei
iaea?eueo aino?eo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ieoaiue ia eeoa
E?eio, aea e Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio. Ieae/a aiae?cothoueny ie?ai? aniaeoe
cacia/aieo i?iaeai.

?). Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia ?io?ano?oeoo?a.

Noaiii ia n?/aiue 2004?., a E?eio 73% i?noeue eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy
?aiao??aio?a ia aoee caaacia/ai? aiaeith; 25% – aeaeo?iaia?a??th;
??aaiue aaceo?eaoe?? ia ia?aaeuo? 3%; eaiae?caoe?y e oaieiiinoa/aiiy
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?; aei?iae c oaa?aeei iie?eooyi neeaaeathoue ia
a?eueoa 10%.

2). Caaacia/aiiy aeeoeii.

128298 aeaii?oiaaieo a?iiaaeyi nueiaiaei? ia iathoue aeaniiai aeeoea. A
/a?c? ia iaea?aeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai aeeoea noiyoue a?eueoa 15 oen. n?iae;
21 oen. ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo caaoaeiaiee?a ia a ciic? caaa?oeoe
aoae?aieoeoai aeanieo aoaeeie?a /a?ac a?aenooi?noue eioo?a. Ca aanue
ia??iae iiaa?iaiiy e?einueeeo oaoa? aoei aeae?eaii a?ey 50 oen. ae?eyiie
aeey ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa aeeoea.

Ii/eiath/e c 1988?., e?einueeeie oaoa?aie aoei cae?eniaii a?ey 6000
naiicaoiieaiue caiaeueieo ae?eyiie aeey aoae?aieoeoaa aeeoea, c ieo
ocaeiiaii – 5605 ae?eyiie. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue naiicaoiieaiue
i?eoiaeeoueny ia I.N?ioa?iiieue – 3795, A?eia??nueeee ?aeii – 920,
Aao/ena?aenueeee ?aeii – 446, Eai?inueeee ?aeii – 416.

3). I?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy

?c 136 oen. i?aoeacaeaoieo c /enea aeaii?oiaaieo in?a iino?eio ?iaioo
iathoue eeoa 63 oen. /ie. (a?ey 46%), a ??aaiue aac?ia?ooy na?aae ieo
i?eaeecii o a?n?i ?ac?a aeuee, i?ae o na?aaeiueiio a A?E[36].

A i?noeyo aeaii?oaoe?? aeecueei 70% e?einueeeo oaoa? i?iaeeaaee a
i?noao; i?ney iiaa?iaiiy a E?ei iiiaae 72% c ieo ciooai? iaeaooiaoaaoeny
a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?[36]. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
aac?ia?ooy, ine?eueee cia/ia /anoeia i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy i?aoeth?
ia ca oaoii, /e acaaae? ia iiaea ciaeoe ?iaioo. E?einuee? oaoa?e ciooai?
ia?aaeaaoeny aeiaaeeiaeie ca?ia?oeaie, aeaeeaaoe ca ?aooiie
i?enaaeeaiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ?eieiai? oi?a?ae?.

4). Caaacia/aiiy caieath.

A n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? i?iaeeaathoue 193,3 oen. aeaii?oiaaieo, o o./.
aei?ineeo – 155,9 oen. /ie. Caaeiaieaii 39028 caya ?aiao??aio?a ia
io?eiaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue ?c caiaeue caiano oa ?aca?ao
aeey aaaeaiiy aeaniiai i?aeniaiiai ainiiaea?noaa (53,4% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? caya e?ei/ai, caaeiaieaieo a A?E). I?enaaeeaieie ae?eyieaie
caaacia/ai? i?aeoe/ii an? ?aiao??eiaai? a?iiaaeyie.

A?eueo na?eiciith i?iaeaiith aeey e?einueeeo oaoa? ? aeae?eaiiy
caiaeueieo ? iaeiiaeo ia?a o i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy ENI. Eeoa 19,7 oen.
?aiao??aio?a iathoue i?aai ia caiaeueiee ? iaeiiaee iae (c ieo 18,3 oen,
aai 9,4% a?ae caaaeueiiai /enea e?einueeeo oaoa?, ye? i?iaeeaathoue o
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, eiai io?eiaee). Ioaea, 90% e?einueeeo oaoa?,
ye? i?iaeeaathoue o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, aeeeth/ai? c i?ioeano
iathaaiiy caie? i?ae /an ?aoi?ioaaiiy ENI.

Ca?aeii c /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii, ?ica’ycaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie iiaea aooe
cae?eniaia ca ?aooiie caiaeue iayaiiai ?aca?aiiai oiiaeo oa caiaeue
caiano. Iaeiae, oaeee i?aeo?ae ? iai?eeiyoiei aeey Iaaeaee?no: caie?
caiano oa ?aca?aiiai oiiaeo iathoue ieae/o ye?noue, i?ae oaea
?iciaeiaai? caie?; aei oiai ae, aiie ciaoiaeyoueny aeaeaei a?ae i?noeue
eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy e?einueeeo oaoa?. Oiio Iaaeaee?n cayaey? i?i
«?aii?oaaiiy ?ioa?an?a e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo a i?ioean?
?aoi?ioaaiiy caiaeueieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?». Oiio cacia/aia ieoaiiy
iaiao?aeii ia?aaanoe c ieiueie iie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy a ieiueio
ae?aeiao oa i?aeoe/iiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie.

5). Eoeueoo?a ? ina?oa.

Caaeiaieaiiy eoeueoo?ieo, ina?oi?o, ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iio?aa e?einueeeo
oaoa? ? iaaeinoaoi?i. A A?E ooieoe?iiothoue eeoa iaeei
E?einueeioaoa?nueeee ae?aiaoe/iee oaao? (i?ei?uaiiy yeiai aei oiai ae
ciaoiaeeoueny a aaa??eiiio noai?), eeoa iaeia E?einueeioaoa?nueea
a?ae?ioaea ?iai? ?nia?ea Aani?einueeiai. A aaoiiii?? eeoa aeaa’youe oe?e
c e?einueeioaoa?nueeith iiaith iaa/aiiy; oe?e c aeaiia iiaaie iaa/aiiy
(?in?enueeith oa e?einueeioaoa?nueeith) – 33; eean?a c
e?einueeioaoa?nueeith iiaith iaa/aiiy a ?in?enueeiiiaieo oeieao – 81.

Aeaeathoueny eeoa aea? aacaoe e?einueei-oaoa?nueeith iiaith («Euu?ui» oa
«ssie aeoiuey»). Ia Aea?aeaai?e O?E «E?ei» i?aoeth? e?einueei-oaoa?nueea
?aaeaeoe?y, iiaeaiiy yei? noaiiaeoue 7% a?ae caaaeueiiai ianyao iiaeaiiy
eiiiai??.

Eeoa 15,7% ?aniiiaeaio?a, iieoaieo nioe?ieia?/iith neoaeaith OOeAIAe a
A?E, aaaaeathoue aeinoaoiueith e?euee?noue ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue
e?einueeioaoa?nueeith iiaith, 8% iieoaieo aaaaeathoue, ui oaeeo aeaeaiue
iiaeiii aooe a?eueoa, 8,5% – ui iaioa; aeey 59% ?aniiiaeaio?a – oea
ieoaiiy aaeaeoaea. E?euee?noue ?aae?iia?aaea/ aaaaeathoue aeinoaoiueith
15,4% iieoaieo; o oiio, ui ?o iiaeiii aooe a?eueoa, aiaaiai? 8,7%
?aniiiaeaio?a; a a oiio, ui ?o iiaeiii aooe iaioa, – 8,5%. Oaea ae
neooaoe?y ? c oaeaia?aaea/aie: 15,4% iieoaieo caaeiaieai? ?o
e?euee?noth, 8,7% – aaaaeathoue, ui ?o iiaeiii aooe a?eueoa, 8,9% – ui
?o iiaeiii aooe iaioa.

Iaaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui aeeoae? E?eio ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae ia
ona?aeiieththoue aaaeeeaino? noai?aiiy iaeaaeieo oiia aeey caaeiaieaiiy
eoeueoo?ieo, ?ioi?iaoe?eieo, ina?oi?o oa ?ioeo iio?aa e?einueeeo oaoa?.

6). Aea?aeaaia o?iainoaaiiy iaeaoooaaiiy e?einueeeo oaoa?.

Ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa e?einueeeo oaoa?
iio?aao? iaeaaeiiai athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy. Ca aenia?oieie
ioe?ieaie, ia iaeaoooaaiiy e?einueeeo oaoa? iio??aii, ye i?i?ioi, $3
ie?ae.; iaeneiaeuei? ioe?iee nyaathoue $20 ie?ae. (eeoa aeeoea
iaiao?aeii 2 iei. ea. i). Oaeeo eioo?a aea?aeaaa aeae?eeoe iiee ui ia a
ciic?. Caaaeii, o 1992-2005??. ia o?iainoaaiiy aeiiiiiae aeaii?oiaaiei c
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie aoei aeae?eaii iiiaae $300 iei.

11 o?aaiy 2006?. aei /a?aiai? ??/ieoe? aeaii?oaoe?? e?einueeeo 18 o?aaiy
1944 ?. o?yae i?eeiya i?ia?aio aeiiiiiae c ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
?aiao??aio?a ? iaaeaa ia oea 600 iei. a?i. ye? iathoue iaaeoiaeeoe
/anoeiaie ia i?ioyc? ianooiieo i’yoe ?ie?a

7). I?aeia?iaeia aeiiiiiaa.

I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai aa?a o/anoue o ae??oaii?
i?iaeai ?aiao??aio?a o E?eio. I?aaenoaaieoeoaii Oi?aae?iiy Aa?oiaiiai
eii?na?a III o ni?aaao a?aeaioe?a, I?ia?aiith ?icaeoeo e ?ioaa?aoe??
E?eio III ca inoaii? i’youe ?ie?a ?aae?ciaai? i?iaeoe ia noio a?ey $10
iei. Ia aeaeue, e?a?ie NIAe i?aeoe/ii ia iaaeathoue Oe?a?i? aeiiiiiao o
ae??oaii? i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c iiaa?iaiiyi e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai
ia?iaeo.

Iaae??oai?noue i?iaeai e?einueeeo oaoa? iiaea i?ecaanoe aei ianooaaieo
nioe?aeueieo caai?ooaiue c na?eicieie iane?aeeaie. Uia iiia?aaeeoe
?icaeoie iiae?e o iaaacia/iiio iai?yi?, iaiao?aeii iaeaaiaeeoe
nenoaiaoe/iee ae?aeia i?ae i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa ea??aieoeoaii
e?einueeeo oaoa?, ni?eueieie coneeeyie iia?aoeaii ae??ooaaoe iaaaeuei?
i?iaeaie ?aiao??aio?a.

3.4. Iaaeinoaoiy i?enooi?noue a A?E Oe?a?inueei? iiae oa eoeueoo?e

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue i?enooi?noue o E?eio oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ?
iiae (oe?a?iiiiaieo cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, caeeaae?a ina?oe oa
eoeueoo?e) ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe caaeia?eueiith. Cia/iith i??ith iei?oiy
neooaoe?y aeeeeeaia ia’?eoeaieie ia?aaeoiiaaie, ine?eueee ia?aaaaeia
/anoeia ianaeaiiy E?eio (80-85%) ? ?in?enueeiiiaiith.

Ieoaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e oa oe?a?inueei? iiae ?
aeineoue aeae?eaoiei; aiii ia iiaeiii cae?enithaaoeny i?eioniaeie
caoiaeaie (oea ni?e/eieei a cai?ioith iaaaoeaio ?aaeoe?th). Oe?a?inueea
aeaaea iiaeiia aooe aioiaa aei oiai, ui oeae i?ioean iiaea o?eaaoe
i?ioyaii ci?ie e?eueeio iieie?iue.

I?i iaiao?aei?noue iaa?aaeii? iie?oeee a oe?e noa?? na?ae/aoue ? aeai?
nioe?ieia?/iiai iieooaaiiy OOeAIAe. Oae, ia aeoieo ia?aaaaeii?
a?eueoino? (63,4%) e?ei/ai, i?aaa oe?a?iiiiaiiai ianaeaiiy a A?E
caaacia/ai? aeinoaoiueith i??ith; 26% ?aniiiaeaio?a noeeythoueny aei
aeoiee, ui oe? i?aaa caaacia/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei; eeoa 2,7% — aaaaeathoue,
ui oe? i?aaa ia caaacia/ai? acaaae?.

Oeaio?aeuei? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee A?E
iiaeii? noai?eoe oiiae, ye? a noeioethaaee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e, a?eueo oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaii? iiae ia i?aino?ia?.
Ieae/a aiae?co?oueny i?enooi?noue a A?E oe?a?iiiiaieo CI?, caeeaae?a
ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e.

1). Ae?oeiaai? caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ia ii/aoie 2006?. ia oa?eoi??? aaoiiii?? aeoiaeeee a na?o aeecueei 240
ia??iaee/ieo ae?oeiaaieo aeaeaiue, c ieo eeoa /ioe?e aacaoe aeoiaeyoue
oe?a?inueeith iiaith; 57 aeaeaiue ? aeaiiiaieie.

A ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio iie? aaoiiii?? i?enooi? iiiaae 100 ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiue Ee?aa, Eueaiaa, Aeiiaoeueea, Aei?i?iiao?ianueea, Oa?eiaa,
Iaeane. Iaeiae, oe? aeaeaiiy iaaeoiaeyoue a A?E ?c cai?ciaiiyi ia o?e
/ioe?e aei?.

2). Aeaeo?iii? caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? A?E

Ia oa?eoi??? aaoiiii?? i?eeiathoueny i?ia?aie an?o o?ueio
caaaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueieo eaiae?a oaeaaa/aiiy (OO-1 ioiieth? 97%
oa?eoi??? A?E; Nooae?y «1+1» — 87%; «?ioa?» — 80%).

Aei iaea?eueo aieeaiaeo ?aa?iiaeueieo oaea?aae?ieiiiai?e iaeaaeaoue O?E
«*i?iiii?nueea», ia?aaea/? yei? i?eeiathoue ia 52% oa?eoi??? A?E (15%
ao??iiai /ano caeiathoue ia?aaea/? oe?a?inueeith iiaith); Aea?aeaaia
O?E«E?ei» — 10-15% oa?eoi??? aaoiiii?? (27% ao??iiai /ano caeia?
iiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeith iiaith); Naaanoiiieuenueea ?aa?iiaeueia O?E ?
oaea?aae?ioeaio? «A?ec» aaaeooue iiaeaiiy a I.Naaanoiiie? (oe?a?inueeith
iiaith — 15% ? 60%, a?aeiia?aeii).

A 2000?. a ao??iee i?ino?? E?eio aeoeaii aa?eoee oeaio?aeuei?
oaea?aae?ieiiiai?? — NOA (ii.N?ioa?iiieue, Naaanoiiieue) oa ?NOO
(ii.N?ioa?iiieue, A?iyinuee). Noaiii ia ii/aoie 2006 ?. a E?eio
i?aaenoaaeai? iiaiith aai /anoeiaith i??ith an? caaaeueii oe?a?inuee?
oaeaeaiaee.

Ca aeaieie nioe?ieia?/iiai iieooaaiiy OOeAIAe, e?euee?noth oe?a?iiiiaieo
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue caaeiaieai? 43,7% iieoaieo e?ei/ai, ?aae?iia?aaea/
— 45,2%, oaeaia?aaea/ — 42,2%. ?c oeo, ooi ia caaeiaieaiee e?euee?noth
oe?a?iiiiaieo CI?, 7,7% ?aniiiaeaio?a aaaaeathoue, ui oe?a?iiiiaieo
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue iiaeiii aooe a?eueoa; 24,8% — ia?aeiiai?, ui ?o
iiaeiii aooe iaioa. Eeoa 3,5% iieoaieo aaaaeathoue, ui a E?eio iiaeiii
aooe a?eueoa oe?a?iiiiaieo ?aae?iia?aaea/, 4,2% — oaeaia?aaea/.

3). Caeeaaee ina?oe oa eoeueoo?e.

?c 583 caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, ui ooieoe?iiothoue o E?eio, eeoa /ioe?e
oeiee – c oe?a?inueeith iiaith iaa/aiiy; 98,2% o/i?a iaa/athoueny ca
?in?enueeiiiaieie i?ia?aiaie. I?ei?oii, ui ia aeioneieo ?nieoao o 2005?.
47% aeaa’yoeeeaniee?a ia?aee aeeeoaio, a 25% aeioneiee?a 11 eeano –
aeyaeee aaaeaiiy ienaoe oa?? oe?a?inueeith iiaith. Aei oiai ae, ca
aeaieie I?i?noa?noaaa?oe A?E, aaaeaiiy iaa/aoe nai?o ae?oae ?in?enueeith
iiaith aeyaeythoue 89% e?ei/ai, ui ia 10% iaioa, i?ae ?aaeueii
iaa/a?oueny. Iaaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i iaaeinoaoith e?euee?noue
oe?a?inueeeo oe?e a A?E. ?nio? iaaia iio?aaa o a/eoaeyo oe?a?inueei?
iiae oa e?oa?aoo?e – a?eueoa 100 aaeain?e ia oe? iinaaee.

A A?E ooieoe?iiothoue eeoa aea? oe?a?inuee? a?ae?ioaee, i?e/iio ia
a?iiaaenueeeo canaaeao; eieaeeiaee ?eiie aaoiiii?? ia 99,9% caiiaiaiee
aeaeaiiyie ?in?enueeith iiaith. A ?aia?ooa?? Oe?a?inueeiai ioce/iiai
oaao?o oe?a?inueeith iiaith eaeooue eeoa aeaa niaeoaee?. Ia a?ai?
?icaaeo ciaoiaeeoueny Aea?aeaaiee aieaeueii-oi?aia?ao?/iee ainaiaeue
Oe?a?ie «Oaa??y».

Ioaea, oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a ? iiaa caeiathoue aocueeee naeoi? o
noni?eueiiio aeeoo? A?E. Oeaio?aeueiei i?aaiai aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
Oe?a?ie, i?aaiai aea?aeaaii? aeaaee A?E iaiao?aeii ni?eyoe ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ? iiae a E?eio, oo?eioth/enue i?e oeueiio a?ae
i?eioniaeo caoiae?a.

3.5. Neeaaeia i?aeeiioan?eia oa i?ae iaoe?iiaeueia neooaoe?y a E?eio

Noaiii ia 1 ea?oiy 2006?., a E?eio ooieoe?iioaaei 945 ?ae?a?eieo
a?iiaae, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue 46 oea?eia, eiioan?e, oa/?e ? iai?yi?a. C
ieo Oe?a?inueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa ia? 349 a?iiaae; Aeooiaia oi?aae?iiy
ionoeueiai E?eio – 296 ionoeueiainueeeo iauei. I?ioanoaionuee? Oea?eae
ia?aoiaothoue 207 a?iiaae; Oe?a?inueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa Ee?anueeiai
iao??a?oaoo ia? 14 iauei; ?eii-Eaoieeoeueea Oea?eaa – 11;
?aaiaae?noe-ethoa?aie – n?i; A??iainueei-Aiinoieuenueea Oea?eaa – n?i;
Oe?a?inueea A?aei-Eaoieeoeueea Oea?eaa – aea?.

Ionoeueiainueeei a?iiaaeai iiaa?iooi 94 ia/ao?, ia?aaeai? i?ae ia/ao? 24
aoaeeiee. Ii??aiyii c ionoeueiaiaie (caaacia/ai?noue eoeueoiaeie
nii?oaeaie neeaaea? 47,4%), i?eoeeueieee i?aaineaaieo Oea?eia
caaacia/ai? eoeueoiaeie nii?oaeaie aeaui e?aua – 53% a?iiaae OIOe
iathoue nai? o?aie.

Iniiaieie eiioe?eooth/eie noi?iiaie a A?E aenooiathoue Aeooiaia
oi?aae?iiy ionoeueiai E?eio (AeOIE) ? E?einueea ?ia?o?y OIOe. Inoaii?i
/anii neooaoe?y caaino?eeany /a?ac i?eieiaiiy a eeii? 2000?. /eainoaa
AeOIE a i?aeeiioan?eiiio ia’?aeiaii? «Ie? – aea? Aiaeee» ia ciae
i?ioanoo i?ioe anoaiiaeaiiy N?ioa?iiieuenueeith ? E?einueeith ?ia?o??th
OIOe iiee?iieo o?ano?a oa ueo?a «E?ei -eieenea i?aaineaa’y». 23 aeiaoiy
2000?. o n.Ii?nueea Noaeaenueeiai ?aeiio e?einuee? oaoa?e aeaiiiooaaee
oaeee o?ano. Nooe/ee i?ae ieie ? i?aaineaaiei ianaeaiiyi aaeaeiny
oieeiooe caaaeyee ao?o/aiith i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a. C ?ioiai aieo,
iaa?aeiieie aoee niethiae?iaai? iiaeee ia ionoeueiainueeiio oeaeioa??
i.Aao/ena?ay, aiane?aeie /iai e?einuee? oaoa?e i?eaooaaee ?aeiiio
aea?aeaaio aaei?i?no?aoe?th.

Oi/a iaeaea aea? o?aoeie (63,4%) e?ei/ai aaaaeathoue, ui a aaoiiii??
??aiith i??ith aeio?eiothoueny i?aaa ia naiaiaeo nia?no? aeey an?o
?ae?a?eieo eiioan?e, ana ae 60,5% iieoaieo ia aeeeth/athoue iiaeeeaino?
aeieeiaiiy a E?eio ?ae?a?eieo eiioe?eo?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi neee.

Neooaoe?y caaino?th?oueny aiane?aeie ie?aieo ?aaeeeaeueieo ae?e.
Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo e?einueeeo oaoa? (I?EO) ua a 1999? iaieinea ca??
i?aeien?a i?ae aeiiaith neeeeaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai o?eaoiaeo c
?icne?aeoaaiiy cei/ei?a aaiioeeaeo oa aoiioeeaeo i?ioe e?einueeeo oaoa?.
O nai?e caya? aei i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e I?EO aeiaaaa i?eoyaiooe
Oe?a?io «ye aieiaiiai a?aeiia?aea/a ia o?eaoiae ye aea?aeaao, ui
iacaeiiii aieiae?? oa ?icii?yaeaea?oueny oa?eoi???th
e?einueeioa-oa?nueeiai ia?iaeo ? ia caeaoia caaacia/eoe i?aaa aeeoae?a
i?aino?iaa».

Ia 4-e nan?? III Eo?oeoath e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo (n?/aiue
2001?.) canooiiee aieiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee I?aai?caoe??
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo A.Eo?o??a cai?iiiioaaa
aeianoe I?aceaeaioo Oe?a?ie E. Eo/i? oeueoeiaooi c aeiiaith iaaaeii
ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?i iaoe?iiaeueiee noaa?ai?oao e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai
ia?iaeo.

Iniiaiith iaoith iiainoai?thaaiiai Nithco e?einueeeo oth?e?a «Acao
Eu?ui» ? «e?ea?aeaoe?y eieii?aeueii? nenoaie a E?eio ? iiaoaeiaa
iacaeaaeii? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae e?einueeeo oaoa?, aea iniiaia
aeaaea iiaeiia iaeaaeaoe e?einueei-oaoa?nuee?e iaoe?iiaeueiino?».
A?aeiia?aeii aei eiai noaoooo, Nithc aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ia
iiaea aooe iaiaaeaiei o aeai?? cania?a aeey ii?yooieo
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai oa ?ioeo oth?enueeeo ia?iae?a.

O naith /a?ao, i?aaenoaaieee i?i?in?enueeeo ia’?aeiaiue i?aino?iao
(?onneay iaueia E?uia «Ioa/anoai», ia?o?y «Nithc», ?onneee iieiaeaaeiue
oeaio? E?uia, ?onneee iaoeeiiaeueiueo nueacae, ?onneay iaueia
Naaanoiiiey, ?onneia aeaeaeaiea ei.Noieueieia, Naaanoiiieueneia
iaueaaeeiaiea ?onneie eoeueoo?e ei.Iooeeia) a ai?iouea? ca e?aea?noai oa
i?aai iaeiiin?aiiai aeinooio aei o?iainiaeo iioie?a iaiaaathoueny
i?aaenoaaeoe naaa iin?yie ?noi?e/ieo oe?iiinoae o ?aa?ii?. Aeey oeueiai
aiie aaeathoueny aei oe?ieiianooaaieo i?iiaaaiaeenonueeeo aeoe?e c
iaaiaee aaaeeeaeo ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e ? aeao (i?e?aeiaiiy E?eio aei ?in??,
aeaiue ia?iaeaeaiiy I.Iooe?ia ? o.?i). Oae, 18 o?aaiy 1999?.
i?i?in?enuee? i?aai?caoe?? oe?iei a?aecia/eee 216 ?ieiaeie i?e?aeiaiiy
E?eio aei ?in?? oa aeiaaaee noai?aiiy ?in?enueei? aaoiiii?? ia
i?aino?ia?. «Nithc ?onneeo Oaa?eaeu», yeee ia’?aeiaa i?aaenoaaiee?a
aeecueei 18 iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? ?oo?a, i?eeiya caa?iaiiy aei
ea??aieoeoaa ?in??, Oe?a?ie oa E?eio c i?ioaiiyi ni?eyoe noai?aiith
?in?enueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii?? a A?E.

I?ei?oii, ui iaeiaioa, ia aeoieo e?einueeeo ?aniiiaeaio?a, a aaoiiii??
caaacia/ai? i?aaa ?in?enueeiiiaiiai ianaeaiiy. A?eueoa iieiaeie (52,3%)
iieoaieo aaaaeathoue, ui oe? i?aaa caaacia/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Eeoa o?ioe
a?eueoa o?aoeie (37,1%) — aaaaeathoue, ui oe? i?aaa caaacia/ai?
aeinoaoiueith i??ith: 6% — ia?aeiiai?, ui i?aaa ?in?enueeiiiaiiai
ianaeaiiy acaaae? ia caaacia/ai?.

C ?acoeueoao?a iieooaaiiy aeaeii, ui ianaeaiiy E?eio a?eueo i?eoeeueii
noaaeoueny aei ?aaeeeaeueieo ae?e i?i?in?enueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee,
ii??aiyii c ?aaeeeaeueieie ae?yie aeayeeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo: aei?aaaeiaothoue oae? ae??
i?i?in?enueeeo nee 11,2% ?aniiiaeaio?a, ae?? e?einueeeo oaoa? — 5,5%.

Iaeiae, caaaeii a?eueo?noue e?ei/ai ia aei?aaaeiaothoue ?aaeeeaeueieo
ae?e acaaae?: ?aaeeeaeuei? ae?? i?aaenoaaiee?a e?einueeeo oaoa? ia
aei?aaaeiaothoue 78,7% iieoaieo, i?i?in?enueeeo nee — 60,2%[52].

I?aeeiioan?eia i?ioenoiyiiy a E?eio i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaaeueii?
aeanoaa?e?caoe?? iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? ia i?aino?ia?, iiaea ni?e/eieoe
neeia? c?oeiaiiy i?ae i?aaineaaiei ? ionoeueiainueeei ianaeaiiyi A?E.
A?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy E?eio ia aeeeth/a? iiaeeeaino? eiioe?eo?a ?c
canoinoaaiiyi neee ia ?ae?a?eiiio a?oio?. Ae?yeuei?noue ?aaeeeaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e, oi/a e iaio /enaeueieo ? aieeaiaeo, i?ae o iiia?aaei?
?iee, caaino?th? iie?oe/io neooaoe?th ia i?aino?ia?.

3.6. Aieea e?ei?iaeueieo oa?oioaaiue ia ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aeaaee A?E

A ia??iae 1998-2005??. aaeaeiny cia/ii iaiaaeeoe aieea e?ei?iaeueieo
a?oi ia ?icaeoie iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a a A?E. Aoee e?ea?aeiaai? a?aeii?
i?aai?ciaai? cei/eii? a?oie – «Naeeai», «Aaoiaee», «?iaeao» «?oeyea»;
a?aee?eo? e?ei?iaeuei? ni?aae i?ioe 10 eieeoi?o aenieeo iinaaeiaeo in?a
aaoiiii?? oa aeaiooao?a Aa?oiaii? ?aaee A?E, eeueeio ia??a i?no.

Iniaeeao caoe?eaaeai?noue e?ei?iae?oaoo aeeeeeathoue ??oaiiy i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee uiaei i?eaaoecaoe?? naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiai eiiieaeno,
?ioeo aeiiii?/ii i?eaaaeeaeo ia’?eo?a ia oa?eoi??? E?eio.

E?ei/aie ia?aeiiai?, ui i?aai?ciaai? cei/eii? oa?oiiaaiiy neeueii
aieeaathoue ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a E?eio – oaei? aeoiee
aeio?eio?oueny iaeaea iieiaeia ianaeaiiy (47,6%), i?ioeeaaeii? – eeoa
9,1%.

Oae, iai?eeeaae, ca nieneaie ie?aieo iie?oe/ieo nee, i?ney aeai??a 6
aa?aciy 2006?. aei ia?eaiaioo E?eio iio?aieei aeae?eueea in?a yeeo
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycothoue c e?ei?iae?oaoii.

Caaaeii, o 1998-2005??. aieea e?ei?iaeueieo a?oi ia ?icaeoie iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a ia i?aino?ia? aoa cia/ii cieaeaiee, iaeiae, iiai?noth eiai
iaiaaeeoe ia aaeaeiny.

?icae?e IV. CIAI?OI? *EIIEEE AIEEAO IA IIE?OE*IO NEOOAOe?TH A A?E

4.1. Ioe?iea ianaeaiiy ciai?oiueiai aieeao ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a A?E

Ianaeaiiy E?eio ? Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio ii-??ciiio ioe?iththoue nooi?iue
ciai?oiueiai aieeao ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a A?E.

A?iiaaeyie Oe?a?ie aaaaeathoue i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaith neeo aieeao Oe?a?ie
(30,5% ?aniiiaeaio?a ioe?iththoue eiai ye neeueiee) ? ?in?? (33%).
E?ei/aie a?aecia/athoue cia/ii neeuei?oee aieea Oe?a?ie ia neooaoe?th a
E?eio (65,2% — neeueiee aieea); aieea ?in?? neeueiei aaaaeathoue ao?e/?
iaioa aeeoae?a aaoiiii?? — 21,3%i. (O aeaiiio eiioaeno? ciai?oi?e aieea
Oe?a?ie ?icoi??oueny ye aieea Oeaio?o ia iaeei c ?aa?ii?a
aea?aeaae.)[52].

Aeineoue neeueii a?ae??ciy?oueny e ioe?iea nooiaith aieeao ia neooaoe?th
a A?E c aieo Oo?a//eie. sseui a Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio aieea Oo?a//eie
aaaaeathoue iacia/iei (neeueiee aieea — 5,6%, iaeaea ia aieeaa? —
27,3%), oi e?ei/aie aa/aoue oeae aieea ia iaaaaaoi iaioei a?ae
?in?enueeiai: neeueiee aieea -15,8%i iieoaieo, iaeaea ia aieeaa? —
34,8%. Iii?oii a?aei?oiith ? e ioe?iea a?iiaaeyiaie ni?yiiaaiino?
ciai?oiueiai aieeao. Ianaeaiiy an??? e?a?ie aaaaea? ia?aaaaeii
iiceoeaiei aieea Oe?a?ie (40,1% ?aniiiaeaio?a aaaaeathoue aieea
iiceoeaiei, 9% — iaaaoeaiei), ia?aaaaeii iaaaoeaiei — aieea ?in??
(iiceoeaiee — 16,8%, iaaaoeaiee — 29,5%) ? Oo?a//eie (iiceoeaiee — 1,9%,
iaaaoeaiee -13,3%). Cian?i ?ioith ? aeoiea ianaeaiiy E?eio, yea aaaaea?
ia?aaaaeii iiceoeaiei aieea ?in?? (iiceoeaiee — 45,6%, iaaaoeaiee —
10,2%). Iaoii?noue, caaaeii iaaaoeaiei e?ei/aie aaaaeathoue aieea
Oe?a?ie (iaaaoeaiee — 39,5%, iiceoeaiee — 28,7%) ? Oo?a//eie (iaaaoeaiee
— 34,8%, iiceoeaiee -5,2%)[52].

Uia ioe?ieoe, ia /iio aacothoueny oae? ioe?iee a?iiaaeyi, ieae/a
aiae?cothoueny iniiai? ciai?oi? oaeoi?e aieeao ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a
A?E.

4.2. ?in?enueeee oaeoi?

?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i cia/iee
iioaioe?ae i?i?in?enueeeo iano?i?a a A?E, yeee iiee ui ia? eaoaioio
oi?io ? ia i?iyaey?oueny a aeoeaieo ae?yo. Iaeaea iieiaeia (47,3%)
e?ei/ai i?aaia aoiaeaeaiiy E?eio aei neeaaeo ?in?? (a Oe?a?i? oae
aaaaeathoue eeoa 4,1% ?aniiiaeaio?a). A Oe?a?i? ia?aaaaeathoue aeoiee,
ui E?ei ia? aooe cae/aeiith iaeanoth a neeaae? Oe?a?ie (37,7%
?aniiiaeaio?a a Oe?a?i?, 10% — a E?eio), ? ui E?ei iiaeiai aooe
aaoiiiiiith ?anioae?eith ca oa?eoi??aeueiith iciaeith (38,8% — a
Oe?a?i?, 25,9% — a E?eio). Iaaenieith ? i?aeo?eiea noaoono E?eio ye
e?einueei-oaoa?nueei? aaoiiii?? aai iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae (3% ? 8,2%,
a?aeiia?aeii).

I?iaaaeaiee ieae/a aiae?c aeiaiaeeoue, ui ?in?enueea i?enooi?noue a A?E
iinooiiai ia?aoiaeeoue ?c iie?oe/ii? a aeiiii?/io ieiueio. Aaaeeeaei
oaeoi?ii aieeao ia neooaoe?th a A?E caeeoa?oueny i?enooi?noue
*i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo ?O ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

?). Aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie.

Aieiaiei oi?aiaei ia?oia?ii A?E ? ?in?y, ia yeo i?eiaaea? o?aoeia
caaaeueiiai ianyao ciai?oiueiai oiaa?iia?ao E?eio. ?in?y ? oaeiae
aieiaiei ?iicaiiei ?iaanoi?ii A?E. Ca aeaieie Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo
noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 2006?., ?O ?iaanooaaea aeecueei
$162 iei. a aeiiii?eo aaoiiii??, ui ia?aaeuo? aianie ?aooe ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a. A E?eio ooieoe?iiothoue 37 oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa. Ae?? i?aei?e?inoai «E?eiaaoiAAC», ia yeiio cae?enith?oueny
ca??ea aaoiiia?e?a «Aieaa», «Aacaeue», «Niaieue»[53].

Na?aae iaea?eueo aia?oe?eieo ni?eueieo i?iaeo?a — aoae?aieoeoai iinoo
/a?ac Ea?/ainueeo i?ioieo aa?o?noth a?ae $500 iei. aei $1 ie?ae.
Aaaaeaiiy iinoo a aenieoaoaoe?th aeicaieeoue ?ioaineo?eoaaoe aeiiii?/i?
ca’ycee c ?in??th, noai?eoe a aaoiiii?? iia? ?iai/? i?noey, ca?eueoeoe
e?euee?noue oo?eno?a aei A?E. Eeoa a 2005?. E?ei a?aea?aeaee 2,5 iei.
a?aeii/eaath/eo c ?in?? (anueiai aoei 3,2 iei. /ie.), ui ni?ey? ?icaeoeo
oo?enoe/iiai a?ciano a A?E.

Caaaeii, aeiiii?/ia i?enooi?noue ?in?? a A?E ? aeineoue a?ae/ooiith ?
ni?aaey? iii?oiee aieea ia neooaoe?th a aaoiiii??. ?icaeoie aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei A?E ? ?in?? ni?ey? noai?aiith a aaoiiii?? iiaeo ?iai/eo
i?noeue, ?icaeoeo oo?enoe/iiai a?ciano, caaaeii – iiaeeaeaiith
aca?iiaea?aeii? ni?ai?aoe? i?ae Oe?a?iith oa ?in??th.

2). A?aeiineie a ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e ? aoiai?oa?i?e noa?ao.

Caa??aa?oueny nooo?aa i?enooi?noue ?in?? a oeeo noa?ao o E?eio. sse
iieacaii a iiia?aaeiueiio ?icae?e?, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oe?e a
aaoiiii?? ? ?in?enueeiiiaieie, eeoa 2% o/i?a iaa/athoueny oe?a?inueeith
iiaith. Noai?aiee *i?iiii?nueeee oaeoeueoao Iineianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.Eiiiiiniaa[32].

Ia?aaaaeia /anoeia iiaeaiiy e?einueeeo oaea?aae?ii?aai?caoe?e (75-80%
ao??iiai /ano) cae?enith?oueny ?in?enueeith iiaith. Naaanoiiieuenueea
?aa?iiaeueia O?E o?aineth? ?in?enuee? aaoi?nuee? i?ia?aie, aea?aeaaia
O?E «E?ei» — aeie iiaei ?in?enueeiai eaiaeo ?O?, O?E «*i?iiii?nueea»
-iiaeie IOA, O?E «AEENA» — i?ia?aie OA-6. ?in?enuee? oaeaa?c?ei?
i?ia?aie o?aineththoueny oaeiae o I.Naaanoiiie?. *anoeia ?in?enueeeo
i?ia?ai ia?aaea?oueny eaaaeueieie ia?aaeaie, ui ioiieththoue a?ey 55
oen. aaiiaio?a.

Ia 2006?. aeey ia?aaeieaoe a Oe?a?i?, a o./. a E?eio, aoei cai?iiiiiaaii
2095 iaeiaioaaiue aacao ? aeo?iae?a ?in?? ? eeoa 946 – Oe?a?ie.
Caaaeueiioe?a?inueeee uiaeaiiee oe?aae aacao «A?aoiaioe e Oaeoe.
Oe?aeia», «Eiiniiieueneay i?aaaea. Oe?aeia», «O?oae. Oe?aeia»,
«Ecaanoey. Oe?aeia» ia?aaeuo? 850 oen. i?ei??iee?a. Oe? aacaoe
ca?a?no?iaai? a Oe?a?i?, aea ioae?eothoue ia?aaaaeii iaoa??aee aaciaeo
(?in?enueeeo) aeaeaiue. Aeaye? ?in?enuee? aacaoe oa aeo?iaee
iaaeoiaeyoue aei Oe?a?ie eiio?aaaiaeiei oeyoii; iniaeeai oey
ae?yeuei?noue iineeth?oueny a ia??iae eo?i?oiiai naciio a E?eio[32].

Ia eieaeeiaiio ?eieo A?E, ye ? caaaeii a Oe?a?i?, i?ia?aei? iiceoe??
iin?aeathoue ?in?enuee? aeaeaiiy. Ca i?aenoieaie 1999?., ia eiaeiiai
aeeoaey Oe?a?ie i?eiaei o?e eieae ?in?enueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, i?iaeaieo a
e?a?i?.

Ca aeaieie nioe?ieia?/ieo iieooaaiue e?euee?noue ?in?enueeiiiaieo
ia??iaee/-ieo aeaeaiue caaeiaieueiy? a?eueo?noue (53,1%) ianaeaiiy A?E,
?aae?iia?aaea/ — 46,2%, oaeaia?aaea/ — 42%. Aiaeii/an, ?aniiiaeaioe, ye?
ia caaeiaieai? e?euee?noth ?in?enueeiiiaieo CI?, aaaaeathoue, ui ?o
iiaeiii aooe a?eueoa: ?in?enueeiiiaieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue — 40,5%
iieoaieo; ?aae?iia?aaea/ — 48,1%; oaeaia?aaea/ — 53,6%[52].

Nooo?ao i?aeo?eieo i?i?in?enueeei i?aai?caoe?yi iaaea? «Oiiae Iineaa –
E?ui», noai?aiee ca ?i?oe?aoeaith aeaaee Iineae. Ca eiai ni?eyiiy, a
2003?. cae?eniaii 32 aoiai?oa?i? i?ia?aie; a 2004?. – 50; o 2006?.
ieaio?oueny cae?enieoe 70 i?ia?ai. Ca o?iainiai? i?aeo?eiee Oiiaeo
aeaeathoueny aeo?iaee «A?aaa Oaa?eaeu», «E?uiooa», aacaoa «?onneee ie?»,
ui iioe?ththoueny a A?E.

Oaeei /eiii, caa??aa?oueny aeniea i?enooi?noue ?in?? a ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e,
eoeueoo?i?e ? aoiai?oa?i?e noa?ao A?E. C iaeiiai aieo, oea ni?ey?
caaeiaieaiith eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa e?ei/ai, iiaeeaeaiith aca?iei i?ae
Oe?a?iith ? ?in??th; c ?ioiai – noai?th? iiaeeeaino? aeey
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia ianaeaiiy aaoiiii?? c aieo ?O, a ia?oo /a?ao
aeey Oe?a?ie ? E?eio, ye oe?a?inueeiai, a oe?eiio.

3). I?enooi?noue a A?E *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo ?O.

28 o?aaiy 1997?., i?ney oanoe ?ie?a aeniaaeeeaeo ia?aaiai??a, Oe?a?ia ?
?in?y i?aeienaee Oaiaeo i?i noaoon ? oiiae ia?aaoaaiiy *i?iiii?nueeiai
oeioo (*O) ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Oaeoe/ii, iiaa
eaea i?i ?iicaiia a?enueeiaa ca?oioaaiiy, yea aaco?oueny ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie[11].

Iii?e /eneaii? aeaeea?aoe?? ia iaeaeuiio ??ai? – i?i a?aonueeee oa?aeoa?
noinoie?a i?ae oe?a?inueeei ? ?in?enueeei ia?iaeaie, oeioaie aeaio e?a?i
– /an, ui ieioa i?ney i?aeienaiiy oaiae, cana?ae/ea cia/io a?aei?ii?noue
noi??i a ioe?ieao oaeoo ia?aaoaaiiy *O ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a E?eio.

?in?enueea noi?iia caaaeaee i?aee?aneth? eiai caaaeueiee iiceoeaiee
aniaeo ye oaeoi?a iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? a ?aa?ii?, oi?iinoo ?ioa?an?a
?in?? oa NIAe ia i?aaeaiiiio oeaic?.

Oe?a?inueea noi?iia ?ai?oa ia aenooiaea a?aee?eoi ?c caia?a/aiiyi
a?aoiaio?a ?in?yi, iaeiae ii/eiath/e c 2005?. oey iiceoe?y aeaui
ci?ieeany. Oe?a?ia ii/aea ia?aaaaeii eiioeaio?oaaoeny ia a?eueo
eiie?aoieo /eiieeao, ye? a iniiaiiio caiaeyoueny aei i?ioe??/ ?
iaaaoeao. I?ioeeaaei?noue i?aeoiae?a /ano?oa niinoa??aa?oueny a
aeiiii?/i?e noa??. Eiiaiaeoaaiiy *O iaaieioo? ia aeiiaao oe?a?ioe?a c
ieoaiue nieaoe ?aooie?a oeioo ca aeaeo?iaia?a?th oa eiioiaeuei? iineoae,
c ieoaiue i?eaaoecaoe??. Ia i?ioeaaao, iaaiaeeoueny ye a?aoiaio
/enaeuei?noue oeea?eueieo – aeeoae?a Naaanoiiiey, yeeo «aiaeo?» ?iaioa
ia *O (aeecueei 100 oen. ?ia?oiee?a oa /eai?a ?o n?iae). ?acii c oei, ia
caaaeo?oueny i?i oa, ye? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee ia? ae?yeuei?noue
?in?enueei? a?enueeiai-ii?nueei? aace aeey ?icaeoeo oo?ecio, oi?a?ae?,
aeey caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?? a aeiiii?eo E?eio, aeey aeieia?? i?aino?iaa
oiui.

Oe?a?ia iaa?yae /e iiaea aooe caaeiaieaia iino?eiei ao?o/aiiyi ?
eiiaioa?yie c aieo ?in?enueeeo a?enueeiaeo (eiiaiaeoaaiiy *O) oa ?o
a?aea?aeoaa/?a c Iineae noiniaii ae??oaiiy ie?aieo ieoaiue aeainoi?iii?o
a?aeiinei[34]. Ie??i oiai, ea??aieoeoai *O iino?eii aeaiiino?o? nai?
iaaaeiaieaiiy uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy a E?eio ? ia *i?iiio ii?? caoiae?a
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa Oe?a?ie c IAOI a ?aieao i?ia?aie «Ia?oia?noai ca?aaee
ie?o», a ni?euei? aeainoi?iii? iaa/aiiy *O ?O ? AIN Oe?a?ie «Oa?aaoa?
ie?o» iaiaaa?oueny i?aaenoaaeoe ye «a?aeiia?aeue /oaeeioeyi». Iniaeeaa
?icae?aooaaiiy eiiaiaeoaaiiy *O aeeeeeathoue a?ceoe a oe?a?inueeee ii?o
Naaanoiiieue ei?aae?a c e?a?i IAOI e oa ianoaaeia, ui oe?a?inueea
noi?iia ia ieoa? ia oea caiaee a *O ?O. C iaeyaeo ia oaeo
eiio?iioaoe?eio iiaaae?ieo *O, oe?a?inuee? oao?aoe? cian?i ia noeeuei?
iaoooaaoe iiaeeea?noth aoyaoaaiiy Oe?a?ie a eiioe?eo – /a?ac i?ioe??//y
i?ae ?in??th oa ?? iioaioe?eieie i?ioeaieeaie. Oaea iiaeeea?noue
iaaiai?thaaeany a oe?a?inueeeo CI? i?ae /an iia?aoe?? IAOI a Einiai a
1999?.

Oaeoe/ii, aoyaoaaiiy Oe?a?ie a eiioe?eoi? neooaoe?? aaea ia? i?noea –
/a?ac o/anoue ii?nueeeo i?oioeioe?a *O a aieiaeo ae?yo o *a/i?, aei yeeo
aiie aioothoueny ia oa?eoi??? E?eio. Oey ianoaaeia aaea iaiaeii?aciai
aeeeeeaea i?ioanoe c aieo ionoeueiainueeiai e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai
ianaeaiiy E?eio oa oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai
niaeo?o. A aa?aci? 2001?. I?i?noa?noai caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Oe?a?ie
ciooaii aoei iaa?oue iai?aaeoe ?in?yiai iioo c i?eaiaeo ae?e ii?nueeeo
i?oioeioe?a *O i?ae /an iaa/aiue c aieiai? i?aeaioiaee a ai?ao E?eio.

I?ei?oii, ui a?eueo?noue e?ei/ai (51,4%) aaaaea? iiceoeaiei aieea
*i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo ?in?? ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a E?eio, iaaaoeaiei
oeae aieea aaaaeathoue eeoa 9,6% iieoaieo. *aa?oue ?aniiiaeaio?a (25%)
ia?aeiiai?, ui *i?iiii?nueeee oeio i?ye ia aieeaa? ia iie?oe/io
neooaoe?th a A?E; aaaaeeny c a?aeiia?aeaeth 14% iieoaieo[52].

*i?iiii?nueeee oeio ?O aecia/a? ai?iii-iie?oe/io i?enooi?noue ?in?? a
Oe?a?i?, ? aaaiiei /eiieeii aieeao ia neooaoe?th a A?E. Iaiao?aeii
iaeaaiaeeoe ieaiii??io ae?yeuei?noue iaio noi??i uiaei ae??oaiiy
eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e, iia’ycaieo c eiai ?ici?uaiiyi ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie c iiaeaeueoei aeaaaeaiiy eiai aei 2017?. c oe?a?inueei?
oa?eoi???.

4.3. Oo?aoeueeee oaeoi?

Na?aae aieiaieo iai?yi?a aieeao Oo?a//eie ia neooaoe?th a A?E ?
i?aeo?eiea ae?yeueiino? ?ae?a?eieo i?aai?caoe?e e?einueeeo oaoa?,
a?aeiiaeaiiy ia/aoae, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a. sse cacia/ea
iinie Oo?a//eie a Oe?a?i? A.Ea?ainiaiiaeo, Oo?a//eia «aeoiaeeea c
oaeoi?o, ui aeey ia? ? aeey ?ioeo /eai?a i?aeia?iaeii? ni?eueiioe
aeiiiiiaa o aei?aaeaii? aei?noei? ?noi?e/ii? iani?aaaaeeeaino? oeyoii
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae e?einueeei oaoa?ai o ?o iiaa?iaii? ia ?o ??aeio
caieth ?, ia?o ca ana, ii?aeueiei iaia’yceii». Ca o?iainiai? aeiiiiiae
Oo?a//eie iiaoaeiaaii aeecueei 1200 aoaeeie?a aeey e?einueeeo oaoa?,
aaoiiia?euei? oeyoe, ?icaeaa?oueny nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a i?noeue
eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo[42].

1). Aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie.

Oo?a//eia caeia? ae?oaa (i?ney ?in??) i?noea ca ianyaaie ?iii?oo oiaa??a
c E?eio; ?? /anoea noaiiaeoue 9,9% ($16 iei.). Caaaeueiee ianya
oo?aoeueeeo ?iaanoeoe?e a aeiiii?eo A?E neeaaea? aeecueei $2,4 iei., ui
a 40 ?ac iaioa ?in?enueeeo ? aaea?/? – i?iaoeueeeo ?iaanoeoe?e[42]. A
E?eio ooieoe?iiothoue 17 ni?eueieo oe?a?inueei-oo?aoeueeeo i?aei?e?inoa.
Iaeiae, io?oe?eia noaoenoeea iaiiaiith i??ith a?aeia?aaea? noai
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae A?E ? Oo?a//eiith, ine?eueee aiia eeoa
/anoeiai a?aoiao? «/iaieeiao» oi?a?aeth.

2). I?aeo?eiea ionoeueiai E?eio.

A 1991?. aoei noai?aia Aeooiaia oi?aae?iiy ionoeueiai E?eio (AeOIE),
anoaiiaeai? ia?o? eiioaeoe c ?neainueeeie oeaio?aie, ie?aieie
i?aai?caoe?yie oa ia?o?yie Oo?a//eie. O aa?ani? 1991?., i?ae /an
ia?aaoaaiiy a?oie oo?aoeueeeo a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a a A?E, I.Aeaeai?e?a
oa aieiaa «Oiaa?enoaa oo?aoeueei? ?ioae?aaioe??» I.sse/eioao caeeaee
neiaie?/iee eai?iue o ooiaeaiaio ia/ao? Eaae?-Aeaeaie a i.N?ioa?iiie?.
?ae?a?eiee Oiiae ?iai? O.Aeoainaoaeeia ciaia’ycaany iiaoaeoaaoe
?ae?a?eiee oeaio? o I.Aao/ena?a?. Caaaeii, ca aeiiiiiaith Oo?a//eie aoei
iiaoaeiaaii 12 (iaeaea iieiaeio) ia/aoae o E?eio. Cae?enith?oueny
niaoe?aeueia i?ia?aia i?aeaioiaee iieiae? A?E o oo?aoeueeeo ?ae?a?eieo
caeeaaeao: o 1999?. ia ??/i? eo?ne c aea/aiiy Ei?aio aoei iai?aaeaii 10
thiae?a ? 12 ae?a/ao. O 2000?. a Oo?a//ei? iaa/aeeny 122 nooaeaioe, a a
2005?. 158. Aeoeaii ?icaeaa?oueny ae?yeuei?noue oo?aoeueeeo ?neainueeeo
i?n?iia?o, i?aaenoaaiee?a I?i?noa?noaa o ni?aaao ?ae?a?? Oo?a//eie. Oae,
i?ney II Eo?oeoath aei neeaaeo Iooo?yoo aoa ia?aiee a?iiaaeyiei
Oo?a//eie, ye?e ia? aeuo ?ae?a?eio ina?oo[42].

3). Ca’ycee c iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie oa aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie Oo?a//eie.

A 1993 ?. aoee anoaiiaeai? o?ni? eiioaeoe c ia?o??th Aeaaiaeainoaa oa ??
aieiaith I.A?aaeaiii (a iiaeaeueoiio caeiaa iinaaeo i?ai’??-i?i?no?a
Oo?a//eie). A o?aai? 1993?. o i.Eaeuei? I.Aeaeai?e?a cono??/aany c
aaia?aeueiei nae?aoa?ai i?aai?caoe?? «Ieeee aa?ao» A.THenaeai, a
iai?ee?ioe? na?iiy ii/aoeo aa?aniy 1993 ?. (ia cai?ioaiiy oe???
i?aai?caoe??) a?i acya o/anoue o eiioa?aioe?? ionoeueiai o i.Aeaain?, ia
ye?e aoa ii?eethaeiaiee caeeee aei an?o ionoeueiai na?oo i?i aeiiiiiao ?
ni?eyiiy a ai?iouea? e?einueeeo oaoa?. Ia oa?eoi??? A?E aeyaey?
aeoeai?noue oo?aoeueea ?neainueea i?aai?caoe?y «Io?aeaeo», ea??aiee yei?
O.Atheai ? e?aea?ii ?ae?a?eii-i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo «Io?», ui i?iiaao?
iaioth?enueeo ?aeath oa ia? ia iao? anoaiiaeaiiy a Oo?a//ei? ?neainueei?
aea?aeaae. Ca ie?aieie aeaieie, «Io?aeaeo» o?iaino? oo?aoeueeee eieaaeae
a A?E, cae?enith? o?iainiao i?aeo?eieo ie?aieo ?ae?a?eieo a?iiaae.

Aeoeaio ?iaioo a E?eio i?iaiaeyoue I?i?noa?noai o ni?aaao ?ae?a??,
I?i?noa?noai ia?iaeii? ina?oe, ?ae?a?eiee oiiae Oo?a//eie. Iai?eeeaae, 9
o?aaiy 1999?. ca i?aeo?eiee oo?aoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aoea i?iaaaeaia
eiioa-?aioe?y, i?enay/aia aeith ia?iaeaeaiiy i?i?iea Iooaiiaaea. Ia
eiioa?aioe?? aenooiea ss.A?aao – oiai/aniee eii?aeeiaoi? ?ae?a?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a E?eio a?ae I?i?noa?noaa o ni?aaao ?ae?a?? Oo?a//eie[43].

Ioaea, Oo?a//eia iiaeeaeth? aeiiii?/i? oa eoeueoo?i? ca’ycee c A?E.
A?eueo aeoeaiith ? ni?ai?aoey a ?ae?a?ei?e noa??.

4.4. ?neainueeee oaeoi?

Ia neooaoe?th a E?eio inoaii?i /anii ana a?eueoa aieeaa? e ?neainueeee
oaeoi? o a?eueo oe?ieiio eiioaeno?.

1). O?iainiaa aeiiiiiaa.

Ua a 1992?. iooo?e ionoeueiai E?eio Nae?o-Aeaeae?eue ?a?aa?iia
iaaiai?thaaa c aeaeaaaoe??th ?neainueeiai aaieo ?icaeoeo ieoaiiy i?i
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae e?einueeei ionoeueiaiai. Oey i?iaeaia iaaiai?thaaeany
oaeiae i?ae /an ?iaioe II I?aeia?iaeiiai ionoeueiainueeiai oi?oio
(1992?.), yeee ooaaeea a?aeiia?aeio ?aciethoe?th. A 1996?. aoa
i?aeienaiee i?ioieie i?i iai??e uiaei aeae?eaiiy ?neainueeei aaieii
?icaeoeo $466 oen. ia aoae?aieoeoai a A?E ?neainueeiai oeaio?o,
a?ae?ioaee, oeiee, iaae?ana. Ca aeiiiiiaith Ia’?aeiaieo A?aanueeeo
Ai??ao?a a A?E iiaoaeiaaii 12 ia/aoae, ? aeiiiaeai?noue c Naoae?anueei?
A?aa??th i?i aoae?aieoeoai ua 10 ?ae?a?eieo nii?oae. I?ioyaii
1998-2000??. ea??aieee e?einueeeo oaoa? aeoeaii aca?iiae?yee c
i?aaenoaaieeaie Naoae?anueei? A?aa??, Eoaaeoo, i?aeia?iaeieo ?neainueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e; i?ae /an cono??/ae iaaiai?thaaeeny oeyoe ae??oaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai e?einueeeo oaoa?, ?icaeoeo ?neaio a
E?eio[33].

2). I?n?iia?nueea ae?yeuei?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a ionoeueiainueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e.

A E?eio, ii e?i?? Aeooiaiiai oi?aae?iiy ionoeueiai E?eio, iino?eii
ciaoiaeeoueny 30-40 i?n?iia??a — nayuaiiineoaeeoae?a ?c e?a?i
ionoeueiainueeiai na?oo (E?aai, ?aeiao, Ne??y, Eoaaeo). Aiie iaa/athoue
e?einueei-oaoa?nueeo iieiaeue ?neaio, aeiiiiaaathoue o i?iaaaeaii?
ionoeueiainueeeo ia?yae?a, cae?eniththoue ?neainueeo aa?oaoe?th.
I?aeia?iaeia ei?ii?aoe?y ?icaeoeo (IE?, ?in?y) /a?ac nai? e?einueea
a?aeae?eaiiy oaeiae aaeeaa? caoiaee uiaei iioe?aiiy ?neaio na?aae
oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy A?E. I?aaenoaaieee IE? eii?aeeiothoue nai?
coneeey ?c noai?aiei i?e E?einueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ia’?aeiaiiyi «Ao?a?», /eaiaie yeiai ? nooaeaioe c
a?aanueeeo e?a?i; o n.Oea?oi/ia (A?eia??nueeee ?aeii A?E) ieie
i?aai?ciaaii iieiae?aei? ?ae?a?ei? eo?ne[31].

3). Caa?ica iie?ooaoe?? ionoeueiainueeiai ?ooo a A?E.

Aiia aeeeeeaia ciai?oi?ie /eiieeaie, cie?aia, iiae?yie a *a/i?.
I?aaenoaaieee e?einueeeo oaoa? caeiyee aei?noeo iiceoe?th noiniaii ae?e
?in?? a *a/i?. Oae, aaea 1 aa?aciy 1994?. I.Aeaeai?e?a i?eeiya iooo?y
*a/i? ?iaia A.Aaeaai?oaaa, yeee i?eaoa aei E?eio ca aei?o/aiiyi
Aeae.Aeoaea?aa. Ca ie?a-ieie aeaieie, a a?oaei? 1994?. aei *a/i? ae?oaa
caa?i e?einueeioaoa?nueeeo aeia?iaieueoe?a aeey o/ano? o a?enueeiaeo
ae?yo i?ioe oaaea?aeueieo a?enuee ?O[39]. CI? iia?aeiieyee i?i
anoaiiaeaiiy eiioaeo?a ea??aieoeoaa e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo c
i?aaenoaaieeaie *a/ainueei? ?anioae?ee – ?? io?oe?eiei i?aaenoaaieeii a
Oe?a?i? A.Ie?caaaeiaei, i?aceaeaioii ?anioae?ee C.ssiaea?a??aei,
OAana?aei, I.Oaeoaiaei oa ?i. A?aeaoaaeeny i?oeiae e?einueeeo oaoa?, ia
yeeo i?iaieiooaaeeny aeiiae uiaei i?eieiaiiy a?enueeiaeo ae?e ?in?? a
*a/i?. Oae, 18 eenoiiaaea 1999?. a?aeaoany /a?aiaee cao?ae,
i?aai?ciaaiee ?neainueeith ia?o??th E?eio, i?ioe a?eie, ?ica’ycaii?
?in?enueeith Oaaea?aoe??th a *a/i?[31].

4). Caa?ica i?iieeiaiiy a E?ei ?aaeeeaeueieo ?neainueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Ca aeaieie CI?, aei E?eio i?iieeathoue i?aaenoaaieee ?aaeeeaeueieo
ionoeueiainueeeo i?aai?caoe?e – «N??? aiaee», «A?aoe ionoeueiaie»; a
Oe?a?i? noai?aii 11 i?aai?caoe?e, i?e/aoieo aei ae?yeueiino? inoaiiuei?.
Caoe?eaaeai?noue ionoeueiainueeei na?aaeiaeuai i?aino?iao aeyaeythoue ?
i?aaenoaaieee aaooaa?cio, yeee aaaaeathoue ?ae?a?eii-iie?oe/iith aacith
?neainueeiai ooiaeaiaioae?cio. C’yaey?oueny e?oa?aoo?a aaooaa?o?a
oe?a?inueeith iiaith, a yeee /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny aei?aaaeaiiy
oa?i?enoe/ieo aeo?a. O ethoiio 2000?. e?einuee? niaoeneoaeae
i?aeoaa?aeeee oaeo cao?eiaiiy in?a, i?e/aoieo aei a?enueeiaeo ae?e ia
I?ai?/iiio Eaaeac?. A a?oaei? 1999?. iooo?e ionoeueiai Oe?a?ie A.Oai?i
aeneiaea nai? caiaiiei?iiy ?nioaaiiyi a Oe?a?i? ?aaeeeaeueieo ?
aeno?ai?nonueeeo oa/?e.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue iieoaieo e?ei/ai (61,7%) ia?aeiiai?, ui ia
ionoeueiai E?eio cae?enith?oueny nooo?aee aieea c aieo ?iicaiieo
?neainueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Eeoa 15,4% iieoaieo aaaaeathoue, ui oaeiai
aieeao ia ?nio?, a 22,9% — ia ciiaee aeaoe a?aeiia?aeue ia oea ieoaiiy.

Inoaii?i /anii ana a?eueo a?ae/ooiei ? aieea ?neainueeiai oaeoi?o ia
neooaoe?th ia i?aino?ia?. Cae?enith?oueny i?ia?aia o?iainiai? aeiiiiiae
aeey aoae?aieoeoaa ia/aoae, ?neainueeeo oeaio??a, oe?e, a?ae?ioae;
?icai?oa?oueny i?n?iia?nueea ae?yeuei?noue ?neainueeeo e?a?i.
Caiaiiei?iiy aeeeeeathoue iiaeeeaa iie?oecaoe?y e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai
?ooo, aeeeeeaia iiae?yie a *a/i?, a oaeiae iiaeeea?noue iioe?aiiy
ae?yeueiino? a E?eio ?aaeeeaeueii iaeaooiaaieo ?neainueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Aeniiaee

E?ei – aaaeeeaee no?aoaa?/iee ?aa?ii i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai aaeoi?a
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo i???ioaoe?e Oe?a?ie, eeth/iaee ioieo ia oeyoao, ui
aaaeooue aei Na?aaecaiiiii?’y oa Aeecueeiai Noiaeo. Ao?aoa eiio?ieth
iaae E?eiii caeaoia noai?eoe aaeeeo caa?ico iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe? e
iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. E?einueea i?iaeaia
iaaoaa? cia/aiiy, yea aeoiaeeoue aeaeaei ca iaae? aioo??oiuei? neooaoe??
Oe?a?ie. Oe?a?ia, eaeo/e ia a?aeiiaeaiiy E?einueei? Aaoiiii??, cia/iith
i??ith iinooieeany aeanieie ?ioa?anaie ia aeiaiaeo ciai?oi?i neeai, aea
aiaeii/an iana oyaa? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca noaa?euei?noue ? aaciaeo a
?aa?ii?.

Oi/ ae ne?eueee ooai?thaaeiny i?o?a uiaei «aea?oiea O?ouiaa», oiaoi aeoo
ia?aaeaiiy E?eio c ??ON? aei Oe?a?ie a 1954 ?., a no/ani?e ia?niaeoea?
ne?ae aeciaoe, ui oaeee noai ?a/ae ona ae aeyaeany a?eueo aacia/iei ?
a?eueo i?eeiyoiei aeey neooaoe?? a iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi??. Ca oiia,
yeae E?ei i?iaeiaaeoaaa ?nioaaoe i?ae ii?eith Iineae, ia?anaeaiiy
e?einueeeo oaoa?, ?icii/aoa iaia?aaeiaei? e?aoo N?N?, iaei a oaeee naii
noeo?eiee ? iai?aai?ciaaiee oa?aeoa?, a iineianueeee aeaaeiee
?noaae?oiaio, caeiyoee aioo??oi?ie ni?aaaie e iaeaooiaaiee ia neeia?
caniae ae??oaiiy eiioe?eoieo ieoaiue, aacoiiaii ni?iaieoaaa ae ua iaeio
*a/ith, ui i?ecaaei a aei ?oeiaoe?? an??? aeiiii?ee i?aino?iaa, cia/iiai
a?aeieeao «?in?enueeiiiaiiai» ianaeaiiy ia I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie. Aiane?aeie
oeueiai e?einueeioaoa?nueeee aoiin aoa ae aai cian?i aeieuaiee, aai
ooai?ea ae ?neainueei-ooiaeaiaioae?nonueeo aea?aeaao, ine?eueee naia
oaeee oei aoi?/ii? eiinie?aeaoe??, ye iiaeia aa/eoe ia i?eeeaae?
Aoaai?noaio aai *a/i?, caeaoiee i?ioenoiyoe cia/i?e a?enueeia?e iiooc?
aaeeei? aea?aeaae. Oaea aea?aeaaa, ui, aacoiiaii, iieieeany a o
neooaoe?? aaiiie?oe/ii? ?cieyoe??, noaea a ina?aaeeii i?aeia?iaeiiai
oa?i?ecio e ia?eia?ciano, eoaee a no?eaany ? aea a ciaoiaeea i?eooeie
e?ei?iaeueiee aeaiaio c onueiai iino?aaeyinueeiai i?inoi?o. Oaeei /eiii
neeaeany a cia/ii a?eueoa caa?ica iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe? ye Oe?a?ie,
oae ? ?in??. Ca oaeeo oiia, iaa?oue i?e?aeiaiiy E?eio aei Oo?a//eie
aeyaeeiny a eoaee iaioei eeoii ine?eueee i?eiaeii? ooo ?nioaaa ae oiae?
oi/ yeeenue ii?yaeie.

Iaeaaei?noue E?eio aei Oe?a?ie ia’?eoeaii ni?eyea iii’yeoaiith
eiioe?eoii? iai?oaeaiino? ia i?aino?ia?. Aeaaei? no?oeoo?e a Ee?a?,
caeiyo? i?iaeaiaie ?icaoaeiae aea?aeaaiino?, ia noeeyeeny aei neeiaeo
??oaiue, a ioaea aeiooai? aoee i?oe ia noai?aiiy E?einueei? Aaoiiii??,
uia oaeei /eiii eieae?coaaoe ia?inoaiiy aioo??oiueiai eiioe?eoo i?ae
i?noeaaei ianaeaiiyi ? e?einueeioaoa?nueeeie ia?anaeaioeyie. C ?ioiai
aieo, oea aoea oaeiae iinooiea e?einueeei naia?aoenoai, ye? i?aaioee aei
iiaa?iaiiy i?ae ii?eo Iineae. A?aeaoeany, oae ae iiaeoe, aca?iia
iaeo?ae?caoe?y eiio?iioaoe?? i?ioeeaaeieo nee ? eiioe?eo ia iaaoa
na?eicieo ianooaa?a, oiae? ye Ee?a caeiaoa no?aoaa?/iee aea?ao,
ine?eueee caeiya iiceoe?th noi?iiiueiai a?a?o?a, aei yeiai caa?oathoueny
? c yeei ?aoothoueny iaeaea? noi?iie. ? oi/a oea aae i?ye ia ni?eyei
ae??oaiith i?iaeai i?aino?iaa, «a?a ia niiae?aaiiyo» c?iaeea naith
ni?aao a aaeueioaaii? ?icaeoeo eiioe?eoo, caaaeyee /aniaiio /eiieeia?.

A E?eio aoea noai?aia niaoeeo?/ia aaoiiii?y – ia ca iaoe?iiaeueiith, a
ca oa?eoi??aeueiith iciaeith. Oea iaaaoeaii aieeioei ia iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??. C 1992?. E?ei aeeoia ca iaae? i?aaiaiai
iiey Oe?a?ie, aa?oeeaeue aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee Oe?a?ie a aaoiiii?? aoea
oaeoe/ii c?oeiiaaia. Oe?eeii ?aaeueiei aoa aeo?ae E?eio c-i?ae
th?enaeeeoe?? Oe?a?ie ? eiai ia’?aeiaiiy c ?in??th. A 1994-1998??.
ie?ai? iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe?? aaeaeiny iaeo?ae?coaaoe. Aoea a?aeiiaeaia
ea?iaai?noue aa?oeeaeeth aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee a A?E, aaoiiii?th aoei
iiaa?iooi aei i?aaiaiai iiey Oe?a?ie. Iiaeaeue a?aeiinei i?ae Oeaio?ii ?
aaoiiii??th aacoaaeany ia ianooiieo i?eioeeiao: a?aeiiaa a?ae neeiaeo
iaoiae?a ae??oaiiy eiioe?eoo; aa?aio?? caa?aaeaiiy aaoiiii?? E?eio;
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaa ioi?ieaiiy a?enueeiai? i?enooiino? ?in?? a E?eio;
?icoe?aiiy aeiiii?/ieo iiaiiaaaeaiue aaoiiii??; oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioe?a?inueee iaeaooiaaii? i?noeaai? iie?oe/ii? ae?oe.

Iaeiae, ia an? i?iaeaie aaeaeiny ae??oeoe, ui ni?e/eieei iaeiie/aiiy
eiioe?eoiiai iioaioe?aeo, yeee aeanoaa?e?co? e no/anio iie?oe/io
neooaoe?th a A?E. Aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a A?E oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany
iino?eiei iie?oe/iei i?ioenoiyiiyi, yea i?iaeiaaeo?oueny e oaia?.

A E?eio iaeiie/aiee cia/iee eiioe?eoiaaiiee iioaioe?ae. Ia?oee aaeoi?
eiioe?eoo iia’ycaiee c a?aeiineiaie i?ae Oeaio?ii ? aaoiiii??th:
caa??aathoueny ie?ai? i?ioe??//y i?ae Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie oa
Eiinoeoooe??th A?E; ia aei e?ioey aii?iiaai? i?aeathaeaeaoi? a?aeiineie;
oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a oa oe?a?inueea iiaa iaaeinoaoiuei i?aaenoaaeai? ia
oa?eoi??? E?eio; iaaeineiiaeei ? aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa
?ica’ycaiiy iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a a A?E. Ca iaaieo oiia, oe? i?ioe??//y
iiaeooue ni?e/eieoe iiaeaeueoo aneaeaoe?th iie?oe/ii? iai?oae i?ae
Oeaio?ii oa aaoiiii??th, noaoe i?ae??oioyi aeey aa?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
naia?aoenonueeeo nee o ai?iouea? ca aeaaeo a A?E.

Ae?oaee aaeoi? eiioe?eoo aecia/a?oueny neeaaeiith i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiith oa
i?aeeiioan?eiith neooaoe??th ia i?aino?ia? – cie?aia, caaino?aiiyi
iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai e?einueeeo oaoa?, ui
i?iaieo? ?o ?aaeeeaeuei? ae??. Aei oeeo i?? ia iaeaaiaeaeaiee iino?eiee
ae?aeia i?ae i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa e?einueeeie oaoa?aie.
Ianaeaiiy E?eio ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae iaaeinoaoiuei ?icoi??
iaiao?aei?noue caaeiaieaiiy iiaieo ? eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa e?einueeeo
oaoa?. Cacia/ai? i?iaeaie iiaeooue i?ecaanoe aei ianiaeo nioe?aeueieo
caai?ooaiue c na?eicieie iane?aeeaie.

Ia aeaeue, iii?e aeeeaaeai? aeua aino?? i?iaeaie, a Oe?a?i? aei oeeo i??
ia ?ic?iaeai? iniiae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee noiniaii ae??oaiiy eeth/iaeo
ieoaiue aaoiiii??, cie?aia, e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai ia?iaeo. Oea ciooo?
aeaaeo ae?yoe a ?aaeei? ?aaaoaaiiy ia iie?oe/i? iiae?? oa eiioe?eoe, ui
aeieeathoue, o «iiaeaaeiiio ii?yaeeo». Iaiao?aeii i?iaanoe nenoaiiee
aiae?c caa?ic iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe? a oeueiio ?aa?ii?, cae?enieoe
i?iaiic neooaoe?? ia na?aaeiuei- oa aeiaaino?ieiao ia?niaeoeao. Oea
aeanoue ciiao ?ic?iaeoe iaa?oioiaaio no?aoaa?th aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee,
yea aoea a ni?yiiaaia ia iiia?aaeaeaiiy e iaeo?ae?caoe?th eiioe?eo?a a
A?E.

E?einueeee i?aino??a ciaoiaeeoueny ia ia?ao?ano? aaiiie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a
??cieo e?a?i ? i?aeia?iaeieo iie?oe/ieo nee. Nai? ?ioa?ane a oeueiio
?aa?ii? iathoue ?in?y, Oo?a//eia, e?a?ie ionoeueiainueeiai na?oo, ?io?
aea?aeaae.

Aieea ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a ia neooaoe?th a E?eio cae?enith?oueny
ia?aaaaeii ii o?ueio iai?yiao: ?in?enueeiio, oo?aoeueeiio oa
?neainueeiio. Ae?y i?aeoe/ii eiaeiiai c ieo ia? eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? ?
aeeth/a? aeiiii?/io, iie?oe/io, eoeueoo?io oa ?ioi?iaoe?eio neeaaeia?.

Aa/aiiy nooiaith oa ni?yiiaaiino? ciai?oiueiai aieeao ia iie?oe/io
neooaoe?th a E?eio o e?ei/ai ? ianaeaiiy e?a?ie a oe?eiio aeineoue
??cieoueny: a?iiaaeyie Oe?a?ie aaaaeathoue neeo aieeao c aieo ?in?? ?
Oe?a?ie i?eaeecii ??aiith, i?e/iio aieea Oe?a?ie aiie aaaaeathoue
iiceoeaiei, a aieea ?in?? — iaaaoeaiei. Ianaeaiiy E?eio aaaaea? aieea
Oe?a?ie neeueiei ? iaaaoeaiei, a aieea ?in?? – ia iaaeoi neeueiei ?
iiceoeaiei. Iiaeyaee ia aieea Oo?a//eie aeyaeeeny aeineoue aeecueeeie –
aieea ia aeoaea neeueiee ? ia?aaaaeii iaaaoeaiee.

Iaaaoeaiee aieea ?in?enueeiai oaeoi?o ia neooaoe?th a A?E ciaioeany.
?acii c oei, ?in?enueea i?enooi?noue a A?E caa??aa?oueny a on?o noa?ao –
aeiiii?/i?e, eoeueoo?i?e, ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e, aoiai?oa?i?e ?
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i?e. Cacia/aia i?enooi?noue, c iaeiiai aieo, ni?ey?
iaeaaiaeaeaiith noaa?eueieo oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei,
caaeiaieaiith eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa e?ei/ai, ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee A?E. C
?ioiai aieo, oaea i?enooi?noue, ca iaaieo ianoaaei, iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia ?O aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia iie?oe/io i???ioaoe?th
aeai?oe?a, ui, iinoo?, ? aieeioei ia aeai?e aOe?a?i? ye 2004?. oae ?
2006-ai.

Aeai? nioe?ieia?/iiai iieooaaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i cia/iee iioaioe?ae
naia?aoenonueeeo iano?i?a a A?E, yeee iiee ui ia? eaoaioio oi?io ? ia
i?iyaey?oueny a aeoeaieo ae?yo. Iaeiae, oae? iano?i? iiaeooue
iineeeoeny, iniaeeai, a ?ac? iia??oaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio
e?ei/ai ? c?inoaiiy aeiiii?ee ?O.

Oo??a//eia iaaea? aeiiiiiao aeey iaeaoooaaiiy e?einueeeo oaoa?,
cae?enith? iaa/aiiy e?einueei? iieiae? a ?ae?a?eieo caeeaaeao, iaaeneea?
i?n?iia??a, iaaea? o?iainiao aeiiiiiao. Anoaiiaeai? o?ni? ca’ycee c
a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie, iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie, i?aaiaie
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oo?a//eie. Ca iaaieo oiia, Oo?a//eia caeaoia aieeaaoe
ia iano?i? ionoeueiai a A?E, iaeiae, cacia/aiee aieea nueiaiaei? iiaeia
?icoe?ithaaoe eeoa ye iioaioe?eio caa?ico.

Aieea ?neainueeiai oaeoi?o noa? ana a?eueo a?ae/ooiei: o?iaino?oueny
aoae?aieoeoai ia/aoae, ?neainueeeo oeaio??a, oe?e, a?ae?ioae
cae?enith?oueny i?n?iia?nueea ae?yeuei?noue. A?eia a *a/i?
iiina?aaeeiaaii i?iaieo? iie?oecaoe?th e?einueei-oaoa?nueeiai ?ooo. sse
iioaioe?eio caa?ico iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe iiaeeea?noue iioe?aiiy a A?E
?aaeeeaeueieo ?neainueeeo oa/?e.

?aaeueii oe? oaiaeaioe?? ?niothoue o iaoiio aeeoo?, aca?iiae?thoue
iii?ae niaith e iaaeae? aeyaeyoeiooueny, aea oae aai ?iaeoa aea??
iieyaa? o aecia/aii? aeii?iaioe ?icaeoeo, a?ae yei? a?aoo?-?aoo ?
caeaaeeoue: ?nioaaoeia ?aeeia noni?euenoai a Oe?a?i? /e i?.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e

?. Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe

1. Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i Aaoiiiiio ?anioae?eo E?ei» a?ae 17 aa?aciy 1995?.

2. Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i a?aei?io Eiinoeoooe?? ? aeayeeo caeii?a A?E» a?ae
17 aa?aciy 1995 ?.

3. Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i a?aeiiaeaiiy E?einueei? A?N?» a?ae 12 ethoiai 1991
?.

4. Caeii ?anioae?ee E?ei «I?i aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei
Eiinoeoooe?? ?anioae?ee E?ei» a?ae 7 aa?aniy 1994?.

5. Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i I?aaenoaaieoeoai I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a ?anioae?oe?
E?ei» a?ae 17 a?oaeiy 1992 ?.

6. Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i ?iciaaeoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae aea?aeaaieie
i?aaiaie Oe?a?ie ? E?eio» a?ae 3 aeiaoiy1992?.

7. Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i neanoaaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? ? aeayeeo caeii?a
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei» a?ae 17 aa?aciy 1995?.

8. Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i noaoon Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei» a?ae 29 ea?oiy
1992 ?.

9. Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie a?ae 28 /a?aiy 1996 ?.

10.??oaiiy Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie o ni?aa? ?1-20/2001 a?ae 27
ethoiai 2001?.

11.Oaiaee i?ae Oe?a?iith oa ?in?enueeith Oaaea?aoe??th «I?i
aca?ii?ic?aooiee, iia’ycai? c ?iciiae?eii *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo ?
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