Women’s Health and Smoking (реферат)

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное Агентство по Образованию
Государственное Образовательное Учреждение
Высшего Профессионального Образования
Череповецкий Государственный Университет

Гуманитарный Институт
Кафедра Английской Филологии
Специальность 031001 – филология

Реферат: “Women’s Health and Smoking”

Выполнила: Толоконцева Н.А.
Группа: 2ФА-24
Проверила: ст.преп.
Швец В.М.

Череповец, 2005

Report: Women’s health and smoking



Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women

History of Advertising Strategies

Health Consequence of Tobacco Use Among Women


Lung Cancer

Other Cancers

Cardiovascular Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Lung Function

Menstrual Function

Bone Density and Fracture Risk

Other Conditions

Health Consequences of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

Smoking and Reproductive Outcomes, Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Reproductive Outcomes

Smoking Prevalence and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy

What Is Need to Reduce Smoking Among Women

New European anti-smoking campaign

Quitting Smoke and Attempts to Quit


The Literature List


This report summarizes what is now known about smoking among women,
including patterns and trends in smoking habits, factors associated with
starting to smoke and continuing to smoke, the consequences of smoking
on women’s health and interventions for ending and prevention. What the
report also makes clear is how the tobacco industry has historically and
contemporarily created marketing specifically targeted at women. Smoking
is the leading known cause of preventable death and disease among women.
In 2000, far more women died of lung cancer than of breast cancer. A
number of things need to be acted on to control the epidemic of smoking
and smoking-related diseases among women throughout the world.

Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women

Cigarette smoking was rare among women in the early 20th century.
Cigarette smoking became prevalent among women after it did among men,
and smoking prevalence has always been lower among women than among men.
However, the gender-specific difference in smoking prevalence narrowed
between 1965 and 1985. Since 1985, the decline in prevalence among men
and women has been comparable.

Smoking prevalence decreased among women from 33.9% in 1965 to 22.0%
in 1998. Most of this decline occurred from 1974 through 1990;
prevalence declined very little from 1992 through 1998.

The prevalence of current smoking is three times higher among women
with 9-11 years of education (32.9%) than among women with 16 or more
years of education (11.2%).

Smoking prevalence is higher among women living below the poverty
level (29.6%) than among those living at or above the poverty level

  Girls who initiate smoking are more likely than those who do not
smoke to have parents or friends who smoke. They also tend to have
weaker attachments to parents and family and stronger attachments to
peers and friends. They perceive smoking prevalence to be higher than it
actually is, are inclined to risk taking and rebelliousness, have a
weaker commitment to school or religion, have less knowledge of the
adverse consequences of smoking and the addictiveness of nicotine,
believe that smoking can control weight and negative moods, and have a
positive image of smokers.

Women who continue to smoke and those who fail at attempts to stop
smoking tend to have lower education and employment levels than do women
who quit smoking. They also tend to be more addicted to cigarettes, as
evidenced by the smoking of a higher number of cigarettes per day, to be
cognitively less ready to stop smoking, to have less social support for
stopping, and to be less confident in resisting temptations to smoke.

The level of nicotine dependence is strongly associated with the
quantity of cigarettes smoked per day.

When results are stratified by the number of cigarettes smoked per
day, girls and women who smoke appear to be equally dependent on
nicotine, as measured by first cigarette after waking, smoking for a
calming and relaxing effect, withdrawal symptoms, or other measures of
nicotine dependence.

Of the women who smoke, more than three-fourths report one or more
indicators of nicotine dependence, and nearly three-fourths report
feeling dependent on cigarettes.

History of Advertising Strategies

One of the most common advertisement themes in developed countries is
that smoking is both a passport to and a symbol of the independence and
success of the modern women.

Tobacco industry marketing is a factor influencing susceptibility to
and initiation of smoking among girls, in the United States and
overseas. Myriad examples of tobacco ads and promotions targeted to
women indicate that such marketing is dominated by themes of social
desirability and independence. These themes are conveyed through ads
featuring slim, attractive, athletic models, images very much at odds
with the serious health consequences experienced by so many women who

Women have been extensively targeted in tobacco marketing, and
tobacco companies have produced brands specifically for women, both in
the United States and overseas. Myriad examples of tobacco ads and
promotions targeted to women indicated that such marketing is dominated
by themes of both social desirability and independence, which are
conveyed through ads featuring slim, attractive, athletic models.
Between 1995 and 1998, expenditures for domestic cigarette advertising
and promotion increased from $4.90 billion to $6.73 billion. Tobacco
industry marketing, including product design, advertising, and
promotional activities, is a factor influencing susceptibility to and
initiation of smoking.

The dependence of the media on revenues from tobacco advertising
oriented to women, coupled with tobacco company sponsorship of women’s
fashions and of artistic, athletic, political, and other events, has
tended to stifle media coverage of the health consequences of smoking
among women and to mute criticism of the tobacco industry by women
public figures.

Tobacco advertising geared toward women began in the 1920s. By the
mid-1930s, cigarette advertisements targeting women were becoming so
commonplace that one advertisement for the mentholated Spud brand had
the caption “To read the advertisements these days, a fellow’d think the
pretty girls do all the smoking.”

  As early as the 1920s, tobacco advertising geared toward women
included messages such as “Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet” to
establish an association between smoking and slimness. The positioning
of Lucky Strike as an aid to weight control led to a greater than 300%
increase in sales for this brand in the first year of the advertising

Through World War II, Chesterfield advertisements regularly featured
glamour photographs of a Chesterfield girl of the month, usually a
fashion model or a Hollywood star such as Rita Hayworth, Rosalind
Russell, or Betty Grable.

  The number of women aged 18 through 25 years who began smoking
increased significantly in the mid-1920s, the same time that the tobacco
industry mounted the Chesterfield and Lucky Strike campaigns directed at
women. The trend was most striking among women aged 18 though 21. The
number of women in this age group who began smoking tripled between 1911
and 1925 and had more than tripled again by 1939.

In 1968, Philip Morris marketed Virginia Slims cigarettes to women
with an advertising strategy showing canny insight into the importance
of the emerging women’s movement. The slogan “You’ve come a long way,
Baby” later gave way to “It’s a woman thing” in the mid-1990s, and more
recently the “Find your voice” campaign featuring women of diverse
racial and ethnic backgrounds. The underlying message of these campaigns
has been that smoking is related to women’s freedom, emancipation, and

Initiation rates among girls aged 14 though 17 years rapidly
increased in parallel with the combined sales of the leading
women’s-niche brands (Virginia Slims, Silva Thins, and Eve) during this

In 1960, about 10% of all cigarette advertisements appeared in
popular women’s magazines, and by 1985, cigarette advertisements
increased by 34%.

Evidence suggests a pattern of international tobacco advertising that
associates smoking with success, similar to that seen in the United
States. This development emphasizes the enormous potential of
advertising to change social norms.

  As western-styled marketing has increased, campaigns commonly have
focused on women. For example, in 1989, the brand Yves Saint Laurent
introduced a new elegant package designed to appeal to women in Malaysia
and other Asian countries. National tobacco monopolies and companies,
such as those in Indonesia and Japan, began to copy this promotional
targeting of women.

One of the most popular media for reaching women—particularly in
places where tobacco advertising is banned on television – is women’s
magazines. Magazines can lend an air of social acceptability or stylish
image to smoking. This may be particularly important in countries where
smoking rates are low among women and where tobacco companies are
attempting to associate smoking with Western values.

  A study of 111 women’s magazines in 17 European countries in
1996-1997 found that 55% of the magazines that responded accepted
cigarette advertisements, and only 4 had a policy of voluntarily
refusing it. Only 31% of the magazines had published an article of one
page or more on smoking and health in the previous 12 months. Magazines
that accepted tobacco advertisements seem less likely to give coverage
to smoking and health issues.

Events and activities popular among young people are often sponsored
by tobacco companies. Free tickets to films and to pop and rock concerts
have been given in exchange for empty cigarette packets in Hong Kong and
Taiwan. Popular U.S. female stars have allowed their names to be
associated with cigarettes in other countries.


Many countries have banned tobacco advertising and promotion. In
1998, the European Union adopted a directive to ban most tobacco
advertising and sponsorship by July 30, 2006. Other countries have
banned direct advertising, and still others have instituted partial
restraints. Such bans are often circumvented by tobacco companies
through various promotional venues such as the creation of retail stores
named after cigarette brands or corporate sponsorship of sporting and
other events. Moreover, national bans on tobacco advertisements may be
rendered ineffective by tobacco promotion on satellite television, by
cable broadcasting, or via the Internet.

Health Consequence of Tobacco Use Among Women

Women who stop smoking greatly reduce their risk of dying
prematurely. The relative benefits of smoking ending are greater when
women stop smoking at younger ages, but smoking ending is beneficial at
all ages.

Women who stop smoking greatly reduce their risk of dying
prematurely, and quitting smoking is useful at all ages. Although some
clinical intervention studies suggest that women may have more
difficulty quitting smoking than men, national survey data show that
women are quitting at rates similar to or even higher than those for
men. Prevention and cessation interventions are generally of similar
effectiveness for women and men and, to date, few sex differences in
factors related to smoking initiation and successful quitting have been

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a cause of lung cancer and
coronary heart disease among women who are lifetime nonsmokers. Infants
born to women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy
have a small decrement in birth weight and a slightly increased risk of
intrauterine growth retardation compared to infants of no exposed women.

A dozen diseases are waiting for women-smokers.

Lung Cancer

Cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer among women.
About 90% of all lung cancer deaths among U.S. women smokers are
attributable to smoking.

In 1950, lung cancer accounted for only 3% of all cancer deaths among
women; however, by 2000, it accounted for an estimated 25% of cancer

Since 1950, lung cancer mortality rates for U.S. women have increased
an estimated 600%. In 1987, lung cancer surpassed breast cancer to
become the leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. In 2000,
about 27,000 more women died of lung cancer (67,600) than breast cancer

Other Cancers

Smoking is a major cause of cancer of the oropharynx and bladder
among women. Evidence is also strong that women who smoke have increased
risk for cancer of the pancreas and kidney. For cancer of the larynx and
esophagus, evidence that smoking increases the risk among women is more
limited but consistent with large increases in risk.

Women who smoke may have a higher risk for liver cancer and
colorectal cancer than women who do not smoke.

Smoking is consistently associated with an increased risk for
cervical cancer. The extent to which this association is independent of
human papillomavirus (tumor caused by virus) infection is uncertain.

Several studies suggest that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
is associated with an increased risk for breast cancer; however, this
association remains uncertain.

More research is needed.

Cardiovascular Disease

Smoking is a major cause of coronary heart disease among women. Risk
increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of

  Women who smoke have an increase risk for ischemic stroke (blood clot
in one of the arteries supplying the brain) and subarachnoid hemorrhage
(bleeding in the area surrounding the brain).

Women who smoke have an increased risk for peripheral vascular

  Smoking cessation reduces the excess risk of coronary heart disease,
no matter at what age women stop smoking. The risk is substantially
reduced within 1 or 2 years after they stop smoking.

The increased risk for stroke associated with smoking begins to
reverse after women stop smoking. About 10 to 15 years after stopping,
the risk for stroke approaches that of a women who never smoked.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Lung Function

Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of COPD in women, and the risk
increases with the amount and duration of cigarette use.

Mortality rates for COPD have increased among women for the past 20
to 30 years. About, 90% of mortality from COPD among U.S. women is
attributed to smoking.

Exposure to maternal smoking is associated with reduced lung function
among infants, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke during
childhood and adolescence may be associated with impaired lung function
among girls.

Smoking by girls can reduce their rate of lung growth and the level
of maximum lung function. Women who smoke may experience a premature
decline of lung function.


Menstrual Function

Some studies suggest that cigarette smoking may alter menstrual
function by increasing the risks for painful menstruation, secondary
amenorrhea (abnormal absence of menstrual), and menstrual irregularity

Women smokers have natural menopause at a younger age than do
nonsmokers, and they may experience more severe menopausal symptoms.

Reproductive Outcomes

Women who smoke have increased risk for conception delay and for both
primary and secondary infertility.

Women who smoke during pregnancy risk pregnancy complications,
premature birth, low-birth-weight infants, stillbirth, and infant

Women who smoke may have a modest increase in risks for ectopic
pregnancy (fallopian tube or peritoneal cavity pregnancy) and
spontaneous abortion.

Studies show a link between smoking and the risk of sudden infant
death syndrome (SIDS) among the offspring of women who smoke during


Bone Density and Fracture Risk

Postmenopausal women who smoke have lower bone density than women who
never smoked.

Women who smoke have an increased risk for hip fracture than women
who never smoked.

Other Conditions

Women who smoke may have a modestly elevated risk for rheumatoid

  Women smokers have an increased risk for cataract, and may have an
increased risk for age-related macular degeneration.

The prevalence of smoking generally is higher for women with anxiety
disorders, bulimia, depression, attention deficit disorder, and
alcoholism; it is particularly high among patients with diagnosed
schizophrenia. The connection between smoking and these disorders
requires additional research.


Health Consequences of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)

Exposure to ETS is a cause of lung cancer among women nonsmokers.

Studies support a causal relationship between exposure to ETS and
coronary heart disease mortality among women nonsmokers.

Infants born to women who are exposed to ETS during pregnancy may
have a small decrement in birth weight and a slightly increased risk for
intrauterine growth retardation.

Smoking and Reproductive Outcomes, Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant

Women smokers, like men smokers, are at increased risk of cancer,
cardiovascular disease, and pulmonary disease, but women smokers also
experience unique risks related to menstrual and reproductive function.

Women who smoke have increased risk beginning delay and for major and
secondary infertility.

Smoking during pregnancy remains a major public health problem
despite increased knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking
during pregnancy. Although the occurrence of smoking during pregnancy
has declined steadily in recent years, substantial numbers of pregnant
women continue to smoke, and only about one-third of women who stop
smoking during pregnancy are still abstinent one year after the

Women who smoke may have a modest increase in risks for ectopic
pregnancy and spontaneous. abortion.

Smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for
premature break of membranes, abruptio placentae (placenta separation
from the uterus), and placenta previal (abnormal location of the
placenta, which can cause massive hemorrhaging during delivery; smoking
is also associated with a modest increase in risk for preterm delivery.

Infants born to women who smoke during pregnancy have a lower average
birth weight and are more likely to be small for gestational age than
infants born to women who do not smoke. Low birth weight is associated
with increased risk for neonatal, perinatal, and infant morbidity and
mortality. The longer the mother smokes during pregnancy, the greater
the effect on the infant’s birth weight.

  The risk for perinatal mortality, both stillbirths and neonatal
deaths, and the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are higher
for the offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy.

Women who smoke are less likely to breast-feed their infants than are
women who do not.


Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Reproductive Outcomes

Infants born to women who are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke
(ETS) during pregnancy may have a small decrement in birth weight and a
slightly increased risk for intrauterine growth retardation than infants
born to women who are not exposed to ETS.

Smoking Prevalence and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy

Despite increased knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking
during pregnancy, estimates of women smoking during pregnancy range from
12% (based on birth certificate data) up to 22% (based on survey data).
However, smoking during pregnancy appears to have decreased from 1989
through 1998.

  Eliminating maternal smoking may lead to a 10% reduction in all
infant deaths and a 12% reduction in deaths from perinatal conditions.

Women who quit smoking before or during pregnancy reduce the risk for
adverse reproductive outcomes, including difficulties in becoming
pregnant, infertility, premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery,
and low birth weight.

  Most relevant studies suggest that infants of women who stop smoking
by the first trimester have weight and body measurements comparable with
those of nonsmokers’ infants. Studies also suggest that smoking in the
third trimester is particularly detrimental.

  Women are more likely to stop smoking during pregnancy, both
spontaneously and with assistance, than at other times in their lives.
Using pregnancy-specific programs can increase smoking cessation rates,
which benefits infant health and is cost effective. However, only
one-third of women who stop smoking during pregnancy are still abstinent
1 year after the delivery.

Programs that encourage women to stop smoking before, during, and
after pregnancy — and not to take up smoking ever again — deserve high
priority for two reasons: during pregnancy women are highly motivated to
stop smoking, and they still have many remaining years of potential

Despite increased knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking
during pregnancy, survey data suggest that a substantial number of
pregnant women and girls smoke. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy
declined from 19.5% in 1989 to 12.9% in 1998.

Smoking prevalence during pregnancy differs by age and by race and
ethnicity. In 1998, smoking prevalence during pregnancy was consistently
highest among young adult women aged 18 through 24 (17.1%) and lowest
among women aged 25 through 49 (10.5%).

Smoking during pregnancy declined among women of all racial/ethnic
populations. From 1989 to 1998, smoking among American Indian or Alaska
Native pregnant women decreased from 23.0% to 20.2%; among pregnant
white women from 21.7% to 16.2%; African American pregnant women from
17.2% to 9.6%; Hispanic pregnant women from 8.0% to 4.0%; and Asian
American or Pacific Islander pregnant women from 5.7% to 3.1%.

In 1998, there was nearly a 12-fold difference among pregnant women
who smoke—ranging from 25.5 percent among mothers with 9-11 years of
education to 2.2 percent among mothers with 16 or more years of

What Is Need to Reduce Smoking Among Women – Fact Sheet

Increase awareness of the devastating impact of smoking on women’s
health. Smoking is the leading known cause of preventable death and
disease among women — In 1997, smoking accounted for about 165,000
deaths among U.S. women. In 1987, lung cancer became the leading cause
of cancer death among women, and by 2000, about 27,000 more women in the
United States died of lung cancer (about 68,000) than of breast cancer
(about 41,000).


Expose and counter the tobacco industry’s deliberate targeting of women
and decry its efforts to link smoking, which is so harmful to women’s
health, with women’s rights and progress in society — In 1999 tobacco
companies spent more than $8.24 billion,— or more than $22.6 million a
day — to advertise and promote cigarettes. To sell its products, the
tobacco industry exploits themes of success and independence,
particularly in its advertising in women’s magazines.


Encourage a more vocal constituency on issues related to women and
smoking — Taking a lesson from the success of advocacy to reduce breast
cancer, we must make concerted efforts to call public attention to the
toll of lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases on women’s
health. Women affected by tobacco-related diseases and their families
and friends can partner with women’s and girls’ organizations, women’s
magazines, female celebrities, and others — not only in an effort to
raise awareness of tobacco-related disease as a women’s issue, but also
to call for policies and programs that deglamorize and discourage
tobacco use.

Recognize that nonsmoking is by far the norm among women— Publicize that
most women are nonsmokers. Nearly four-fifths of U.S. women are
nonsmokers, and in some subgroup populations, smoking is relatively rare
(e.g., only 11.2 % of women who have completed college are current
smokers, and only 5.4 % of black high school seniors girls are daily
smokers). It important to recognize that among adult women those who are
most empowered, as measured by educational attainment, are the least
likely to be smokers. Moreover, most women who smoke want to quit.


Conduct further studies of the relationship between smoking and certain
outcomes of importance to women’s health — Additional research is needed
to explore these issues:

The link between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of
breast cancer.


Cigarette brand variations in toxicity and whether any of these possible
variations may be related to changes in lung cancer histology during the
past decade.


Changes in tobacco products and whether increased exposure to
tobacco-specific nitrosamines may be related to the increased incidence
rates of adenocarcinoma (malignant glandular tumor) of the lung.


Health effects of smoking among women in the developing world.


Encourage the reporting of gender-specific results from studies of
influences on smoking behavior, smoking prevention and cessation
interventions, and the health effects of tobacco use, including use of
new tobacco products — Research is needed to better understand and to
reduce current disparities in smoking prevalence among women of
different groups as defined by socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity,
and sexual orientation. Women with only 9 to 11 years of education are
about three times as likely to be smokers as are women with a college
education. American Indian or Alaska Native women are much more likely
to smoke than are Hispanic women and Asian or Pacific Islander women.
Among teenage girls, white girls are much more likely to smoke than are
African American girls.


Determine why, during most of the 1990s, smoking prevalence declined so
little among women and increased so markedly among teenage girls — This
lack of progress is a major concern and threatens to prolong the
epidemic of smoking-related diseases among women. More research is
needed to determine the influences that encourage many women and girls
to smoke even in the face that all that is known of the dire health
consequence of smoking. If, for example, smoking in movies by female
celebrities promotes smoking, then discouraging such practices as well
as engaging well-known actresses to be spokespersons on the issue of
women and smoking should be a high priority.


Develop a research and evaluation agenda related to women and smoking —
Research agendas should focus on these issues:


Determining whether gender-tailored interventions increase the
effectiveness of various smoking prevention and cessation methods.


Documenting whether there are gender differences in the effectiveness of
pharmacologic treatments for tobacco cessation.


Determining which tobacco prevention and cessation interventions are
most effective for specific subgroups of girls and women.


Designing interventions to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence
across all subgroups of girls and women.


Support efforts, at both individual and societal levels, to reduce
smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among women. 
Tobacco-use treatments are among the most cost-effective of preventive
health interventions at the individual level, and they should be part of
all women’s health care programs. Health insurance plans should cover
such services. Societal strategies to reduce tobacco use and exposure to
environmental tobacco smoke include counteradvertising, increasing
tobacco taxes, enacting laws to reduce minors’ access to tobacco
products, and banning smoking in work sites and in public places.


Enact comprehensive statewide tobacco control programs proven to be
effective in reducing and preventing tobacco use — Results from states
such as Arizona, California, Florida, Maine, Massachusetts, and Oregon
show that science-based tobacco control programs have successfully
reduced smoking rates among women and girls. California established a
comprehensive statewide tobacco control program more than 10 years ago,
and is now starting to observe the benefits of its sustained efforts.
Between 1988 and 1997, the incidence rate of lung cancer among women
declined by 4.8% in California but increased by 13.2% in other regions
of the United States.


Increase efforts to stop the emerging epidemic of smoking among women in
developing countries — Strongly encourage and support multinational
policies that discourage the spread of smoking and tobacco-related
diseases among women in countries where smoking prevalence has
traditionally been low. It is urgent that what is already known about
effective means of tobacco control at the societal level be disseminated
throughout the world.


Support the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention for Tobacco
Control (FCTC) — The FCTC is an international legal instrument designed
to curb the global spread of tobacco use through specific protocols –
currently being negotiated – that relate to tobacco pricing, smuggling,
advertising, sponsorship, and other activities.

New European anti-smoking campaign

The European Commission is launching a new multi-million dollar
anti-smoking campaign. It comes as the world’s first ever treaty aimed
at dissuading children from smoking and helping adults kick the habit
enters into force this week.

The European Commission will spend about ninety five million dollars
over the next four years trying to prevent children and young adults
from smoking. That’s a big increase on the twenty five million dollars
it spent on its last anti-smoking campaign.

But it’s an amount that’s dwarfed by the multi-billion dollar
financial clout of the tobacco industry, even though companies like
British-American tobacco say they support efforts to reduce the
incidents of youth smoking across Europe.

The Commission’s latest campaign ties in with a global anti-smoking
treaty which came into force on Sunday and which requires that
governments take tough measures against the promotion of tobacco. The
Commission’s already spent money on a logo and slogan both of which will
be unveiled at the launch of the anti-smoking campaign on Tuesday and
which will be followed up by a series of EU wide TV and cinema adverts.

The campaign comes on top of existing efforts to curb tobacco use.
The Commission is encouraging countries to put picture warnings on
cigarette packets which would feature photos of blackened lungs and from
July this year tobacco firms will be banned from advertising at sporting
events such as formula one car racing.

Quitting Smoke and Attempts to Quit

More than three-fourths (75.2%) of women want to quit smoking
completely, and nearly half (46.6%) report having tried to quit during
the previous year.

In 1998, the percentage of people who had ever smoked and who had
quit was lower among women (46.2%) than among men (50.9%). This finding
may be because men began to stop smoking earlier in the 20th century
than did women and because these data do not take into account that men
are more likely than women to switch to, or to continue to use, other
tobacco products when they stop smoking.

Since the late 1970s or early 1980s, the probability of attempting to
quit smoking and succeeding has been equal among women and men.


Smoking is need to be reduced not only among women, but also among
young people, children and men. Anti-smoking campaigns should be held in
schools and universities, in offices and factories. Reducing and absence
of smoking among the youth is one of the main factors of healthy
generation. People should understand the harm of this bad habit to do
everything for smoke quitting, and such first step will bring health and
good future.


Smoking and youth, A.Gorin, Moscow, Publishers – Alta-Press, 2001

D.Satcher: “A Report of the Surgeon General”, the article from the
magazine “National Geographic”, 05.1998

Tobacco against people. People against tobacco, F.Healey, London,
Penguin Group, 2002

Woman’s Health, A.Documentova, Moscow, Publishers – EKSMO, 2005



New Russian-English dictionary, V.Muller, Publishers – Alta-Press, 2003

English-Russian dictionary, V.Muller, Moscow, Publishers – Russian
Language, 1999



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