Traditional symbols of Valentine’s Day include hearts, doves, Cupid and
American postcard, circa 1900.
Also called St. Valentine’s Day
Observed by Christian and Christian-influenced cultures
Type Christian, cultural, multinational
Significance Lovers express their feelings to each other
Date February 14
Observances Sending greeting cards and gifts, dating.
1 Saint Valentine
2 Attested traditions
2.2 Chaucer’s love birds
2.3 Medieval period and the English Renaissance
2.4 Modern times
3 Antique and vintage Valentines, 1850–1950
3.1 Valentines of the mid-19th and early 20th centuries
3.2 Postcards, «pop-ups», and mechanical Valentines, circa 1900-1930
3.3 Black Americana and children’s Valentines
4 Similar days honoring love
4.1 In the West
4.1.2 Central and South America
4.2.1 Similar Asian traditions
5 Conflict with religious fundamentalists
5.2 The Middle East
6 See also
7 ReferencesValentine’s Day or Saint Valentine’s Day is
a holiday celebrated on February 14 by many people throughout the world.
In the English-speaking countries, it is the traditional day on which
lovers express their love for each other by sending Valentine’s
cards, presenting flowers, or offering confectionery. The holiday is
named after two among the numerous Early
Christianmartyrs named Valentine. The day became associated
with romantic love in the circle ofGeoffrey Chaucer in the High Middle
Ages, when the tradition of courtly love flourished.
The day is most closely associated with the mutual exchange of love
notes in the form of «valentines». Modern Valentine symbols include the
heart-shaped outline, doves, and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since
the 19th century, handwritten notes have largely given way to
mass-produced greeting cards. The sending of Valentines was a fashion in
nineteenth-century Great Britain, and, in 1847, Esther Howland developed
a successful business in her Worcester, Massachusetts home with
hand-made Valentine cards based on British models. The popularity of
Valentine cards in 19th century America, where many Valentine cards are
now general greeting cards rather than declarations of love, was a
harbinger of the future commercialization of holidays in the United
The U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately one
billion valentines are sent each year worldwide, making the day the
second largest card-sending holiday of the year, behind Christmas. The
association estimates that, in the US, men spend on average twice as
much money as women.
Numerous early Christian martyrs were named Valentine. Until 1969, the
Catholic Church formally recognized eleven Valentine’s Days. The
Valentines honored on February 14 are Valentine of Rome (Valentinus
presb. m. Romae) and Valentine of Terni (Valentinus ep. Interamnensis m.
Romae). Valentine of Rome was a priest in Rome who suffered martyrdom
about AD 269 and was buried on the Via Flaminia. His relics are at the
Church of Saint Praxed in Rome. and at Whitefriar Street Carmelite
Church in Dublin, Ireland.
Valentine of Terni became bishop of Interamna (modern Terni) about AD
197 and is said to have been killed during the persecution of
EmperorAurelian. He is also buried on the Via Flaminia, but in a
different location than Valentine of Rome. His relics are at the
Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni (Basilica di San Valentino).
The Catholic Encyclopedia also speaks of a third saint named Valentine
who was mentioned in early martyrologies under date of February 14. He
was martyred in Africa with a number of companions, but nothing more is
known about him.
No romantic elements are present in the original early medieval
biographies of either of these martyrs. By the time a Saint Valentine
became linked to romance in the fourteenth century, distinctions between
Valentine of Rome and Valentine of Terni were utterly lost.
In the 1969 revision of the Roman Catholic Calendar of Saints, the
feastday of Saint Valentine on February 14 was removed from the General
Roman Calendar and relegated to particular (local or even national)
calendars for the following reason: «Though the memorial of Saint
Valentine is ancient, it is left to particular calendars, since, apart
from his name, nothing is known of Saint Valentine except that he was
buried on the Via Flaminia on February 14.» The feast day is still
celebrated in Balzan (Malta) where relics of the saint are claimed to be
found, and also throughout the world by Traditionalist Catholics who
follow the older, pre-Vatican II calendar.
The Early Medieval acta of either Saint Valentine were excerpted by Bede
and briefly expounded in Legenda Aurea. According to that version, St
Valentine was persecuted as a Christian and interrogated by Roman
Emperor Claudius II in person. Claudius was impressed by Valentine and
had a discussion with him, attempting to get him to convert to Roman
paganism in order to save his life. Valentine refused and tried to
convert Claudius to Christianity instead. Because of this, he was
executed. Before his execution, he is reported to have performed a
miracle by healing the blind daughter of his jailer.
Legenda Aurea still providing no connections whatsoever with sentimental
love, appropriate lore has been embroidered in modern times to portray
Valentine as a priest who refused an unattested law attributed to Roman
Emperor Claudius II, allegedly ordering that young men remain single.
The Emperor supposedly did this to grow his army, believing that married
men did not make for good soldiers. The priest Valentine, however,
secretly performed marriage ceremonies for young men. When Claudius
found out about this, he had Valentine arrested and thrown in jail. In
an embellishment to The Golden Legend provided by American Greetings,
Inc. to History.com and widely repeated, on the evening before Valentine
was to be executed, he wrote the first «valentine» himself, addressed to
a young girl variously identified as his beloved, as the jailer’s
daughter whom he had befriended and healed, or both. It was a note that
read «From your Valentine.»
Though popular modern sources link unspecified Greco-Roman February
holidays alleged to be devoted to fertility and love to St Valentine’s
Day, Professor Jack Oruch of the University of Kansas argued that prior
to Chaucer, no links between the Saints named Valentinus and romantic
love existed. In the ancient Athenian calendar the period between
mid-January and mid-February was the month of Gamelion, dedicated to the
sacred marriage of Zeus and Hera.
In Ancient Rome, Lupercalia, observed February 13 through 15, was an
archaic rite connected to fertility. Lupercalia was a festival local to
the city of Rome. The more general Festival of Juno Februa, meaning
«Juno the purifier «or «the chaste Juno,» was celebrated on February
13-14. Pope Gelasius I (492-496) abolished Lupercalia.
It is a common opinion that the Christian church may have decided to
celebrate Valentine’s feast day in the middle of February in an effort
toChristianize celebrations of the pagan Lupercalia, and that a
commemorative feast was established in 496 by Pope Gelasius I, of those
«… whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are
known only to God,» among whom was Valentine, was set for the useful
day. Alternatively, William M. Green argues that the Catholic Church
could not abolish the deeply rooted Lupercalia festival, so the church
set aside a day to honor the Virgin Mary.
Geoffrey Chaucer by Thomas Occleve (1412)
Chaucer’s love birds
While some claim the first recorded association of Valentine’s Day with
romantic love is in Parlement of Foules (1382) by Geoffrey Chaucer this
may be the result of misinterpretation. Chaucer wrote:
For this was on seynt Volantynys day
Whan euery bryd comyth there to chese his make.
This poem was written to honor the first anniversary of the engagement
of King Richard II of England toAnne of Bohemia. A treaty providing for
a marriage was signed on May 2, 1381. (When they were married eight
months later, he was 13 or 14, and she was 14.)
Readers have uncritically assumed that Chaucer was referring to February
14 as Valentine’s Day; however, mid-February is an unlikely time for
birds to be mating in England. Henry Ansgar Kelly has pointed out that
in the liturgical calendar, May 2 is the saints’ day for Valentine of
Genoa. This St. Valentine was an early bishop of Genoa who died around
Chaucer’s Parliament of Foules is set in a fictional context of an old
tradition, but in fact there was no such tradition before Chaucer. The
speculative explanation of sentimental customs, posing as historical
fact, had their origins among eighteenth-century antiquaries,
notably Alban Butler, the author of Butler’s Lives of Saints, and have
been perpetuated even by respectable modern scholars. Most notably, «the
idea that Valentine’s Day customs perpetuated those of the
Roman Lupercalia has been accepted uncritically and repeated, in various
forms, up to the present»
Medieval period and the English Renaissance
Using the language of the law courts for the rituals of courtly love, a
«High Court of Love» was established in Paris on Valentine’s Day in
1400. The court dealt with love contracts, betrayals, and violence
against women. Judges were selected by women on the basis of a poetry
reading. The earliest surviving valentine is a
fifteenth-century rondeau written by Charles, Duke of Orleans to his
«valentined» wife, which commences.
Je suis desja d’amour tanne
Ma tres doulce Valentinee…
—Charles d’Orleans, Rondeau VI, lines 1–2
At the time, the duke was being held in the Tower of London following
his capture at the Battle of Agincourt, 1415.
Valentine’s Day is mentioned ruefully by Ophelia in Hamlet (1600-1601):
To-morrow is Saint Valentine’s day,
All in the morning betime,
And I a maid at your window,
To be your Valentine.
Then up he rose, and donn’d his clothes,
And dupp’d the chamber-door;
Let in the maid, that out a maid
Never departed more.
—William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act IV, Scene 5
Valentine’s Day postcard, circa 1910
In 1797, a British publisher issued The Young Man’s Valentine Writer,
which contained scores of suggested sentimental verses for the young
lover unable to compose his own. Printers had already begun producing a
limited number of cards with verses and sketches, called “mechanical
valentines,” and a reduction in postal rates in the next century ushered
in the less personal but easier practice of mailing valentines. That, in
turn, made it possible for the first time to exchange cards anonymously,
which is taken as the reason for the sudden appearance of racy verse in
an era otherwise prudishly Victorian.
Paper Valentines being so popular in England in early 1800s, Valentines
began to be assembled in factories. Fancy Valentines were made with real
lace and ribbons, with paper lace introduced in mid 1800’s.. The
reinvention of Saint Valentine’s Day in the 1840s has been traced by
Leigh Eric Schmidt. As a writer in Graham’s American Monthly observed in
1849, «Saint Valentine’s Day… is becoming, nay it has become, a
national holyday.» In the United States, the first mass-produced
valentines of embossed paper lace were produced and sold shortly after
1847 by Esther Howland (1828-1904) of Worcester, Massachusetts. Her
father operated a large book and stationery store, but Howland took her
inspiration from an English valentine she had received, so clearly the
practice of sending Valentine’s cards had existed in England before it
became popular in North America. The English practice of sending
Valentine’s cards appears in Elizabeth Gaskell’s Mr. Harrison’s
Confessions (published 1851). Since 2001, the Greeting Card Association
has been giving an annual «Esther Howland Award for a Greeting Card
Visionary.» The U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that
approximately one billion valentines are sent each year worldwide,
making the day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year
behind Christmas. The association estimates that, in the US, men spend
in average twice as much money as women.
Since the 19th century, handwritten notes have largely given way to
mass-produced greeting cards. The mid-nineteenth century Valentine’s Day
trade was a harbinger of further commercialized holidays in the United
States to follow.
In the second half of the twentieth century, the practice of exchanging
cards was extended to all manner of gifts in the United States, usually
from a man to a woman.Such gifts typically
include roses and chocolates packed in a red satin, heart-shaped box. In
the 1980s, the diamondindustry began to promote Valentine’s Day as an
occasion for giving jewelry. The day has come to be associated with a
generic platonicgreeting of «Happy Valentine’s Day.» As a joke,
Valentine’s Day is also referred to as «Singles Awareness Day.» In some
North Americanelementary schools, children decorate classrooms, exchange
cards, and eat sweets. The greeting cards of these students often
mention what they appreciate about each other.
The rise of Internet popularity at the turn of the millennium is
creating new traditions. Millions of people use, every year, digital
means of creating and sending Valentine’s Day greeting messages such
as e-cards, love coupons or printable greeting cards.
Antique and vintage Valentines, 1850–1950
Valentines of the mid-19th and early 20th centuries
Vinegar Valentine, circa 1900
Postcards, «pop-ups», and mechanical Valentines, circa 1900-1930
Rocking horse and rider, circa 1920-1930
Black Americana and children’s Valentines
Anthropomorphic Valentine, circa 1950-1960
Similar days honoring love
In the West
Love (scientific views)
Love (cultural views)
Types of emotion
Cultural views of love
Valentine’s Day has regional traditions in the UK. In Norfolk, a
character called ‘Jack’ Valentine knocks on the rear door of houses
leaving sweets and presents for children. Although he was leaving
treats, many children were scared of this mystical person. In Wales,
many people celebrate Dydd Santes Dwynwen (St Dwynwen’s Day) on January
25 instead of or as well as St Valentine’s Day. The day commemorates St
Dwynwen, the patron saint of Welsh lovers. In France, a
traditionally Catholic country, Valentine’s Day is known simply as
«Saint Valentin», and is celebrated in much the same way as other
western countries. In Spain Valentine’s Day is known as «San Valentin»
and is celebrated the same way as in the U.K, although in Catalonia it
is largely superseded by similar festivities of rose and/or book giving
on La Diada de Sant Jordi (Saint George’s Day). In Portugal it’s more
commonly referred to as «Dia dos Namorados» (Boy/Girlfriend’s Day).
In Denmark and Norway, Valentine’s Day (14 Feb) is known
as Valentinsdag. It is not celebrated to a large extent, but many people
take time to eat a romantic dinner with their partner, to send a card to
a secret love or give a red rose to their loved one. In Sweden it is
called Alla hjaertans dag («All Hearts’ Day») and was launched in the
1960s by the flower industry’s commercial interests, and due to the
influence of American culture. It is not an official holiday, but its
celebration is recognized and sales of cosmetics and flowers for this
holiday are only exceeded by those for Mother’s Day.
In Finland Valentine’s Day is called Ystaevaenpaeivae which translates
into «Friend’s day». As the name indicates, this day is more about
remembering all your friends, not only your loved ones.
In Estonia Valentine’s Day is called Sobrapaeev, which has a similar
In Slovenia, a proverb says that «St Valentine brings the keys of
roots,» so on February 14, plants and flowers start to grow. Valentine’s
Day has been celebrated as the day when the first work in the vineyards
and in the fields commences. It is also said that birds propose to each
other or marry on that day. Nevertheless, it has only recently been
celebrated as the day of love. The day of love is traditionally March
12, the Saint Gregory’s day. Another proverb says «Valentin — prvi
spomladin» («Valentine — first saint of spring»), as in some places
(especially White Carniola) Saint Valentine marks the beginning of
In Romania, the traditional holiday for lovers is Dragobete, which is
celebrated on February 24. It is named after a character from Romanian
folklore who was supposed to be the son of Baba Dochia. Part of his name
is the worddrag («dear»), which can also be found in the
word dragoste («love»). In recent years, Romania has also started
celebrating Valentine’s Day, despite already having Dragobete as a
traditional holiday. This has drawn backlash from many groups, reputable
persons and institutions but also nationalist organizations like Noua
Dreapt?, who condemn Valentine’s Day for being superficial,
commercialist and imported Western kitsch.
Valentine’s Day is called Sevgililer Guenue in Turkey, which translates
into «Sweethearts’ Day».
According to Jewish tradition the 15th day of the month of Av — Tu
B’Av (usually late August) is the festival of love. In ancient times
girls would wear white dresses and dance in the vineyards, where the
boys would be waiting for them (Mishna Taanith end of Chapter 4). In
modern Israeli culture this is a popular day to pronounce love, propose
marriage and give gifts like cards or flowers.
Central and South America
In Guatemala and in El Salvador, Valentine’s Day is known as «Dia del
Amor y la Amistad» (Day of Love and Friendship). Although it is similar
to the United States’ version in many ways, it is also common to see
people do «acts of appreciation» for their friends.
In Brazil, the Dia dos Namorados (lit. «Day of the Enamored», or
«Boyfriends’/Girlfriends’ Day») is celebrated on June 12, when couples
exchange gifts, chocolates, cards and flower bouquets. This day was
chosen probably because it is the day before the Festa junina’s Saint
Anthony’s day, known there as the marriage saint, when traditionally
many single women perform popular rituals, called simpatias, in order to
find a good husband or boyfriend. The February 14’s Valentine’s Day is
not celebrated at all, mainly for cultural and commercial reasons, since
it usually falls too little before or after Carnival, a major floating
holiday in Brazil — long regarded as a holiday of sex and debauchery by
many in the country — that can fall anywhere from early February to
In Venezuela, in 2009, President Hugo Chavez said in a meeting to his
supporters for the upcoming referendum vote on February 15, that «since
on the 14th, there will be no time of doing nothing, nothing or next to
nothing … maybe a little kiss or something very superficial», he
recommended people to celebrate a week of love after the referendum
In most of South America the Dia del amor y la amistad (lit. «Love and
Friendship Day») and the Amigo secreto («Secret friend») are quite
popular and usually celebrated together on the 14 of February (one
exception is Colombia, where it is celebrated every third Saturday of
September). The latter consists of randomly assigning to each
participant a recipient who is to be given an anonymous gift (similar to
the Christmas tradition of Secret Santa).
Thanks to a concentrated marketing effort, Valentine’s Day is celebrated
in some Asian countries with Singaporeans, Chinese and South
Koreans spending the most money on Valentine’s gifts.
In Japan, in 1960, Morinaga, one of the biggest
Japanese confectionery companies, originated the present custom that
only women may give chocolates to men. In particular, office ladies will
give chocolate to their co-workers. One month later, in March 14, there
is the White Day, created by the Japanese National Confectionery
Industry Association as a «reply day», where men are expected to return
the favour to those who gave them chocolates on Valentine’s Day. Unlike
western countries, gifts such as candies, flowers, or dinner dates are
uncommon. It has become an obligation for many women to give chocolates
to all male co-workers. A man’s popularity can be measured for how many
chocolate they receive on that day; the amount of chocolate received is
a touchy issue for men, and they will only comment on it after getting
assurances that the amount will not be made public. This is known
as giri-choko (?????), from the words giri («obligation») and choko,
(«chocolate»), with unpopular co-workers receiving only
«ultra-obligatory» ch?-giri choko cheap chocolate. This contrasts
with honmei-choko (?????, Homemade chocolate); chocolate given to a
loved one. Friends, especially girls, may exchange chocolate referred to
as tomo-choko (????); from tomo meaning «friend».
In South Korea, women give chocolate to men on February 14, and men give
non-chocolate candy to women on March 14. On April 14 (Black Day), those
who did not receive anything on the 14th of Feb or March go to a Chinese
restaurant to eat black noodles and «mourn» their single life. Koreans
also celebrate Pepero Day on November 11, when young couples give each
other Pepero cookies. The date ’11/11′ is intended to resemble the long
shape of the cookie. The 14th of every month marks a love-related day in
Korea, although most of them are obscure. From January to December:
Candle Day, Valentine’s Day, White Day, Black Day, Rose Day, Kiss Day,
Silver Day, Green Day, Music Day, Wine Day, Movie Day, and Hug Day.
In China, the common situation is the man gives chocolate, flowers or
both to the woman that he loves. In Chinese, Valentine’s Day is called
(simplified Chinese: ???; traditional Chinese: ???; pinyin: qing ren
In the Philippines, Valentine’s Day is called «Araw ng mga Puso» or
«Hearts Day». It is usually marked by a steep increase in the prices of
Similar Asian traditions
In Chinese culture, there is an older observance related to lovers,
called «The Night of Sevens» (Chinese: ??; pinyin: Qi Xi). According to
the legend, the Cowherd star and the Weaver Maid star are normally
separated by the milky way (silvery river) but are allowed to meet by
crossing it on the 7th day of the 7th month of the Chinese calendar.
An observance on the same day in Korea is called Chilseok, but its
association with romance has long faded.
In Japan, a slightly different version of ?? (called Tanabata, which is
said to mean ?? a weaver for a god) is celebrated, on July 7 on
theGregorian calendar. The legend behind it is similar to the Chinese
one. However, it is never regarded that the celebration is even remotely
related with the St. Valentine’s Day or lovers giving gifts to each
Conflict with religious fundamentalists
In India, Valentine’s Day is explicitly discouraged by Hindu
fundamentalists. Since 2001 there has been each year violent clashes
between shopkeepers dealing in Valentine related items and Shiv
Sena die-hards, who oppose it as «cultural pollution from the
west». Especially inMumbai and surrounding areas Bal Thackeray and
others sent out signals before the day warning people not having to do
anything with Valentine. Those who violate this are dealt with harshly
by baton-holding brigands of Shiv Sena who lark in public places
especially parks etc. chasing young people holding hands and others
suspected to be lovers. In many parts of south India couples who are
found in parks and other public places are immediately forced to
marriage on spot by the Shiv Sena and other similar activists.
The Middle East
Valentine’s Day is currently celebrated in Iran despite some
restrictions made by government.Young Iranians are seen on this day
going out and buying gifts and celebrating.
In Saudi Arabia, in 2002 and 2008, religious police banned the sale of
all Valentine’s Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items,
as the day is considered a non-Islamic holiday. In 2008 this ban created
a black market of roses and wrapping paper.
^ a b Leigh Eric Schmidt, «The Fashioning of a Modern Holiday: St.
Valentine’s Day, 1840-1870» Winterthur Portfolio 28.4 (Winter 1993), pp.
^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, «The Commercialization of the calendar: American
holidays and the culture of consumption, 1870-1930» Journal of American
History 78.3 (December 1991) pp 890-98.
^ a b «American Greetings: The business of Valentine’s day».
^ Henry Ansgar Kelly, in Chaucer and the Cult of Saint
Valentine (Leiden: Brill) 1986, accounts for these and further local
Saints Valentine (Ch. 6 «The Genoese Saint Valentine and the observances
of May») in arguring that Chaucer had an established tradition in mind,
and (pp 79ff) linking the Valentine in question to Valentine, first
bishop of Genoa, the only Saint Valentine honoured with a feast in
springtime, the season indicated by Chaucer. Valentine of Genoa was
treated byJacobus of Verazze in his Chronicle of Genoa (Kelly p. 85).
^ Oxford Dictionary of Saints, s.v. «Valentine»: «The Acts of both are
unreliable, and the Bollandists assert that these two Valentines were in
fact one and the same.»
^ «Valentine of Rome».
^ «Saint Valentine’s Day: Legend of the Saint».
^ «Valentine of Terni».
^ «Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni».
^ «Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Valentine».
^ The present Roman Martyrology records, at February 14, «In Rome, on
the Via Flaminia near the Milvian Bridge: St. Valentine, martyr.»
^ Calendarium Romanum ex Decreto Sacrosancti ?cumenici Concilii Vaticani
II Instauratum Auctoritate Pauli PP. VI Promulgatum (Typis Polyglottis
Vaticanis, MCMLXIX), p. 117
^ Legenda Aurea, «Saint Valentine».
^ a b Materials provided by American Greetings, Inc. to History.com
^ History of Valentine’s day, TheHolidaySpot.com
^ Jack B. Oruch, «St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in
February» Speculum 56.3 (July 1981:534-565)
^ William M. Green «The Lupercalia in the Fifth Century», Classical
Philology 26.1 (Jan. 1931), pp 60-69 pp60-69
^ Oruch, Jack B., «St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in
February,» Speculum, 56 (1981): 534-65. Oruch’s survey of the literature
finds no association between Valentine and romance prior to Chaucer. He
concludes that Chaucer is likely to be «the original mythmaker in this
^ «Henry Ansgar Kelly, Valentine’s Day / UCLA Spotlight».
^ «Chaucer: The Parliament of Fowls».
^ Kelly, Henry Ansgar, Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine (Brill
Academic Publishers, 1997), ISBN 90-04-07849-5. Kelly gives the saint’s
day of the Genoese Valentine as May 3 and also claims that Richard’s
engagement was announced on this day. 
^ Calendar of the Saints: 2 May; Saint Patrick’s Church: Saints of May 2
^ Oruch 1981:539.
^ Domestic Violence, Discourses of Romantic Love, and Complex Personhood
in the Law —  MULR 8; (1999) 23 Melbourne University Law Review
^ «Court of Love: Valentine’s Day, 1400».
^ full text in wikisource
^ History Channel.
^ Schmidt 1993:209-245.
^ Quoted in Schmidt 1993:209.
^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, «The Commercialization of the calendar: American
holidays and the culture of consumption, 1870-1930» Journal of American
History 78.3 (December 1991) pp 890-98.
^ Valentine`s Day versus Dragobete (Romanian)
^ «Dia del Amor y la Amistad».
^ The Psychology of Carnaval, TIME Magazine, February 14, 1969
^ Video of Chavez joking about Valentine’s day, youtube.com, 2009-01-31
^ Domingo, Ronnel. Among Asians, Filipinos dig Valentine’s Day the
most. Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 14, 2008.
^ Yuko Ogasawara (1998). University of California Press. ed. Office
Ladies and Salaried Men: Power, Gender, and Work in Japanese
Companies (illustrated ed.). Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
pp. 98–113,142–154,156,163. ISBN 0520210441.
^ Korea rivals U.S. in romantic holidays, Centre Daily Times, February
^ a b Arkadev Ghoshal & Hemangi Keneka (2009-02-14). «V-Day turns into
battlefield». Times of India.
^ a b «Cooling the ardour of Valentine’s Day». BBC News. 2002-02-03.
^ A man holding a banner in Mumbai on Valentine’s Day protesting the
^ «While Muslim culture doesn’t exactly embrace Cupid, Valentine’s Day
is gaining traction in Iran with the younger, more Westernized crowd,
says Iranian-American filmmaker Shaghayegh Azimi, who has captured some
of the romance in her movies. Increasingly, stores decorate windows with
stuffed animals, heart-shaped chocolates and red balloons, and teenagers
show their affection by holding hands in the streets of Tehran.» Melanie
Lindner Valentine’s Day Around The World February 11, 2009 Forbes 
^ a b «Saudis clamp down on valentines». BBC News. 2008-02-11.