Реферат з англійської мови

Sport (Спорт)

Contents

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «Etymology» 1
Etymology

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «History» 2 History

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «Sportsmanship» 3
Sportsmanship

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «Professionalism» 4
Professionalism

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «Politics» 5
Politics

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «Physical_art» 6
Physical art

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «Technology» 7
Technology

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «Terminology» 8
Terminology

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «Spectator_sport» 9
Spectator sport

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «See_also» 10 See
also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «References» 11
References

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «Further_reading»
12 Further reading

Sport in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childhood» \o
«Childhood» childhood . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_football» \o «Association
football» Association football , shown above, is a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_sport» \o «Team sport» team sport
which also provides HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_actions» \o «Social actions»
social actions .

A sport is commonly defined as an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organized» \o «Organized» organized ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competitively» \o
«Competitively» competitively and skillful HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_activity» \o «Physical activity»
physical activity requiring commitment and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sportsmanship» \o «Sportsmanship» fair
play . It is governed by a set of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulation_of_sport» \o «Regulation of
sport» rules or HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tradition»
\o «Tradition» customs . In a sport the key factors are the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_capabilities» \o «Physical
capabilities» physical capabilities and skills of the competitor when
determining the outcome ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victory» \o «Victory» winning or
losing). In contrast, games such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Card_game» \o «Card game» card games and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Board_game» \o «Board game»
board games , though these could be called HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_sports» \o «Mind sports» mind sports
, require only mental skills. Non-competitive activities such as jogging
and rock-climbing, are usually classified as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recreation» \o «Recreation» recreations .

Physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first often
define the result of a sport. However the degree of skill in some sports
such as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diving» \o «Diving»
diving , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dressage» \o
«Dressage» dressage and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Figure_skating» \o «Figure skating»
figure skating is judged according to well-defined criteria. This is in
contrast with other judged activities such as beauty pageants and
body-building shows, where skill does not have to be shown and the
criteria are not as well defined.

Accurate records are kept and updated for most sports at the highest
levels, while failures and accomplishments are widely announced in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport_news» \o «Sport news»
sport news . Sports are most often played just for fun or for the simple
fact that people need exercise to stay in good physical condition.
However professional sport is a major source of entertainment.

Although they do not always succeed, sports participants are expected to
display good HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sportsmanship» \o
«Sportsmanship» sportsmanship , standards of conduct such as being
respectful of opponents and officials, and congratulating the winner
when losing.

Etymology

«Sport» comes from the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_language» \o «French language» old
French desport meaning «leisure.»

History

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_sport» \o «History of sport»
History of sport

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome» \o «Ancient
Rome» Roman bronze reduction of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myron» \o «Myron» Myron ‘s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discobolos» \o «Discobolos» Discobolos ,
2nd century AD.

There are artifacts and structures that suggest that the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China» \o «China» Chinese engaged in
sporting activities as early as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4000_BC» \o «4000 BC» 4000 BC .
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «cite_note-0» [1]
Gymnastics appears to have been a popular sport in China’s ancient past.
Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including
swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several
thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «cite_note-1» [2] Other
Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling.
Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran» \o «Iran» Iranian martial art of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zourkhaneh» \o «Zourkhaneh»
Zourkhaneh had a close connection to the warfare skills. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «cite_note-2» [3] Among other
sports that originate in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran»
\o «Iran» Persia are HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polo»
\o «Polo» polo and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jousting»
\o «Jousting» jousting .

A wide range of sports were already established by the time of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece» \o «Ancient
Greece» Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of
sports in Greece influenced one another considerably. Sports became such
a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic
Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small
village in the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peloponnese» \o
«Peloponnese» Peloponnesus called HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympia,_Greece» \o «Olympia, Greece»
Olympia . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l
«cite_note-3» [4]

Sports have been increasingly organized and regulated from the time of
the Ancient Olympics up to the present century. Industrialization has
brought increased leisure time to the citizens of developed and
developing countries, leading to more time for citizens to attend and
follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities,
and increased accessibility. These trends continued with the advent of
mass media and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global» \o
«Global» global communication. Professionalism became prevalent,
further adding to the increase in sport’s popularity, as sports fans
began following the exploits of professional athletes through radio,
television, and the internet—all while enjoying the exercise and
competition associated with amateur participation in sports.

In the new millennium, new sports have been going further from the
physical aspect to the mental or psychological aspect of competing.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_sports» \o
«Electronic sports» Electronic sports organizations are becoming more
and more popular.

Activities where the outcome is determined by judgement over execution
are considered performances, or competition.

Sportsmanship

Main article: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sportsmanship»
\o «Sportsmanship» Sportsmanship

See also: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamesmanship» \o
«Gamesmanship» Gamesmanship  and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winning_isn%27t_everything;_it%27s_the_onl
y_thing» \o «Winning isn’t everything; it’s the only thing» Winning
isn’t everything; it’s the only thing

Sportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward
teammates and opponents, ethical behaviour and integrity, and grace in
victory or defeat. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l
«cite_note-4» [5] HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l
«cite_note-5» [6]

Sportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be
enjoyed for its own sake. The well-known sentiment by sports journalist
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grantland_Rice» \o «Grantland
Rice» Grantland Rice , that it’s “not that you won or lost but how you
played the game,» and the Modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_de_Coubertin» \o «Pierre
de Coubertin» Pierre de Coubertin : «The most important thing . . . is
not winning but taking part» are typical expressions of this sentiment.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violence_in_sports» \o
«Violence in sports» Violence in sports involves crossing the line
between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. Athletes,
coaches, fans, and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people
or property, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or
celebration. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rioting» \o
«Rioting» Rioting or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hooliganism» \o «Hooliganism» hooliganism
are common and ongoing problems at national and international sporting
contests.

Professionalism

Modern sports have complex HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulation_of_sport» \o «Regulation of
sport» rules and are highly organized.

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Professional_sport» \o «Professional
sport» Professional sport

The entertainment aspect of sports, together with the spread of mass
media and increased leisure time, has led to professionalism in sports.
This has resulted in some conflict, where the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wage» \o «Wage» paycheck can be seen as
more important than recreational aspects, or where the sports are
changed simply to make them more profitable and popular, thereby losing
certain valued traditions.

The entertainment aspect also means that sportsmen and women are often
elevated to celebrity status.

Politics

At times, sports and politics can have a large amount of influence on
each other.

When HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apartheid» \o «Apartheid»
apartheid was the official policy in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa» \o «South Africa» South
Africa , many sports people, particularly in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rugby_union» \o «Rugby union» rugby union
, adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in
competitive sports there. Some feel this was an effective contribution
to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, others feel that
it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «cite_note-6» [7]

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1936_Summer_Olympics» \o
«1936 Summer Olympics» 1936 Summer Olympics held in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin» \o «Berlin» Berlin was an
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illustration» \o «Illustration»
illustration , perhaps best recognised in retrospect, where an ideology
was developing which used the event to strengthen its spread through
propaganda.

In modern sport HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motorization»
\o «Motorization» motorization has appeared.

In the history of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland» \o
«Ireland» Ireland , Gaelic sports were connected with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural» \o «Cultural» cultural
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalism» \o «Nationalism»
nationalism . Until the mid HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/20th_century» \o «20th century» 20th
century a person could have been banned from playing HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaelic_football» \o «Gaelic football»
Gaelic football , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurling» \o
«Hurling» hurling , or other sports administered by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaelic_Athletic_Association» \o «Gaelic
Athletic Association» Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) if she/he
played or supported HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soccer» \o
«Soccer» soccer , or other games seen to be of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Britain» \o «Great Britain» British
origin. Until recently the GAA continued to ban the playing of soccer
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rugby_union» \o «Rugby
union» rugby union at Gaelic venues. This ban is still enforced, but
has been modified to allow football and rugby be played in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Croke_Park» \o «Croke Park» Croke Park
while HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansdowne_Road» \o
«Lansdowne Road» Lansdowne Road is being redeveloped. Until recently,
under Rule 21, the GAA also banned members of the British security
forces and members of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Ulster_Constabulary» \o «Royal
Ulster Constabulary» RUC from playing Gaelic games, but the advent of
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Good_Friday_Agreement» \o
«Good Friday Agreement» Good Friday Agreement in 1998 led to the
eventual removal of the ban.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalism» \o «Nationalism»
Nationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sports, or in its
reporting: people compete in national teams, or commentators and
audiences can adopt a partisan view. On occasion, such tensions can lead
to violent confrontation among players or spectators within and beyond
the sporting venue (see HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_War» \o «Football War» Football
War ). These trends are seen by many as contrary to the fundamental
ethos of sports being carried on for its own sake and for the enjoyment
of its participants.

Physical art

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnastics» \o «Gymnastics»
Gymnastics

Sports have many affinities with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art» \o «Art» art . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_skating» \o «Ice skating» Ice skating
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tai_chi» \o «Tai chi»
Tai chi , and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dancesport» \o
«Dancesport» Dancesport for example, are sports that come close to
artistic spectacles in themselves. Similarly, there are other activities
that have elements of sport and art in their execution, such as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artistic_gymnastics» \o
«Artistic gymnastics» artistic gymnastics , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodybuilding» \o «Bodybuilding»
Bodybuilding , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkour» \o
«Parkour» Parkour , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Performance_art» \o «Performance art»
performance art , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoga» \o
«Yoga» Yoga , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bossaball» \o
«Bossaball» bossaball , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dressage» \o «Dressage» dressage ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culinary_arts» \o «Culinary
arts» culinary arts , etc. Perhaps the best example is HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bull-fighting» \o «Bull-fighting»
Bull-fighting , which in Spain is reported in the arts pages of
newspapers. The fact that art is so close to sports in some situations
is probably related to the nature of sports. The definition of «sports»
above put forward the idea of an activity pursued not just for the usual
purposes, for example, running not simply to get places, but running for
its own sake, running as well as we can.

This is similar to a common view of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics» \o «Aesthetics» aesthetic
value, which is seen as something over and above the strictly functional
value coming from an object’s normal use. So an aesthetically pleasing
car is one which doesn’t just get from A to B, but which impresses us
with its grace, poise, and charisma.

In the same way, a sporting performance such as jumping doesn’t just
impress us as being an effective way to avoid obstacles or to get across
streams. It impresses us because of the ability, skill, and style which
is shown.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxing» \o «Boxing» Boxing

Art and sports were probably more clearly linked at the time of Ancient
Greece, when gymnastics and calisthenics invoked admiration and
aesthetic appreciation for the physical build, prowess and ‘arete’
displayed by participants. The modern term ‘art’ as skill, is related to
this ancient Greek term ‘arete’. The closeness of art and sport in these
times was revealed by the nature of the Olympic Games which, as we have
seen, were celebrations of both sporting and artistic achievements,
poetry, sculpture and architecture.

Technology

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golf» \o «Golf» Golf , a
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dexterity» \o «Dexterity»
dexterity sport.

Technology has an important role in sports, whether applied to an
athlete’s health, the athlete’s technique, or equipment’s
characteristics.

Equipment As sports have grown more competitive, the need for better
equipment has arose. Golf clubs, football helmets, baseball bats, soccer
balls, hockey skates, and other equipment have all seen considerable
changes when new technologies have been applied.

Health Ranging from nutrition to the treatment of injuries, as the
knowledge of the human body has deepened over time, an athlete’s
potential has been increased. Athletes are now able to play to an older
age, recover more quickly from injuries, and train more effectively than
previous generations of athletes.

Instruction Advancing technology created new opportunities for research
into sports. It is now possible to analyse aspects of sports that were
previously out of the reach of comprehension. Being able to use motion
capture to capture an athlete’s movement, or advanced computer
simulations to model physical scenarios has greatly increased an
athlete’s ability to understand what they are doing and how they can
improve themselves.

Terminology

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Show_Jumping» \o «Show
Jumping» Show Jumping , an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equestrianism» \o «Equestrianism»
equestrian sport.

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_English» \o
«British English» British English , sporting activities are commonly
denoted by the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_noun» \o
«Mass noun» mass noun «sport». In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_English» \o «American English»
American English , «sports» is more used. In all English dialects,
«sports» is the term used for more than one specific sport. For example,
«football and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swimming_(sport)» \o «Swimming (sport)»
swimming are my favourite sports», would sound natural to all English
speakers, whereas «I enjoy sport» would sound less natural than «I enjoy
sports» to North Americans.

The term «sport» is sometimes extended to encompass all competitive
activities, regardless of the level of physical activity. Both
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_of_skill» \o «Game of
skill» games of skill and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_sport» \o «Motor sport» motor sport
exhibit many of the characteristics of physical sports, such as skill,
sportsmanship, and at the highest levels, even professional sponsorship
associated with physical sports. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_sports» \o «Air sports» Air sports ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billiards» \o «Billiards»
billiards , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contract_bridge»
\o «Contract bridge» bridge , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess» \o «Chess» chess , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motorcycle_racing» \o «Motorcycle racing»
motorcycle racing , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powerboating» \o «Powerboating»
powerboating are all recognized as sports by the International Olympic
Committee with their world governing bodies represented in the
Association of the IOC Recognised International Sports Federations.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport» \l «cite_note-7» [8]

Spectator sport

Main article: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectator_sport»
\o «Spectator sport» Spectator sport

As well as being a form of recreation for the participants, much sport
is played in front of an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audience» \o «Audience» audience . Most
professional sport is played in a ‘theatre’ of some kind; be it a
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stadium» \o «Stadium» stadium ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arena» \o «Arena» arena ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golf_course» \o «Golf course»
golf course , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_track» \o
«Race track» race track , or the open road, with provision for the
(often paying) public.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Rules_Football» \o
«Australian Rules Football» Australian Rules Football

Large television or radio audiences are also commonly attracted, with
rival broadcasters bidding large amounts of money for the ‘rights’ to
show certain fixtures. The football HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIFA_World_Cup» \o «FIFA World Cup» World
Cup attracts a global HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television» \o «Television» television
audience of hundreds of millions; the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_FIFA_World_Cup» \o «2006 FIFA World
Cup» 2006 HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIFA_World_Cup_Finals» \o «FIFA World Cup
Finals» Final alone attracted an estimated worldwide audience of well
over 700 million. In the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o «United States» United
States , the championship game of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Football_League» \o «National
Football League» NFL , the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_Bowl» \o «Super Bowl» Super Bowl ,
has become one of the most watched television broadcasts of the year.
Super Bowl Sunday is a de facto national holiday in America; the
viewership being so great that in 2007 advertising space was reported as
being sold at HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/$» \o «$» $
2.6m for a 30 second slot.

See also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Sports_and_games» \o
«Portal:Sports and games» Sports and games portal

Find more about Sports on Wikipedia’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikimedia_sister_projects» \o
«Wikipedia:Wikimedia sister projects» sister projects :

HYPERLINK «http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/Sports» \o
«wikt:Special:Search/Sports» Definitions from Wiktionary

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Search/Sports» \o
«b:Special:Search/Sports» Textbooks from Wikibooks

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Sports» \o
«q:Special:Search/Sports» Quotations from Wikiquote

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Special:Search/Sports» \o
«s:Special:Search/Sports» Source texts from Wikisource

HYPERLINK «http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Sports» \o
«commons:Special:Search/Sports» Images and media from Commons

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Special:Search/Sports» \o
«n:Special:Search/Sports» News stories from Wikinews

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Special:Search/Sports» \o
«v:Special:Search/Sports» Learning resources from Wikiversity

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_sports» \o «Outline
of sports» Outline of sports

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sportspeople» \o «List
of sportspeople» List of sportspeople

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports_attendance_figures» \o
«List of sports attendance figures» List of sports attendance figures

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_professional_sports_leagues» \o
«List of professional sports leagues» List of professional sports
leagues

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_timeline» \o «Sports
timeline» Timeline of sports

Related topics

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martial_arts» \o «Martial
arts» Combat Sport

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disabled_sports» \o «Disabled
sports» Disabled sports

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fandom» \o «Fandom» Fandom

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_sport» \o «History
of sport» History of sport

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-sport_events» \o
«Multi-sport events» Multi-sport events

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_sport» \o «National
sport» National sport

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalism_and_sports» \o
«Nationalism and sports» Nationalism and sports

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympic_Games» \o «Olympic
Games» Olympic Games

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectator_sports» \o
«Spectator sports» Spectator sports

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sponsorship» \o «Sponsorship»
Sponsorship

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport_in_film» \o «Sport in
film» Sport in film

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport_governing_bodies» \o
«Sport governing bodies» Sport governing bodies

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_broadcasting» \o
«Sports broadcasting» Sports broadcasting

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_club» \o «Sports club»
Sports club

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_coaching» \o «Sports
coaching» Sports coaching

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_equipment» \o «Sports
equipment» Sports equipment

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_injuries» \o «Sports
injuries» Sports injuries

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_league_attendances» \o
«Sports league attendances» Sports league attendances

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_marketing» \o «Sports
marketing» Sports marketing

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports_terms_named_after_people» \o
«Sports terms named after people» Sports terms named after people

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_sports» \o «Women’s
sports» Women’s sports

References

HYPERLINK
«http://chineseculture.about.com/library/weekly/aa032301a.htm» «Sports
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History» \o «History» History
in China». HYPERLINK
«http://chineseculture.about.com/library/weekly/aa032301a.htm»
http://chineseculture.about.com/library/weekly/aa032301a.htm . 

HYPERLINK «http://www.ioa.leeds.ac.uk/1980s/84085.htm» «Mr Ahmed D.
Touny (EGY), IOC Member» . HYPERLINK
«http://www.ioa.leeds.ac.uk/1980s/84085.htm»
http://www.ioa.leeds.ac.uk/1980s/84085.htm . 

HYPERLINK «%22Persian%20warriors%22» «Persian warriors» . HYPERLINK
«http://www.kuwait-info.com/newsnew/NewsDetails1.asp?id=78319&dt=10/13/2
006&ntype=World»
http://www.kuwait-info.com/newsnew/NewsDetails1.asp?id=78319&dt=10/13/20
06&ntype=World . 

HYPERLINK «http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/ancient/index_uk.asp»
«Ancient Olympic Games» . HYPERLINK
«http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/ancient/index_uk.asp»
http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/ancient/index_uk.asp . 

HYPERLINK «%22Merriam-Webster%22» «Merriam-Webster» . HYPERLINK
«http://www.merriam.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=sportsmanship»
http://www.merriam.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=sportsmanship . 

See, e.g., Joel Fish and Susan Magee, 101 Ways to Be a Terrific Sports
Parent, p. 168. Fireside, 2003. HYPERLINK
«http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/sport/2007/11/10/it_takes_a_bad_loser_to_be
come.html» [1] David Lacey, «It takes a bad loser to become a good
winner.» The Guardian, November 10, 2007.

HYPERLINK «%22Sport%20and%20apartheid%22» «Sport and apartheid» .
HYPERLINK
«http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1478-0542.2005.00165
.x»
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1478-0542.2005.00165.
x . 

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HYPERLINK «http://www.olympic.org/uk/sports/recognized/index_uk.asp»
http://www.olympic.org/uk/sports/recognized/index_uk.asp . 

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