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Thomas Alva Edison

Thomas Alva Edison ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_11» \o «February 11» February 11
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1847» \o «1847» 1847 –
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_18» \o «October 18»
October 18 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1931» \o «1931»
1931 ) was an HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States»
\o «United States» American HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventor» \o «Inventor» inventor and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Businessman» \o «Businessman»
businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life
around the world. Dubbed «The Wizard of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edison%2C_New_Jersey» \o «Edison, New
Jersey» Menlo Park » by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first
inventors to apply the principles of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_production» \o «Mass production»
mass production to the process of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invention» \o «Invention» invention , and
therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial
research HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laboratory» \o
«Laboratory» laboratory .

Some of his inventions were not completely original but amounted to
improvements of earlier inventions. Also, many of the inventions
attributed to him were actually created by one or more of the numerous
employees working under his direction. Nevertheless, Edison is
considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Edison_patents» \o «List
of Edison patents» 1,097 U.S. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent» \o «Patent» patents in his name,
as well as many patents in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom» \o «United Kingdom»
United Kingdom , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o
«France» France and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany»
\o «Germany» Germany .

Thomas Edison was born in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan%2C_Ohio» \o «Milan, Ohio» Milan,
Ohio , the seventh and last child of Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr.
(1804–1896) (born in Marshalltown, Nova Scotia, Canada) and the former
Nancy Matthews Elliott (1810–1871). His family was of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands» \o «Netherlands» Dutch
origin. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» \l
«_note-Baldwin#_note-Baldwin» \o «» [1]

In school, the young Edison’s mind often wandered and his teacher the
Reverend Engle was overheard calling him «addled.» This ended Edison’s
three months of official schooling. He recalled later, «My mother was
the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me; and I felt I had
something to live for, someone I must not disappoint.» His mother then
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeschooling» \o
«Homeschooling» home schooled him. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» \l «_note-0#_note-0» \o «»
[2] Much of his education came from reading R.G. Parker’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_of_Natural_Philosophy» \o «School
of Natural Philosophy» School of Natural Philosophy .

Edison lost much of his hearing at the age of twelve. The cause of
Edison’s deafness has been the subject of many different theories. While
some historians state his hearing loss may have been the result of a
childhood bout of smallpox, according to Edison it was because he was
pulled up to a train car by his ears. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» \l «_note-1#_note-1» \o «»
[3]

Edison’s family was forced to move to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Huron%2C_Michigan» \o «Port Huron,
Michigan» Port Huron , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michigan» \o «Michigan» Michigan when
the railroad bypassed Milan, but his life there was bittersweet. He sold
candy and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit.

Edison became a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telegraphy» \o
«Telegraphy» telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie
MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie’s father, station
agent J.U. MacKenzie of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Clemens%2C_Michigan» \o «Mount
Clemens, Michigan» Mount Clemens, Michigan , was so grateful that he
trained Edison as a telegraph operator. After three months of training,
Edison mastered the skill and was hired at a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Union» \o «Western Union» Western
Union telegraph office. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» \l «_note-2#_note-2» \o «»
[4] Edison’s deafness allegedly aided him as it blocked out noises and
prevented Edison from hearing the telegrapher sitting next to him. One
of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and
inventor named HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Leonard_Pope» \o «Franklin
Leonard Pope» Franklin Leonard Pope , who allowed the impoverished
youth to live and work in the basement of his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth%2C_New_Jersey» \o «Elizabeth,
New Jersey» Elizabeth , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Jersey» \o «New Jersey» New Jersey
home.

Some of his earliest inventions related to telegraphy, including a
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ticker_tape» \o «Ticker tape»
stock ticker . Edison’s first patent, for the electric vote recorder, U.
S. Patent 90,646, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» \l «_note-3#_note-3» \o «»
[5] was granted on 1 June 1869. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» \l «_note-4#_note-4» \o «»
[6]

address work through the 1920s.

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_25» \o «December
25» December 25 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1871» \o
«1871» 1871 , Edison married 16 year old Mary Stilwell, whom he had met
two months earlier. They had three children,

Marion «Dot» Estelle Edison ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1873» \o «1873» 1873 – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1965» \o «1965» 1965 )

Thomas «Dash» Alva Edison, Jr ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1876» \o «1876» 1876 – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1935» \o «1935» 1935 )

William Leslie Edison ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1878»
\o «1878» 1878 – HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1935» \o
«1935» 1935 )

Mary Edison died on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_9»
\o «August 9» August 9 HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1884»
\o «1884» 1884 .

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_24» \o «February
24» February 24 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1886» \o
«1886» 1886 , at the age of thirty-nine, Edison married 19-year-old
Mina Miller in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akron%2C_Ohio»
\o «Akron, Ohio» Akron , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio» \o «Ohio» Ohio . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» \l «_note-5#_note-5» \o «»
[7] They also had three children:

Madeleine Edison ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1888» \o
«1888» 1888 – HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1979» \o «1979»
1979 )

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Edison» \o «Charles
Edison» Charles Edison ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1890» \o «1890» 1890 – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1969» \o «1969» 1969 ), who took over the
company upon his father’s death and who later was elected HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governor» \o «Governor» Governor of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Jersey» \o «New Jersey» New
Jersey

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Edison» \o «Theodore
Edison» Theodore Edison ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1898» \o «1898» 1898 – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1992» \o «1992» 1992 ).

Mina outlived Thomas Edison, dying on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_24» \o «August 24» August 24 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1947» \o «1947» 1947 .

Carbon telephone transmitter

In 1877 and 1878 Edison invented and developed the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_microphone» \o «Carbon microphone»
carbon microphone used in all telephones along with the Bell receiver
until the 1980s. After protracted patent litigation, a federal court
ruled in 1892 that Edison and not HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emile_Berliner» \o «Emile Berliner» Emile
Berliner was the inventor of the carbon microphone. (Josephson, p146).
The carbon microphone was also used in radio broadcasting and public

Edison was a strong supporter of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montessori» \o «Montessori» Montessori
schools in the United States. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» \l «_note-18#_note-18» \o
«» [20]

Edison was so fascinated by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morse_Code» \o «Morse Code» Morse Code
that he taught it to his girlfriend Mary Stilwell, proposed marriage to
her in the code, and nicknamed their first two children «Dot» and
«Dash».

Edison’s company was considerably late in the business of releasing
music on phonographs. Reportedly, Edison considered his invention to be
limited to a business dictation machine, and the concept of pre-recorded
music never crossed his mind. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources» \o
«Wikipedia:Citing sources» [citation needed]

At the turn of the last century, Edison saw modern medicine at the
crossroads. In 1902 he wrote of Medicine being «played out» which
prompted his oft repeated quote: «The doctor of the future will give no
medicine, but will instruct his patient in the care of the human frame,
in diet and in the cause and prevention of disease.» he continued in
that vein: «There were never so many able, active minds at work on the
problems of diseases as now, and all their discoveries are tending to
the simple truth — that you can’t improve on nature.» for full quote see
wikiquote HYPERLINK «http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» \o
«http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison» [9]

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