Реферат на тему:

Xenophobia, racism, discrimination, putsch, terrorism.

Xenophobia

Xenophobia denotes a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phobic_attitude» \o «Phobic attitude»
phobic attitude toward strangers or of the unknown. It comes from the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language» \o «Greek
language» Greek words ????? (xenos), meaning «foreigner,» «stranger,»
and ????? (phobos), meaning «fear.» The term is typically used to
describe fear or dislike of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alien_%28law%29» \o «Alien (law)»
foreigners or in general of people different from one’s self. For
example, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racism» \o «Racism»
racism is sometimes described as a form of xenophobia, but in most
cases racism has nothing to do with a real HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phobia» \o «Phobia» phobia . Xenophobia
implies a belief, accurate or not, that the target is in some way
foreign. Prejudice against women cannot be considered xenophobic in this
sense, except in the limited case of all-male clubs or institutions. The
term HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenophilia» \o
«Xenophilia» xenophilia is used for the opposite behavior, attraction
to or love for foreign persons.

The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Psychiatric_Association» \o
«American Psychiatric Association» American Psychiatric Association ‘s
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DSM-IV» \o «DSM-IV» Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th edition («DSM-IV»)
includes in its description of a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phobia» \o «Phobia» phobia an «intense
anxiety» which follows exposure to the «object of the phobia, either in
real life or via imagination or video…» For xenophobia there are two
main objects of the phobia. The first is a population group present
within a society, which is not considered part of that society. Often
they are recent HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration»
\o «Immigration» immigrants , but xenophobia may be directed against a
group which has been present for centuries. This form of xenophobia can
elicit or facilitate hostile and violent reactions, such as mass
expulsion of immigrants, or in the worst case, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genocide» \o «Genocide» genocide .

The second form of xenophobia is primarily cultural, and the objects of
the phobia are cultural elements which are considered alien. All
cultures are subject to external influences, but cultural xenophobia is
often narrowly directed, for instance at foreign loan words in a
national language. It rarely leads to aggression against persons, but
can result in political campaigns for cultural or linguistic
purification. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isolationism» \o
«Isolationism» Isolationism , a general aversion of foreign affairs, is
not accurately described as xenophobia. Additionally, in the world of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_fiction» \o «Science
fiction» science fiction , xenophobia usually refers to a fear or
hatred of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extraterrestrial» \o
«Extraterrestrial» extraterrestrial cultures or beings.

Racism

Racism is a belief in the moral or biological superiority of one race or
ethnic group over another or others. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-freedict» \o «» [1]

The term racism is sometimes used to refer to preference for one’s own
ethnic group. ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnocentrism»
\o «Ethnocentrism» ethnocentrism ) HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-0» \o «» [2] , fear of
difference ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenophobia» \o
«Xenophobia» xenophobia ), views or preferences against interbreeding
of the races ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miscegenation»
\o «Miscegenation» miscegenation ) HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-1» \o «» [3] , and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalism» \o «Nationalism»
nationalism HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-2» \o
«» [4] , regardless of any explicit belief in superiority or
inferiority fact. Related concepts include HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prejudice» \o «Prejudice» prejudice ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrimination» \o
«Discrimination» discrimination and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racialism» \o «Racialism» racialism .
Racism has been used to justify social discrimination, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_segregation» \o «Racial
segregation» racial segregation and violence, including HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genocide» \o «Genocide» genocide .

The term racist, when used to describe someone who supports racism, has
been a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pejorative» \o
«Pejorative» pejorative term since at least the 1940s, and the
identification of a group or person as racist is nearly always
controversial.

Discrimination

The word discrimination comes from the Latin «discriminare», which means
to «distinguish between». To discriminate HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socially» \o «Socially» socially is to
make a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distinction_%28social%29» \o «Distinction
(social)» distinction between HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People» \o «People» people on the basis
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_class» \o «Social
class» class or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categorization» \o «Categorization»
category without regard to individual merit. Examples of social
discrimination include HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racism»
\o «Racism» racial , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_discrimination» \o «Religious
discrimination» religious , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexism» \o «Sexism» sexual , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homophobia» \o «Homophobia» sexual
orientation , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disability_discrimination_act» \o
«Disability discrimination act» disability , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_persecution» \o «Ethnic
persecution» ethnic , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heightism» \o «Heightism» height-related
, and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageism» \o «Ageism»
age-related discrimination. Whether a given example of discrimination
is positive or negative is a subjective judgement (i.e., in the eye of
the beholder).

Distinctions between people which are based just on individual merit
(such as personal achievement, skill or ability) are generally not
considered socially discriminatory. Consequently, prohibitions against
such discrimination generally will not prevent a government from acting
in a legitimate and justifiable way based upon the merit of an
individual person.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_theories» \o «Social
theories» Social theories such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egalitarianism» \o «Egalitarianism»
Egalitarianism claim that HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_equality» \o «Social equality»
social equality should prevail. In some societies, such as the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o «United
States» U.S.A. , each individual’s civil rights include the right to be
free from government sponsored social discrimination. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-0» \o «» [1]

In contrast, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism» \o
«Conservatism» conservative writer and law professor HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthias_Storme» \o «Matthias Storme»
Matthias Storme has claimed that the freedom of discrimination in human
societies is a fundamental human right, or more precisely: the basis of
all fundamental freedoms and therefore the most fundamental freedom.
Author HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans-Hermann_Hoppe» \o
«Hans-Hermann Hoppe» Hans-Hermann Hoppe , in an essay HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-1» \o «» [2] about his book
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy:_The_God_That_Failed»
\o «Democracy: The God That Failed» Democracy: The God That Failed ,
asserts that a natural social order is characterized by increased
discrimination.

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Putsch&redirect=no» \o
«Putsch» Putsch (Coup d’etat)

A coup d’Etat (pronounced /ku de’ta/), or simply coup, is the sudden
overthrow of a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government» \o
«Government» government through unconstitutional means by a part of
the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures.
It is also an example of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_engineering» \o «Political
engineering» political engineering . It may or may not be violent in
nature. It is different from a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution» \o «Revolution» revolution ,
which is staged by a larger group and radically changes the political
system. The term is HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_language» \o «French language»
French for «a (sudden) blow (or strike) to a state» (literally, coup,
hit, and Etat, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State» \o
«State» state , always written with a capital E in this meaning). The
term coup can also be used in a casual sense to mean a gain in advantage
of one nation or entity over another; e.g. an intelligence coup. By
analogy, the term is also applied to corporations, etc; e.g. a boardroom
coup.

Since the unsuccessful coup attempts of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_Kapp» \o «Wolfgang Kapp»
Wolfgang Kapp in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1920» \o
«1920» 1920 , and of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler» \o «Adolf Hitler» Adolf
Hitler in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1923» \o «1923»
1923 , the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_language» \o
«German language» German word «Putsch» (originally coined with the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z%C3%BCriputsch» \o
«Zueriputsch» Zueriputsch of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1839» \o «1839» 1839 ) is often used
also, even in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_language»
\o «French language» French (such as the putsch of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_8» \o «November 8» November 8 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1942» \o «1942» 1942 and the
putsch of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_21» \o «April
21» April 21 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1961» \o
«1961» 1961 , both in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algiers» \o «Algiers» Algiers ) and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia» \o «Russia» Russian (
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Putsch» \o «August
Putsch» August Putsch in 1991), while the direct German translation is
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staatsstreich» \o
«Staatsstreich» Staatsstreich .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tactic_%28method%29» \o
«Tactic (method)» Tactically , a coup usually involves control of some
active portion of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military» \o «Military» military while
neutralizing the remainder of a country’s armed services. This active
group captures or expels leaders, seizes physical control of important
government offices, means of communication, and the physical HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrastructure» \o «Infrastructure»
infrastructure , such as streets and power plants. The coup succeeds if
its opponents fail to dislodge the plotters, allowing them to
consolidate their position, obtain the surrender or acquiescence of the
populace and surviving armed forces, and claim HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legitimacy» \o «Legitimacy» legitimacy .

Coups typically use the power of the existing government for its own
takeover. As HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Luttwak»
\o «Edward Luttwak» Edward Luttwak remarks in his Coup d’Etat: A
Practical Handbook: «A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but
critical segment of the state apparatus, which is then used to displace
the government from its control of the remainder.» In this sense, use of
military or other organized force is not the defining feature of a coup
d’etat.

Revolution

A revolution is a drastic change that usually occurs relatively quickly.
The word revolution means «a turn around.» This may be a change in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social» \o «Social» social or
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political» \o «Political»
political institutions over a relatively short period of time, or a
major change in its HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture»
\o «Culture» culture or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economics» \o «Economics» economy . Some
revolutions are led by the majority of the populace of a nation, others
by a small band of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary» \o «Revolutionary»
revolutionaries , a so-called palace revolution only touches the ruling
elite. Compare HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebellion» \o
«Rebellion» rebellion .

Terrorism

Terrorism is a term with a negative HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connotation» \o «Connotation» connotation
, used to describe certain acts committed by political groups or
persons.

As a type of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unconventional_warfare» \o «Unconventional
warfare» unconventional warfare , terrorism means to weaken or supplant
existing political landscapes through capitulation, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acquiescence» \o «Acquiescence»
acquiescence , or radicalization, as opposed to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subversion_%28politics%29» \o «Subversion
(politics)» subversion or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conventional_warfare» \o «Conventional
warfare» direct military action .

«Terrorist attacks» usually are characterized as «indiscriminate», the
«targeting of civilians», or as executed «with disregard for human
life». The term «terrorism» often is used to assert that the enemy’s
political violence is immoral, wanton, and unjustified. Per the most
common HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definition_of_terrorism» \o «Definition of
terrorism» definition of terrorism — typically used by states,
academics, counter-terrorism experts, and civil, non-governmental
organizations, «terrorists» are actors who do not belong to any
recognized armed forces or who don’t abide the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laws_of_war» \o «Laws of war» laws of war
, and who, therefore, are regarded «rogue actors».

Those labeled «terrorists» rarely identify themselves so and, instead,
typically use terms refering to their ideological or ethnic struggle,
such as: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separatist» \o
«Separatist» separatist , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_fighter» \o «Freedom fighter»
freedom fighter , liberator, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary» \o «Revolutionary»
revolutionary , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vigilante» \o
«Vigilante» vigilante , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militant» \o «Militant» militant ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramilitary» \o «Paramilitary»
paramilitary , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerrilla_warfare» \o «Guerrilla warfare»
guerrilla , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebel» \o «Rebel»
rebel , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jihad» \o «Jihad»
jihadi or HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mujaheddin» \o
«Mujaheddin» mujaheddin , or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fedayeen» \o «Fedayeen» fedayeen , or any
similar-meaning word in other languages.

Terrorism has been used by a broad array of political organizations in
furthering their objectives; both right-wing and left-wing political
parties, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalism» \o
«Nationalism» nationalistic , and religious groups, revolutionaries and
ruling governments. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-britannica» \o «» [1]

Some persons and governments believe that the term «Terrorism», as
defined in dictionaries, now has a negative HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connotation» \o «Connotation» connotation
, under the theory that a person who attacks the civilian population is,
instead, a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militant» \o
«Militant» militant , regardless of the status of the victims of
terrorism.

Deportation

Deportation, not to be confused with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extradition» \o «Extradition» extradition
, generally means the expulsion of someone from a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country» \o «Country» country . In
general it refers to the expulsion of foreigners (the expulsion of
natives is usually called HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banishment» \o «Banishment» banishment ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exile» \o «Exile» exile , or
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penal_transportation» \o «Penal
transportation» transportation ). Historically, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Empire» \o «British Empire»
British Empire practiced the deportation of individual criminals to
penal colonies, such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia» \o «Australia» Australia .

Deportation can also happen within a country, when for example an
individual or a group of people is forcibly resettled to a different
part of the country. If ethnic groups are affected by this, it is also
referred to as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_transfer» \o «Population
transfer» population transfer . The pretext is often that said groups
might assist the enemy in war.

During HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o «World
War II» World War II , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonians» \o «Estonians» Estonians ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latvians» \o «Latvians»
Latvians , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuanians» \o
«Lithuanians» Lithuanians , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volga_Germans» \o «Volga Germans» Volga
Germans , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimean_Tatars» \o
«Crimean Tatars» Crimean Tatars , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chechens» \o «Chechens» Chechens , and
others were deported in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union» \o «Soviet Union» Soviet
Union by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalin» \o «Stalin»
Stalin and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_internment_in_the_United_States»
\o «Japanese internment in the United States» Japanese Americans were
deported in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_of_America» \o «United
States of America» United States of America by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Roosevelt» \o «Franklin
Roosevelt» Franklin Roosevelt .

In the 19th century, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_of_America» \o «United
States of America» United States of America government, particularly
under HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Jackson» \o
«Andrew Jackson» Andrew Jackson , deported numerous HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amerindian» \o «Amerindian» Amerindian
tribes. The most infamous of these deportations became known as the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trail_of_Tears» \o «Trail of
Tears» Trail of Tears .

Almost all countries reserve the right of deportation of foreigners,
even those who are longtime HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Residency» \o «Residency» residents . In
general, deportation is reserved for foreigners who have committed
serious crimes, or entered the country illegally, or are wanted in
another country (see HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extradition» \o «Extradition» extradition
). It can also be used on those considered to be a threat to the
country. Deportation is generally done directly by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government» \o «Government» government ‘s
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_%28government%29» \o
«Executive (government)» executive apparatus rather than by order or
authority of a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court» \o
«Court» court , and as such is often subject to a simpler legal process
(or none), with reduced or no right to trial, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Legal_representation&action=e
dit» \o «Legal representation» legal representation or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appeal» \o «Appeal» appeal .

Deportation often requires a specific process that must be validated by
a court or senior Minister. It should therefore not be confused with
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative_Removal» \o
«Administrative Removal» Administrative Removal , which is the process
of a country refusing to allow an individual to enter that country.

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