Реферат на тему:

Yuri Gagarin

Contents

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Early_life» 1 Early
life

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Career_in_Soviet_space_program» 2 Career in Soviet space program

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Selection_and_training»
2.1 Selection and training

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Space_flight» 2.2 Space
flight

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Death_and_legacy» 3
Death and legacy

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Conspiracy_theories» 4
Conspiracy theories

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «See_also» 5 See also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «References» 6
References

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «External_links» 7
External links

Early life

Cosmonaut

Nationality: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union» \o
«Soviet Union» Soviet

Born HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_9» \o «March 9»
March 9 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1934» \o «1934»
1934

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klushino» \o «Klushino»
Klushino , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USSR» \o «USSR»
USSR

Died HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_27» \o «March 27»
March 27 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968» \o «1968»
1968

Yuri Gagarin was born in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klushino» \o «Klushino» Klushino near
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gzhatsk» \o «Gzhatsk» Gzhatsk ,
a region west of Moscow, Russia, on March 9, 1934. The town would be
renamed Gagarin in 1968 to honour Yuri. His parents worked on a
collective farm. While manual labourers are described in official
reports as «peasants,» this may be an oversimplification if applied to
his parents — his mother was reportedly a voracious reader, and his
father a skilled carpenter. Yuri was the third of four children, and his
elder sister helped raise him while his parents worked. Like millions of
people in the Soviet Union, the Gagarin family suffered great hardship
in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o «World War
II» World War II . His two elder siblings were «taken away» to Germany,
apparently as conscripts, in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1943» \o «1943» 1943 , and did not return
until after the war. His teachers described Gagarin as intelligent and
hard-working, if occasionally mischievous. His mathematics teacher flew
in the Red Army Air Force during the war, which presumably made some
substantial impression on young Gagarin.

Colonel Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_language» \o «Russian language»
Russian : Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин, Jurij Alekseevi? Gagarin; HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_9» \o «March 9» March 9 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1934» \o «1934» 1934 –
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_27» \o «March 27» March
27 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968» \o «1968» 1968 ),
was a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union» \o «Soviet
Union» Soviet HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmonaut» \o
«Cosmonaut» cosmonaut who in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1961» \o «1961» 1961 became the first
human in space and the first human to orbit the Earth.

After starting an apprenticeship in a metalworks as a foundryman,
Gagarin was selected for further training at a high technical school in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saratov» \o «Saratov» Saratov
. While there, he joined the «AeroClub,» and learned to fly a light
aircraft, a hobby that would take up an increasing proportion of his
time. Through dint of effort, rather than brilliance, he reportedly
mastered both; in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1955» \o
«1955» 1955 , after completing his technical schooling, he entered
military flight training at the Orenburg Pilot’s School. While there he
met Valentina Goryacheva, whom he married in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1957» \o «1957» 1957 , after gaining his
pilot’s wings in a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MiG-15» \o
«MiG-15» MiG-15 . Post-graduation, he was assigned to an airbase in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murmansk» \o «Murmansk»
Murmansk region, near the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norway» \o «Norway» Norwegian border ,
where terrible weather made flying risky. As a full-grown man, Gagarin
was 5 feet 2 inches (approx. 157.5cm) tall.

Career in Soviet space program

Selection and training

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960» \o «1960» 1960 , an
extensive search and selection process saw Yuri Gagarin, as one of 20
cosmonauts, selected for the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_programme_of_the_USSR» \o «Space
programme of the USSR» Soviet space program . Along with the other
prospective cosmonauts, he had been subjected to a punishing series of
experiments designed test his physical and psychological endurance, as
well as training related to the upcoming flight. Out of the 20 selected,
the eventual choices for the first launch were Gagarin and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gherman_Titov» \o «Gherman Titov» Gherman
Titov , because of their excellent performance in training, as well as
their physical characteristics — space was at a premium in the small
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_spacecraft» \o «Vostok
spacecraft» Vostok cockpit. Gagarin’s last-minute assignment, approved
at the highest levels of «the party», to take the historic flight, may
have been due to Gagarin’s modest upbringing and genial, outgoing
personality, as opposed to the middle-class and somewhat aloof demeanor
of Titov.

Space flight

Yuri Gagarin in the bus to a launch pad just before his historic flight
on April 12, 1961. Behind him, seated, is his backup, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gherman_Titov» \o «Gherman Titov» Gherman
Titov .

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_12» \o «April 12»
April 12 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1961» \o «1961»
1961 , Gagarin became the first human to travel into HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outer_space» \o «Outer space» space in
Vostok 3KA-2 ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_1» \o
«Vostok 1» Vostok 1 ). His call sign in this flight was HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberian_Pine» \o «Siberian Pine» Cedar
( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_language» \o «Russian
language» Russian : Кедр). According to international media, from orbit
Gagarin made the comment, «I don’t see any god up here.» There are,
however, no such words in the full verbatim record of Gagarin’s
conversations with the Earth during the spaceflight HYPERLINK
«http://gagarin.cbs.org.ru/gagarin/files/efir.doc» \o
«http://gagarin.cbs.org.ru/gagarin/files/efir.doc» [1] .

He is also known in Russian history as «The Columbus of the Cosmos.»

While in orbit Gagarin was promoted «in the field» from the lowly rank
of Senior HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lieutenant» \o
«Lieutenant» Lieutenant to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major» \o «Major» Major — and this was
the rank at which HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TASS_%28USSR%29» \o «TASS (USSR)» TASS
announced him in its triumphant statement during the flight. At the time
the Soviet authorities thought it was more likely he would perish during
his descent than survive.

During his flight, Gagarin famously whistled the tune «The Motherland
Hears, The Motherland Knows» ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_language» \o «Russian language»
Russian : «Родина слышит, Родина знает») HYPERLINK
«http://www.sovmusic.ru/english/download.php?fname=rodinasl» \o
«http://www.sovmusic.ru/english/download.php?fname=rodinasl» [2] . The
first two lines of the song are: «The Motherland hears, the Motherland
knows/Where her son flies in the sky» HYPERLINK
«http://www.sovmusic.ru/english/text.php?fname=rodinasl» \o
«http://www.sovmusic.ru/english/text.php?fname=rodinasl» [3] . This
patriotic song was written by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitri_Shostakovich» \o «Dmitri
Shostakovich» Dmitri Shostakovich in 1951 (opus 86), with words by
Dolmatovsky.

Safely returned, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikita_Khrushchev» \o «Nikita Khrushchev»
Nikita Khrushchev rushed to his side and Gagarin issued a statement
praising the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union» \o
«Communist Party of the Soviet Union» Communist Party of the Soviet
Union as the «organiser of all our victories.» Khrushchev saw Gagarin’s
achievement as a vindication of his policy of strengthening the Soviet
Union’s missile forces at the expense of conventional arms. This policy
antagonized the Soviet military establishment and contributed to
Khrushchev’s eventual downfall.

After the flight, Gagarin became an instant, worldwide celebrity,
touring widely to promote the Soviet achievement. He proved quite adept
at handling the publicity. However, it appeared to gradually wear him
down, and he began to drink heavily — not helped by difficulties in his
marriage. In October 1961 he severely injured himself in a drunken
holiday escapade while vacationing with a young nurse in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimea» \o «Crimea» Crimea .

From 1962 he served as a deputy to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Soviet» \o «Supreme Soviet»
Supreme Soviet , but later returned to » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_City%2C_Moscow» \o «Star City,
Moscow» Star City «, the cosmonaut facility, where he worked on designs
for a reusable spacecraft.

According to various accounts, Gagarin was considered by Kremlin
officials to be too valuable a public relations asset to expose to the
risk of another space flight, and was not among cosmonauts in contention
to fly on subsuquent Vostok and Voskhod missions.

(In the U.S., similar concerns reportedly were voiced by high NASA
officials about HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Glenn» \o
«John Glenn» John Glenn , possibly accounting for his removal from the
active flight rotation prior to his resignation from NASA in 1964.)

The Soyuz spacecraft, which entered service in 1967, was considered
safer and more reliable, and Gagarin resumed active training for
spaceflight.

In 1967, he was selected as the backup pilot for the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_1» \o «Soyuz 1» Soyuz 1 Mission.
Western journalists reported that, despite problems with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_spacecraft» \o «Soyuz spacecraft»
Soyuz , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonid_Brezhnev» \o
«Leonid Brezhnev» Leonid Brezhnev applied pressure for a spaceflight
to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Communist revolution.
Cosmonauts and technicians prepared a document listing 200 technical
problems with Soyuz and gave it to party members. A few weeks before
launch, the pilot, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Komarov» \o «Vladimir Komarov»
Vladimir Komarov , a close friend of Gagarin, said, «If I don’t make
this flight, they’ll send the backup pilot instead. That’s (Yuri), and
he’ll die instead of me.» After Komarov was killed when his spacecraft
crashed during its return, Gagarin, very upset, said, «…if I ever find
out he (Brezhnev) knew about the situation and still let everything
happen, then I know exactly what I’m going to do.» It is rumored that
Gagarin did eventually catch up with Brezhnev and threw a drink in his
face. This may be apocryphal, but as the Soviet veil of secrecy is
slowly lifted such stories will be more easily verified.

Death and legacy

Yuri Gagarin Memorial Plaque — presented to the USSR on January 21,
1971. Accepting the plaque at the Moscow ceremony was Soviet Gen.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuznetsov» \o «Kuznetsov»
Kuznetsov , commander of the USSR’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_City%2C_Moscow» \o «Star City,
Moscow» Star City space base, where cosmonauts have been training
since 1960. Gagarin, who made history with his 1 hour and 48 minute
flight, lost his life in a training accident on March 27, 1968.

Gagarin then became deputy training director of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_City» \o «Star City» Star City . At
the same time, he began to requalify as a fighter pilot. On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_27» \o «March 27» March 27 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968» \o «1968» 1968 he and
his instructor died in a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MiG-15» \o «MiG-15» MiG-15 UTI on a
routine training flight near HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirzhach» \o «Kirzhach» Kirzhach . It is
uncertain what caused the crash, but a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1986» \o «1986» 1986 inquest suggests
that the turbulence from a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Su-11» \o «Su-11» Su-11 interceptor
airplane using its HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afterburner_%28engine%29» \o «Afterburner
(engine)» afterburners may have caused Gagarin’s plane to go out of
control. Weather conditions were also poor, which probably contributed
to the inability of Gagarin and the instructor to correct before they
crashed.

In his book «Two Sides of the Moon» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-LeonovBook» \o «» [1]
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexei_Leonov» \o «Alexei
Leonov» Alexei Leonov recounts that he was flying a helicopter in the
same area on that day when he heard «two loud booms in the distance».
Corroborating the above hypothesis, his conclusion is that a Sukhoi jet
(which he identifies as a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Su-15» \o «Su-15» Su-15 ), flying below
its minimum allowed altitude, «without realizing it because of the
terrible weather conditions, passed within 10 or 20 meters of Yuri and
Seregin’s plane while breaking the sound barrier». The resulting
turbulence would have sent the MiG into an uncontrolled spin. Leonov
believes the first boom he heard was that of the jet breaking the sound
barrier, and the second was Gagarin’s plane crashing.

A new theory, advanced by the original crash investigator in 2005,
hypothesises that a cabin vent was accidentally left open by the crew or
the previous pilot, thus leading to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen_deprivation» \o «Oxygen
deprivation» oxygen deprivation and leaving the crew incapable of
controlling the aircraft. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-ScotlandSunday-GagarinInquiry» \o «» [2] The rumor that Gagarin
was drunk is almost certainly incorrect — he passed two medical
examinations before the flight, and postmortem tests found no evidence
of alcohol or drugs in his system. The Russian press reported he stayed
with the aircraft to prevent it from hitting a school, but this too may
be apocryphal.

Conspiracy theories

Although Gagarin is indisputably the first man to survive space travel,
there is a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conspiracy_theory»
\o «Conspiracy theory» conspiracy theory that the Russians had
previously launched two human beings into orbit prior to Gagarin, but
both cosmonauts died en route. An alternative version states that one
died, and the other landed off-course and was held by the Chinese
government. The Soviet government then supposedly suppressed this
information to prevent bad publicity for their space program. See the
article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_space_program_conspiracy_accusation
s» \o «Soviet space program conspiracy accusations» Soviet space
program conspiracy accusations .

The origin of this theory lies in the fact that during the test flights
of «Vostok» spacecraft a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tape_recorder» \o «Tape recorder» tape
recorder was sent to orbit, transmitting human voice to test
communication equipment. This might have lead some Western HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ham_radio» \o «Ham radio» ham radio fans
who overheard the transmission to conclude that there is a living human
aboard the spacecraft.[ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources» \o
«Wikipedia:Citing sources» citation needed ]

Gagarin in the Soviet space suit

References

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-LeonovBook_0» \o «»
^ Leonov, Alexei, Scott, David (2004). Two Sides of the Moon (in en),
218-. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0312
308655» ISBN 0-312-30865-5 .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_ref-ScotlandSunday-GagarinInquiry_0» \o «» ^ Holt, Ed (2005-04-03).
HYPERLINK
«http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=352912005» \o
«http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=352912005»
Inquiry promises to solve Gagarin death riddle . HYPERLINK
«http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/» \o
«http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/» Scotland on Sunday .

Michael D Cole Vostok 1: First Human in Space, Enslow Publishers, Inc.
Aldershot, UK, Springfield, New Jersey, 1995. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0894
905414» ISBN 0-89490-541-4 .

Doran, Jamie, and Bizony, Piers: Starman: The Truth Behind the Legend of
Yuri Gagarin, London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 1998 (paperback version,
1999). HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0747
54278» ISBN 074754278 .

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