Реферат з іноземної мови.

Теми з англійської мови: marketing, wholesaling, retailing, pricing,
computers, international, business.



Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the
movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. Sometimes it
is called distribution. On the one hand, marketing is made up of such
activities as transporting, storing and selling goods and, on the other
hand, a series of decisions you make during the process of moving goods
from producer to user. Marketing operations include product planning.
buying, storage, pricing, promotion, selling, credit, traffic and
marketing and marketing research.

The ability to recognise early trends is very important^ Producers must
know why, where, for what рифове he consumers by. Market research helps
the producer to predict what the people will want. And through
advertising he attempts to influence the customer to buy.

Marketing operations are very expensive. They take up more than half of
the consumer’s dollar. The trend in the USA has been to high mass
consumption. The construction of good shopping centres has made goods
available to consumers. lt provided a wide range of merchandise and
plenty of parking facilities.


— виробник

consumer — споживач

user — споживач

distribution — збут, розподіл

marketing -продаж,збут,маркетинг

transporting -транспортування

storing -складування,збері гання

storage -зберігання

product planning -розробка нових продуктів

pricing -калькуляція цін

promotion -сприяння в продажі
(якого-небудь товару),

наприклад,з допомогою реклами

traffic -торгівля

marketing research -вивчення ринку збуту

trend -тенденція,загальний

to predict -передбачати

to influence -впливати


Sally and Don work in the Marketing Department of a company, that makes
different j meal products.

Don. Hey, Sally, look at these figures. The price of sugar is going up
10%during the next year.

Sally. Oh. that’s bad. That means trouble for our jam line.

Don. I think so too. Sugar is the main ingredient, you know. What’s
your opinion? Sally. Well, we are not the price leaders in the field and
jam is a very price sensitive item. According to our marketing research
informations consumers aren’t particularly brand loyal about jam.

Don. I have a brilliant idea. You know, this could be a great marketing
opportunity for us.

Sally. What do you mean?

Don. Well, because of the price rise in sugar we know that the price
of jam will go up too. The increase will pass on the consumer, won’t it?

Sally. Right.

Don. Imagine, we find the possibility of changing the ingredients in
the jam so that we wouldn’t have to raise the price.

Sally. Then we wouldn’t trouble about the price rise on sugar because
we’ll be able to sell the jam at the same price. The idea is that we
could market less expensive jam. What a promotional campaign we could

Don. Sure. If we do it right we’ll sell more and become the leader in
the market.

Sally. Now the first thing is to talk to Research and Development.

Don . Right and we’ll see when they’ll have some samples of new
formulars ready. Sally. What about marketing research? I think we
should schedule some tests for

responses to the R & D samples.

Don. Well, there is a lot to do. I think we should also change
packaging. Now, Sally, that would be great.

Sally. Oh, Don, let’s hope for the best. If we don’t lose the chance,
the competitors

products will stay on the supermarket shelves.

Don. Oh, it’s time for lunch. Let’s discuss our business in

Sally. Oh, sure, we’ve got a lot to discuss — distribution,


to go up — зростати (про ціну)

to raise the prise — піднімати ціну

plice leader — виробник, який встановлює найнижчу ціну на
певний товар

prісе sensitive item — товар, рівень продажу якого дуже
залежить від ціни

tо be brand loyal — віддавати перевагу

promotional campaign — рекламна кампанія

to market — продавати

to schedule — розробляти план

packaging — пакування

competitor — конкурент


Wholesaling is a part of the marketing system. It provides channels of
distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally indirect
channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be
from the manufacturer wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or
through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the
manufacturer or producer to the consumer.

Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing
chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling
units account for one-third of total sales.

Two-third of the wholesaling middleman are merchant wholesalers who take
title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who
negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don’t take title to the goods
they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don’t
earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the
value of the goods they sell.

Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the
average supermarket stocks 5000 items in groceries alone, a retail
druggist can have more than 6000 items! Ad a wholesaler handles a large
assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem
of both manufacturer and retailer. The storekeeper does not have to deal
directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a
well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.


wholesaling -оптова торгівля

to provide channels -забезпечувати системою

indirect channels -непряма,опосередкована

complicated channels -складна система (збуту)

a retailer -роздрібний торговець

chain movement -рух до об’єднання

wholesale unit -(тут) контора з оптової

total sales — спільнний продаж

a middleman -посередник-місіонер

merchant wholesaler -оптовий скутцик

wholesaling middleman -оптовий посередник (скупщик)

to take title to the goods -придбати товар як власність

agent middleman -посередник між виробником і

to negotiate purchases or sales -вести переговори з приводу
купівлі чи продажу

to earn salary -заробляти зарплату

to recieve commissions -отримувати комісійні(відсоток
від продажу)

grocery -бакалійна торгівля

to handle -1) керувати,2)торгувати

assortment -асортимент


John is explaining his new job to his wife, Susan. He is a salestrainee
for a company.

John It’s a great job, you know. The salesmen are paid salaries
instead of begin on commision.

Susan Why do you find it great? You can earn less money.

John. Well, it’s a regular weekly salary. And besides we get
reimbursed for everything lunches and dinners even the football
tickets, the car, gasoline, tolls.

Susan That’s really great.

John And I’m going to get a raise in three months.

Susan And where are you going to sell?

John Foam rubber.

Susan What is it used for?

John It is used to make couches and beds, generally I deal with
furniture manufacturers.

Susan So you will travel much, won’t you? John No. Delivery is
a part of our wholesaling operation. Foam is sold and delivered be the
truckloads.lt is rather bulky and it is expensive to have it shipped a
big distance. We are going to deal with buyers who are in this region.

Susan That’s fine. I don’t want you to travel too much. By the way 1
want to know more about sales pocedure.

John At first I go to see a buyer. We discuss what he needs.
After that I send him a written quote. If our prices suit him, he’ll
call us and send an order.

Susan Do you take orders over the phone? John Yes. The
buyers are always in a hurry and a letter would take too much time to
come. If it’s a verbal agreement we call it gentlemen’s agreement.

Susan And whot happens after the verbal agreement?

John We receive a written purchase order. It is called p.o. — and
it has a number that we use for ail future correspondence on that order.
The office then retypes the order form and the p.o. and order form are
stapled together and filed.

Susan It sounds organised. Whom do you usually deal which in a

John Well, I deal with purchasing garnets. But I cold deal with any
administrator from the president on down, in some cases.

Susan Good. Soon you’ll get your raise.

John Yes. Selling is usually a stepping stone to higher positions
in management.

Susan Don’t worry, dear. If it doesn’t work out, we still have my


sales trainee стажер по торгівлі

to be ОП Commission одержувати комісійні з

to reimburse відшкодовувати

to get a raise отримувати підвищення

Toll мито,плата за

Quote призначення ціни

Delivery Доставка

gentlemen’s agreement джентельменська згода

verbal agreement усна згода

purchase order (p.o.) замовлення на покупку

to file підшивати, зберігати

Stepping Stone засіб для досягнення



Retailing is selling goods and services to the ultimate consumer./Thus,
the retailer is the most expensive link in the chain of distribution.
Being middlemen, they make their profit by charging the customer 25 to
100 per cent more than the price they paid for the item.

The retailers operate through stores, mail-order houses, vending machine
operators. There are different types of retail stores: department
stores, discount houses, cooperatives, single line retailers. The major
part (over 95 per cent) of retail establishments concentrate on a single
line of merchandise for example, food, hardware, etc. But nowadays there
is a trend for many single line stores to take on a greater variety of

The retailer performs many necessary functions. First, he may provide a
convenient location. Second, he often guarantees and services the
merchandise he sells. Third, the retailer helps to promote the product
through displays, advertising or sales people. Fourth, the retailer can
finance the customer by extending credit. Also the retailer stores the
goods in his outlet by having goods available.


retailing роздрібна торгівля

ultimate dnsumer кінцевий споживач

link зв’язок

mail-order house посилторг

vending machine operator оператор торгівельних автоматичних машин
(тих, що продають дрібні товари: газети, сигарети і т.д.)

discount house магазин із скидкою

co-operative кооператив

single line retailer роздрібний торговець

to perform functions виконувати функції

extending credit довгостроковий кредит

an Outlet ринок збуту .торгівельна

discount скидка


Jean has just moved into a new house. Her neighbour, Liz, has come over
to welcome her.

Jean I am very glad to see you here.

Liz How do you like the new place?

Jean It»s marvelous. I am sure we are going to love living here.

Liz Well, have a look, here! It ^s a shopping guide for the
neighbourhood and booklet of discount coupons. New neighbours
alwayserceive them. There is one coupon for every store in the shopping

Jean Oh, thank you. It ^s come in time. I have a job of shopping to

Liz lean imagine, having just moved in. Not far from here there
^s very good

shopping centre. You can also find a huge supermarket, a drugstore, some
department stores in the neighbourhood.

Jean Great. Are there any small stores nearby? Liz Oh, yes.
The map is right here in the shopping guide. There is a little drugstore
a few blocks away, a little grocery store next to it, a little boutique,
an ice cream parlor, a pizza place. You can find a plant store not far
from here too.

Jean Are there any goods discount houses nearby? We terribly need a
new toaster. Everybody in my family likes toasts for breakfasts very
much. I»d like to buy it.

Liz Oh, sure. There is a good discount store in the shopping
centre. If you like.I»ll come with you.

Jean Oh, you needn»t. 1 don»t want to trouble you.

Liz No trouble at all, I’d like to do some shopping too. If we go
to the discount center I can go to that little cheese shop. I don’t want
to bother you. Make out your shopping list and I’ll be your quide. By
the way, you can use your discount coupon for the toaster.

Jean Well, it’ll take some time to make a shopping list. I’ll have
to buy a lot at the grocer’s.

Liz This is a good idea. I should have gone shopping yesterday, so
I’ll make my list too.

Jean By the way, I like your dress very much. It’s a perfect fit.
Where did you buy it, if you don’t mind asking?

Liz Thank you for a compliment. I got it at very nice little
boutique. It’s a bit

expensive, but there are many interesting and original things. If you
arejnterested we can stop there.

Jean I’m afraid I can’t. I have to cook dinner.

Liz Oh. Don’t trouble yourself with the dinner. Look over the
coupons I’ve given you. You can go out to dinner at a discount store.


shopping guide довідник магазинів

discount coupon талон, який дає право
на придбання

товарів із скидкою

Store крамниця

department store універмаг

supermarket супермаркет

grocery бакалія

shopping centre торгівельний центр



All products and all services have prices. The price depends on
different things such as credit terms, delivery, trade-in-allowance
guaratees, quality and other forms of service. Which price can produce
the biggest profit during a long perid of time. It’s hardly possible to
determine such a price. The price may be too high to produce a large
vojue or too low to cover costs. No other area of marketing operations
has been a subject to bad practice. Many businesses perase unsound price
policies for long periods of time and ‘ are not aware about it.

Prices can be determined in different ways. For example, the prices of
weat, cotton and other agricultural prices can be decided in large
central markets where forces of supply and demand exist. This is pure
price competition. The prices on industrial products (iron, steel, etc.)
are usually decided by large companies. As a rule the amount and price
of goods sold to large number of buyers is controlled by a few competing
sellers. Prises also can be set by government, usually for different
public services — railroads, electricity, . manufactured gas, bus
services, etc.

If demand encases, prices rise, profits expand and new investment is
attracted. But other factors may be involved as well. Prices are related
to each other in different ways. Ultimately, everything is related in
price, since the consumer can buy and must pay everything out of a
particular, limited amount of money.


credit terms кредитні умови

trade-in-allowance сума грошейб які віддані
за стару річ і яка

to cover COStS включена в рахунок
купівлі нової

to peruse unsound покривати затрати

price policies вести нерозумну
цінотворчу політику

supply and demand пропозиція і попит

price competition конкуренція у

to set prices встановлювати ціни


Dick is introducing a new line of products and is talking to his friend
Tom, a business consultant, about it.

Dick It’s the first time when I’m in business for myself.

Tom Don’t worry. The store has always been doing well. It has a
great location and as far as your new line of merchandise…

Dick That’s what I wanted to talk to you about. Can you give some
ideas how to

charge the prices?

Tom With pleasure. Generally, there two types of pricing policies.
There is price emphasis and price de-emphasis.

Dick What’s the difference?

Tom The price emphasis policy emphasises low prices. This encourages
sales. But low price doesn’t give extra services.

Dick So, a really low price means no credit, home delivery, repair,
installation and other services.

Tom That’s what I mean. But many people are interested only in the
low price and not in the extra services.

Dick Yes, and vice versa. The price which I set determines the
number of sales. I must think the roughly about it.

Tom A good example of price emphasis is «loss leader» pricing.



The computer industry is one of the largest in western countries and
especially in the USA. It includes companies that manufacture, sell and
lease computers, as well as companies that supply products and services
for people working with computers.

-давати інструкції.

to put data -закладати дані

to solve mathematical problems -вирішувати математичні

to process data -обробляти дані

preparation of payrolls -підготовка

inventory control -інвентаризаційний

warehousing -складування товарів

distribution operations -розподільні операції

customer accounting -розрахунок з клієнтом


Simona and Berg work in a large supermarket. Berg is the Manager and
Simona is the Head Buyer.

Berg I»m so glad you had this business trip. I also would have
liked to go but it’s a problem for me to get away. Tell me everything
about your business trip.

Simony It was really great, Berg. It was looking over the operations
of the store. It’s very wellorganized and I believe we should consider
adopting some of the methods.

Berg Is it really so?

Simona Absolutely, Berg, their computer system is remarkable.

Berg Can you tell me more about it?

Simona Oh, sure. First, they»ve replaced their cash registers with
special terminals.

Berg What for?

Simona They record on tape the department number, classification of
items, amount of sale.

Berg Do you think we really need all that information on tape?

Simona We put on the same information on our sales checks.

Berg Yes, but in cases of exchanges we need to know all that.

Simona And for other things too. Berg Well?

Simona For investory control, for example. During the night, the
tapes containing the information are fed into the computer.

Berg And then what?

Simona Every morning the computer prepares reports on the sales of
the day before, classified by department and buyer.

Berg So, it is possible to have almost instant records.

Simona You are right. The inventory is kept up to date
automatically .Imagine, how efficient we could be.

Berg It is great. But 1 think with the help of a computer we
could offer more

personal services to our customers.

Simona What do you mean?

Berg Having such up-to-date records and complete inventory we
could keep records of birthdays and anniversaries and have gift
suggestions based on customer records, and a million of other things.

Simona Don»t hurry. Let»s get going on first things first.


Head Buyer -начальник
відділу збуту

to adopt methods -втілювати


to feed the information -закладати

in the computer -в комп’ютер

to date



The international corporation or global company has its origin. Usually
it is the outgrowth of the great trading companies of the 17th and 18th
centuries. In 1811 a New York statute said the filing of documents could
create corporations. After that it became a matter of bureaucratic
operations to become a corporation. By 1850 it was a very common thing
in the United States and was under general statute in European countries
as well. Since that time the corporate movement began. As the jet plane,
satellite communications and computers began, it became possible for a
company to control business jn all the world.

The growth of international corporate operations in latter than the
economic growth of the industrialised nations. There are some projects
which predict that within a generation almost a half of the free worlds
production will be internationalised.

-міжнародна корпорація

global company -міжнародна компанія

outgrowth -продукт,результат

statue -законодавчий

satellite communication -супутниковий зв»язок

closing of the gaps -зближення кордонів

jet plane -реактивний літак

bureaucratic -бюрократичний


Nick and Ann are having lunch. Nick is an executive in the international
computer company.

Nick Do you like the idea of taking a month»s trip to Europe and the
Far East? Ann What? You are kidding.

Nick No. First of all I must say that it»s a business trip. The
company wants me to visit some of our operations. I should have meetings
about the new computer I am developing. They think if we combine
expertise we’ll advance more quickly.

Ann Oh, Nick, it’s great. Where are we going to?

Nick To nine countries. We have nine development laboratories. In
fact, only now I realise how large the company is, a real global

Ann But the company started here in America.

Nick Y68- m tms sense, we’re American. Each company has to be
incorporated somewhere, here or in Japan or Canada or India. But our
corporation is a real international one.

Ann What does it mean then?

Nick Well, we are in 126 countries and we have there 125 000
employees. We do our business in 28 languages and more then 32
currencies. Our plants are situated in 13 countries and we have eight
development labs, Ann Now I see. You are multinational. But such
industries as shipbuilding, aircraft, automobiles can’t survive without
selling abroad.

Nick Right. By the way, do you know that for the last seven years
more than half of the corporation net income has come from overseas
business. We are the part of the world community.

Ann It’s exciting, isn’t it?

Nick Yes, now we are really can feel that nations are tied to each
other through business operations. This internationalism is our hope for
a better world.

Ann Well, it’s time to pack. Later

Ann Nick, can you explain me why do you sell a computer to a
company in Canada when the company has a plant in Canada?

Nick Well, Ann. For example, it’s not unusual for a automobile company
from Britain to manufacture automobiles in France for sale in Britain
with Canadian-made engine, Swiss transmission and Germany axlew. It’s
international business.

Ann But it is so complicated to sell the goods to a foreign company
with different currencies and all that.

Nick I can tell you how we do.

Ann It’s very interesting.

Nick When we deliver the machine to the shipping company, we
receive a bill of lading. It’s a receipt from the shipping company and
it’s also the foreign company’s claim to the computer when it gets to

Ann And what’s than?

Nick Then we write draft or check which direct the British company
to pay a sum in British pounds to a third party in, let’s say, 90 days.
We call it a «bill of exchange» which includes the rate of exchange at
the time and, in addition, the interest. It must be paid on the 90 day
extension of credit.

Ann That is hard time getting the money, isn’t it?

Nick No. WE take the draft, the bill of lading and other necessary
papers to our New York bank. The draft is sold at discount, it means
without interest charge, for the face value and get dollars. That’s the

Ann Well, but you get your money from the bank. How does the British
company pay? Whom do they pay?

Nick It’s quite simple, New York bank sends the documents and the
draft to its branch in London or to a British bank. The transaction is
finished usually by accepting British pounds into a checking account in
a London bank.

Ann It seems rather complicating.

Nick It only seems so. The US supplied a computer, exported the
merchandise and got back a checking account deposit in a London bank,
importing claim on British goods and services.

Ann Could you have dollars instead?

Nick Sure, but in this case we would have reduced the existing
British claim on

American goods and services.

Ann So what?

Nick If some nations pile up continuing capital surpluses and other
continuing deficits the problem can arise in international economics.

Ann I see that I must study the subject thoroughly before we can

Nick Yes, may be.

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