Ukraine (реферат)

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U k r a i n e


Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and

Geographic coordinates: 49 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States


total: 603,700 sq km

land: 603,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:

total: 4,558 km

border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland
428 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km,
Slovakia 90 km

Coastline: 2,782 km

Maritime claims:

continental shelf: 200-m or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern
Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in
west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool
along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the
greater part of the country, hot in the south

Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and
plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and
in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt,
sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber

Land use:

arable land: 58%

permanent crops: 2%

permanent pastures: 13%

forests and woodland: 18%

other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 26,050 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment—current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; air
and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the
northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl’ Nuclear Power Plant

Environment—international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography—note: strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and
Asia; second-largest country in Europe


Population: 49,811,174 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 18% (male 4,690,318; female 4,498,239)

15-64 years: 68% (male 16,136,296; female 17,572,011)

65 years and over: 14% (male 2,251,664; female 4,662,646) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.62% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 9.54 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 16.38 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.73 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 65.91 years

male: 60.23 years

female: 71.87 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (1999 est.)


noun: Ukrainian(s)

adjective: Ukrainian

Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%

Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox—Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian
Orthodox—Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian
Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish

Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 100%

female: 97% (1989 est.)


Country name:

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Ukraine

local long form: none

local short form: Ukrayina

former: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: UP

Government type: republic

Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)

Administrative divisions: 24 oblasti (singular—oblast’), 1 autonomous
republic* (avtomnaya respublika), and 2 municipalities (mista,
singular—misto) with oblast status**; Cherkas’ka (Cherkasy),
Chernihivs’ka (Chernihiv), Chernivets’ka (Chernivtsi), Dnipropetrovs’ka
(Dnipropetrovs’k), Donets’ka (Donets’k), Ivano-Frankivs’ka
(Ivano-Frankivs’k), Kharkivs’ka (Kharkiv), Khersons’ka (Kherson),
Khmel’nyts’ka (Khmel’nyts’kyy), Kirovohrads’ka (Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**,
Kyyivs’ka (Kiev), Luhans’ka (Luhans’k), L’vivs’ka (L’viv), Mykolayivs’ka
(Mykolayiv), Odes’ka (Odesa), Poltavs’ka (Poltava), Avtonomna Respublika
Krym* (Simferopol’), Rivnens’ka (Rivne), Sevastopol’**, Sums’ka (Sumy),
Ternopil’s’ka (Ternopil’), Vinnyts’ka (Vinnytsya), Volyns’ka (Luts’k),
Zakarpats’ka (Uzhhorod), Zaporiz’ka (Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs’ka

note: oblasts have the administrative center name following in

Independence: 1 December 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 August (1991)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Leonid D. KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Valeriy PUSTOVOYTENKO (since 16 July
1997), First Deputy Prime Minister Volodymyr KURATCHENKO (since 14
January 1999), and three deputy prime ministers

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president and approved by
the Supreme Council

note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC
originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council, but
significantly revamped and strengthened under President KUCHMA; the NSDC
staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and
international matters and advising the president; a Presidential
Administration that helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy
support to the president; and a Council of Regions that serves as an
advisory body created by President KUCHMA in September 1994 that
includes chairmen of the Kyyiv (Kiev) and Sevastopol’ municipalities and
chairmen of the Oblasti

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 26 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA October
1999); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the
president and approved by the People’s Council

election results: Leonid D. KUCHMA elected president; percent of
vote—Leonid KUCHMA 52.15%, Leonid KRAVCHUK 45.06%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450
seats; under Ukraine’s new election law, half of the Rada’s seats are
allocated on a proportional basis to those parties that gain 4% of the
national electoral vote; the other 225 members are elected by popular
vote in single-mandate constituencies; all serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 29 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002);
note—repeat elections continuing to fill vacant seats

election results: percent of vote by party (for parties clearing 4%
hurdle on 29 March 1998)—Communist 24.7%, Rukh 9.4%, Socialist/Peasant
8.6%, Green 5.3%, People’s Democratic Party 5.0%, Hromada 4.7%,
Progressive Socialist 4.0%, United Social Democratic Party 4.0%; seats
by party (as of 8 July 1998)—Communist 120, People’s Democratic Party
88, Rukh 47, Hromada 45, Socialist/Peasant 33, United Social Democratic
25, Green 24, Progressive Socialist 14, independents 26, vacant 28

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Ukraine [Petro
SYMONENKO]; Hromad [Pavlo LAZARENKO]; Ukrainian Popular Movement or Rukh
[Vyacheslav CHORNOVIL, chairman]; Socialist Party of Ukraine or SPU
[Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman]; Peasant Party of Ukraine or SelPU [Serhiy
DOVAN]; People’s Democratic Party or NDPU [Anatoliy MATVIYENKO,
chairman]; Reforms and Order Party [Viktor PYNZENYK]; United Social
Democratic Party of Ukraine [Vasyl ONOPENKO]; Agrarian Party of Ukraine
or APU [Kateryna VASHCHUK]; Liberal Party of Ukraine or LPU [Volodymyr
SHCHERBAN]; Green Party of Ukraine or PZU [Vitaliy KONONOV, leader];
Progressive Socialist Party [Natalya VITRENKO]

note: and numerous smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: New Ukraine (Nova Ukrayina);
Congress of National Democratic Forces

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member),
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MONUA, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Anton Denysovych BUTEYKO

chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 333-0606

FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817

consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Steven Karl PIFER

embassy: 10 Yuria Kotsubynskoho, 254053 Kiev 53

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [380] (44) 246-9750

FAX: [380] (44) 244-7350

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden
yellow represent grainfields under a blue sky


Economy—overview: After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away
the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union,
producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its
fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural
output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk,
grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified
heavy industry supplied equipment and raw materials to industrial and
mining sites in other regions of the former USSR. Ukraine depends on
imports of energy, especially natural gas. Shortly after the implosion
of the USSR in December 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most
prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread
resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon
stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output in 1992-98
fell to less than half the 1991 level. Loose monetary policies pushed
inflation to hyperinflationary levels in late 1993. Since his election
in July 1994, President KUCHMA has pushed economic reforms, maintained
financial discipline, and tried to remove almost all remaining controls
over prices and foreign trade. The onset of the financial crisis in
Russia dashed Ukraine’s hopes for its first year of economic growth in
1998 due to a sharp fall in export revenue and reduced domestic demand.
Although administrative currency controls will be lifted in early 1999,
they are likely to be reimposed when the hryvnia next comes under
pressure. The currency is only likely to collapse further if Ukraine
abandons tight monetary policies or threatens default. Despite
increasing pressure from the IMF to accelerate reform, significant
economic restructuring remains unlikely in 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity—$108.5 billion (1998 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: -1.7% (1998 est.)

GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$2,200 (1998 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:

agriculture: 14%

industry: 30%

services: 56% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 4.1%

highest 10%: 20.8% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (yearend 1998 est.)

Labor force: 22.8 million (yearend 1997)

Labor force—by occupation: industry and construction 32%, agriculture
and forestry 24%, health, education, and culture 17%, trade and
distribution 8%, transport and communication 7%, other 12% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 3.7% officially registered; large number of
unregistered or underemployed workers (December 1998)


revenues: $18 billion

expenditures: $21 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997

Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals,
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing
(especially sugar)

Industrial production growth rate: -1.5% (1998 est.)

Electricity—production: 171.8 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity—production by source:

fossil fuel: 47%

hydro: 9.2%

nuclear: 43.8%

other: 0% (1998)

Electricity—consumption: 174 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity—exports: 5 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity—imports: 7 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture—products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables;
beef, milk

Exports: $11.3 billion (1998 est.)

Exports—commodities: ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, machinery
and transport equipment, food products

Exports—partners: Russia, China,, Turkey, Germany, Belarus (1998)

Imports: $13.1 billion (1998 est.)

Imports—commodities: energy, machinery and parts, transportation
equipment, chemicals, plastics and rubber

Imports—partners: Russia, Germany, US, Poland, Italy (1998)

Debt—external: $10.9 billion (October 1998)

Economic aid—recipient: $637.7 million (1995); IMF Extended Funds
Facility $2.2 billion (1998)

Currency: 1 hryvna=100 kopiykas

Exchange rates: hryvnia per US$1—3.4270 (February 1999), 2.4495 (1998),
1.8617 (1997), 1.8295 (1996), 1.4731 (1995), 0.3275 (1994)

note: in August 1998, Ukraine introduced currency controls in an attempt
to fend off the impact of the Russian financial crisis; it created an
exchange rate corridor for the hryvnia of 2.5-3.5 hryvnia per US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year


Telephones: 12,531,277 (1998)

Telephone system: Ukraine’s phone systems are administered through the
State Committee for Communications; Ukraine has a telecommunication
development plan through 2005; Internet service is available in large

domestic: local—Kiev has a digital loop connected to the national
digital backbone; Kiev has several cellular phone companies providing
service in the different standards; some companies offer intercity
roaming and even limited international roaming; cellular phone service
is offered in at least 100 cities nationwide

international: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures
greatly improved the Ukrainian telephone system; Ukraine’s two main
fiber-optic lines are part of the Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line
(TAE); these lines connect Ukraine to worldwide service through Belarus,
Hungary, and Poland; Odesa is a landing point for the
Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia Undersea Fiber-Optic Cable (ITUR) giving
Ukraine an additional fiber-optic link to worldwide service; Ukraine has
Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA; note—at least 25
local broadcast stations of NA type (1998)

Radios: 15 million (1990)

Television broadcast stations: at least 33 (in addition 21 repeater
stations that relay ORT broadcasts from Russia) (1997)

Televisions: 17.3 million (1992)



total: 23,350 km

broad gauge: 23,350 km 1.524-m gauge (8,600 km electrified)


total: 172,565 km

paved: 163,937 km (including 1,875 km of expressways); note—these roads
are said to be hard-surfaced, meaning that some are paved and some are
all-weather gravel surfaced

unpaved: 8,628 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 4,400 km navigable waterways, of which 1,672 km were on the
Pryp”yat’ and Dnistr (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 4,000 km (1995); petroleum products 4,500 km
(1995); natural gas 34,400 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Berdyans’k, Illichivs’k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson,
Kiev (Kyyiv), Mariupol’, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni

Merchant marine:

total: 181 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,022,047 GRT/1,101,278

ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 117, liquefied gas tanker 1, container 4,
multifunction large-load carrier 2, oil tanker 16, passenger 12,
passenger-cargo 3, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 10, short-sea passenger 3 (1998 est.)

Airports: 706 (1994 est.)

Airports—with paved runways:

total: 163

over 3,047 m: 14

2,438 to 3,047 m: 55

1,524 to 2,437 m: 34

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 57 (1994 est.)

Airports—with unpaved runways:

total: 543

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 37

under 914 m: 476 (1994 est.)


Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Internal
Troops, National Guard, Border Troops

Military manpower—military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower—availability:

males age 15-49: 12,434,486 (1999 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:

males age 15-49: 9,740,684 (1999 est.)

Military manpower—reaching military age annually:

males: 365,762 (1999 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $414 million (1999)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 1.4% (1999)

Transnational Issues

Disputes—international: dispute with Romania over continental shelf of
the Black Sea under which significant gas and oil deposits may exist;
agreed in 1997 to two-year negotiating period, after which either party
can refer dispute to the International Court of Justice (ICJ); has made
no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so)
and does not recognize the claims of any other nation

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to West;
limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for
opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey,
and to Europe and Russia; drug-related money laundering a minor, but
growing, problem

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