Zakarpattya Region (реферат)

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Zakarpattya is a picturesque place of Ukraine, which has a unique
geographical location. Zakarpattya is situated in the outmost West of
Ukraine, in the South-West corner of the Ukrainian Carpathians and the
Prydunays’ka lowland.

It borders in the North-East and South-East with L’viv and
Ivano-Frankivs’k oblast’s, in the North, West and South with Poland (the
length of the border is 33.4 km), Slovakia (98.5 km), Hungary (130 km),
and Romania (205.4 km). Because of its geographical peculiarity,
Zakarpattya has long provided many convenient ways of communication
between the countries of Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western Europe.

By its area and population on the scale of Ukraine, the region is not
too large. Its territory is 12.800 sq. km, its population is 1 258 000.
It makes about 2 % of the general territory and population of the

Zakarpattya is divided into 13 administrative rayons, it has 10 towns,
of them 4 are in the oblast subordination (Uzhgorod, Beregovo,
Makachevo, Khust), 20 urban settlements, 579 villages.

No other oblast of Ukraine has such national diversity as does
Zakarpattya: it is inhabited by representatives of 80 nationalities.

The climate of the oblast is soft, moderate continental.

Almost 80% of the territory are taken by the Carpathians, the rest – by
the Prytysyans’ka lowland. The highest peak of the Ukrainian Carpathians
and all of Ukraine – the mountain Goverla (2061 m above the sea level)
is situated on the border of Zakarpats’ka and Ivano-Frankivska regions
of Ukraine.

The nature of the surroundings is diverse and picturesque: the lowland
is taken by fields, meadows, gardens, vineyards; the gently sloping
Carpathians are covered with forests, mostly beech wood. The unique
natural ecosystem of the Carpathian biosphere preserve belongs to the
most valuable ecosystems of the Earth and is included into the
international system of biosphere preserves UNESCO.

The most precious treasure of the oblast is its forest, which takes more
than a half of its territory. In the natural composition of the
Zakarpattya forest leaf trees (62.2%) and conifers prevail (29.9%).

The oblast is full of all kinds of minerals, including the ones, typical
only for the Zakarpattya geological province. There are almost 150
sources of raw and mineral materials and more than 30 kinds of minerals.

The oblast possesses high recreational and resort potential. 360 sources
of mineral and thermic waters have been discovered and investigated.
These waters do not yield to the famous waters of Caucasus, Czech
Republic, France; their chemical composition and healing capacity are
often referred to in the archival documents of the middle of the 15th

The mineral waters of the oblast have great gustatory qualities and are
widely used as medicinal drinking water in sanatoria and health resorts.
Zakarpattya is famous as one of the most popular places for medical
treatment and recovery.

On the territory of the area there are 9429 streams and rivers, 137
natural lakes. Almost one quarter of the hydro-energetic potential of
Ukraine is concentrated on the rivers, which gives numerous
possibilities for the development of small hydro-energetic enterprises.

Zakarpattya is an active member of the Carpathian Euroregion – the
inter-regional association of frontier lands of Ukraine, Poland,
Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. In the oblast there is a well-developed
frontier infrastructure: 17 check-points, of which 17 are railway
check-points, 6 are international car check-points, 1 is an
international air check-point and 3 are points of simplified entrance.


The territory of Zakarpattya has been inhabited since the ancient times.
The first record of people living there belongs to the epoch of early
Paleolith (around 500 thousand years BC).

Among archeological landmarks of the first half of the first millenium
AD the most famous are the Carpathian burial mounds. Scientists have
determined that the mounds were left by the ancestors of the Slavonic
tribe of White Croats.

Zakarpattya is a land of a complicated historic past. In the 9th and
10th centuries, the territory of Zakarpattya was a part of Kyivan Rus.
Between the 11th and 13th centuries and up to the 20th century it was a
part of Hungary and Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918-1919 the oblast
constituted a part of Hungary, in 1919-1939 under the name
“Sub-Carpathian Rus” it was a part of Czech Republic, and in 1939-1944
it was included into Hungary again.

The liberation of Zakarpattya in October 1944 and its reunification with
the Soviet Ukraine became a new page in the history of this land. From
August of 1991 Zakarpattya oblast is an inseparable part of the
independent Ukraine.

In total, in the oblast there are 1817 historical, cultural and art
landmarks, of which 496 are archaeological ones, 1273 are historical
ones and 48 are artistic ones.


The analysis of the economy conditions in the oblast during the last
several years leads to the conclusion that one of the realizable ways of
its reanimation and the development of productive forces of the region
is the attraction of investments.

The improvement of investment climate in our area has been reached
thanks to the passing of the Law of Ukraine “About the Special
Regulations of Investments Activity in Zakarpattya oblast” and the Law
of Ukraine “About the Creation of Special Economic Zone of Zakarpattya”.

The special regulations of the investment activity presupposes the
establishment of tax and customs privileges for the participants of
business activity, who have signed an agreement concerning the
realization of the investment project with local administrative

The priorities for investments will remain timber industry complex,
light industry, electric power industry, agrarian and recreational
complexes, other branches closely connected with the ecessities of life
of the population.

The special economic zone “Transcarpathia” was performed to work out the
program of the further development of the region on the basis of new
market economic relations, to find new technologies, to attract
investment, to promote the development of external economic links, to
increase the production of high quality goods and services, to develop
modern industrial, transport and market infrastructure and provide new
working places.

Advantages provided by “special” laws made the investment activity of
our region more efficient. The result of which can be observed in the
dynamic increase of investments from $11,9 mln. in 1999 to $30,1 mln. in

Nowadays 405 enterprises with foreign direct investments are working in
our region. Transcarpathia is at the 11th place among the regions of
Ukraine according to the volume of attracted investments and at 6th
place according to the volume of investments per capita ($ 113). Among
the Ukrainian regions which are members of Carpathian Euroregion,
Transcarpathian region leads in the volume of attracted investments per

Most part of foreign direct investments was provided by following

? USA – 17,6 %

? Hungary – 15,5%

? Austria – 15,5%

? Germany – 11,5%

? Slovakia – 6,4%


Transcarpathian enterprises were working with partners from 73 foreign
countries. 442 businesses were selling goods and services abroad and 387
were importing goods and services.

The main export positions are:

? textile and textile goods – 24,3% of total export

? mechanical and electrotechnical equipment – 23,7%

? wood and wood products – 19,8%

? toys and sports kit – 6,6%

? furniture – 6,2%

? equipment – 5,8%

Structure of import:

? mechanical and electrotechnical equipment – 35,8% of total import

? textile materials – 20,3%

? transport – 14,1%

? plastic and caoutchouc – 7,4%

? chemical industry production – 4,1%


Our land possesses rich natural and recreational resources. Today
Zakarpattya is considered one of the ecologically cleanest parts of the

The picturesque nature of the area, favorable climatic conditions for
recreation and mountain skiing in winter, mineral springs and sources
with medicinal qualities – all these create possibilities for
transformation of the recreation branch into the leading one in this

The network of health resorts and tourist recreational centers now
counts 113 items, among them are 17 health centers, 19 sanatoria, 72
tourist centers, recreation departments, health centers, 5 pensions.
Besides, there are 40 hotels in the oblast, 5 travel agencies and 59
other private enterprises which have acquired licenses for tourist

The functioning holiday centers hosted more than 200.000 people. The
most popular are the sanatoria (health centers) of Svalyava region –
“Sonyachne Zakarpattya” (“Sunny Zakarpattya”), “Polyana” (“Glade”),
“Kvitka Plonyny” (“The Flower of Polonyna”); of Mukachiv region –
“Karpaty” (“Carpathians”), “Synyak”; of Hust region – “Shayan”, of
Rukhiv region – “Girs’ka Tyssa” (“Mountain Tyssa”); of Mezhgirs’kyi
region – “Verkhovyna”.

For medical treatment of allergic non-specific lungs illnesses, namely
bronchial asthma, the microclimate of salt shafts of Solotvyna (Tyachiv
region) is being used.

Ecological and rural tourism in the mountainous regions of the oblast,
namely in Rakhiv region, at the expense of the Carpathian Fund Grant, is
developing and becoming more popular. The ecological route “To Goverla
across the Chornogir’ya woods” has been established. The first tourist
guide “Have a rest in the countryside of mountainous Rachivshchina” has
been published. Almost in every mountainous village of this region one
can find hospitable people willing to host tourists in their houses.


During the last years there have been considerable changes in the
structure of industrial production. The industry has become closer to
resource capacities of the oblast.



??????????????????????$??$?bles, soft drinks and mineral water), light
industry (ready-made garments and knitwork, underwear, bed linen,
overcoats, jackets, men suits, footwear, headgear), machine-building
industry (metal-cutting machines, electric motors, pipeline armature,
domestic gas convectors, gas-meter), construction materials industry
(production of road metals, facing materials).

The leading enterprises of the oblast are those which have attracted
investments, conducted reconstruction and modernization of production,
raised competitiveness of their products on the home and foreign markets

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