“The history of Australia”
General information about Australia……………………………………3
National anthem, flag and the coat-of-arms…………………………3
Terra Incognita (Unknown land)………………………………………..4
First European settlement……………………………………………….4
Creation of the Commonwealth of Australia……………………………5
New crown colonies…………………………………………………….5
Australia’s ties with Great Britain and the USA..………………………6
General Information about Australia
Australia is situated in the south-west of the Pacific Ocean. The area
of this country is 7,7 million square kilometres. The population of the
country is about 20 million people. The capital is Canberra. The
population of Canberra is about 300 thousand people. Official language
is English. Australia is the largest island in the world and it is the
The Commonwealth of Australia is a self-governing federal state. It has
got 6 states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia,
Tasmania and 2 internal territories.
National Anthem, Flag and the Coat-of-Arms
Australian national flag consists of 5 white stars of the Southern Cross
and the white Commonwealth star (the large seven pointed star) on a
blue background with a Union Jack in canton. The Southern Cross is the
southern Crux, whose four chief stars are in the form of cross.
The flag of Australia is the only one to fly over a whole continent. The
small Union Jack represents the historical link with Britain, and the
large seven-pointed star represents the six states and the Territories,
and the small stars form the Southern Cross – a prominent feature of the
southern hemisphere night sky.
A distinctive Australia flora and fauna is reflected in the country’s
coat-of-arms by the symbols of Australia’s endemic animals; kangaroo and
emu and twig of wattle (a kind of acacia).
Australia officially adopted green and gold as its national colours in
The Australia national anthem was adopted in the 1970ties. It is used on
the all official and ceremonial occasions.
It is supposed that Australia’s native inhabitants, the Aborigines,
arrived in Australia at least 40,000 years ago. The first Europeans
visited the shores of Australia in 1606. The Spanish ship of Luis Vaes
de Torres sailed through the strait which now bears his name and
separates Australia and Papua New Guinea. In the same year the Dutch
ship Duyfken (Little Dove) sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria. Among
later voyagers is Dirk Hartog (1616), who left an inscribed pewter
plate (Australia’s most famous early European relic, now in Amsterdam)
in Western Australia.
Abel Tasman, Dutch navigator, visited Tasmania, which he named Van
Diemen’s Land, in 1642.
The first Englishman to visit the continent was a buccaneer, William
Dampier, who landed near King Sound on the northwest coast in 1699.
A second wave of immigration began in 1770, when Captain James Cook, of
the British Navy, sighted the east coast of the continent.
Cook had been sent to Tahiti to make astronomical observations and when
his mission was completed, he sailed south in Endeavour, circumnavigated
New Zealand and headed due west. On April 20, 1770, Cook sighted land
near Cape Everard, in the southeast corner of Australia. He turned
north, charting the coastline as he went and, 9 days later, landed at
Botany Bay, which he named for the variety of botanic specimen found
there. He raised the British flag and claimed New South Wales as a
First European Settlement
It is probably due to its geographical position that Australia was the
last continent to be inhabited by the white man. It was just a little
over 390 years that the Australian continent was discovered.
The first landing by Europeans took place in 1606. More than a century
and a half later an expedition headed by the British explorer James Cook
added the land to the possessions of the British crown.
Until the name “Australia” (meaning “South Land”) became generally
accepted for the continent, it had been referred to as New Holland, New
South Wales, or Botany Bay. During the War of Independence (1776) the
former British colonies in America declared themselves independent.
Britain tried to make up for this loss by the seizure of new
territories. Besides, the convicts could no longer be transported to the
American colonies (which had served this purpose for over hundred
years) and British jails were more than badly overcrowded.
The first contingent of the convicts and their guards landed where
Sydney stands today, on January 26, 1788. It was the so-called “First
Fleet” and these people were called “first fleeters” Now, Australia Day,
January 26, commemorates the landing. Gradually more and more people
arrived (they were convicts as well as free settlers) and a number of
settlements were founded along the southern and eastern coasts. For the
first few years, the colonists were almost entirely dependent on food
supplies from overseas but gradually the land around the settlements was
brought under cultivation. Soils were generally poor and crop yields
low, but better agricultural land was soon found near Parramatta, to the
west. Exploratory voyages were also made along the east coast. The
boldest was that of Captain Matthew Flinders who, in 1802-1803
circumnavigated the continent.
Australia Day is a very important holiday for the Australians, another
equally important holiday is called Anzac Day.
Creation of The Commonwealth of Australia
In 1901 the separate colonies in Australia merged together and became
the States of the Commonwealth of Australia, which acquired the status
of dominion of Great Britain. The Commonwealth of Australia – a
federation of the 6 former colonies as states – was declared to come
into being on January 1, 1901. The first Governor – General, the Earl
of Hopetoun, convened the first Parliament of the Commonwealth of
Australia on April 29, 1901. It was opened in Melbourne on May 9 by Duke
of Cornwall and York, son of King Edward VII. Sir Edmund Barton was the
first Prime Minister.
The constitution provided for Federal Parliament to sit in Melbourne
until a federal capital territory was selected and established. The
present Australian Capital Territory was ceded from New South Wales to
become federal territory in 1911, and the future capital was named
Canberra in 1913. The first Federal Parliament to meet in Canberra was
opened by the Duke of York, later King George VI, on May 9, 1927.
Though Australia now is an independent state, according to the
Constitution the head of the state is the Monarch of Great Britain,
represented by the Governor-General. His duties include assenting to
bills, opening, proroguing and dissolving Parliament and commissioning
the Prime Minister to form a government. Governor-General’s residence
Jarralumla is in Canberra.
The Commonwealth of Australia is composed of 6 states and 2 territories:
the State of New South Wales with its capital in Sydney, the State of
Victoria with its capital in Melbourne, the State of Queenland with its
capital in Brisbane, the Sate of Western Australia with its capital in
Perth, the State of Tasmania with its capital in Hobart, Australian
Capital Territory with its Federal Capital in Canberra, and Northern
Territory with its capital in Darwin.
New Crown Colonies
Great Britain was on the verge of loosing 13 rebellious American
Colonies in 1770. At that time Captain James Cook who led a scientific
voyager planted the British ensign on a continent that would soon
provide a vast new colony: Australia.
The will to establish new crown colonies was insistent even before the
old ones mere lost. The Parliament debated the site as early as 1779.
Only 18 years after Captain James Cook had landed in Botany Bay, Captain
Arthur Philip arrived in Sydney Cove to begin the first settlement.
In many ways, America and Australia have had corresponding histories of
exploration, colonization, immigration, and growth. Both began with
settlements on the fringes of huge continents, gradually pushing inward
to cultivate a wilderness interior. And both developed a frontier ethos
As the convicts earned their freedom, they went into the outback and
staked claims on land. These men, known as Squatters, raised sheep or
cattle, depending on the type of land they found for themselves.
Other convicts however reverted to their criminal ways and became
outlaws, raiding the towns and stealing from the squatters. The early
part of Australian history is filled with the tales of the settlers.
These bushrangers often became folk-heroes in the tradition of Robin
Hood and Dick Turpin in England, and Jesse James in the United States.
Many poems and songs were written about them and at one time it was a
criminal offence to sing or recite these ballads which glorified crime.
Nonetheless, every Australian today knows the stories of the famous
bushrangers. These ballads and songs started the tradition of Australian
“yarn” and its heroes, Dad’s Dave among them.
The hard rough life in the outback was no place for women. The Squatters
searched the towns for wives to take to their stations. It wasn’t very
pleasant prospect for a new bride, but some girls were lucky enough to
undertake the adventure. The image of a typical Australian was a tall,
thin and blond man who was called a “Cornstalk”, sometimes wearing a
cabbage tree hat.
Australians celebrated their bicentennial beginning Jan. 26, 1988 and
continuing all next year. On that date in 1788, 11 ships arrived from
Britain, and 1.030 settlers, including 776 convicts, began their new
life in waterfront section of Sydney called “the Rocks”.
Australia’s Ties With Great Britain And The USA
Initially, Britain and the Commonwealth countries were the central
elements of Australia’s foreign policy and activity. Later, closer
relations were also developed with the USA, partly because of the vital
role it played in the Pacific during and after World War II.
Australia can seem quite British at times and somewhat American at
others. Political, legal, and educational institutions derive from
Britain. Each state capital is named after a colonial politician (Perth,
Brisbane, Sydney, Hobart, Melbourne) or British royal figure (Adelaide).
Dry and witheringly hot towns bear names from England’s green and
pleasant land. The representative of the England queen is the formal
head of the governmental structure. Only since 1984 has required that a
civil servant in Australia be an Australian – previously it was
sufficient to be British.
American influence comes in culture, technology, defense arrangements,
and business. Books from USA have made a major advance in Australian
intellectual circles since the 1960s. American ideas of management and
problem-solving are becoming more and more popular.
Significantly, Australian dollar was introduced in 1966.
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Филипп Стил. Атлас мира. Москва, «Олма-Пресс», 1998 г., с. 95
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