Реферат на тему:

Wernher von Braun (engl)

Wernher von Braun stands at his desk in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Space_Flight_Center» \o «Marshall
Space Flight Center» Marshall Space Flight Center , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huntsville%2C_Alabama» \o «Huntsville,
Alabama» Huntsville, Alabama in May 1964, with models of rockets
developed and in progress.

Contents

[ HYPERLINK «javascript:toggleToc()» hide ]

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Early_life» 1 Early
life

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «German_career» 2 German
career

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «The_Prussian_rocketeer»
2.1 The Prussian rocketeer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Arrest_by_the_Nazi_regime» 2.2 Arrest by the Nazi regime

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Surrender_to_the_Americans» 3 Surrender to the Americans

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «American_career» 4
American career

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «U.S._Army_career» 4.1
U.S. Army career

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Popular_concepts_for_a_human_presence_in_space» 4.2 Popular concepts
for a human presence in space

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «NASA_career» 4.3 NASA
career

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Career_after_NASA» 4.4
Career after NASA

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Honors» 5 Honors

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Posthumous_recognition»
6 Posthumous recognition

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Cultural_references» 7
Cultural references

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «On_film_and_television»
7.1 On film and television

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «In_print_media» 7.2 In
print media

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «In_novels» 7.3 In
novels

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «In_music» 7.4 In music

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «In_computer_games» 7.5
In computer games

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Notes» 8 Notes

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «See_also» 9 See also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «References» 10
References

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «External_links» 11
External links

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_%28title%29» \o «Doctor
(title)» Dr. Wernher Magnus Maximilian HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freiherr» \o «Freiherr» Freiherr
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-0» \o «» [1] von
Braun ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_23» \o «March 23»
March 23 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1912» \o «1912»
1912 – HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_16» \o «June 16»
June 16 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977» \o «1977»
1977 ) was one of the leading figures in the development of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket» \o «Rocket» rocket technology in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany» \o «Germany» Germany
and the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o
«United States» United States . The German HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientist» \o «Scientist» scientist , who
led Germany’s rocket development program ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-2_rocket» \o «V-2 rocket» V-2 ) before
and during HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o
«World War II» World War II , entered the United States at the end of
the war through the then-secret HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Paperclip» \o «Operation
Paperclip» Operation Paperclip . He became a naturalized HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_nationality_law» \o «United
States nationality law» U.S. citizen and worked on the American
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercontinental_ballistic_missile» \o
«Intercontinental ballistic missile» ICBM program before joining
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NASA» \o «NASA» NASA , where he
served as director of NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the chief
architect of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V» \o
«Saturn V» Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled
the United States to the Moon HYPERLINK
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/bio.html» \o
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/bio.html» [1] . He is generally
regarded as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_known_as_father_or_mother_o
f_something» \l «V» \o «List of people known as father or mother of
something» father of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Race» \o «Space Race» United States
space program . Wernher von Braun received the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Medal_of_Science» \o «National
Medal of Science» National Medal of Science in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1975» \o «1975» 1975 . He was tall,
articulate and spoke English with a distinctive German accent. He was
buried at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ivy_Hill_Cemetery&action=edit
» \o «Ivy Hill Cemetery» Ivy Hill Cemetery in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria%2C_Virginia» \o «Alexandria,
Virginia» Alexandria, Virginia . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-1» \o «» [2]

Early life

Wernher von Braun was born in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wyrzysk» \o «Wyrzysk» Wirsitz ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Posen» \o «Province
of Posen» Province of Posen in the German Kingdom of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prussia» \o «Prussia» Prussia . He was
born second of three sons with an impressive pedigree. His father, the
conservative politician HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Magnus_von_Braun&action=edit»
\o «Magnus von Braun» Magnus Freiherr von Braun (1877-1972), served as
a Minister of Agriculture in the Federal Cabinet during the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weimar_Republic» \o «Weimar Republic»
Weimar Republic . His mother, Emmy von Quistorp (3.11.1886-1959) through
both her parents could trace ancestry to medieval European HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_family» \o «Royal family» royalty ,
including King HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_III_of_France» \o «Philip III of
France» Philip III of France , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_III_of_Scotland» \o «Robert III of
Scotland» Robert III of Scotland and King HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England» \o «Edward III of
England» Edward III of England through his father, and King
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abel_of_Denmark» \o «Abel of
Denmark» Abel of Denmark through his mother, through the son of
Nikolaus von Tecklenburg by Catharina Waterfoer, by whom he descended by
seven lines of King HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sancho_I_of_Portugal» \o «Sancho I of
Portugal» Sancho I of Portugal and his wife HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dulce_Berenguer» \o «Dulce Berenguer»
Dulce Berenguer . He also had a younger brother, also named HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Magnus_von_Braun&action=edit»
\o «Magnus von Braun» Magnus Freiherr von Braun , born in 1919. Upon
Wernher von Braun’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lutheranism» \o «Lutheranism» Lutheran
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confirmation_%28sacrament%29» \o
«Confirmation (sacrament)» confirmation , his mother gave him a
telescope, and he discovered a passion for astronomy and the realm of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outer_space» \o «Outer space»
outer space . When, as a result of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles» \o «Treaty of
Versailles» Treaty of Versailles , Wirsitz became part of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Polish_Republic» \o «Second Polish
Republic» Poland in 1920, his family, like many other German families,
moved. They settled in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin»
\o «Berlin» Berlin , where at first von Braun did not do well in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics» \o «Physics» physics
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics» \o
«Mathematics» mathematics until he acquired a copy of the book
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Die_Rakete_zu_den_Planetenr%C
3%A4umen&action=edit» \o «Die Rakete zu den Planetenraeumen» Die Rakete
zu den Planetenraeumen (The Rocket into Interplanetary Space) by rocket
pioneer HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Oberth» \o
«Hermann Oberth» Hermann Oberth . From then on, he applied himself at
school in order to understand physics and mathematics. During this
period, the 12-year-old von Braun, inspired by speed records established
by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Valier» \o «Max Valier»
Max Valier and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_von_Opel» \o «Fritz von Opel» Fritz
von Opel HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-2» \o «»
[3] , caused a major disruption by firing off a toy wagon to which he
had attached a number of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firework» \o «Firework» fireworks . The
youngster was taken into custody by the local police until his father
came to collect him.

In 1930, von Braun attended the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_University_of_Berlin» \o
«Technical University of Berlin» Technical University of Berlin , where
he joined the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verein_f%C3%BCr_Raumschiffahrt» \o «Verein
fuer Raumschiffahrt» Verein fuer Raumschiffahrt (VfR, the «Spaceflight
Society») and assisted HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Oberth» \o «Hermann Oberth»
Hermann Oberth in liquid-fueled rocket motor tests. After receiving his
degree, he commenced postgraduate studies at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_University_of_Berlin» \o
«Technical University of Berlin» Technical University of Berlin ,
earning a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctorate» \o
«Doctorate» doctorate in physics ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerospace_engineering» \o «Aerospace
engineering» aerospace engineering ) on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_27» \o «July 27» July 27 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1934» \o «1934» 1934 .

The idea of space travel had always fascinated von Braun, and even as a
boy he had experimented with a rocket-propelled wagon down a crowded
street in Berlin, Germany, earning himself a stern lecture from police.
Von Braun continued to pursue his interest in rocketry, however, and at
the age of twenty was appointed chief of the German army’s rocket corps.
Although he worked mainly with military rockets for many years, space
travel remained his primary goal.

German career

The Prussian rocketeer

Von Braun was working on his doctorate when an artillery captain,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Dornberger» \o «Walter
Dornberger» Walter Dornberger , arranged an Ordnance Department
research grant for him, and von Braun then worked next to Dornberger’s
existing solid-fuel rocket test site at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kummersdorf» \o «Kummersdorf» Kummersdorf
. He received his doctorate two years later and by the end of 1934, his
group had successfully launched two rockets that rose to heights of 2.2
and 3.5 HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilometer» \o
«Kilometer» kilometers .

At the time, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany» \o
«Germany» Germany was highly interested in American physicist
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_H._Goddard» \o «Robert H.
Goddard» Robert H. Goddard ‘s research. Before HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1939» \o «1939» 1939 , German scientists
occasionally contacted Goddard directly with technical questions. After
that, things got rather tense. Wernher von Braun used Goddard’s plans
from various journals and incorporated them into the building of the
Aggregat 4 (A-4) series of rockets — better known as the V-2. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-3» \o «» [4] In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1963» \o «1963» 1963 , von Braun
reflected on the history of rocketry, and said of Goddard’s work: «His
rockets … may have been rather crude by present-day standards, but
they blazed the trail and incorporated many features used in our most
modern rockets and space vehicles» HYPERLINK
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/recall.html» \o
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/recall.html» [2] . Goddard
confirmed his work was used by von Braun when, after the war ended,
Goddard inspected captured German V-2s, and recognized many components
which he had invented. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources» \o
«Wikipedia:Citing sources» [citation needed]

There were no German rocket societies after the collapse of the VfR, and
civilian rocket tests were forbidden by the new HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany» \o «Nazi Germany» Nazi
regime . Only military development was allowed and to this end, a larger
facility was erected at the village of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peenem%C3%BCnde» \o «Peenemuende»
Peenemuende in northern Germany on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltic_Sea» \o «Baltic Sea» Baltic Sea .
This location was chosen partly on the recommendation of von Braun’s
mother, who recalled her father’s duck-hunting expeditions there.
Dornberger became the military commander at Peenemuende, with von Braun
as technical director. In collaboration with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luftwaffe» \o «Luftwaffe» Luftwaffe , the
Peenemuende group developed liquid-fuel rocket engines for aircraft and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet-assisted_takeoff» \o
«Jet-assisted takeoff» jet-assisted takeoffs . They also developed the
long-range A-4 HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballistic_missile» \o «Ballistic missile»
ballistic missile and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersonic» \o «Supersonic» supersonic
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wasserfall_missile» \o
«Wasserfall missile» Wasserfall HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-aircraft_missile» \o «Anti-aircraft
missile» anti-aircraft missile .

In November 1937 (other sources: December 1 1932), von Braun joined the
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Socialist_German_Workers_Party»
\o «National Socialist German Workers Party» National Socialist German
Workers Party . An HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Office_of_Military_Government%2C_United_St
ates» \o «Office of Military Government, United States» Office of
Military Government, United States document dated April 23 1947 states
that von Braun joined the Waffen-SS ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schutzstaffel» \o «Schutzstaffel»
Schutzstaffel ) horseback riding school in 1933, then the National
Socialist Party on May 1 1937 and became an officer in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waffen-SS» \o «Waffen-SS» Waffen-SS from
May 1940 to the end of the war.

Amongst his comments about his NSDAP membership von Braun has said:

I was officially demanded to join the National Socialist Party. At this
time (1937) I was already technical director of the Army Rocket Center
at Peenemuende … My refusal to join the party would have meant that I
would have to abandon the work of my life. Therefore, I decided to join.
My membership in the party did not involve any political activities …
in Spring 1940, one SS- HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standartenf%C3%BChrer» \o
«Standartenfuehrer» Standartenfuehrer (SS Colonel) Mueller … looked
me up in my office at Peenemuende and told me that HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsf%C3%BChrer-SS» \o
«Reichsfuehrer-SS» Reichsfuehrer-SS HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Himmler» \o «Heinrich Himmler»
Heinrich Himmler had sent him with the order to urge me to join the SS.
I called immediately on my military superior … Major-General W.
Dornberger. He informed me that … if I wanted to continue our mutual
work, I had no alternative but to join. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources» \o
«Wikipedia:Citing sources» [citation needed]

That claim has been often disputed because in 1940, the Waffen-SS had
shown no interest in Peenemuende yet. Also, the assertion that persons
in von Braun’s position were pressured to join the Nazi party, let alone
the SS, has been disputed. Braun claimed to have worn the SS uniform
only once HYPERLINK
«http://www.reformation.org/wernher-von-braun.html» \o
«http://www.reformation.org/wernher-von-braun.html» [3] . He began as
an HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Untersturmf%C3%BChrer» \o
«Untersturmfuehrer» Untersturmfuehrer (Second Lieutenant) and was
promoted three times by Himmler, the last time in June 1943 to SS-
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturmbannf%C3%BChrer» \o
«Sturmbannfuehrer» Sturmbannfuehrer ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wehrmacht» \o «Wehrmacht» Wehrmacht
Major).

A4 production in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mittelwerk» \o «Mittelwerk» Mittelwerk
1945. This photo from Soviet made movie after war.

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_22» \o «December
22» December 22 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1942» \o
«1942» 1942 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler»
\o «Adolf Hitler» Adolf Hitler signed the order approving the
production of the A-4 as a «vengeance weapon» and the group developed it
to target HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London» \o «London»
London . Following von Braun’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_7» \o «July 7» July 7 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1943» \o «1943» 1943 presentation of a
color movie showing an A-4 taking off, Hitler was so enthusiastic that
he personally made him a professor shortly thereafter HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-4» \o «» [5] . (In Germany
and at this time, this was an absolutely unusual promotion for an
engineer who was only 31 years old.) The first combat A-4, renamed the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-2_rocket» \o «V-2 rocket» V-2
(«Vergeltungswaffe 2», «Retaliation/Vengeance Weapon 2») for propaganda
purposes, was launched toward HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England» \o «England» England on
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_7» \o «September 7»
September 7 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1944» \o «1944»
1944 , only 21 months after the project had been officially
commissioned. Von Braun’s interest in rockets was specifically for the
application of space travel, which led him to say on hearing the news
from London: ‘The rocket worked perfectly except for landing on the
wrong planet’. He described it as his ‘darkest day’.

SS General HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Kammler» \o
«Hans Kammler» Hans Kammler , who as an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineer» \o «Engineer» engineer had
constructed several HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concentration_camp» \o «Concentration
camp» concentration camps including HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auschwitz» \o «Auschwitz» Auschwitz , had
a reputation for brutality and had originated the idea of using
concentration camp prisoners as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery» \o «Slavery» slave laborers in
the rocket program. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Rudolph» \o «Arthur Rudolph»
Arthur Rudolph , chief engineer of the V-2 rocket factory at
Peenemuende, endorsed this idea in April 1943 when a labor shortage
developed. More people died building the V-2 rockets than were killed by
it as a weapon. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-5»
\o «» [6] Von Braun admitted visiting the plant at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mittelwerk» \o «Mittelwerk» Mittelwerk
on many occasions, and called conditions at the plant «repulsive», but
claimed never to have witnessed firsthand any deaths or beatings,
although it became clear to him that deaths had occurred by 1944
HYPERLINK «http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/excerpts.html» \o
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/excerpts.html» [4] . He denied
ever visiting the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mittelbau-Dora» \o «Mittelbau-Dora»
Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp itself.

Adam Cabala reported:

[…] the German scientists led by Prof. Wernher von Braun also saw
everything that went on every day. When they walked along the corridors,
they saw the prisoners’ drudgery, their exhausting work and their
ordeal. During his frequent attendance in Dora, Prof. Wernher von Braun
never once protested against this cruelty and brutality.

and

On a little area beside the clinic shack you could see piles of
prisoners every day who had not survived the workload and had been
tortured to death by the vindictive guards. […] But Prof. Wernher von
Braun just walked past them, so close that he almost touched the bodies.
(Ref 6)

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_15» \o «August 15»
August 15 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1944» \o «1944»
1944 , von Braun wrote a letter (Ref 7) to Albin Sawatzki, manager of
the V-2 production, admitting that he personally picked labor slaves
from the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buchenwald» \o
«Buchenwald» Buchenwald concentration camp, who, he admitted 25 years
later in an interview, had been in a «pitiful shape».

In Wernher von Braun: Crusader for Space numerous quotes from von Braun
show he was aware of the conditions, but felt completely unable to
change them. From a visit to Mittelwerk, von Braun is quoted by a
friend:

It is hellish. My spontaneous reaction was to talk to one of the SS
guards, only to be told with unmistakable harshness that I should mind
my own business, or find myself in the same striped fatigues!… I
realized that any attempt of reasoning on humane grounds would be
utterly futile. (Page 44)

Arrest by the Nazi regime

According to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Andr%C3%A9_Sellier&action=edi
t» \o «Andre Sellier» Andre Sellier , a French historian and survivor
of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mittelbau-Dora» \o
«Mittelbau-Dora» Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp, Himmler had von
Braun come to his HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hochwald» \o
«Hochwald» Hochwald HQ in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Prussia» \o «East Prussia» East
Prussia sometime in February 1944. To increase his power-base within
the Nazi regime, Heinrich Himmler was conspiring to use Kammler to wrest
control of all German armament programs, including the V-2 program at
Peenemuende. He therefore recommended that von Braun work more closely
with Kammler to solve the problems of the V-2, but von Braun claimed to
have replied that the problems were merely technical and he was
confident that they would be solved with Dornberger’s assistance.

Apparently von Braun had been under HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicherheitsdienst» \o «Sicherheitsdienst»
SD surveillance since October 1943 and a report stated that he and his
colleagues HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klaus_Riedel» \o
«Klaus Riedel» Riedel and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmut_Gr%C3%B6ttrup» \o «Helmut
Groettrup» Groettrup were said to have expressed regret at an
engineer’s house one evening that they were not working on a spaceship
and that they felt the war was not going well (a «defeatist» attitude).
A young female dentist later denounced them for their comments and,
combined with Himmler’s false charges that von Braun was a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communism» \o «Communism» Communist
sympathizer and had attempted to sabotage the V-2 program, this led to
his arrest. Kammler, highly dedicated to Himmler, was also instrumental
in von Braun’s arrest by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestapo» \o «Gestapo» Gestapo .

The unsuspecting von Braun was arrested on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_14» \o «March 14» March 14 (or
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_15» \o «March 15» March
15 HYPERLINK «http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/highlights.html»
\o «http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/highlights.html» [5] )
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1944» \o «1944» 1944 and was
taken to a Gestapo cell in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Szczecin» \o «Szczecin» Stettin (now
Szczecin, Poland), where he was imprisoned for two weeks without even
knowing the charges against him. It was only through the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abwehr» \o «Abwehr» Abwehr in Berlin
that Dornberger was able to obtain von Braun’s conditional release and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Speer» \o «Albert Speer»
Albert Speer , Reichsminister for Munitions and War Production,
convinced Hitler to reinstate von Braun so that the V-2 program could
continue. Citing from the «Fuehrerprotokoll» (the minutes of Hitler’s
meetings) dated HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_13» \o
«May 13» May 13 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1944» \o
«1944» 1944 in his memoirs, Speer later relayed what Hitler had
finally conceded: «In the matter concerning B. I will guarantee you that
he will be exempt from persecution as long as he is indispensible for
you, in spite of the difficult general consequences this will have.»
Nevertheless, from this point onward fear ruled in Peenemuende.

Surrender to the Americans

Von Braun (with armcast) immediately after his surrender

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Army» \o «Soviet
Army» Soviet Army was about 160 km from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peenem%C3%BCnde» \o «Peenemuende»
Peenemuende in the spring of 1945 when von Braun assembled his planning
staff and asked them to decide how and to whom they should surrender.
Afraid of Soviet cruelty to prisoners of war, von Braun and his staff
decided to try to surrender to the Americans. Forging a set of orders on
SS stationery, von Braun authorized a convoy to move 5,000 personnel
south through war-torn Germany toward the American lines. The
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schutzstaffel» \o
«Schutzstaffel» SS had meanwhile been ordered to kill the German
engineers and destroy their records. The engineers, however, had hidden
these in a mineshaft close to their hiding place in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrol» \o «Tyrol» Tyrolean alps near the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oberjoch_Pass» \o «Oberjoch
Pass» Oberjoch Pass and continued to evade their own troops. During
that time von Braun got involved in a traffic accident when his driver
fell asleep, and he sustained a complicated fracture of his left arm. On
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_2» \o «May 2» May 2 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1945» \o «1945» 1945 , upon
finding an American private from the U.S. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/44th_Infantry_Division» \o «44th Infantry
Division» 44th Infantry Division , von Braun’s brother and fellow
rocket engineer, Magnus, approached the soldier on a bicycle, calling
out in broken English, «My name is Magnus von Braun. My brother invented
the V-2. We want to surrender.» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-6» \o «» [7]

The American high command was well aware of how important their catch
was: von Braun had been at the top of the Black List, the code name for
the list of German scientists and engineers targeted for immediate
interrogation by U.S. military experts. On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_19» \o «June 19» June 19 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1945» \o «1945» 1945 , two days
before the scheduled turnover of the area to the Soviets, US Army Major
Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research
and Intelligence Branch of the US Army Ordnance in London, and Lt Col R.
L. Williams took von Braun and his department chiefs by jeep from
Garmisch to Munich. The group was flown to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordhausen» \o «Nordhausen» Nordhausen ,
and was evacuated 40 miles Southwest to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Witzenhausen» \o «Witzenhausen»
Witzenhausen , a small town in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Zone» \o «American Zone»
American Zone , the next day. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/»
\l «_note-McGovern» \o «» [8] von Braun was subsequently recruited to
the US under HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Paperclip» \o «Operation
Paperclip» Operation Overcast .

American career

U.S. Army career

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_20» \o «June 20» June
20 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1945» \o «1945» 1945 ,
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Secretary_of_State» \o
«United States Secretary of State» U.S. Secretary of State HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordell_Hull» \o «Cordell Hull» Cordell
Hull approved the transfer of von Braun and his specialists to America.
Since the paperwork of those Germans selected for transfer to the United
States was indicated by paperclips, von Braun and his colleagues became
part of the mission known as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Paperclip» \o «Operation
Paperclip» Operation Paperclip , an operation that resulted in the
employment of many German scientists who were formerly considered war
criminals or security threats (like von Braun) by the U.S. Army.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources» \o
«Wikipedia:Citing sources» [citation needed]

The first seven technicians arrived in the United States at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Castle_Army_Air_Field» \o «New Castle
Army Air Field» New Castle Army Air Field , just south of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilmington%2C_Delaware» \o «Wilmington,
Delaware» Wilmington, Delaware , on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_20» \o «September 20» September
20 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1945» \o «1945» 1945 .
They were then flown to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston%2C_Massachusetts» \o «Boston,
Massachusetts» Boston and taken by boat to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_Intelligence» \o «Army Intelligence»
Army Intelligence Service post at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Strong» \o «Fort Strong» Fort Strong
in Boston Harbor. Later, with the exception of von Braun, the men were
transferred to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberdeen_Proving_Ground» \o «Aberdeen
Proving Ground» Aberdeen Proving Ground in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maryland» \o «Maryland» Maryland to sort
out the Peenemuende documents. These would enable the scientists to
continue their rocketry experiments.

Finally, von Braun and his remaining Peenemuende staff were transferred
to their new home at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Bliss%2C_Texas» \o «Fort Bliss,
Texas» Fort Bliss, Texas , a large Army installation just north of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Paso%2C_Texas» \o «El Paso,
Texas» El Paso . While there, they trained military, industrial and
university personnel in the intricacies of rockets and guided missiles.
As part of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermes_project»
\o «Hermes project» Hermes project they helped to refurbish, assemble
and launch a number of V-2s that had been shipped from Germany to the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Sands_Proving_Grounds» \o
«White Sands Proving Grounds» White Sands Proving Grounds in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Mexico» \o «New Mexico» New
Mexico . They also continued to study the future potential of rockets
for military and research applications. Since they were not permitted to
leave Fort Bliss without military escort, von Braun and his colleagues
began to refer to themselves only half-jokingly as «PoPs», «Prisoners of
Peace».

During his stay at Fort Bliss, von Braun mailed a marriage proposal to
18-year-old HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maria_Luise_von_Quistorp&acti
on=edit» \o «Maria Luise von Quistorp» Maria Luise von Quistorp , his
cousin on his mother’s side. On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_1» \o «March 1» March 1 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1947» \o «1947» 1947 , having
received permission to go back to Germany and return with his bride, he
married her in a Lutheran church in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landshut» \o «Landshut» Landshut ,
Germany. He and his bride and his father and mother returned to New York
on 26 March 1947. On 9 December 1948, the von Brauns’ first daughter,
Iris Careen, was born at Fort Bliss Army Hospital. The von Brauns
eventually had two more children, Margrit Cecile on 8 May 1952 and Peter
Constantine on 2 June 1960. In 1955, von Braun became a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturalized_citizen» \o «Naturalized
citizen» naturalized citizen of the United States.

In 1950, at the start of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War» \o «Korean War» Korean War ,
von Braun and his team were transferred to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huntsville%2C_Alabama» \o «Huntsville,
Alabama» Huntsville, Alabama , his home for the next twenty years.
Between 1950 and 1956, von Braun led the Army’s rocket development team
at HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redstone_Arsenal» \o
«Redstone Arsenal» Redstone Arsenal , resulting in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redstone_%28rocket%29» \o «Redstone
(rocket)» Redstone rocket , which was used for the first live
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballistic_missile» \o «Ballistic
missile» nuclear ballistic missile tests conducted by the United
States.

As Director of the Development Operations Division of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_Ballistic_Missile_Agency» \o «Army
Ballistic Missile Agency» Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), von
Braun’s team then developed the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter-C» \o «Jupiter-C» Jupiter-C , a
modified Redstone rocket. The Jupiter-C successfully launched the West’s
first satellite, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explorer_1»
\o «Explorer 1» Explorer 1 , on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_31» \o «January 31» January 31 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1958» \o «1958» 1958 . This
event signaled the birth of America’s space program.

Despite the work on the Redstone rocket, the twelve years from 1945 to
1957 were probably some of the most frustrating for von Braun and his
colleagues. In the Soviet Union, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Korolev» \o «Sergei Korolev»
Sergei Korolev and his team of German scientists and engineers plowed
ahead with several new rocket designs and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik» \o «Sputnik» Sputnik program,
while the American government was not very interested in von Braun’s
work or views and only embarked on a very modest rocket-building
program. In the meantime, the press tended to dwell on von Braun’s past
as a member of the SS and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_labor» \o «Slave labor» slave labor
used to build his V-2 rockets.

Popular concepts for a human presence in space

Repeating the pattern he had established during his earlier career in
Germany, von Braun — while directing military rocket development in the
real world — continued to entertain his engineer-scientist’s dream of a
future world in which rockets would be used for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_exploration» \o «Space exploration»
space exploration . However, instead of risking being sacked he now was
increasingly in a position to popularize these ideas. In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1952» \o «1952» 1952 , he first published
his concept of a manned HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_station» \o «Space station» space
station in a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collier%27s_Weekly» \o «Collier’s Weekly»
Collier’s Weekly magazine series of articles entitled HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_Will_Conquer_Space_Soon%21» \o «Man
Will Conquer Space Soon!» Man Will Conquer Space Soon! These articles
were illustrated by the space artist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chesley_Bonestell» \o «Chesley Bonestell»
Chesley Bonestell and were influential in spreading his ideas.
Frequently von Braun worked with fellow German-born space advocate and
science writer HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Ley» \o
«Willy Ley» Willy Ley to publish his concepts which, unsurprisingly,
were heavy on the engineering side and anticipated many technical
aspects of space flight that later became reality.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walt_Disney» \o «Walt Disney»
Walt Disney and Wernher von Braun, shown in this 1954 photo,
collaborated on a series of three educational films.

The space-station (to be constructed using rockets with recoverable and
reusable ascent stages) would be a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanford_torus» \o «Stanford torus»
toroid structure, with a diameter of 250 feet (76 m), would spin around
a central docking nave to provide HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_gravity» \o «Artificial
gravity» artificial gravity , and would be assembled in a 1,075 miles
(1,730 km) two-hour, high-inclination HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_orbit» \o «Earth orbit» Earth orbit
allowing observation of essentially every point on earth on at least a
daily basis. (More than a decade later, the movie version of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001:_A_Space_Odyssey_%28film%29» \o
«2001: A Space Odyssey (film)» 2001: A Space Odyssey would heavily
draw on this design concept in its visualization of the orbital space
station.) The ultimate purpose of the space station would be to provide
an assembly platform for manned HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon» \o «Moon» lunar expeditions.

Von Braun envisaged these expeditions as very large-scale undertakings,
with a total of 50 astronauts travelling in three huge spacecraft (two
for crew, one primarily for cargo), each 49 m long and 33 m in diameter
and driven by a rectangular array of 30 jet propulsion engines. Upon
arrival, astronauts would establish a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonization_of_the_Moon» \o «Colonization
of the Moon» permanent lunar base in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceanus_Procellarum» \o «Oceanus
Procellarum» Sinus Roris region by using the emptied cargo holds of
their craft as shelters, and would explore their surroundings for eight
weeks. This would include a 400 km expedition in pressurized rovers to
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpalus_%28crater%29» \o
«Harpalus (crater)» Harpalus crater and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mare_Imbrium» \o «Mare Imbrium» Mare
Imbrium foothills.

At this time von Braun also worked out preliminary concepts for a manned
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars» \o «Mars» Mars mission
that would use two spacecraft and an aerodynamic lander.

In the hope that its involvement would bring about greater public
interest in the future of the space program, von Braun also began
working with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disney_studios» \o «Disney studios»
Disney studios as a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_director» \o «Technical
director» technical director , initially for three television films
about space exploration. The initial broadcast devoted to space
exploration was HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_in_Space»
\o «Man in Space» Man in Space which first went on air on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_9» \o «March 9» March 9 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1955» \o «1955» 1955 .

NASA career

Director Wernher von Braun shows HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy» \o «John F. Kennedy»
President Kennedy around the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_Ballistic_Missile_Agency» \o «Army
Ballistic Missile Agency» Army Ballistic Missile Agency in 1963.

It was not until 1957 and the launch of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik_1» \o «Sputnik 1» Sputnik 1 that
America realized how far it lagged behind the Soviet Union in the
emerging HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Race» \o «Space
Race» Space Race . After the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Navy» \o «United States
Navy» U.S. Navy ‘s attempt at building a rocket to lift satellites into
orbit resulted in the very unreliable HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanguard_rocket» \o «Vanguard rocket»
Vanguard rocket , American authorities recognized they needed von Braun
and his German team’s experience, so they were quickly transferred to
NASA.

Wernher von Braun, with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-1_%28rocket_engine%29» \o «F-1 (rocket
engine)» F-1 engines of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V» \o «Saturn V» Saturn V first
stage at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/US_Space_and_Rocket_Center» \o «US Space
and Rocket Center» US Space and Rocket Center .

NASA was established by law on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_29» \o «July 29» July 29 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1958» \o «1958» 1958 . One day
later, the 50th Redstone rocket was successfully launched from
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnston_Atoll» \o «Johnston
Atoll» Johnston Atoll in the south Pacific as part of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Hardtack» \o «Operation
Hardtack» Operation Hardtack . Two years later, NASA opened the new
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Space_Flight_Center» \o
«Marshall Space Flight Center» Marshall Space Flight Center in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huntsville%2C_Alabama» \o
«Huntsville, Alabama» Huntsville, Alabama and transferred von Braun
and his development team there from the ABMA at Redstone Arsenal.
Presiding from July 1960 to February 1970, von Braun became the center’s
first Director.

The Marshall Center’s first major program was the development of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_rocket» \o «Saturn
rocket» Saturn rockets to carry heavy HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Payload» \o «Payload» payloads into and
beyond HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_orbit» \o «Earth
orbit» Earth orbit . Wernher von Braun’s dream to help HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mankind» \o «Mankind» mankind set foot
on the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon» \o «Moon» Moon
became a reality on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_16»
\o «July 16» July 16 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1969»
\o «1969» 1969 when a Marshall-developed HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V» \o «Saturn V» Saturn V rocket
launched the crew of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11» \o «Apollo 11» Apollo 11 on
its historic eight-day mission. Over the course of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program» \o «Apollo program»
Apollo program , Saturn V rockets enabled six teams of astronauts to
reach the surface of the Moon. At the time of the first moon-landing,
von Braun publicly expressed his optimism that the Saturn rocket would
continue to be developed, advocating manned missions to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars» \o «Mars» Mars in the 1980s based
on the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V» \o «Saturn V»
Saturn V .

Still with his rocket models, von Braun is pictured in his new office at
NASA headquarters in 1970.

During the late 1960s, von Braun played an instrumental role in the
development of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Space_%26_Rocket_Center» \o «U.S.
Space & Rocket Center» U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville. The
desk from which he guided America’s entry in the Space Race remains on
display there.

In an HYPERLINK
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/announcement_4.pdf» \o
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/announcement_4.pdf» internal
memo dated January 16, 1969 von Braun confirmed to his staff that he
would stay on as a Center Director at Huntsville to head the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Applications_Program» \o «Apollo
Applications Program» Apollo Applications Program . However, on
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_1» \o «March 1» March 1 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1970» \o «1970» 1970 , von
Braun and his family relocated to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington%2C_D.C.» \o «Washington, D.C.»
Washington, D.C. , when he was assigned the post of NASA’s Deputy
Associate Administrator for Planning at NASA Headquarters. After a
series of conflicts associated with the truncation of the Apollo
program, von Braun retired from NASA on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_26» \o «May 26» May 26 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972» \o «1972» 1972 , as it became
evident that his and NASA’s visions for future U.S. space flight
projects were different.

Career after NASA

After leaving NASA, von Braun became a vice-president of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairchild_%28aircraft_manufacturer%29» \o
«Fairchild (aircraft manufacturer)» Fairchild Industries in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germantown%2C_Maryland» \o
«Germantown, Maryland» Germantown, Maryland on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_1» \o «July 1» July 1 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972» \o «1972» 1972 . He helped
establish and promote the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Space_Institute» \o «National
Space Institute» National Space Institute , a precursor of the
present-day HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Space_Society» \o «National Space
Society» National Space Society .

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973» \o «1973» 1973 a
routine health check uncovered a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renal_cell_carcinoma» \o «Renal cell
carcinoma» kidney cancer which during the following years could not be
controlled by surgery HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-7» \o «» [9] . Von Braun continued his work to the degree
possible, which included accepting invitations to speak at colleges and
universities as he was eager to cultivate interest in human spaceflight
and rocketry, particularly with students and a new generation of
engineers. On one such visit in the spring of 1974 to Allegheny College,
a small liberal arts college in Meadville, Pennsylvania, von Braun
revealed a more personal, down-to-earth side of himself as a man in his
early 60’s, beyond the public persona most saw, including an
all-too-human allergy to feather pillows and a subtle, if not humorous
disdain for some rock music of the era.

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1976» \o «1976» 1976 , von
Braun became scientific consultant to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lutz_Kayser&action=edit» \o
«Lutz Kayser» Lutz Kayser , the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CEO» \o «CEO» CEO of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OTRAG» \o «OTRAG» OTRAG , and a member of
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daimler-Benz» \o
«Daimler-Benz» Daimler-Benz HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Board_of_directors» \o «Board of
directors» board of directors . However, his deteriorating condition
forced him to retire from Fairchild on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_31» \o «December 31» December 31
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1976» \o «1976» 1976 . When
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1975» \o «1975» 1975
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Medal_of_Science» \o
«National Medal of Science» National Medal of Science was awarded to
him in early HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977» \o «1977»
1977 he was hospitalized, and unable to attend the White House
ceremony. On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_16» \o «June
16» June 16 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977» \o «1977»
1977 , Wernher von Braun died in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria%2C_Virginia» \o «Alexandria,
Virginia» Alexandria, Virginia at the age of 65. He is buried there in
the Ivy Hill Cemetery HYPERLINK «http://www.ivyhill.org/» \o
«http://www.ivyhill.org/» [6] .

Honors

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Medal_of_Science» \o
«National Medal of Science» National Medal of Science in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1975» \o «1975» 1975

Posthumous recognition

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_space_program» \o
«Apollo space program» Apollo space program director Sam Phillips was
quoted as saying that he did not think that America would have reached
the moon as quickly as it did without von Braun’s help. Later, after
discussing it with colleagues, he amended this to say that he did not
believe America would have reached the moon at all.

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Von_Braun_%28crater%29» \o
«Von Braun (crater)» von Braun crater on the moon was so named by the
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Astronomical_Union» \o
«International Astronomical Union» IAU in recognition of von Braun’s
contribution to space exploration and technology.

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Von_Braun_Civic_Center» \o
«Von Braun Civic Center» Von Braun Civic Center (built 1975) is named
in von Braun’s honor.

Cultural references

On film and television

Wernher von Braun has been featured in a number of movies and television
shows or series about the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Race» \o «Space Race» Space Race :

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=I_Aim_at_the_Stars&action=edi
t» \o «I Aim at the Stars» I Aim at the Stars (1960), also titled
Wernher von Braun and Ich greife nach den Sternen («I reach for the
stars»): von Braun played by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curd_J%C3%BCrgens» \o «Curd Juergens»
Curd Juergens ). Satirist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mort_Sahl» \o «Mort Sahl» Mort Sahl
suggested the subtitle «(But Sometimes I Hit London)».

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back_to_the_Future_Part_III»
\o «Back to the Future Part III» Back to the Future Part III (1990)
Doc in 1955 says when the Browns first came to Hill Valley they were
known as the «Von Brauns.»

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr._Strangelove_or:_How_I_Learned_to_Stop_
Worrying_and_Love_the_Bomb» \o «Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to
Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb» Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to
Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964): Dr Strangelove is usually held
to be based at least partly on von Braun.

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mababangong_Bangungot_%28Perf
umed_Nightmare%29&action=edit» \o «Mababangong Bangungot (Perfumed
Nightmare)» Mababangong Bangungot (Perfumed Nightmare) (1977):
Director and star HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidlat_Tahimik» \o «Kidlat Tahimik»
Kidlat Tahimik is president of a Wernher von Braun club and is
fascinated with «First World» progress, particularly von Braun’s efforts
in the U.S. space program.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_Suit_Gundam» \o «Mobile
Suit Gundam» Mobile Suit Gundam (1979): The largest Lunar city in the
Universal Century era is called ‘Von Braun City’. The city is the home
of Anaheim Electronics, is a strategic point in space, and is built
around Neil Armstrong’s footprint in the Apollo missions.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Right_Stuff» \o «The Right
Stuff» The Right Stuff (1983): The Chief Scientist, played by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scott_Beach» \o «Scott Beach»
Scott Beach , was clearly modeled on von Braun.

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/From_the_Earth_to_the_Moon_%28HBO%29» \o
«From the Earth to the Moon (HBO)» From the Earth to the Moon (TV,
1998): von Braun played by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norbert_Weisser» \o «Norbert Weisser»
Norbert Weisser .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_Sky» \o «October Sky»
October Sky (1999): In this film about American rocket scientist
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homer_Hickam» \o «Homer Hickam»
Homer Hickam , who as a teenager admired von Braun, the scientist is
played by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joe_Digaetano&action=edit» \o
«Joe Digaetano» Joe Digaetano .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Race_%28TV%29» \o «Space
Race (TV)» Space Race (TV, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BBC» \o «BBC» BBC co-production with
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NDR» \o «NDR» NDR (Germany),
Channel One TV (Russia) and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Geographic» \o «National
Geographic» National Geographic TV (USA), 2005): von Braun played by
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Dillane&action=edit»
\o «Richard Dillane» Richard Dillane .

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphaville%2C_une_%C3%A9trange_aventure_de
_Lemmy_Caution» \o «Alphaville, une etrange aventure de Lemmy Caution»
Alphaville, une etrange aventure de Lemmy Caution (1965, directed by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Luc_Godard» \o «Jean-Luc
Godard» Jean-Luc Godard ): HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Vernon» \o «Howard Vernon» Howard
Vernon plays Professor Von Braun (also known as Leonard Nosferatu), the
inventor of the «Alpha 60» super-computer which rules Alphaville.

«Race to Space» (2001) James Woods portrays a character that the film’s
director states was «clearly modeled» after von Braun, working on the
Mercury program sending the first chimp «Ham» (renamed Mac) into space.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetes» \o «Planetes»
Planetes (2003): The von Braun is the ship built to make the first
manned voyage to the Jovian system. Additionally, the character Wernher
Locksmith, the director of the mission, is possibly based on von Braun.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alien_Planet» \o «Alien
Planet» Alien Planet (TV, 2005): A spacecraft, named HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VonBraun_%28Alien_Planet%29» \o «VonBraun
(Alien Planet)» VonBraun , is named after him.

In print media

In an issue of Mad Magazine in the late 1950s, artist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallace_Wood» \o «Wallace Wood» Wallace
Wood depicted von Braun at the launch of a rocket, ready to listen to a
radio transmitting the rocket’s signals. Suddenly he says, «HIMMEL! Vas
ist los?» and then explains, «Vat iss wrong is vit der RADIO! It iss
AC…und der control room iss DC!»

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Ellis» \o «Warren
Ellis» Warren Ellis ‘ graphic novel HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Space» \o «Ministry of Space»
Ministry of Space , Von Braun is a supporting character, settling in
Britain after WWII, and being essential for the realization of the
British Space Program.

In novels

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Good_German» \o «The Good
German» The Good German by Joseph Kanon. Von Braun and other
scientists are said to have been implicated in the use of slave labour
at Peenemuende; their transfer to the US forms part of the narrative.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity%27s_Rainbow» \o
«Gravity’s Rainbow» Gravity’s Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon. The plot
involves British intelligence attempting to avert and predict V-2 rocket
attacks. The work even includes a gyroscopic equation for the V2. The
first portion of the novel, «Beyond The Zero,» begins with a quote from
Braun: «Nature does not know extinction; all it knows is transformation.
Everything science has taught me, and continues to teach me, strengthens
my belief in the continuity of our spiritual existence after death.»

New Dictionary, a short story by Kurt Vonnegut in his collection
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welcome_to_the_Monkey_House» \o
«Welcome to the Monkey House» Welcome to the Monkey House notes Von
Braun as one of the things an old dictionary doesn’t mention.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mother_Night» \o «Mother
Night» Mother Night by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Vonnegut» \o «Kurt Vonnegut» Kurt
Vonnegut has a scene in which a character reads a Life magazine with
Von Braun on the cover.

In music

Wernher von Braun (1965): A song written and performed by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Lehrer» \o «Tom Lehrer» Tom Lehrer
for an episode of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NBC» \o
«NBC» NBC ‘s American version of the BBC TV show HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/That_Was_The_Week_That_Was» \o «That Was
The Week That Was» That Was The Week That Was ; the song was later
included in Lehrer’s album HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/That_Was_The_Year_That_Was» \o «That Was
The Year That Was» That Was The Year That Was . It was a satire on what
some saw as von Braun’s cavalier attitude toward the consequences of his
work in Nazi Germany: «‘Once the rockets are up, who cares where they
come down? / That’s not my department’, says Wernher von Braun.»

The Last Days of Pompeii (1991): A rock opera by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grant_Hart» \o «Grant Hart» Grant Hart ‘s
post- HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%C3%BCsker_D%C3%BC» \o
«Huesker Due» Huesker Due alternative rock group HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nova_Mob» \o «Nova Mob» Nova Mob , in
which von Braun features as a character. The album includes a song
called Wernher von Braun.

Progress vs. Pettiness (2005): A song about the Space Race written and
performed by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Phenomenauts»
\o «The Phenomenauts» The Phenomenauts for their CD HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Re-Entry_%28CD%29&action=edit
» \o «Re-Entry (CD)» Re-Entry . The song begins: «In 1942 there was
Wernher von Braun…»

In computer games

In the 1999 HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PC_compatible»
\o «IBM PC compatible» PC game HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Shock_2» \o «System Shock 2»
System Shock 2 , the main starship is named the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Von_Braun_%28starship%29» \o «Von Braun
(starship)» Von Braun .

In the 2004 HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Playstation_2» \o
«Playstation 2» Playstation 2 game HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal_Gear_Solid_3:_Snake_Eater» \o «Metal
Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater» Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater , the
character of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Metal_Gear_Solid_3_characters» \l
«Nikolai_Stephanovich_Sokolov» \o «List of Metal Gear Solid 3
characters» Nikolai Sokolov portrays many parallels to von Braun,
including his CIA-aided defection to the United States, and famed
contributions to rocket science.

Notes

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-0» \o «» ^ Note
regarding personal names: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freiherr» \o «Freiherr» Freiherr is a
title, translated as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron» \o
«Baron» Baron , not a first or middle name. The female forms are
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freiherr» \o «Freiherr»
Freifrau and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freiherr» \o
«Freiherr» Freiin .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-1» \o «» ^ Young,
Anthony. HYPERLINK «http://www.thespacereview.com/article/656/1» \o
«http://www.thespacereview.com/article/656/1» Remembering Wernher von
Braun . The Space Review.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-2» \o «» ^
HYPERLINK
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/recollect-childhood.html» \o
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/recollect-childhood.html»
«Recollections of Childhood: Early Experiences in Rocketry as Told by
Werner Von Braun 1963»

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-3» \o «» ^ Eric
W. Weisstein, HYPERLINK
«http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Goddard.html» \o
«http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Goddard.html» Robert Goddard
at HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ScienceWorld» \o
«ScienceWorld» ScienceWorld .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-4» \o «» ^ Speer,
Albert (1969). Erinnerungen (p. 377). Verlag Ullstein GmbH, Frankfurt
a.M. and Berlin, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ISBN_3-550-06074-2&action=edi
t» \o «ISBN 3-550-06074-2» ISBN 3-550-06074-2

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-5» \o «» ^
Regarding V-2 slave labor, see, for example, HYPERLINK
«http://www.v2rocket.com/start/chapters/mittel.html» \o
«http://www.v2rocket.com/start/chapters/mittel.html» Mittelbau Overview

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-6» \o «» ^
McDougall, Walter A. …The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History
of the Space Age. Basic Books: New York, 1985. (p 44) HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0465
02887X» ISBN 0-465-02887-X

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-McGovern_0» \o «»
^ McGovern, J (1964). Crossbow and Overcast. New York: W. Morrow,
p182. 

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-7» \o «» ^ German
sources mostly specify the cancer as renal, while American biographies
unanimously just mention cancer. The time when von Braun learned about
the disease is generally given as between 1973 and 1976. The
characteristics of renal cell carcinoma, which has a bad prognosis even
today, do not rule out either time limit

See also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergey_Korolyov» \o «Sergey
Korolyov» Sergey Korolyov

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Race» \o «Space Race»
Space Race

References

Dunar, Andrew J & Stephen P Waring (1999), Power to Explore: a History
of Marshall Space Flight Center, 1960–1990, Washington, DC: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Government_Printing_Office»
\o «United States Government Printing Office» United States Government
Printing Office , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0160
589924» ISBN 0-16-058992-4 Available electronically at HYPERLINK
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/book/toc.html» \o
«http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/book/toc.html»
http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/book/toc.html

Eisfeld, Rainer (2000), Mondsuechtig, Hamburg: Rohwolt, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=3499
609436» ISBN 3-499-60943-6

Erlebnisbericht Adam Cabala, in: Fiedermann, Hess, Jaeger: Das KZ
Mittelbau Dora. Ein historischer Abriss. Berlin 1993, S.100

Lasby, Clarence G (1971), Project Paperclip: German Scientists and the
Cold War, New York, NY: Atheneum, ISBN B0006CKBHY

Neufeld, Michael J (1994), The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemuende and the
Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era, New York: Free Press, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0029
228956» ISBN 0-02-922895-6

Sellier, Andre (2003), A History of the Dora Camp: The Untold Story of
the Nazi Slave Labor Camp That Secretly Manufactured V-2 Rockets,
Chicago, IL: Ivan R Dee, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=1566
63511X» ISBN 1-56663-511-X

Stuhlinger, Ernst (1996), Wernher von Braun: Crusader for Space,
Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0894
649809» ISBN 0-89464-980-9

Ward, Bob (2005), Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun, Annapolis,
MD: Naval Institute Press, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=1591
149266» ISBN 1-59114-926-6

Eric W. Weisstein, HYPERLINK
«http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Goddard.html» \o
«http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Goddard.html» Robert Goddard
at HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ScienceWorld» \o
«ScienceWorld» ScienceWorld .

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