Aaeaeaa?nueea ?iaioa

Neio?ii?y oa ae?ao?ii?y oa?i?iinenoaie oeea?eueiiai i?aaa

AIIOAOe?ss

Aaeaeaa?nueea ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai ?icaeoeo oa
eeaneo?eaoe?? oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?.
Eaoaai??y i?aaa ? iaeiei c cania?a ae?aaeaiiy eiioeaioe?e iiaii? ea?oeie
na?oo.

No?oeoo?ii ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c ianooiieo /anoei: Anooi, ?icae?ee
?-???, Aeniiaee, A?ae?ia?ao?y oa Aeiaeaoee.

Resume

The Bachelor Degree Thesis focuses on the development and classification
of civil law terms in Modern English. The category of law is considered
to be one of the means of expressing the concepts of language world
picture.

Structurally the thesis distinguishes between Introduction, Chapters
I-III, Conclusions, Bibliography and Supplements.

CI?NO

Anooi ………………………………………………………………………………..4

?ICAe?E ?. Eiai?oeaia eaoaai??y oeea?eueiiai i?aaa a iiai?e ea?oei?
na?oo………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………….7

1.1. I?noea oeea?eueiiai i?aaa a nenoai? i?aaiaeo
aaeocae……………………………..7

1.2. Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?i………………11

?ICAe?E ??. Naiaioe/ia oaeniiii?y oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa…………………………….15

2.1. Iiiyooy oa?i?ia oeea?eueiiai i?aaa oa aeiiae aei eiai
aecia/aiiy………..15

2.2. Caaaeueiiaaeeaaia eaeneea oa oa?i?iieia?/i? eaene/i?
iaeeieoe?…………….17

2.3. Oa?i?ie iiae oa oa?i?ie
iiaeaiiy…………………………………………………….20

2.4. Aaaaoicia/i?noue oa?i?ia ?
eiioaeno……………………………………………………..24

?ICAe?E ???. Aeeneo?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa……….30

3.1. TH?eaee/ia oa?i?iieia?y a no?oeoo?? oaoiaiai
oaenoo………………………….30

3.2. Ooieoe?iiaeueiee noaoon oa?i?i?a o ??cieo noa?ao ?o
aaeeaaiiy…………….34

3.3. O?aeiia? no?oeoo?e a aiaeiiiaiiio iaoeiaiio
oaeno?………………………42

3.3.1. Oaeno ye iaeeieoey iiae, eiai iniiai?
iiaeae?……………………………..42

3.3.2. Iniaeeaa ?ieue oa?i?iiniieo/aiue o o?aeiia?e no?oeoo?? oaoiaiai
oaenoo…………………………………………………………
……………………………………..47

3.4. Aiioeaiaai?noue oa?i?i?a,?? iniaeeaino? oa neioaaiaoe/i?
ooieoe??………50

3.4.1. Aioo??oiy oi?ia oa aiioeaiaai?noue
oa?i?i?a…………………………..50

3.4.2. Oeiieia?y
aiioeaiaaiino?………………………………………………….
…….53

3.4.3. Ci?noiaa
aiioeaiaai?noue…………………………………………………
………..56

3.4.4. Aaaeeea?nue a?aooaaiiy aiioeaiaaiino? i?e eiino?othaaii?
iaa/aeueieo
oaeno?a………………………………………………………..
………………….59

AENIIAEE……………………………………………………….
…………………………………… 62

A?AE?IA?AO?ss…………………………………………………..
…………………………………..64

AeIAeAOEE

1 Neiaiee e?iaa?noe/ieo oa?i?i?a

2 Neiaiee oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa

Anooi

?aaeeeaeuei? aeiiii?/i? e iie?oe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a n4oaa?aiieo
aea?aeaaao iathoue ia iao? iiaoaeoaaoe iiao iiaeaeue ainiiaea?nueei?
nenoaie. ?? ooiaeaiaio neeaaeathoue ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie aeaniino?
a?aeiia?aeieo noa’?eo?a, ?o ??aiii?aai?noue oa ciaaaeuei?noue. Na?aae
iniiaiiieiaeieo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, ye? neeaaeaoeiooue iniiao iiai?
ainiiaea?nueei? nenoaie, ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy iaeaaeeoue
oeea?eueii-i?aaiaei caeiiai, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue iiao nenoaio aeae?a ?
oi?i aeaniino?, yea a?aeia?aaea? ieth?ae?ci a?aeiinei aeaniino?.

Na?aae th?eaee/ieo oi?i, ui aeicaieythoue caaacia/eoe aeiiii?/io
naiino?ei?noue, ca?ioa?aniaai?noue, ?i?oe?aoeao, iaeiiao
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?aai?caoe?e, iaeaaaeeea?oa i?noea iaeaaeeoue
oeea?eueiiio i?aao.

Oeea?eueia i?aai — oea noeoii?noue oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ye?
?aaoeththoue ia canaaeao th?eaee/ii? ??aiino?a?aeiineie aeaniino? a ??
??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao, oiaa?ii-a?ioia? a?aeiineie ? aeaye? iniaeno?
iaiaeiia? a?aeiineie ca o/anoth a?iiaaeyi, i?aai?caoe?e oa ?ioeo
noe?aeueieo ooai?aiue c iaoith a?eueo iiaiiai caaeiaieaiiy iaoa??eueieo
? aeooiaieo iio?aa a?iiaaeyi.

?icaeoie oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo oi?i i?aai?/ii ca’ycaiee c oaeeie
?ino?oiaioaie aeiiii?ee, ye ainiiaea?nueeee ?ic?aooiie, a?io?, oe?ia,
nia?aa?o?noue, i?eaooie, oi?a?aey, e?aaeeo, o?iaine.

?ic?iaea i?aaiaeo oi?i ?aae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie icia/a? ia?aaeyae
? iiiaeaiiy /eiieo oeea?eueiiai, o?oaeiaiai, o?iainiaiai,
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oa ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa. Aaea i?eeiyoi aeaye?
iniiaiiieiaei? caeiie: i?i aeani?noue, i?i caieth, i?aiaeo,
eiiia?aoe?th, aaiee ? aaie?anueeo nenoaio, ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy oa
i?eaaoecaoe?th i?aei?e?inoa oiui. Noaaeoueny ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee
?ic?iaea ? i?eeiyooy iiaiai Oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno oa ?ioeo aaaeeeaeo
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a Oe?a?ie.

Oeea?eueia i?aai Oe?a?ie ia ?cieueiaaii a?ae oeea?eueiiai i?aaa
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i. Aiii aca?iiae?? c iei, cacia? eiai aieeao ?, a naith
/a?ao, aieeaa? ia iueiai.

Aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai oeea?eueiiai i?aaa cae?enith?oueny ia i?aenoaa?
ii??aiyeueiiai iaoiaeo. Ia oe?e aac? a Oe?a?i? oi?io?oueny iaoea
ii??aiyeueiiai oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ye /anoeia i?aeaaeocaai? aeenoeeie?ie
ii??aiyeueiiai i?aaiciaanoaa.

Ii??aiyeueia oeea?eueia i?aai ?icoe?th? iaoeiaee na?oiaeyae, i?aeaeuo?
i?aaiao eoeueoo?o th?enoa, ? oi?iith ?icaeoeo i?ia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo
ca’yce?a.

Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aaeeaaiiy,
ooeoe?iioaaiiy oa ooai?aiiy oa?i?i?a, ui aoiaeyoue aei oa?i?iinenoaie
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, ni?eyiiy ii?iae?caoe?? oa noaiaea?oecaoe??
oa?i?iinenoaie a?o/eciyiiai oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ia iniia? ?? i?aai?/iiai
ca’yceo c a?aeiia?aeieie oa?i?iinenoaiaie ?icaeiaieo e?a?i.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aecia/ai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aecia/aiiy iiiyoue “oa?i?i” oa “oa?i?iinenoaia”, ie?aneaiiy iniiaieo
aeiia, yeei aiie iiaeii? a?aeiia?aeaoe.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ooai?aiiy oa?i?iieia?/ii? eaeneee, ??
naiaioeee oa no?oeoo?e.

3. Ie?aneaiiy iaoiaeeee aeae?eaiiy oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa oa
aecia/aiiy i?noey ? cia/aiiy iaoeiai? oa?i?iieia?? a ooaeiaei?e oa
iaoeia?e oaoia?e e?oa?aoo??.

4. Aena?oeaiiy yaeua iie?nai?? oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa.

5. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaoono oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa
o ??cieo noa?ao ?o aaeeaaiiy.

6. Aecia/aiiy i?noey th?eaee/ii? oa?i?iieia?? a no?oeoo?? oaoiaiai
oaenoo oa aeine?aeaeaiiy o?aeiiai? no?oeoo?e oaenoo c
oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? oaiaoeee (ia i?eeeaae? Eiinoeoooe?e NOA oa Oe?a?ie).

7. Aena?oeaiiy yaeua aiioeaiaaiino? oa?i?i?a ye iaei??? c iniiaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee niaoe?aeueii? eaeneee, aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? oeiieia??,
neioaaiaoe/ieo ooieoe?e, oa aecia/aiiy ?? aaaeeeaino? i?e eiino?othaaii?
iaa/aeueieo oaeno?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a e?euee?niiai
aiae?co, aeeno?eaooeaiiai aiae?co, iiceoe?eiiai aiae?co c canoinoaaiiyi
?iaiaioiiai iaoiaeo, iaoiaeo e?iaa?noe/iiai iieno oa ii??aiyeueiiai
iaoiaeo.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy ? aiae?c iniaeeainoae
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa a oaenoao Eiinoeoooe??
Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee oa Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeaii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?aae?caoe?? caaaeueii?
iaoe oa?i?iiciaanoaa — ae?iaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii
ooai?aiiy oa aaeeaaiiy oa?i?iieia?/ieo iaeiaioaaiue, ni?eyiiy
?aae?caoe?? i?ioan?eiiai ni?eeoaaiiy, aca?ii?icoi?iith oao?aoe?a.
Noiniaii oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, aeaia ?iaioa iieeeeaia ni?eyoe aea/aiith
ca?oa?aeiiai oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, oai?aoe/iiio inieneeiith i?ia?aeieo
caeiiii??iinoae eiai ?icaeoeo, ui aeicaieeoue e?aua canai?oe nai?
iaoe?iiaeueia oeea?eueia i?aai.

Aena?oeai? a ?iaio? ieoaiiy iathoue oaeiae i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa noaiaea?oecaoe?? oa?i?iieia??,
?ioaineo?eaoe?? ia?aeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ?aoa?oaaiiy oa
aiiooaaiiy iaoeiaeo oaeno?a, iioei?caoe?? iaa/aiiy ia?aeeaaeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, onoiaiiy iaiio??aii? neiii?i?? oa
iie?nai?? a ?acoeueoao? oa?i?iieia?/iiai ieaioaaiiy. O i?aeoe/iiio ieai?
aiae?c ca?oa?aeiiai oeea?eueiiai i?aaa aeae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue o
caeiiiaeaa/?e oa i?aaicanoiniai?e ae?yeueiino?, o i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia?e
i?aeoeoe? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? e oeoia/aii? i?aeia?iaeieo i?aaiaeo aeo?a.

Nueiaiaei? aaaeei ia?eoenue aac iai?io aeina?aeii. Oei a?eueoa, ui
i?aaia? nenoaie ?acii c ?o oa?i?iinenoaiaie aeyaeythoue ana a?eueoo
noeeuei?noue aei caeeaeaiiy, oiio aeooaeuei?noue iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieyaa? a e?iaa?noe/i?e i?aeo?eioe? i?ioeano oi?o?eaoe??, ni?iuaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo noinoie?a, iiaeeeaino? aa?iii?coaaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? aaeoc?
i?aaa oa noi?ioaaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? oa?i?iieia??, ni?eyii? neeaaeaiith
oa?i?iieia?/ieo neiaiee?a, ye? a a?aeiia?aeaee na?oiaei noaiaea?oai ?
aeaaee oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueio oa?i?iieia?th ia na?oiaee ??aaiue.

?ICAe?E ?. Eiai?oeaia eaoaai??y i?aaa a iiai?e ea?oei? na?oo

1.1. I?NOeA OeEA?EUeIIAI I?AAA A NENOAI? I?AAIAEO AAEOCAE

Aeaiie?aoecaoe?y noni?euenoaa, ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa
?ioaineo?eaoe?y ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, cai?iaaaeaea7iiy iaoai?cio a?eueiiai
oe?iiooai?aiiy, oaiaeaioe?? aei aeiiii?/ii? naiino?eiino?,
??aiii?aaiino? oa eiieo?aioe?? — inue iniiai? ?ene oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo. Caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe iieeeeai?
noai?eoe ??ai? oiiae aeey ae?yeueiino? an?o noa’?eo?a a?eueiiai ?eieo.
Aei oiai ae /a?ac aaaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ?ioaa?oaaoeny aei ?a?iiaenueeeo
aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? an? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe iiaeii? aooe
i?eaaaeaii? o a?aeiia?aei?noue c ii?iaie i?aaa ?icaeiooeo
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i — iaoeo iaeaooi?o ia?oia??a — c iaoith
oieeiaiiy iaii?icoi?iue a oeoia/aii? oeo /e ?ioeo eaoaai??e i?aaa. Aea
iinoa? ieoaiiy, ui oaea i?aai, ? yea i?noea a eiai nenoai? iin?aea?
oeea?eueia i?aai?

Oeoia/i? neiaieee c th?eni?oaeaioe?? aecia/athoue i?aai (law) ye nenoaio
caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaeo nioe?aeueieo ii?i, ui ioi?iiythoueny neeith
aea?aeaae ,yea caaacia/o? th?eaee/io ?aaeaiaioaoe?th noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei a ianooaa? anueiai noni?euenoaa.

I?aaiaa nenoaia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia ca aaeocyie i?aaa, eiaeia c yeeo ia?
na?e i?aaeiao ?aaoethaaiiy oa aieiae?? niaoeeo?/ieie ?enaie. Cie?aia,
oeea?eueia i?aai cae??ieth? a?aeiineie aeaniino?, o?oaeiaa — aenooia? ye
?aaoeyoi? i??e oa oi?i ?iciiae?eo i?aoe? oa i?iaeoeo?a i?ae /eaiaie
noni?euenoaa.

Aea?aeaaia, eiinoeoooe?eia oa aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?aaa ?aaeaiaioothoue
i?aai?caoe?th oa ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio. E?ei?iaeueia
i?aai aecia/a? i??e ai?ioueae c iinyaaiiyie ia ?nioth/? noni?euei?
a?aeiineie, a i?ioeanoaeueia — i?ioeaaeo?o ?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eo?a.

O caei?aeiiieo i?aaiaeo nenoaiao caiaeueia, n?iaeia oa o?iainiaa i?aaa
ia aeie?aieththoueny a naiino?ei? aaeoc?: caiaeuei? a?aeiineie
?aaoeththoueny a iniiaiiio ii?iaie oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, a o?iainia? —
ii?iaie eiinoeoooe?eiiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai e /anoeiai oi?a?aaeueiiai
i?aaa. Inoaii? ae, iaaiaee, o ian ia aeie?aieth?oueny a ie?aio aaeocue.

Iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?eioeei?a iiae?eo i?aaa no/anieo ?icaeiooeo
e?a?i aeey iai/iino? iiaeia iacaaoe «aaia?ao?/iei». Aiae?enueea i?aai
io?eiaei ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a NOA oa a e?a?iao, ye? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo
A?eoainueei? Ni?aae?oaeiino? iaoe?e, a a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao
(e??i Aaeeei? A?eoai??) ae?? eiioeiaioaeueia i?aai. Iniiaia
a?aei?ii?noue oeeo aeaio nenoai a oiio, yea c aeaea?ae i?aaa ?
i?aaaeththth/ei — caeii aai i?aoeaaeaio (noaeiaee).

A?aeiia?aeii a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo ie ia?ii ni?aao c noaoooiei i?aaii, a
ae?oaiio — c i?aoeaaeaioiei i?aaii.

sse aeaeii c? noaie i?aaiai? nenoaie, yea ae?? ca?ac o Aaeee?e
A?eoai??, a oeth nenoaio aoiaeeoue ye i?aoeaaeaioia, oae e noaoooia
i?aai. Oea?eiaia i?aai ?nio?, aea eiai cia/aiiy caaaeaii aei i?i?ioio.

Aiae?enueeee oa?i?i «law» ? aea?aaeaioii ?icaeyiooiai iaie aeua
iiiyooy, oiaoi i?aaa ia’?eoeaiiai. Oe?a?inueeee oa?i?i «i?aai» a
cia/aii? «i?aaa noa’?eoeaiiai», iai?eeeaae i?aaa a?iiaaeyieia ia caoeno
ia?aeeaaea?oueny «right of defence».

Law
Right

Aeaia yaeua aeaicia/iino? oe?a?inueeiai oa?i?ia a ii??aiyii? c eiai
aiae?enueeei aea?aaeaioii iniaeeai aeia?a i?ine?aeeiao?oueny ia
i?eeeaae? oa?i?ia «i?aai aeaniino?», yeee ia?aeeaaea?oueny:

1) «property law» a ia’?eoeaiiio cia/aii? e icia/a? noeoii?noue
th?eaee/ieo ii?i, ui cae??ieththoue oa ioi?iiythoue i?eiaeaaei?noue
iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae iaaieie iniaaie (o?ce/ieie oa th?eaee/ieie),
ia?aaeaa/athoue ia’?i oa neeaae i?aa aeanieea a?aeiinii aeaniino?, ui
eiio iaeaaeeoue, niiniae oa iaae? cae?eniaiiy oeeo i?aa.

2) «right of property» a noa’?eoeaiiio cia/aii? — i?aai eiie?aoii? iniae
(aeanieea) aieiae?oe, ei?enooaaoeny oa ?icii?yaeaeaoeny iaaiith
aeani?noth (?a/aie, oe?iieie iaia?aie, a?ioiaeie ciaeaie) a iaaeao
aecia/aieo caeiiii.

Oa?i?iai oeea?eueiiai i?aaa aiae?enueei? iiae oa?aeoa?ia ia iaioa
iie?nai?y. Oa?i?i «law» ae?acii aeaiiino?o? oea oaa?aeaeaiiy, ine?eueee
icia/a? ia o?eueee «i?aai», «caeii», aea e «noaei/einoai», «noaeiaa
i?aeoeea» oa ?i. sse aeaeii c ieae/aiaaaaeaii? ii??aiyeueii? oaaeeoe?
naiaioe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a oeueiai oa?i?ia, ia?o? aeaa cia/aiiy ? iniiaieie
e neeaaeathoue yae?i naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e.

?IIAIEE IA?AE?E NAIAIOE*IEO EIIIIIAIO?A OA?I?IA «LAW»D1D2D3D41a rule
enacted or customary in a community and recognized as enjoining or
prohibiting certain actions and enforced by the imposition of penalties;
a body of such rules + + + +2laws collectively as a social system or
subject of study+-++3the controlling influence of such laws; a state of
respect for laws+++-4(with defining word) any of the specific branches
or applications of law+++-5(prec. by the) the legal profession or
practice of law; the police++++6a relationship between cause and effect,
or statement of what occurs in nature, as found by observation and
experiment to be true — + + +7a rule of action or procedure, e.g. in a
game, form of art, etc. +—+D1 — The Concise Oxford Dictionary

D2- Collins English Dictionary

D3 — New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language

D4 — Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

1.2. CAAAEUeI? A?AeIIINO? I?I OeEA?EUeIA I?AAI

AAEEEI? A?EOAI?? OA NOA

O e?a?iao aiaeinaeniinueei? i?aaiai? nenoaie (Aiae?y, NOA oa ?i.) iaia?
iiiyooy oeea?eueiiai oa oi?aiaiai i?aaa. Oi?aiaa i?aai Aiae?? aoei
iiaeeiooi “caaaeueiei” i?aaii ua o XVII no. Ui ae aei ae?th/iai o NOA
Oi?aiaiai eiaeaeno, oi a?i ia a?aeiia?aea? ?a?iiaenuee?e eiioeaioe??
oi?aiaiai i?aaa ? ia ci?ith? nenoaie aia?eeainueeiai i?aaa. Iaeiia? ?
ca’ycai? c ieie iaiaeiia? a?aeiineie e?a?i aiaeinaeniinueeiai i?aaa
?aaoeththoueny ia aaeocyie oeea?eueiiai oa oi?aiaiai i?aaa, a ie?aieie
i?aaiaeie ?inoeoooaie.

?icoe?aiiy noa?e a?aeiinei, ?aaoeththoueny oi?aiaei i?aaii, ?icaeoie
i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? i?aeaeuothoue ?ieue oi?aiaiai i?aaa. Eiai
i?eioeeie ao?a/athoue niaoe?aeueiee oa?aeoa? ? noathoue i?eioeeiaie
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa. Iai?eeeaae, ii?ie, ye? ia?a?nii noinoaaeeny oi?aiaeo
oaiae, noathoue caaaeueieie ii?iaie ciaia’ycaeueiiai i?aaa; i?aaeea i?i
aaie?ionoai aaea canoiniaothoueny ia o?eueee aei eiia?naio?a, a e aei
aoaeue-yeeo in?a.

A ie?aieo e?a?iao oeae i?ioean, yeee ae?noaa iacao “eiia?oe?ae?caoe??”
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, i?ea?a iaa?oue aei ia’?aeiaiiy oi?aiaiai oa
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa a ?aeeio eiaeeo?eaoe?th.

Aiaei-aia?eeainueea nenoaia “caaaeueiiai” i?aaa ia cia? i? oeea?eueiiai,
i? oi?aiaiai i?aaa. A?aeiineie, ye? ?aaoeththoueny eiioeiaioaeueiei
oeea?eueiei ? oi?aiaei i?aaii, ioiieththoueny o oeeo e?a?iao ii?iaie
ie?aieo i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a, cie?aia n?iaeiei i?aaii, niaaeeiaei i?aaii,
i?aaii ia?ooiii? aeaniino?, i?aaii aeiaiai??a, aaaionueeei aeiaiai?ii,
aeae?eoiei i?aaii, i?aaii eiiiai?e oa oiaa?enoa, no?aoiaei i?aaii,
iaoaioiei oa aaoi?nueeei i?aaii, ii?nueeei i?aaii, i?aaii
iani?iiiaeiino? oa aaie?oonoaa, i?aaii ia?aiaeo aeieoiaio?a oiui.
Iacaai? ?inoeoooe /anoi iinyoue eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? c iiaeyaeo iiae?eo
i?aaa ia ioae?/ia ? i?eaaoia.

O e?a?iao aiaeinaeniinueeiai i?aaa caeiie oa ?io? aeaea?aea ienaiiai
(noaoooiiai) i?aaa a?ae?a?athoue o aaaaoueio noa?ao ?aaoethaaiiy iaioo
?ieue, i?ae noaeiaa i?aeoeea. ?acii c oei oneeaaeiaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei aeiaaaei caeiiiaeaa/iai cae??ieaiiy iaeaea an?o ?inoeooo?a
oi?aiaiai ? aaaaoueio ?inoeooo?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa. Iai?eeeaae, a
Aiae?? i?eeiyoi caeiie i?i i?iaeaae oiaa??a (1893 ? 1980 ?.?.), i?i
aaenae? (1882 ?.), i?i aeani?noue (1925 ?.), i?i eiiiai?th (1948 ?.). O
NOA e?eueea ooao?a iathoue oeea?euei? eiaeaene. Oi?aiaee eiaeaen
(?ic?iaeaiee o 1958 ?.), yeee oi?o?eoaaa ie?ai? ?inoeoooe oi?aiaiai
i?aaa, ae?? o an?o ooaoao (ca aeiyoeii Eo?c?aie, A??aeae?inueeeo
ino?ia?a oa oaaea?aeueiiai ie?oao Eieoia?y).

Aaaeeeaa i?noea o nenoai? aeaea?ae i?aaa Aiae??, NOA oa ?ioeo e?a?i
caeia? noaeiaa i?aeoeea. Oiio ?oi? i?aaia? nenoaie a?aecia/athoueny
aaeeeith nai???aei?noth. Iniiaiee ci?no noaeiai? i?aeoeee, aai
i?aoeaiaeaioiiai i?aaa (case law), iieyaa? o oiio, ui ??oaiiy, aeianaia
noaeii o ni?aa?, ? iaia’yceiaei aeey ae??oaiiy aiaeia?/ii? ni?aae noaeii
??aii? /e ieae/i? ?inoaioe??.

I?aoeaaeaioia i?aai Aiae?? neeaaea?oueny c aeaio /anoei: caaaeueiiai
i?aaa (common law) ? i?aaa ni?aaaaeeeaino? (law of equity).

?aeeia caaaeueia i?aai an??? Aiae?? aoei noai?aia ei?ie?anueeeie noaeaie
o XIII-XIV no. Ae?oaa a?eea i?aoeaaeaioiiai i?aaa (i?aaa
ni?aaaaeeeaino?) neeaaeaeany ia iniia? noaeiaeo i?aoeaaeaio?a
niaoe?aeueiiai noaeo ei?aea-eaioeea?a, aei yeiai caa?oaeeny iniae o
aeiaaeeao, eiee ia iaee ciiae caa?iooeny aei noaeo caaaeueiiai i?aaa,
aai eiee ni?aao o oeueiio noae? aoei ae??oaii, c ?oiueiai iiaeyaeo,
iani?aaaaeeeai. O O?O no. noaee caaaeueiiai i?aaa ? i?aaa
ni?aaaaeeeaino? aoee ii?aeiai? a ?aeei?e noaeia?e nenoai?. Oaia? aiie
iaee ea?oaaoeny i?aoeaaeaioaie ye caaaeueiiai i?aaa, oae ? i?aaa
ni?aaaaeeeaino?.

I?aoeaaeaioia i?aai Aiae?? aoei ia?aianaii ? aei NOA, aea o i?ioean?
canoinoaaiiy oa oeoia/aiiy ia?aoai?eeinue ia aeania i?aai NOA, aaaaoi o
/iio a?ae?eoiaoe a?ae aiae?enueeiai. Iaeiae i?aaia? ?inoeoooe oa
eaoaai??? oeeo e?a?i ? aeoaea aeecueeeie. Oiio i?eeiyoi aiai?eoe i?i
?aeeio aiaei-aia?eeainueeo i?aaiao nenoaio. Noaeiaee i?aoeaaeaio o NOA
caa??aa? nueiaiaei? aaeeea cia/aiiy o oeea?eueiiio ? oi?aiaiio i?aa?.
Caaaeueia i?aai NOA — oea i?aai ie?aiiai ooaoo. Oiio aiii
a?aecia/a?oueny ?icae??aiai?noth oa no?ieao?noth. O i?aaicanoiniai?e
ae?yeueiino? NOA aaeeeo ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue i?eaaoi? eiaeeo?eaoe??
i?aoeaaeaioiiai i?aaa iniiaieo ?inoeooo?a oeea?eueiiai ? oi?aiaiai i?aaa
(Restatements of the law of the USA).

?ieue noaeiai? i?aeoeee i?aeaeuo?oueny ? o e?a?iao eiioeiaioaeueii?
?a?iie, oi/a oi?iaeueii aiia ia aecia?oueny aeaea?aeii i?aaa. Iayni?noue
? iaaeinoaoi?noue ii?i ienaiiai i?aaa aeathoue i?ino?? aeey noaeiaiai
?icnoaeo oa i?aaioai?/ino?. Ioaea, niinoa??aa?oueny i?ioean caeeaeaiiy
eiioeiaioaeueii? ? aiaei-naeniinueei? i?aaiai? nenoai ii e?i?? aeaea?ae
i?aaa: o e?a?iao eiioeiaioaeueii? ?a?iie ana a?eueoiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
noaeiaa i?aeoeea, a o e?a?iao aiaei-aia?eeainueei? i?aaaiai? nenoaie
c?inoa? ?ieue caeiio.

O no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao ii?iaoeaiee oa?aeoa? aeo?a aeueo noaeiaeo
oa a?a?o?aaeieo i?aai?a ? aeeneon?eiei o aeieo?ei? e i?aeoeoe?.

Aeniiaee aei ? ?icae?eo

I?aai (law) — oea nenoaia caaaeueiiiaia’yceiaeo nioe?aeueieo ii?i, ui
ioi?iiythoueny neeith aea?aeaae ,yea caaacia/o? th?eaee/io
?aaeaiaioaoe?th noni?eueieo a?aeiinei a ianooaa? anueiai noni?euenoaa.
I?aaiaa nenoaia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia ca aaeocyie i?aaa, eiaeia c yeeo ia?
na?e i?aaeiao ?aaoethaaiiy oa aieiae?? niaoeeo?/ieie ?enaie. Oeea?eueia
i?aai cae??ieth? a?aeiineie aeaniino?, o?oaeiaa — aenooia? ye ?aaoeyoi?
i??e oa oi?i ?iciiae?eo i?aoe? oa i?iaeoeo?a i?ae /eaiaie noni?euenoaa,
oiio aiii iin?aea? /?eueia i?noea na?aae th?eaee/ieo oi?i, ui
aeicaieyoue caaacia/eoe aeiiii?/io naiino?ei?noue, ca?ioa?aniaai?noue,
?i?oe?aoeao, noaiooue iniiaith ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

O e?a?iao aiaeinaeniinueei? i?aaiai? nenoaie (Aiae?y, NOA oa ?i.) iaia?
iiiyooy oeea?eueiiai oa oi?aiaiai i?aaa. Aiaei-aia?eeainueea nenoaia
“caaaeueiiai” i?aaa ia cia? i? oeea?eueiiai, i? oi?aiaiai i?aaa.
A?aeiineie, ye? ?aaoeththoueny eiioeiaioaeueiei oeea?eueiei ? oi?aiaei
i?aaii, ioiieththoueny o oeeo e?a?iao ii?iaie ie?aieo i?aaiaeo
?inoeooo?a, cie?aia n?iaeiei i?aaii, niaaeeiaei i?aaii, i?aaii ia?ooiii?
aeaniino?, i?aaii aeiaiai??a oa ?i. Aaaeeeaa i?noea o nenoai? aeaea?ae
i?aaa Aiae??, NOA oa ?ioeo e?a?i caeia? noaeiaa i?aeoeea, aiia
iieeaaeaia a iniiao oae caaiiai “i?aoeaaeaioiiai i?aaa”. I?aoeaaeaioia
i?aai Aiae?? neeaaea?oueny c aeaio /anoei: caaaeueiiai i?aaa (common
law) ? i?aaa ni?aaaaeeeaino? (law of equity). I?aoeaaeaioia i?aai Aiae??
aoei ia?aianaii ? aei NOA, aea noaeiaee i?aoeaaeaio o NOA caa??aa?
nueiaiaei? aaeeea cia/aiiy o oeea?eueiiio ? oi?aiaiio i?aa?.

?icae??aiai?noue oa no?ieao?noue i?aoeaaeaioiiai i?aaa aiaeiiiaieo e?a?i
ia iiaea ia aieeaaoe ia neeaae oa?i?iinenoai i?aaa oeeo e?a?i. Aieea
oeae aaaeei iacaaoe iiceoeaiei,ine?eueee eiai ?acoeueoaoii ? iiaea?eia
oeoia/aiiy iaeieo ? oeo naieo oa?i?i?a, oiaoi aaaaoicia/i?noue aai
iie?nai?y eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, iaei??th c iniiaieo aeiia aei yeeo ?
iaeiicia/i?noue.

?ICAe?E ??. NAIAIOE*IA OAENIIII?ss OeEA?EUeIIAI I?AAA

2.1. IIIssOOss OA?I?IA OA AEIIAE AeI EIAI AECIA*AIIss

A aeaiee /an iaia? caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai aecia/aiiy oa?i?ia. Oa?i?i, ye ?
an? ?io? iiai? oi?aa?nae??, aaaeei i?aeaea?oueny aeao?ioaaiith. C
iaeiiai aieo, oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui ua iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaii
oai?aoe/i? iniiae oa?i?iiciaanoaa, ia aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? eiai iniiai?
iiiyooy ? iaia? ?aeeii? aeoiee i?i oa, ui oaea iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee oa?i?i.
C ?ioiai aieo, o? ??ciiiai?oi? aecia/aiiy, ui ?niothoue ca?ac o
e?oa?aoo??, ia caaaeaee ? ia iiaiith i??ith a?aeaeaathoue nooue
iaoiiaeaiiai yaeua. I?e/eia oeueiai, ia iao iiaeyae, iieyaa? a o?i, ui
aaeeea e?euee?noue aecia/aiue oa?i?ia ia caaeiaieueiy? aeiiaai,
i?iiiiiaaiei aei aecia/aiiy ye eia?/ii? eaoaai???.

Aecia/aiiy iiiyooy «oa?i?i» ? eia?/iith eaoaai???th ? a?aeiineoueny aei
a?aeiiiai oeio eia?/ieo aecia/aiue. A?aeiia?aeii aei eeaneo?eaoe?? E.
Iiia, aeaiee oei aecia/aiiy iaceaa?oueny eaene/iei, ine?eueee aiii
ae?aaea?oueny neiaaie. Iaeii/anii oea aecia/aiiy aoaea naiaioe/iei,
oiaoi oaeei, o yeiio iicia/aiith noaaeoueny o a?aeiia?aei?noue i?aaeiao,
iienaiee /a?ac eiai a?aei?ii? iciaee [7, n. 67].

A.I. Aieia?i, iai?eeeaae, ieoa, ui oa?i?i — oea ie?aia neiai /e ooai?aia
ia aac? ?iaiieea i?ae?yaeia neiainiieo/aiiy, ui icia/a? i?ioan?eia
iiiyooy oa i?ecia/aia aeey caaeiaieaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iio?aa ni?eeoaaiiy
o noa?? iaaii? i?ioan?? (iaoeiai?, oaoi?/ii?, ae?iaie/i?,
oi?aae?inueei?) [11, c.10]. Aea /e an? oa?i?ie ooai?ththoueny eeoa ia
aac? ?iaiieea. I?eeiaoieee, ae??neiaa, i?ene?aieee oaeiae iiaeooue
neoaeeoe oaeith aacith:

A?aei?iia ?ena oa?i?ia — eiai i?eiaeaaei?noue aei oa?i?iieia?/ii?
nenoaie — oi/a ? aecia?oueny an?ia aaoi?aie, aea a?aeaeoa eeoa a aeayeeo
aecia/aiiyo. Aeey eiaeii? oa?i?iieia?/ii? iaeeieoe? aecia/aia oi/ea
eii?aeeiao ye oiia? a oe?eiio, oae ? a noaiia? cie?aia. Oa?i?i ?
iaa?ae’?iiei aeaiaioii nenoaie, yeui i?ae nenoaiith ?icoi?oe noeoii?noue
aeaiaio?a oe?eiai, i?ae yeeie ?nio? iaia’yceiaee oa o?eaeee ca’ycie.
Nenoaii?noue ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo oiia ?nioaaiiy oa?i?ia. Oa?i?i
iiaea ?nioaaoe eeoa ye aeaiaio oa?i?iinenoaie, yeui i?ae inoaiiueith
?icoi?oe nenoaio iiiyoue oai???, ui iienothoue iaaio niaoe?aeueio noa?o
ethaenueeeo ciaiue /e ae?yeueiino? [11, c.11].

?ice?eooy nooiino? oa?i?ia aeinyaa?oueny cacia/aiiyi eiai ?noioieo
iciae. Aei oaeeo iciae ianaiia?aae iaeaaeaoue ni?aa?aeianai?noue c
iaoeiaei iiiyooyi ? nenoaii?noue oa?i?ia. Ia??aeei cono??/athoueny
aecia/aiiy, o yeeo ni?aa?aeianai?noue oa?i?ia c iaoeiaei iiiyooyi
aa?aoueny ca iniiao.

?.N. Eaeoei, nie?ath/enue ia ??ci? aecia/aiiy, i?iiiio? oe?eaao
“noia?io” aeao?i?oe?th: “Oa?i?i — oea neiai /e neiaaniee eiiieaen. Ui
ni?aa?aeiineoueny c iiiyooyi iaaii? i?aai?ciaaii? aaeoc? i?ciaiiy
(iaoee, oaoi?ee), ui anooiathoue o nenoaii? a?aeiineie c ?ioeie neiaaie
oa neiaanieie eiiieaenaie e ooai?ththoue ?acii c ieie a eiaeiiio
ie?aiiio aeiaaeeo oa a iaaiee /an caieiaio nenoaio, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aenieith ?ioi?iaoeai?noth, iaeiicia/i?noth, oi/i?noth oa aeni?aneaiith
iaeo?aeuei?noth.”[22, c.15.]

Aiae?c ci?noo aecia/aiue aeicaieea aeae?eeoe i?i?iaeueio e?euee?noue
iciae, ui iiaeii? aooe i?enooi? o eia?/ii i?aaeeueiiio aecia/aii?. Aei
oaeeo iciae a?aeiineoueny ianaiia?aae aeaeiaa iciaea oa?i?ia, ui
ae?aaea?oueny oeyoii a?aeianaiiy oa?i?ia aei ne?a /e neiainiieo/aiue.
Aeae?, iiaeiia aooe a?aeaeoa i?eiaeaaei?noue oa?i?ia aei oa?i?iieia?/ii?
nenoaie, eiai niaoe?aeueia cia/aiiy. ?ice?eaath/e ca’ycie c iaoeiaei
iiiyooyi, iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe iii?iaoeaio ooieoe?th oa?i?ia. O
aecia/aii? iiaeiai aooe oaeiae ae?aaeaiee nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? cia/aiiy
oa?i?ia.

? ana-oaee iiiyooy «oa?i?i» ?nio?, ethaee iia?othoue iei ? a e?ioeaaiio
?aooieo ?icoi?thoue iaeei iaeiiai.

«Oa?i?i — oea neiai /e neiainiieo/aiiy (ooai?aia ia aac? i?ae?yaeieo
ca’yce?a), yea ? ?aei?noth caoeiaiai ciaeo oa ni?aa?aeianaiiai c iei
a?aeiia?aeiiai iiiyooy a nenoai? iiiyoue aeaii? aaeoc? iaoee ? oaoi?ee»
[8].

2.2. Caaaeueiiaaeeaaia eaeneea oa oa?i?iieia?/i? eaene/i? iaeeieoe?

Ci?io naiaioeee caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ne?a o oa?i?iinenoaiao a?aeaeaathoue
oae? aniaeoe cia/aiiy: neai?o?eaoeaiee, aeaiioaoeaiie, ia?aaeeaiaoe/iee
? neioaaiaoe/iee, ine?eueee: 1) ? oa?i?i, ? caaaeueiiaaeeaaia neiai ye
neiaani? ciaee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny nai?th i?aaeiaoii-iiiyo?eiith
c?noaaeai?noth, ui aea? ciiao a cia/aii? aeae?eeoe aeaiioaoeaiee ?
neai?o?eaoiaiee aniaeoe; 2) ia?aaeeaiaoe/ia ? neioaaiaoe/ia cia/aiiy i?e
nai?e aioo??oiueiiiai?e i?e?iae? ? i?ae aeania iiaiith «a?aeiia?aeaeth»
caaaeueiiaaeeaaiiai cia/aiiy ia aieea oa?i?iieia??, aiie ?ice?eaathoue o
ia?aaeeaiaoeoe? — a?aeiioaiiy neiaa o iae?i?eiiio ?yaeo, a neioaaiaoeoe?
— o e?i?ei?e ieiuei?, ?ioeie neiaaie — ?iie?oeeoii-ia?aaeeaiaoe/i?
a?aeiioaiiy ? aenie?oeeoii-neioaaiaoe/i? ca’ycee neiaanieo ciae?a.

Aeaiioaoeaia cia/aiiy neiaa coiiaeth?oueny iaoa??aeueiith nooi?noth
?aae?? (i?aaeiao, yaeua, ae?y, oiui), neai?o?eaoeaea — ?? iiiyo?eiei
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi. Iaeaeaa cia/aiiy oi?iothoue naiaioeeo ? ia ??ai?
iiaooiaiai, ? ia ??ai? oai?aoe/iiai (iaoeiaiai) ieneaiiy.

Nooi?noue naiaioe/iiai aeiaaioaaeaiiy iiaeia c?icoi?oe, c?noaaeaoe
aeaiioaoeaii-neai?o?eaoeai? cia/aiiy neiaa ? oa?i?ia, ine?eueee oea
yaeua iaeiiai ieaio, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny aeeaeiith a?aeia?aaeaiiy. Aeey
oeueiai aa?aii aei oaaae oeoia/aiiy caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ne?a ?
aeao?i?oe?th oa?i?i?a.

Iae?i?ei? a?aeiioaiiy oa?i?i?a ?ice?eaathoueny /a?ac ia?aaeeaiaoe/iee
aniaeo ?o cia/aiue. Iath/e noaoon aioo??oiueiiiaieo, oe? cia/aiiy
aecia/athoueny ia iniia? ni?eueii? naiaioe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iaaii? a?oie
ne?a. I?i oea cana?ae/o? ?ioaa?aeueia naia. I?aaeeeiaai? o
oa?i?iinenoaiao iia? eiiiiiaioe cia/aiue ni?eythoue ?icoe?aiith
iae?i?eieo a?aeiioaiue aeaiieaiiaeo iaeeieoeue. Eaenaia, io?eiaaoe
oa?i?iieia?/io naio, iiaea ?aae?coaaoe iiaa ia?aaeeaiicia/aiiy.

Eia?/iith ia?aaeoiiaith iiaeo neioaaiaoe/ieo cia/aiue, ui
?aaeaiaioothoue e?i?ei? a?aeiioaiiy iiaieo iaeeieoeue, ? aca?iica’ycie
i?ae ?iaeiaei ? aeaeiaeie iiiyooyie, ye? a?aeaeaathoue ?aaeueiee ca’ycie
«??ae» — «aeae» o i?e?iae?, noni?euenoa?.

?iaeiaa iiiyooy iicia/a?oueny aeaiieaiiaei ciaeii, eio?ee o nenoai?
oa?i?i?a ?aae?co? nai? oa?i?iieia?/ia cia/aiiy. Oi?ioaaiiy aeaeiaeo
iiiyoue ia’?eoeaii aeeeeea? iiaeaeueoe?? ?icaeoie oa?i?iieia?/iiai
cia/aiiy, oiaoi eiai caaaa/aiiy o ca’yceo c a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iiaeo iciae
iicaiiaii? ae?eniino?. Aiane?aeie a?aeiiiai aca?iica’yceo oi?ie ? ci?noo
ci?iaia oa?i?iieia?/ia cia/aiiy ia? iaaio oi?io ae?aaeaiiy. Aeey
iaeiaioaaiiy iiaiai ci?noo — aeaeiaiai iiiyooy — iaeiiai o?eueee
?iaeiaiai oa?i?ia iaaeinoaoiuei, oiio aiii a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie
aeooae?caoe?? iiaiith iaeeieoeath ?? neioaaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae, oiaoi
c iii?ith ia cia/aiiy eaene/iiai eiie?aoecaoi?a. Ii noo? iia?
neioaaiaoe/i? cia/aiiy aeaiieaiiaeo iaeeieoeue o oa?i?iinenoaiao
aeooae?ciaai? ?iaei-aeaeiaeie a?aeiioaiiyie i?ae iiiyooyie iaaii? iaoee.
Ca ?aooiie naia oaeeo e?i?eieo eiioaeo?a i?ae iiaieie iaeeieoeyie
?iaeiaee oa?i?i iiaea ooieoe?iioaaoe o ??cieo oa?i?iinenoaiao.

Iiae?ai? neeaaeai? iii?iaoe?? eiiieaenii a?aeia?aaeathoue c? no?oeoo?ii?
oi/ee ci?o oa?i?iieia?/ia cia/aiiy, ?aae?ciaaia o e?i?eiiio ?yae?.
?icaeoie iiae?aieo neioaaiicia/aiue aecia/aiee nenoaiith iiiyoue
eiie?aoieo iaoe ? ? ia’?eoeaiei yaeuai o ca’yceo c oei, ui i?ciaaaeueia
ae?yeuei?noue na?aeiiino? ni?ey? /eaioaaiith c aeiiiiiaith oai?aoe/iiai
ieneaiiy iiaeo iciae a?aeiieo o iiaoo? iiiyoue.

I?aaeeeaoe?y oa?i?iieia?/ieo cia/aiue o i?e?inenoaiao oa?i?i?a iiaea
a?aeaeaaoeny ia ??ai? eaeneee caaaeueiiai aaeeoeo: naiaioeea oeeo
iaeeieoeue oi?io?oueny c aeiiiiiaith iaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ioaea, neai?o?eaoeai? cia/aiiy ie?aieo iaeeieoeue caaaeueiiaaeeaaii?
eaeneee i?noyoue aeai? i?i a?aeia?aaeaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai aeaiioaoa ia
o?eueee aoaeaiii-i?aeoe/iith na?aeii?noth, a e oai?aoe/iei ieneaiiyi.
Caeiiii??i?noue iiae?aiiai caaaa/aiiy caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo cia/aiue
ia’?eoeaia o ca’yceo c /?oeith aca?iicaeaaei?noth i?ae naiaioe/ieie e
aioeeeeiiaaee/ieie iiiyooyie a oiiaao c?inoaiiy eoeueoo?iiai ?
ina?oiueiai ??aiy iin??a iiae. Oiio a cia/aiiyo iaeeieoeue
caaaeueiiaaeeaaii? eaeneee ?aaeueii aeae?eythoueny eiiiiiaioe, coiiaeai?
iaoeiaith ?ioi?iaoe??th. O e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo, aiie cana?ae/othoue
aieea iaoeiaeo ciaiue ia oi?ioaaiiy naiaioeee caaaeueiiaaeeaaiiai neiaa,
ia?aaeaa/athoue iiaeeeao ia?niaeoeao ?icaeoeo neai?o?eaoeaieo cia/aiue.

Iiae?aia caaaa/aiiy eiiiiiaioiiai neeaaeo a oa?i?iieia?? iaia’yceiai
coiiaeth? iia? ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? e neioaaiaoe/i? cia/aiiy, ui a?aeii?
oao?aoeyi c ie?aieo iaoe ? iiaeooue ?aae?coaaoeny o ??cieo nenoaiao.
Ci?ia neai?o?eaoeaiio cia/aiue o oa?i?iieia??, ?aae?caoe?y ia?aaeeaii- ?
neioaaiicia/aiue aeathoue ciiao aaa/aoe nooi?noue oa?i?iieia?/ii?
niaoe?ae?caoe?? o caoaeaii? cia/aiiy neiaaniiai ciaea /a?ac aeeth/aiiy a
eiai naiaioeeo iiaeo eiiiiiaio?a — oa?i?iieia?/ieo nai, ye?
iiaeeaeththoue ?? c i?iaeoe??th ia eiie?aoio i?e?inenoaio oa?i?i?a.

Cae??ieaiiy ca iiaieie iaeeieoeyie oa?i?iieia?/ieo cia/aiue aeeeeea?
iaaiee ?aciiain ia naiaioe/iiio ??ai? eaeneee caaaeueiiai aaeeoeo,
ine?eueee cia/aiiy ie?aieo iiaieo ciae?a oi?iothoueny c aeiiiiiaith
iaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

2.3. OA?I?IE IIAE ? OA?I?IE IIAEAIIss

Ia?oa caaaeaiiy, ui iinoa? ia?aae aeine?aeieeii aoaeue-yei? aaeocaai?
oa?i?iieia??, a oiio /ene? ? th?eaee/ii? — ie?aneeoe iaae?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia’?eoa. O ca’yceo c oeei aeieea? ieoaiiy, iaeeieoe?
yeiai oeio iiaeooue aooe a?aeianai? aei /enea oa?i?i?a, ye? i?eioeeie
aeae?eaiiy oa?i?i?a c oaenoo. Ieoaiiy oea aeeneooo?oueny a
oa?i?iiciaanoa? aeaaii, aea aeioaia? iaia? ia o?eueee eiai iaeiicia/iiai
ae??oaiiy, aea e /?oeiai ?icoi?iiy i?e/ei ?ica?aeiinoae.

?ica?aeiino? ae oe? i?ecaiaeyoue aei oiai, ui iaei? oa?i?iiciaaoe? a
nai?o i?aoeyo aeaiiino?othoue a yeino? i?eeeaae?a eeoa iaeii-,
aeaine?ai? oa?i?ie, ?io? a?aeiinyoue aei oa?i?i?a niieo/aiiy ne?a
iaaaaaoi a?eueoi? aeiaaeeie (aei 15 ? a?eueo). Aaaaoine?aieie oa?i?iaie
eaaei iia?othoue aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a e?iaa?noe/ii? oa?i?iieia??.
Iiaeeeai, oea ca’ycaii c a?eueoith /anoioith aaaaoine?aieo oa?i?i?a o
e?iaa?noe/i?e (oe?oa — o iaoeiai?, ia a?aei?io a?ae oaoi?/ii?)
oa?i?iieia??.

Iano?eueee ??cia a?aeiioaiiy aei i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy iaae oa?i?ia
iia’ycaia, ia iao iiaeyae, ua ? c oei, ui iaei? aeine?aeieee
aeeth/athoue o noa?o oa?i?iiciaanoaa o?eueee no?ee?, caaaeueiii?eeiyo?
oa?i?ie («iiai? oa?i?ie»), ?io? ae aaaaeathoue ca iiaeeeaa aea/aoe,
ii?yae c iiaieie, ? iiaeaii?a? oa?i?ie, ui a?eueii eiino?oththoueny a
i?ioean? iaoeiaiai aeeeaaeo. Oea ei??iia ?icoiaeaeaiiy aeoaea ??aeea
iiynith?oueny (a, iiaeeeai, e ona?aeiieth?oueny) oa?i?iiciaaoeyie.

I?e aecia/aii? iiiyooy «oa?i?i» cae/aeii ia?ae?/othoueny ianooii? eiai
iciaee:

1) oa?i?i -neiai /e neiainiieo/aiiy;

2) oa?i?i ae?aaea? niaoe?aeueia iiiyooy;

3) oa?i?i aaeeaa?oueny a niaoe?aeuei?e noa??.

Ia?a?aoiaai? aeua iciaee oa?i?ia ? ae?enii iaiao?aeieie ? aeinoaoi?ie
aeey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai iiiyooy a iaooe?. ?io?
iciaee (iai?eeeaae, noene?noue, iaeiicia/i?noue ? o.i.), ui
aeeth/athoueny ?iiae? a aeao?i?oe?th oa?i?ia, nei??oa i?aaenoaaeythoue
aeayeee «?aeaaeueiee» oa?i?i, i?ae a?aeaeaathoue ?aaeuei?noue. Oe?
iciaee aeaeaei ia caaaeaee i?eoaiaii? iaa?oue iaeiine?aiei oa?i?iai.

Iaei?ino?oa a?aooaaoe o?aoth iciaeo-e?eoa??e (aaeeaaiiy a niaoe?aeuei?e
noa??) — aeineoue iaiaaeeoeny niaoe?aeueieie oaenoaie ye aeaea?aeaie
aeey aeae?eaiiy oa?i?i?a. I?e?iaeiuei, ie a?aeaie?ea?iiny a?ae
iiaeeeaino? aea/aoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?i?ia a «noi?iii?o» noa?ao (o
ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo?? /e a iianyeaeaii?e iia?) — oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ciaoiaeyoueny ia ia?eoa??? oa?i?iiciaanoaa, yeui ia iica iei.

Aeei?enoaiiy ia?oi? ? ae?oai? iciae oa?i?ia ye e?eoa???a aeey eiai
aeae?eaiiy ia aeyaey?oueny oaeei i/aaeaeiei ? caneoaiao? a?eueo
aeieeaaeiiai ?icai?o.

?icaeyiaii ae?oao iciaeo-e?eoa??e: ae?aaeaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai iiiyooy.
Caa?iaiiny aei ?ia?o eia?e?a, ianaiia?aae oeo,uiaiae?cothoue ae?aaeaiiy
eia?/ieo eaoaai??e o iiaieo oi?iao. Aeyaey?oueny, ?aeeia iaiaaeaiiy, ui
iaeeaaea?oueny eia?eith, — oa?i?i ia iiaeiai aeoiaeeoe ca iaae? a?oie
i?aeiaoa /e a?oie i?enoaeea, oiaoi oa?i?iieia?/ia neiainiieo/aiiy ia
iiaeiia aooe i?aaeeeaoeaiei. I?aaeeeaoeaia neiainiieo/aiiy ae?aaea? aaea
noaeaeaiiy — a?eueo neeaaeio eia?/io iaeeieoeth, i?ae iiiyooy [18, n.
25]. Ao?eaooeaia ae neiainiieo/aiiy, yei? a aeiaaeeie aiii ia aoei,
ae?aaea? iaeia iiiyooy, oi/a ? neeaaeaia. Neeaaeaia iiiyooy
ooai?th?oueny c iiiyooy-iniiae, ae?aaeaiiai no?eaeiaaei neiaii o
neiainiieo/aii?, ? iiiyoue-ao?eaoo?a, ae?aaeaieo i?aeeaaeeie
no?eaeiaaiio neiaaie [25, n. 50]. Ia??aeei oeae a?aoiaio, ui
iaaiaeeoueny a caoeno aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo oa?i?i?a, cono??/a? ianooiia
caia?a/aiiy:neeaaeaia iiiyooy o?aaa /eaioaaoe ia iiiyooy, c yeeo aiii
neeaaeaii, ? o?eueee neiaa, ui ae?aaeathoue oe? aeo?aei? iiiyooy, aa?oi
aaaaeaoe oa?i?iaie.

Caia?a/aiiy caea?oueny aaaiiei. Aea caa?iaiiny ciiao aei ?ia?o eia?e?a:
«Neeaaeaiei iiiyooyi o aeaniiio ci?no? oeueiai neiaa iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia
o?eueee iiiyooy, ae?aaeaia neiainiieo/aiiyi aeuacaaaeaiiai oeio
(ao?eaooeaiei), aea ? aoaeue-yea iiiyooy, ui aaiaeeoueny a iaoeo ca
aeiiiiiaith /?oeiai aecia/aiiy… Iiiyooyie i?inoeie o aeaniiio ci?no?
oeueiai neiaa aa?oi aaaaeaoe eeoa oae caai? iaaecia/ai? iiiyooy…
Iaoiiaeai? iiiyooy, aoaeo/e neeaaeaieie o aeaniiio ci?no? oeueiai neiaa,
iiaeooue, ye a?aeiii, aooe ae?aaeai? iaeiei neiaii. Aea… aoaeue-yea
iaoiiaeaia (neeaaeaia) iiiyooy iiaea aooe caaaeaee ae?aaeaia oaeiae
neiainiieo/aiiyi, oiio ui eiaeiee c aeaiaio?a neeaaeaiiai iiiyooy iiaea
aooe ae?aaeaiee, i?eiaeii?, iaeiei neiaii» [25, n. 49].

Ioaea, c iiaeyaeo eia?ee, aei neeaaeaiiai aa?oi a?aeianoe ia?aaaaeio
a?eueo?noue iiiyoue, i?e oeueiio oa?aeoa? ?oiueiai iiaiiai ae?aaeaiiy
(iaeia /e neiai aaaaoine?aia niieo/aiiy) ia ia? cia/aiiy. Ioaea, aeiiaa
iaeneiaeueii ae?iaeoe aaaaoieiiiiiaioi? oa?i?iieia?/i? neiainiieo/aiiy ?
aaaaeaoe oa?i?iaie o?eueee neiaa /e ?ae?iiaoe/ia neiainiieo/aiiy ia
iiaeiia a?oiooaaoeny ia eia?/iiio e?eoa???.

Ia??aeei aeine?aeieee, aenoaath/e iiae?ai? aeiiae, nie?athoueny ia
e?iaa?noe/iee e?eoa??e, a naia, ia oa?aeoa? ca’yceo iiaii? oi?ie ?
iiiyo?eiiai ci?noo a oa?i?i?, iaoiiaeaiee oaeeie aeanoeainoyie, ye
?ae?iiaoe/i?noue, a?aeoai?thaai?noue, no?ee?noue. Iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoiaoaaoe oae? iciaee oa?i?ia ca’ycai? c iayai?noth a oa?i?ia ia
o?eueee ieaio ci?noo (iiiyooy, ae?aaeaiiai oa?i?iii), aea ? ieaio
ae?aaeaiiy — iiaii? oi?ie oa?i?ia. Caaaea?ii, ui ia?oa iciaea oa?i?ia:
oa?i?i — oea neiai /e neiainiieo/aiiy, oiaoi iiaia iaeeieoey. Oiio
caa?iaiiy aei e?iaa?noe/ieo e?eoa???a cian?i i?aaii??ia. I?aeoe/ii oe?
e?eoa??? aeei?enoiaothoueny a oaeee niin?a: aei oa?i?i?a a?aeiinyoue
o?eueee neiaa /e no?ee?, a?aeoai?ai?, ?ae?iiaoe/i? neiainiieo/aiiy. Oae,
ia aeoieo A. I. Ia/a?aiei, «oa?i?iaie aeioe?eueii aaaaeaoe eeoa ie?ai?
iiai? ciaee, oiaoi naiaioe/ii oe?e?ni? (neioaoe/i?) ooai?aiiy, ui
ae?aaeathoue niaoe?aeuei? iiiyooy, aea ia a?euei? (aiae?oe/i?)
niieo/aiiy ciae?a, ui ii?aeiothoueny ca ae?th/eie a iia? iiaeaeyie aeey
ae?aaeaiiy oaeeo iiiyoue» [24, n. 95].

?niothoue oa?i?ie, aiaeia?/i? ieac?iiaeueiei neiaai: oae caai?
aaoi?nuee? oa?i?ie, ui noai?ththoueny aai aeey iii?iaoe?? iiaiai yaeua,
ui ia a?aecia/aeiny ?ai?oa aeine?aeieeaie, aai aeey iii?iaoe?? aaea
a?aeiiiai yaeua iiaei oa?i?iii, «ia na?e eaae». Aaoi?nuee? oa?i?ie
iiaeooue aooe e ?ae?iiaoe/ieie, iac?icoi?eeie aac niaoe?aeueiiai
iiyniaiiy /e aac eiioaenoo. ?iia??i?noue ?oiueiai cae??ieaiiy a iaooe?
(ia?aoiaeo a ?ic?yae iiaieo) aeua, yeui aiie noai?ai? aeey iicia/aiiy
iiaiai yaeua, a ia ia?aeiaiiaothoue oaea a?aeiia. C 106 e?iaa?noe/ieo
oa?i?i?a, noai?aieo E. Aeueineaaei, caeeoeeeny a caaaeueiiio aaeeaaii?
eeoa aeecueei 5%, na?aae ieo «ieai ae?aaeaiiy», «ieai ci?noo»,
«aeaoa?i?iaoe?y» [25, n. 73-74].

O iaooe?, ui ?icaeaa?oueny, ii?iaeaeaiiy iiaeo iiiyoue, a ioaea, ?
a?aeiia?aeieo oa?i?iieia?/ieo iicia/aiue — iaaecae/aeii aeoeaiee
i?ioean. Na?aae iiaeo iiiyoue a?eueo?noue — iio?aeieo a?ae aaea
?nioth/eo o aeai?e iaeano?, oiio iia? aaaaoine?ai? oa?i?ie ia??aeei
aoaeothoueny ye aea?eaaoe oa?i?i?a, noai?aieo ?ai?oa. Na?aae oeeo iiaeo
oa?i?i?a aaaaoi ye? ? ia?ae?iiaoe/ieie. Ii?yae c ieie aeieea? aace?/
«aaoi?nueeeo» oa?i?i?a. Oae caai? iiaeaii?a? oa?i?ie a?ae?a?athoue
aaeeeo ?ieue o aeieeiaii? ? aeeoo? iaoeiaeo ?aeae, ? iaa?ae’?iiith
/anoeiith iaoeiaiai aeeeaaeo.

Oaeei /eiii, ia?ao?ae oa?i?i?a c? noa?e iiaeaiiy a noa?o iiae — i?ioean
i?e?iaei?e o oa?i?iieia??. A?i ca’ycaiee c aeooae?caoe??th iiiyooy,
ae?aaeaiiai iiaeaii?aei oa?i?iii, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oaeeie yaeuaie, ye
ooi/iaiiy cia/aiiy (o ca’yceo c oeei iiaeeeaa ?ae?iiaoecaoe?y oa?i?ia),
iaaoooy oa?i?iii oaeeo aeanoeainoae, ye no?ee?noue ? a?aeoai?thaai?noue.
Iiyaa a oa?i?ia aeanoeaino? ?ae?iiaoe/iino? (/e iineeaiiy oe???
aeanoeaino?) a?aeaoaa?oueny caaaeyee oiio, ui i?e aeooae?caoe?? iiiyooy
eiai ci?no noa? iiai?oa — aeyaey?oueny a?eueoa e?euee?noue iciae, /ei
a?aecia/aeiny ?ai?oa. Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny, iaa?oue yeui ianya iiiyooy ia
ci?ieany (oiaoi iiiyooth a?aeiia?aea? eieeoi?e eean i?aaeiao?a /e yaeu).
I?e caa?aaeaii? eieeoiuei? iiaii? oi?ie oa?i?ia iiaeeea?noue aeaanoe
cia/aiiy oa?i?ia c? cia/aiue eiai /anoei ciaioo?oueny, a oea e icia/a?
iiyao (/e ca?eueoaiiy) ?ae?iiaoe/iino?.

sseui a ?ic?yae iiaieo ia?aoiaeyoue oae caai? aaoi?nuee? oa?i?ie, ? aac
oiai ia??aeei ?ae?iiaoe/i?, ci?ia ?o noaoono ae?aaea?oueny a iaaooo?
oaeeo aeanoeainoae, ye no?ee?noue ? a?aeoai?thaai?noue, a oiio, ui aiie
ii/eiathoue aaeeaaoeny ??cieie aaoi?aie. Ioaea, ia’?eoii oa?i?iiciaanoaa
iiaeii? aooe ye oa?i?ie iiae, oae ? oa?i?ie iiae. Iaae? i?ae ieie
?ooeea?, ?o aecia/aiiy aeiaaa? ?aoaeueiiai aiae?co naiaioeee ? no?oeoo?e
oa?i?i?a, ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

2.4. AAAAOICIA*IINOUe OA?I?IA ? EIIOAENO

Ieoaiiy i?i iie?nai?th oa?i?i?a — iaeia c i?eioeeiiaeo ieoaiue
oa?i?iiciaanoaa. Ae??oo?oueny aiii oa?i?iieiaaie iaiaeiicia/ii. Ca
o?aaeeoe??th i?eeiyoi ?icaeyaeaoe aeaia iiaia yaeua ye iaaeie?e
oa?i?iieia??th.

I?e iayaiino? iie?nai?? oa?i?i ao?aoeoue ia?aeiio ? aaaeeeao ooieoe?th
?ic??ciaiiy, c iaeiiai aieo, a c ?ioiai — «naia i?e?iaea ciaea-oa?i?ia c
iaeiicia/iei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi oiai, ui icia/a? ? oiai, ui icia/a?oueny
iicaaaey? eiai aoaeue-yeeo ia?aaeoiia aeey ?icaeoeo iie?nai??» [6,
n.65].

A.I.Aeaieeaiei iaiaaa?oueny ocaeiieoe yaeua iie?nai?? a oa?i?iieia??,
yea aeyaey?oueny aieiaiei /eiii ye eaoaai??aeueia aaaaoicia/i?noue ? ia
iniia? iaoii?i?/iiai ? neiaeaeio?/iiai ia?aiino cia/aiiy. Eioaeiaa I.
C., aeciath/e iie?nai?th oa?i?i?a, iiynith? ?? ?icoa?oaaiiyi cia/aiue o
caeaaeiino? a?ae aaeeaaiiy neiaa a ??cieo aaeocyo ciaiue» [19, n.124].

e.g. case — 1) med. an instance of a person receiving professional
guidance from a doctor (oai?iaa; ?noi??y caoai?thaaiiy); this person or
the circumstances involved (oai?ee, iaoe??io)

2) law a cause or suit for trial (noaeiaa ni?aaa); a statement of the
facts in a cause sub judice, drawn up for a higher court’s consideration
(i?aoeaaeaio).

ssaeua iie?nai?? niinoa??aa?oueny iaa?oue a iaei?e oa?i?iinenoai?,
iai?.:

Act — 1) something done; a deed; an action (act of sabotage — aeeaa?n?y,
act of terrorism — oa?i?enoe/iee aeo).

2) a written ordinance of a legislative body (acts of civil status —
aeoe a?iiaaeyinueeiai noaio).

A.A. Aae i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui iie?nai?y oa?i?i?a ? eiie?aoiei i?iyaii
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, i?iaiaey/e ia?aeaeue i?ae ae?yeuei?noth ?
iiaiith. sse o eiie?aoi?e ae?yeueiino? iaoa??aeueia cia?yaeaey noa?
iie?ooieoe?iiaeueiei, oae o eiie?aoiiio aeo? eiioi?eaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny
iino?eia aca?iia «i?eianoaaiiy» aeaiaio?a iiae e aeaiaio?a neooaoe??, ui
iicia/athoueny ieie. Oaea i?enoinoaaiiy iiaieo iaeeieoeue aei oiia
eiie?aoii? iiaii? neooaoe?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icieaaiiy naiaioe/ieo iaae
eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, oi/i?oa aei iie?nai??. Oaeei /eiii, iniaeeaino?
ieaio ci?noo eaaeaoue a iniia? iie?nai?? eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue acaaae? ?
oa?i?iieia?? cie?aia.

Ioaea, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oa?i?ie i?aeaeathoueny an?i oei
eaeneei-naiaioe/iei i?ioeanai, ca?aeii yeeo ?icaeaa?oueny neiaieeiaee
neeaae e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae a oe?eiio. Aei oeeo i?ioean?a a?aeiinyoueny:
caoaeaiiy ? ?icoe?aiiy cia/aiiy, ia?ai?n ca noi?aei?noth aai
iiae?ai?noth ? aeaye? ?io?. O ca’yceo c oeei iie?nai?y oa?i?i?a ia
caea?oueny iai ii?i/iei yaeuai. Ia iao iiaeyae, oea yaeua iaieio/a ?
i?e?iaeia, ine?eueee oa?i?i ae?aaea? iaoeiaa iiiyooy.

I?ioa aaaaoicia/i?noue oa?i?i?a — aoi?eiia yaeua, ii a?aeiioaiith aei
yeno?ae?iaa?noe/iino? oa?i?i?a, aaciina?aaeiueiai ca’yceo ?o c iaoeiaeie
?aeayie, oeieaie, iai?yieaie, oai??yie. Oiio aeioe?euei?oa ? eia?/i?oa
aiai?eoe ia i?i iaeiicia/i?noue oa?i?i?a ye oaeo, a i?i iaeiicia/ia ?
oi/ia canoinoaaiiy oa?i?i?a o iaoeiaiio ni?eeoaaii?: «… yeui
canoiniao?oueny oie /e ?ioee oa?i?i o iaoeiaiio /e iaa/aeueiiio
ni?eeoaaii?, oi a ia?oo /a?ao aa?oi noai?eoe iiai? oiiae, ye? a
caaacia/eee neooa/o aai /eoa/o iiaeeea?noue iaeiicia/iiai ? oi/iiai
?icoi?iiy canoiniaaiiai oa?i?ia» [15, n.16].

Ieoaiiy i?i iie?nai?th oa?i?i?a aaciina?aaeiuei iica’ycaia c ieoaiiyi
i?i aca?iica’ycie oa?i?io ? eiioaenoo. Ae.N. Eiooa, A.A. ?aoi?iaonueeee
oa ?i., a?aeiiaeyth/e oa?i?iai o aaaaoicia/iino?, ?icaeyaeathoue ye
i?yiee iane?aeie oe??? aeanoeaino? iacaeaaei?noue oa?i?ia a?ae
eiioaenoo. Ia??oioiaothoue oea iieiaeaiiy ianooiiei oiiaeaiaeii: yeui
oa?i?i iaeiicia/iee o nenoai?, oiio e i?e ooieoe?iioaaii? a oaeno? a?i
aoaea iaoe oi/i? naiaioe/i? iaae?.

A.A. ?aoi?iaonueeee ieoa, ui oa?i?i ia iio?aao? eiioaenoo, oiio ui
oa?i?i «ca’ycaiee ia c eiioaenoii, a c oa?i?iieia?/iei iieai. I?ae
oa?i?iieia?/iei iieai ?icoi??oueny oa oa?i?iieia?y, o iaaeao yei? oa?i?i
iaeiicia/iee». I?i iacaeaaei?noue oa?i?ia a?ae eiioaenoo ieoa N.I.
Ao?ae?i. A?i i?yii cayaey?, ui a iaoeia?e iia? neiaa-oa?i?ie iica
eiioaenoii iaeiicia/i?, ia a?aei?io a?ae cae/aeieo ne?a, ui ?aae?cothoue
iaeia c aeanoeaeo ?i cia/aiue o eiioaeno?.

A.I. Aeaieeaiei, aeciath/e ? aei?aaaeoth/e iie?nai?th oa?i?i?a,
cie?aia eaoaai??aeueio iie?nai?th, aaaaea? eiioaeno iaei??th c oiia
aeinyaiaiiy naiaioe/ii? iaeiicia/iino? oa?i?i?a. Iiaoi?thaai?noue
eiioaenoo cae??ieth? ca oa?i?iii noai?i aecia/aia eiai cia/aiiy. Oaeee
iino?eiee no?eeee eiioaeno A.I. Aeaieeaiei iaceaa? noaiaea?oiei. A.?.
E?eeia oaeiae caa?oa? oaaao ia naini?ic??cithaaeueio ?ieue eiioaenoo a
oa?i?iieia?? [15, n.90]. I.N. Aoiaiiaa aaaaea?, ui «ci?no oa?i?ia
?ice?eaa?oueny o?eueee /a?ac eiai ?aaeueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy, /a?ac
?aaeueiee «iaoaneioaenen».

Ae?enii, aeey iie?naiaioe/ieo oa?i?iieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue
?iaeeoa?aioi?noue aei eiioaenoo, aei ioi/aiiy ia ? oa?aeoa?iith
iciaeith, ine?eueee naia o aecia/aieo eiioaenoieo oiiaao ci?ia?oueny
aaaaoicia/i?noue oa?i?ia, ?aae?co?oueny eeoa iaeia c eiai cia/aiue.
Oaeei /eiii, eiioaeno ? caniaii aeiai?o iio??aiiai cia/aiiy, oi/a a
e?oa?aoo?? ?niothoue ie?ai? aeiaaeee, eiee eiioaeno ia caaaeaee ?
aa?aio??th iaeiicia/iiai ?icoi?iiy oa?i?ia.

… bringing with them tens of millions of dollars in legal business from
their newly forged contracts (David Baldacci “Absolute Power”, p57).

legal — legitimate or that concerned with practicing law.

Iaeiicia/i?noue oa?i?ia iica eiioaenoii- ia iaia’yceiaa oiiaa eiai
?nioaaiiy. Ae.N. Eiooa ienaa, ui «aeey oi/iino? oa?i?iieia?? oe?eeii
aeinoaoiuei, uia oa?i?i iaa aeanoea?noue «a?aeiinii? iaeiicia/iino?»,
oiaoi uia a?i aoa iaeiicia/iei o iaaeao aeaii? ? noi?aeieo aeenoeeie?i».

Aaaaoicia/i?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino? oa?i?i?a, caeaaei?noue ?o a?ae
eiioaenoo iaoiiaeaia yeno?ae?iaa?noe/i?noth oa?i?i?a, ca’yceii ?o c
oai???th, iaoeiaeie iai?yieaie, oeieaie. Ca’ycie oa?i?i?a c iaoeith
ae?aaea?oueny a ?ooeeaino? ci?noo iiiyooy i?e noaeino? iiaiiai ciaeo,
ui ? ?acoeueoaoii ?icaeoeo iiiyooy, /e ?acoeueoaoii ??cii?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? nooiino? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia’?eoa (iai?., ?noi??y
?icaeoeo iiiyooy, ui iacaaia oa?i?iii «neioaaia»).

Aeciath/e ca’ycie oa?i?i?a c iaoeith, iai?yieaie, oeieaie, ie i?iiiio?ii
?ic??ciyoe neiaaniee ? iiiyo?eiee eiioaenoe. I?ae neiaaniei eiioaenoii
?icoi??oueny aaciina?aaei? neiaania ioi/aiiy oa?i?ia.

Oaeee eiioaeno aeey ?icoi?iiy naiaioeee oa?i?ia ? iaaeinoaoi?i, oiio ui
«neiaania ioi/aiiy caaacia/o? eeoa iaeiicia/ia oeoia/aiiy neiaa, aea ia
oa?i?ia». Caeaaei?noue oa?i?ia a?ae neiaaniiai eiioaenoo iiaea aeyaeoeny
aeaea?aeii aaaaoicia/iino? ? «? ii?ooaiiyi aeiiae nenoaiaoe/iino?»[19,
n.45].

sse iieaco? aiae?c oa?i?iieia??, neiaaniee eiioaeno iiaea aieeiooe ia
o?eueee ia naiaioeeo ie?aieo oa?i?i?a, aeyaeaoenue aeaea?aeii ?oiuei?
aaaaoicia/iino?, aea e ia ?oith aeiaaeeio.

Ia oea yaeua, ui iaea?aeaei iacao «eiioaenoiiai ae?inena», caa?ioa oaaao
Ae.N. Eiooa. Eiioaenoiee ae?inen aeineoue ?iciianthaeaeaia yaeua a
e?iaa?noe/i?e oa?i?iieia??. Aiii iieyaa? a i?iioneo ne?a, ui aoiaeyoue
aei neeaaeo neeaaeiiai oa?i?ia ? eaaei a?aeiiaethaaieo c eiioaenoo. A
e?iaa?noe/ieo oa?i?iao, ui iathoue oi?io ao?eaooeaiiai neiainiieo/aiiy,
cae/aeii iioneathoueny i?e iiaoi?iiio aaeeaaii? aecia/aeuei? aeaiaioe.

The firm traditionally did no litigation work, preferring instead to
handle the more lucrative and steady corporate and tax matters. When
litigation did arise it was farmed out to select elite litigation-only
firms, who… (David Baldacci “Absolute Power”, p.59).

Aiai?y/e i?i eiioaenoi? ae?ine, ia iiaeia ia caaaeaoe i?i oa?i?iieia?/i?
noyaiaiiy, ui oe?iei i?aaenoaaeai? a e?iaa?noe/i?e e?oa?aoo??. Noyaiaiiy
iathoue aeae eiioaenooaeueieo ia’?aeiaiue aeae?eueeio i?inoeo /e
neeaaeaieo oa?i?i?a, ui yaeythoue eiaeai nai ii nia? iicia/aiiy iaeiiai
niaoe?aeueiiai iiiyooy.

Eiioaenoi? ae?inene ? noyaiaiiy aeeeeeai? aei aeeooy noee?noe/ieie
ii?iaie, aeiiaith ? aaaeaiiyi aeiiii?? iiaieo cania?a. O i?iyniaii?
naiaioeee aaaaoicia/ieo oa?i?i?a cia/io ?ieue a?a? eiioaeno, ui
iaea?aeaa iacao iiiyo?eiiai.

Iiiyo?eiee eiioaeno («iiea» — ca oa?i?iieia??th A.A. ?aoi?iaonueeiai)
yaey? niaith noeoii?noue iiiyoue aeaii? iaoee, oeiee, /e iai?yieo
ie?aii? iaoeiai? oai???. Ine?eueee an? oa?i?ie ? aeaiaioaie iaaii?
oai???, oi aeey oiai, uia c?icoi?oe aeaiee oa?i?i «o?aaa c?icoi?oe anth
oai??th, aecia/eoe i?noea, ui caeia? oeae oa?i?i a iaaeao oai???.
Cia/aiiy oa?i?ia a no/ani?e iaooe? — oea eiai i?noea a oai???» [26,
n.75].

bill — 1) commerce a printed or written statement of charges for goods
supplied or services rendered (?aooiie);

2) law a draft of a proposed law (caeiiii?iaeo);

3) economics a banknote (aaieiio).

Oaeei /eiii, aiai?eoe i?i iie?nai?th oa?i?i?a, caeaaei?noue ?o cia/aiiy
a?ae eiioaenoo (a naia, a?ae iiiyo?eiiai eiioaenoo) ye i?i iaaaoeai?
yaeua a oa?i?iieia?? caea?oueny iai iai?aaii??iei ia o?e i?aenoaa?, ui:

1. iie?nai?y oa?i?i?a ia iicaaaey? iiaeeeaino? ?icoi?oe ?o a??ii;

2. iiiyo?eiee eiioaeno aeiiiiaaa? iiaeieaoe iie?nai?th.

Aeniiaee aei ?? ?icae?eo

A iaoiio ?icoi?ii? oa?i?i — oea iiaia /e nei?i/aia neiai /e
iai?aaeeeaoeaia neiainiieo/aiiy, iniiaiith ooieoe??th yeiai ? iicia/aiiy
i?ioan?eieo iiiyoue oa a?aeia?aaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo oa
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy, oeeo iiiyoue o a?aeiia?aei?e aaeoc? ciaiue.
A?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a aaaaeathoue oa?i?iii iiaiee ciae, iniiaia
ooieoe?y yeiai a?aeoai?thaaoe o na?aeiiino? ethaeeie ye iiaeeeai iiai?oa
oyaeaiiy i?i ia’?eo (iiiyooy) niaoe?aeueii? aaeoc? ciaiue c on?ia eiai
aeanoeainoyie ? yeinoyie.

Oa?i?ie ?niothoue o iia? ia ?cieueiii iaeei a?ae iaeiiai, a a neeaae?
??cieo noeoiiinoae (oa?i?iinenoai, oa?i?iieia?e, oa?i?iieia?/ieo
?yae?a). Iai caea?oueny iiaeeeaei ?icaeyaeaoe oa?i?iinenoaio ye neeaaeia
oe?ea, ui ye ? aoaeue-yea nenoaia ia? iciaee oe?e?niino? (aeanoea?noue
oa?i?iinenoaie ia ? noia aeanoeainoae ?? aeaiaio?a, cia/aiiy ? ooieoe??
aeaiaio?a aecia/athoueny ?o i?noeai ? ioi/aiiyi o oa?i?iinenoai?),
no?oeoo?iino? (iayai?noue ca’yce?a ? a?aeiinei i?ae aeaiaioaie),
???a?o?/iino? (ca’ycie aoaeue-yeiai aeaiaioa c oei, ui ciaoiaeeoueny
aeua a nenoai?), caeaaeiino? oa?i?iinenoaie a?ae ia’?eo?a iaoa??aeueiiai
na?oo ? o.ae.

A?aeiioaiiy aei i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy iaae oa?i?ia a iaooe? aeineoue
??cia, ? oea iia’ycaii, ia iao iiaeyae, c oei, ui iaei? aeine?aeieee
aeeth/athoue o noa?o oa?i?iiciaanoaa o?eueee no?ee?, caaaeueiii?eeiyo?
oa?i?ie («iiai? oa?i?ie»), ?io? ae aea/athoue, ii?yae c iiaieie, ?
iiaeaii?a? oa?i?ie, ui a?eueii eiino?oththoueny a i?ioean? iaoeiaiai
aeeeaaeo. Ia iiaeia caia?a/eoe ?nioaaiiy a iia? oae caaieo aaoi?nueeeo
oa?i?i?a, ui noai?ththoueny aai aeey iii?iaoe?? iiaiai yaeua, ui ia
a?aecia/aeiny ?ai?oa aeine?aeieeaie, aai aeey iii?iaoe?? aaea a?aeiiiai
yaeua iiaei oa?i?iii, «ia na?e eaae», yeui aiie ia?aoiaeyoue a ?ic?yae
iiaieo, ci?ia ?o noaoono ae?aaea?oueny a iaaooo? oaeeo aeanoeainoae, ye
no?ee?noue ? a?aeoai?thaai?noue, oiaoi iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iiaiicia/ieo oa?i?i?a.

Ioaea, c aeuaaeeeaaeaiiai iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui, ine?eueee iaae?
i?ae oa?i?iaie iiae e oa?i?iaie iiaeaiiy ?ooeea?, iaeaea? a?oie oa?i?i?a
iiaeii? noaoe ia’?eoii ?aoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?i?iiciaaoe?a.

?ICAe?E ???. Aeeneo?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa

3.1. TH?eaee/ia oa?i?iieia?y o no?oeoo?? aiaeiiiaiiai oaoiaiai oaenoo

?ioaa?aoe?y oa aca?iiae?y a i?ioean? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo iaoe
iio?aaothoue iineeaii? oaaae iaoeiaoe?a aei ieoaiue oa?i?iiciaanoaa,
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaa?noe/ieo oa i?aaiaoe/ieo aniaeo?a oa?i?iieia?? a
??cieo noa?ao iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?. I?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy, naiaioeee,
aea?eaaoe?? oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oa?i?iieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue, oaoiai?
eaeneee aea/aee a?o/eciyi? oa ca?oa?aei? aeine?aeieee, cie?aia A.
Aeiia?aaeia, A. Eae/ee, A. Aeiieo?, A. Aieia?oe, E. Eonueei, A.
Ioooaiei, A. AEeaeueaa?, E. Ni?o, O. Aei?ia?. Aaoi?e ia?aaaaeii
ii-??ciiio ?icoi?thoue i?iaeaiaoeeo, oe?e? oa caaaeaiiy oa?i?iieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee oa?i?iiciaanoaa ye iaoee. Iaia?
ocaiaeaeaiiai ?icoi?iiy iiiyoue oa?i?i, oa?i?iieia?/ia neiainiieo/aiiy,
aaeaeaaoieo iaoeiaeo oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e oaoiaiai oa?i?iiciaanoaa.
A?aeoae iinoa? iio?aaa o iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo oe??? aaeoc? iaoee,
ei?aeoe?? oa aaeaeaaoiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?? iaoaiiae.

Oa?i?iieia?y ? aieiaiei, i?ioa ia ?aeeiei i?ioa?eii eaeneee iiae iaoee.
Aiia ooieoe?iio? ia ?cieueiaaii, a o ii?aeiaii? ?c caaaeueiiaaeeaaiith
eaeneeith, i?e o?i iaeaea o aoaeue yeiio niaoe?aeueiiio oaeno? iiaeia
?iciaaeoaaoe naiaioe/ii caaaeueiiaaeeaaio eaeneeo a?ae oaoiai?.
I?aenoaaith aeey oaeiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy ? aca?iica’ycie oa?i?i?a oa
caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ne?a i?ae ??cieie iiiyooyie. Oa?i?ie caaaeaee
ni?aa?aeiini? ?c niaoe?aeueieie iiiyooyie ia a?aei?io a?ae
caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ne?a, ye? ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c iiiyooyie
ianiaoe?aeueieie. Oeae naiaioe/ii iaeo?aeueiee eaene/iee i?ioa?ie iiae
iaoee a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eaeneee caaaeueiie?oa?aoo?ii? iiae. Oaea
a?aei?ii?noue coiiaeth?oueny caaaeueiith iniaeea?noth iiae iaoee, ??
i?ecia/aiiyi — aoae caniaii iaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
eiioi?eaoe??, ui iio?aao? ia?aaeon?i oi/ii? eia?ee iine?aeiaiino? oa
aiioe?eii iaeo?aeueiiai noeeth aeeeaaeo.

Caaaeueiei i?ecia/aiiyi iiae iaoee aecia/a?oueny oaeiae i?noea a i?e
oa?i?i?a. Oa?i?ie a iia? iaoee aeei?enoiaothoueny a nai?io i?yiiio
i?ecia/aii? (ye iii?iaioe niaoe?aeueieo iiiyoue), ioaea iio?aaothoue
oi/iino? aaeeaaiiy. Aaaeeeaa ia eeoa naiaioe/ia noi?iia oa?i?i?a. Aeey
aeyaeaiiy ??cieo e?iaa?noe/ieo iniaeeainoae oa?i?iieia??, cie?aia
th?eaee/ii?, iaiao?aeii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?? c ??cieo iiaeyae?a — c
aaiaoe/iiai (aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy), c eaeneei-a?aiaoe/iiai (/anoeie iiae
a oa?i?iieia??), eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai, aea?eaaoe?eiiai. Eiaeia c oeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee iio?aao? a?aooaaiiy nenoaie, aei yei? iaeaaeeoue
aeine?aeaeoaaia oa?i?iieia?y. Caaaeueiei oiiii aeey oa?i?iieia?? ?
eaene/iee neeaae iiae iaoee oa neiaioai?/a i?aenenoaia iiae iaoee.

I?ae iiiyooyi th?eaee/ia oa?i?iieia?y ?icoi?thoue i?ioa?ie eaeneee, yea
ianeoaiao? i?aaiciaanoai ? iia’ycaia c th?eni?oaeaioe??th ye iaoeith, ye
oaoii, ye noa?ith i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeea?noue th?eaee/ii?
oa?i?iieia?? ii??aiyii c ?ioeie oa?i?iieia?/ieie nenoaiaie aeyaey?oueny,
ia aeoieo aeine?aeiee?a, o nai???aeieo neiaioai?/eo iiaeaeyo, o
oa?aeoa?ieo aeey ia? ni?aa?aeiineiao i?ae ?ioiiiaieie oa iaoe?iiaeueieie
aeaiaioaie, o niaoeeo?oe? ?? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo. Aei th?eaee/ii?
oa?i?iieia?? a?aeiinyoue iacae i?aaeiao?a, ae?e, yaeu, in?a,
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaieo c th?eni?oaeaioe??th oa ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiyi o
noni?euenoa?.

Ae?aiacii ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aaie/i? oa?i?iieia?? ia?aaeaa/a?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oa ooi/iaiiy oaeeo iiiyoue, ye oa?i?iieia?/ia iiea ?
aeeneo?n. Cie?aia, I. ?aoi?iaonueeee aaaaea?, ui oa?i?i ? /eaiii
aoaeue-yei? oa?i?iieia??, a iaaeao yei? a?i iaeiicia/iee. Oa?i?iieia?/ia
iiea, ia eiai aeoieo, cai?iy? eiio eiioaeno. O nai?io oa?i?iieia?/iiio
iie? oa?i?i neiai iaaoaa? oi/iino? oa iaeiicia/iino?, a ca eiai iaaeaie
?iiae? ao?a/a? iciaee oa?i?ia. Ioaea, oa?i?i ia?aaeeaiaoe/iee
naiaioe/ii, oiaoi a eiaei?e oa?i?iieia?? a?i ni?aa?aeiineoueny c oeie /e
?ioeie iiiyooyie

I?ae oa?i?iieia?/iei iieai ?icoi?thoue nai???aeio noa?o ?nioaaiiy
oa?i?ia, ana?aaeei? yei? a?i ia? iciaee oa iaai? aeanoeaino?, i?eoaiaii?
e ?ioei oa?i?iai, c yeeie oeae oa?i?i ia?aaoaa? a iaai?e ei?aeyoe?? a
iaaeao aeaii? i?aeiiae. Aoaeue-yeee oa?i?i aaeeaa?oueny a
oa?i?iieia?/iiio eiioaeno?. Iaeiae oea — noa?a eiai aaeeaaiiy, a iiea —
oea na?aaeiaeua ?nioaaiiy eiai ye oa?i?ia. Iiaa iaaii? aaeoc? iaoee ?
oei eiioaenoii aei yeiai aoiaeeoue oa?i?i ? aea ooi/ith?oueny eiai
cia/aiiy.

Aiae?coth/e no/anio th?eaee/io oa?i?iieia?th c aaiaoe/iiai iiaeyaeo, ie
?ic??ciyee o? aeaea?aea, c yeeo caiice/ai? a oa?i?iieia?th aioia? iiai?
iaeeieoe?, ? o?, ye? aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue noai?eoe oa?i?ie caniaaie
aea?eaaoe??. Uiaei caiice/aiue o oa?i?iieia?/i?e nenoai?, oi aaaeeeai
?ic??ciyoe caiice/aiiy ia eeoa c iaei??? iiae a ?ioo, aea e ?c nenoaie a
nenoaio (aai ?c nenoaie a i?aenenoaio). O ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo ia?ii ia
oaac? caiice/aiiy a eiie?aoi? aaeocaa? oa?i?iieia??, cie?aia th?eaee/ii?
oa?i?iieia?? a aeiiii?/io, aai iaaiaee, a oaeiae ?o naiaioe/i?
o?ainoi?iaoe??, naiaioe/ia oa?i?iieia?/ia ooi/iaiiy, iaiao?aeia aeey
niaoe?aeueiiai iaeiaioaaiiy. Aiai?y/e i?i oa?i?iioai?aiiy, ye i?ioean
ooai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo iaeiaioaaiue, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ??cieoeth,
oa?aeoa?io aeey oa?i?iieia??, eiee oa?i?ie ooai?ththoueny ?c aioiaeo
noaiaea?oieo /anoei — oa?i?iiaeaiaio?a, ? eiee aiie ooai?ththoueny ca
aeiiiiiaith cania?a ii?oieia?/iiai neiaioai?aiiy — ao?enaoe??th, ca?aeii
c ?nioth/eie iiaeaeyie. Ia?aaaaeii noaiaea?oieie oa?i?iiaeaiaioaie ?
a?aei-eaoeinuee? ca iioiaeaeaiiyi ii?oaie, ye? noaee i?aeia?iaeiei
oa?i?iieia?/iei oiiaeii.

Ae?y oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaea?ae oi?ioaaiiy oa?i?iieia?/ii? eaeneee a
??ci? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo iiae ci?ithaaeeny caeaaeii a?ae aaaaoueio
i?e/ei, na?aae yeeo aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ??ci? iicaiiai?
(iaaa?aaeuei?) /eiieee. Aiae?c oaenoiai? oaeoo?e iieacaa, ui cia/iee
a?aenioie oa?i?i?a — oea neiaa, caiice/ai? c ?ioeo iia. Oe? oa?i?ie
i?eoiaeyoue a aiae?enueeo oa?i?iieia?th (iai?eeeaae, th?eaee/io) ye
aioia? iiai? iaeeieoe? ?acii c iiiyooyie, ?aae?yie, iacaaie yeeo aiie
aenooiathoue.

Aiae?enueea oa?i?iieia?/ia eaeneea, o oiio /ene? th?eaee/ia,
oi?ioaaeany noie?ooyie. Aiia ?icaeaa?oueny ? aeae?, iino?eii
ci?ithth/enue, iaeiae aiaeii/an- oea ?aeeia oe?e?nia nenoaia, yea
ooieoe?iio? oa ci?ith?oueny ?acii c ethaenueeei noni?euenoaii.
Eiino?oeoeaiei, aeey iaoi? ?iaioe, ? aeniiaie I. ?aoi?iaonueeiai, yeee
noaa?aeaeo?, ui a?eueo?noue oa?i?i?a ? ooai?aiyie a?aei-eaoeinueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy.

Caoaaaeeii, ui i?ioean «aoiaeaeaiiy» th?eaee/ii? oa?i?iieia?? a iiao
??cieo noa? nyaa?, ei??iiyi ua o na?aaeiueia?//y, eiee aaea ii/eiaee
ca?iaeaeoaaoeny i?aaia? a?aeiineie i?ae iaaieie nioe?ia?oiaie.

Aiae?coth/e oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae, ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui th?eaee/i?
oa?i?ie iiaeia aeeoa?aioethaaoe ca iioiaeaeaiiyi ?oi?o iniia. Cie?aia,
oea o? oa?i?ie, ui ? aeaniiiiaieie neiaaie, ? iathoue eaoeinueeo oa
o?aioeocueeo iniiae. Aeaniiiiaieie aaaaea?ii aiaeinaeniinuee? ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi neiaa. i?eianai? c eiioeiaioo o V no. aa?iainueeeie
ieaiaiaie. sse iniiaa iiae oe? neiaa aaeeaathoueny oi?iaeiaae iiiaae
oeny/ie?ooy. Uiaei ?ioiiiaieo iniia, oi, yeui e?euee?noue caiice/aiue o
noa?iaiae?enuee?e iia? aoea iacia/iith, oi i?ney ii?iainueeiai
caaithaaiiy, ca na?ae/aiiyi ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae, caiice/aiiy noaee
ianiaeie ? noaiiaeee iaeia c aeaea?ae caaaa/aiiy aiae?enueeiai neiaieea.
Aei aiae?enueei? iiae ye /a?ac o?aioeocueeo, oae ? c ia?oiaeaea?aea,
iaae?eoea cia/ia e?euee?noue eaoei?ci?a, iaaia /anoeia yeeo caa??aa? ia
eeoa oi?io, a e i?aaiien. Oa?i?ie, ye? ie cao?enoaaee ? naia oaeeie
neiaaie oa neiainiieo/aiiyie: Actus Dei, altera pars, bona fide, error
coram nobis, usus..

Ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie, th?eaee/i? oa?i?ie aaeeaathoueny a
e?oa?aoo?? ??cieo aeai??a: o iiiia?ao?/ieo i?aoeyo, i?ae?o/ieeao,
iin?aieeao, iaoeiaeo noaooyo, ?aoa?aoao, iaoaioao oa ?ioeo oeiao
oaeno?a.

3.2.OOIEOe?IIAEUeIEE NOAOON OA?I?I?A O ??CIEO NOA?AO ?O AAEEAAIIss

Iino?eiee ??no aaaeeeaino? iaoee a aeeoo? ethaeeie ? nioe?aeueiith
iniiaith aeey ?ioo?oeaiiai ni?eeiyooy iin?yie iiae iniaeeai? ?ie?
oa?i?ia a ??cieo i?ioeanao eiioi?eaoe??. Oa?i?i aeaaii ia?anoaa aooe
aeiyoeiaith i?eiaeaaei?noth iiae iaoeiaeo o?aeoao?a, aea a?i aeeiioaaa
naith iniiaio caaaeueiieaene/io ooieoe?th — iii?ioaaa niaoe?aeueia
iiiyooy. Aaeeaaiiy oa?i?ia ca iaaeaie iaoeiai? noa?e iaaea? eiio
niaoeeo?/i? ooieoe??, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo i?aee?aneth?oueny
iai?aeeia?i?noue niaoe?aeueieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue o ii??aiyii? c
caaaeueiiaaeeaaieie.

Noaio ?nioaaiiy oa?i?ia a iia?-iiaeaii? iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o aeaeyae?
iieueiai? no?oeoo?e c ?aiaee?oaaiiyi ca nooiaiai /anoioiino? aaeeaaiiy
oa?i?i?a a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie:

V ooaeiaeiy e?oa?aoo?a;

IV iaoeiai-iiioey?ia e?oa?aoo?a, ?aeeaia;

III onia ni?eeoaaiiy oao?aoe?a;

II oaoaeieoiaioaoe?y, iaoaioe, i?ae?o/ieee, noaoo?, aeiiia?ae?;

I oacao?one, noaiaea?oe, oa?i?iieia?/i? neiaieee.

Aeaia noaia iieaco?, ui yae?ii ooieoe?iiaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe?? oa?i?i?a
? aaeocaaa oa?i?iieia?y, ui ?nio? a no/ani?e iia? o aeae?
oacao?on?a,noaiaea?o?a ? oa?i?iieia?/ieo neiaiee?a. Iniaeeao oaaao a
oeueiio a?aeiioaii? aa?oi caa?iooe ia aaoiiaoe/i? neiaieee, ui iathoue
iaiaaeaia eiei ei?enooaa/?a. ?iiae? oea eiei caoaeo?oueny aei
ni?a?ia?oiee?a iaei??? o??ie, iai?eeeaae, aaoiiaoe/i? neiaieee eiiiai?e
«Ai?ia», «N?iain» oa ?i. Oe?eeii i?e?iaeiuei, ui oe?aae oeeo neiaiee?a
?noioii iaiaaeaiee. Iaeiae eaeneei-naiaioe/ia noaa?euei?noue oa?i?i?a o
oaeeo neiaieeao caeiaoaa? caeiiiaeaa/o neeo. A?aeiia?aeieeaie oaeeo
neiaiee?a a oe?a?inuee?e iia? iiaeia aaaaeaoe aea?aeaai? ? aaeocaa?
noaiaea?oe ia oa?i?ie ? aecia/aiiy.

ssae?i — oea iaeanoue c iaeneiaeueii aenieei nooiaiai ?iia??iino? iiyae
o??? /e ?ioi? eaene/ii? iaeeieoe? o aecia/aieo aeeno?eaooeaieo oiiaao.
Oaeoi? i?aeaeuaii? iiaii? iaaei??iino? niaoe?aeueieo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue aecia/a?oueny ooo naiith aaeocaaith oa?i?iieia??th ye
a?aeiinii cae?eoith aaoiiiiiith eaeneei-naiaioe/iith nenoaiith. O
yaea?i?e cii? iae?ioaineai?oa aeyaey?oueny i?aaiaiiy niaoe?aeueieo
eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue aei aaeaeaaoii? iaeii-iaeiicia/ii? a?aeiia?aeiino?
i?ae iiaiei ciaeii ? iiiyooyi. Oea i?aaiaiiy iaoiiaeth? iiaeeea?noue
ia’?eoeaiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy oa?i?iinenoaiith iioieia?/ii? aacia?a?aiino?
iaaii? iiiyo?eii? aaeoc?. sse iaiiaeeeaa aeene?aoia ?nioaaiiy i?aaeiaoa
/e yaeua aac ca’yce?a c ?ioeie i?aaeiaoaie /e yaeuaie, oae iaiiaeeeaa
iiyaa oa?i?ia-iaeeiaea, iicaaaeaiiai naiaioe/ieo ? no?oeoo?ieo ca’yce?a
c ?ioeie /eaiaie oa?i?iinenoaie. On? oe? yeino? (i?aeaeuaia
/anoioi?noue, i?aaiaiiy aei iaeii-iaeiicia/ii? a?aeiia?aeiino?, noai?i
cae??ieai? nenoaii? eii?aeeiaoe) caaacia/othoue eaeneei-naiaioe/io
iaae?ei?noue ? no?ee?noue aaeocaai? oa?i?iieia??, ui aeicaiey? ?e
aenooiaoe ye ?iaa??aio (eaeneei-naiaioe/iee aoaeii) i?e aaeeaaii?
oa?i?ia a aoaeue-yeiio ?ioiio aeo? eiioi?eaoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, i?e aaeeaaii? oa?i?ia a aeai?e noa?? iae/?oe?oa
aeyaey?oueny niaoeeo?/ia ooieoe?y aeei?enoaiiy niaoe?aeueii? eaene/ii?
iaeeieoe? a yeino? eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai aoaeiio.

«Caeiiiaeaa/a» noai??noue no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ii? iaia’yceiaino? oa?i?ia
iaaiith i??ith iii’yeoo?oueny ia ianooiiiio ??ai? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Oeae
??aaiue i?aaenoaaeaiee o iia? oaoaeieoiaioaoe??th, iaoaioieie iienaie,
i?ae?o/ieeaie, iin?aieeaie ? iaoeiaeie ioae?eaoe?yie (noaoo?,
aeiiia?ae?, iia?aeiieaiiy).

I?ine?aeeo?ii oea yaeua ia i?eeeaae? oa?i?ia «common law»:

Common law: the law of the country or state based on custom, usage, and
the decisions and opinions of law courts; it is now largely codified by
legislative definition.

Oaea aecia/aiiy aeathoue oeueiio oa?i?io oeoia/i? neiaieee. A inue a
i?ae?o/ieeao ie noeea?iiny c aeaui ?ioeie aecia/aiiyie:

Common (judge-made) law: legal precedents derived from previous judicial
decisions.

Common law: law based on the precedents created by the previous
similarly adjudicated cases.

Oaea iacia/ia, ia ia?oee iiaeyae, iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
cieeiaiiy aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?ae aeaiia ??cieie oa?i?iaie «common law» oa
«case law». Ii??aiyeii:

Common law: the unwritten law of custom, esp. of England, based on the
decisions of judges over a period of years.

Case law developed in england out of local customs and was popular
especially with the same emerging commercial elites who would help to
develop the ideology of liberalism.

Case law: law based on previous judicial decisions, or precedents.

Iio?aieyth/e ia ae?oaiio ??ai? a ioi/aiiy caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ne?a,
naiaioeea oa?i?ia i?ioiaeeoue i?e?iaeith aeey aoaeue-yeiai iiaiiai ciaea
oaiaeaioe?th aei ci?ie i?ae aieeaii eiioaenooaeueieo oiia. Ooo
niinoa??aathoueny iaai? ?icoe?aiiy, caoaeaiiy, a ?iiae? e na?eici?o?
ci?ie «aoaeiiiiai» oa?i?iieia?/iiai cia/aiiy. Aacnoii?aii, ui ?ieue
eiioaenoo aeey ci?ie ieaio ci?noo oa?i?ia (ca aeiyoeii yaeu iie?nai??)
iacia/ia, iaeiae aiia aeineoue /?oei aeyaey?oueny a aaoi?nueeeo
o?aeooaaiiyo oiai /e ?ioiai iiiyooy, a ioaea ? niaoe?aeueii? eaene/ii?
iaeeieoe?.

C?inoath/a caeaaei?noue cia/aiiy oa?i?ia a?ae eiioaenoo niinoa??aa?oueny
a o?e iine?aeiaiino?, ui i?aaenoaaeaia ia noai? — a?ae oaoi?/ii?
aeieoiaioaoe??, aea i?eeiyoi cacia/aoe (iae/ano?oa o aeae? ?ethno?aoe?e,
iaethie?a ? o.ae.) iaeiaioa a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae oa?i?iieia?/iiai cia/aiiy
eaene/ii? iaeeieoe?, aei iaoeiaeo noaoae ? aeiiia?aeae, o yeeo aaoi?e
aeineoue ni?eeai ci?iththoue noaiaea?oi? cia/aiiy oa?i?i?a. ?ieue
eiioaenoo i?e oeueiio a?a? ia o?eueee iiaia oeaieia iiia?aeaiiy, aea ?
eiioeaiooaeueia oi/ea ci?o naiiai aaoi?a, ui a?aeaeaa? oai?/a
ona?aeiieaiiy aaoi?ii oiai /e ?ioiai iaoeiaiai oaeoo /e yaeua.
Ia?inoath/a naiaioe/ia iano?ee?noue oa?i?ia a iaoeiaeo oaenoao
caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue ae?aaeaiiy iiaieie caniaaie ye?nii iiaeo
iaoeiaeo oaeo?a, i?e oeueiio i?ioean i?ciaiiy, oiaoi aeae?eaiiy c
onoaeaieo iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue iiaeo iiiyoue, ae?aaea?oueny a iia? ca
aeiiiiiaith a?aeiia?aeieo cania?a ? eiino?oeoe?e.

Naia aeey oe??? noa?e ooieoe?iioaaiiy cian?i ni?aaaaeeeaa oaa?aeaeaiiy
A.?. Neoi?iaa i?i oa, ui «?aeaaeueia oi/i?noue ? nenoaiaoe/i?noue ieaio
ae?aaeaiiy oii?yaeeiaaii? oa?i?iieia?? a?aeiineoueny aei /enea
?iciianthaeaeaieo oa?i?iieia?/ieo «iiai», oiio ui ooo ia iiaeia ia
a?aoiaoaaoe no?oeoo?i? iaiaaeaiiy, ui iaeeaaea? iiaa, a oaeiae ae?th/? a
i?ioan?ei?e noa?? «i?ioe??//y i?ae oi/i?noth ? noene?noth» ? «?ieeth
oaeoi?a ?inoaeyoe??», noi?ioeueiaai? Ae.N. Eiooa» [28, n.30].

O ae?oa?e noa?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?i?i aeei?enoiao?oueny ca nai?i
«i?yiei» i?ecia/aiiyi. Ia oeueiio ??ai? a?i neoaeeoue nai???aeiei
?ino?oiaioii (ca??aiei c eaeneei-naiaioe/iei aoaeiiii yae?a) aeey iieno
iaaieo oai?aoe/ieo neooaoe?e. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui ae?oaith
e iniiaiith niaoeeo?/iith ooieoe??th oa?i?ia a iia? ? eiai aeei?enoaiiy
a yeino? iaia’yceiaiai ?ino?oiaioo, ui caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue iaoeiaiai
i?ia?ano.

sse?nia a?aei?ii?noue o?aouei? noa?e ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?ae aeaio
iiia?aaei?o iieyaa? a iiaeaeueoiio «?icieaaii?» noai?eo iaae oa?i?io ia
o?eueee ia neioaaiaoe/i?e, aea e ia ia?aaeeaiaoe/i?e in?. A ?acoeueoao?
oeueiai c’yaeythoueny iia? /eaie neiii?i?/ieo (bill — note, banknote,
paper money, green, wad, kale) oa aioii?i?/ieo ?yae?a ca ?aooiie
i?ioan?iiae?ci?a ? i?ioan?eieo aea?aii?ci?a. Oeae oa? eaeneee, ye
i?aaeei, ia aeeth/a?oueny a aaeocaao oa?i?iieia?th a neeo nai?o
aeni?aneaieo, a?aaeueieo ? ii?iaoeaieo a?aei?iiinoae a?ae «aoaeiiieo»
oa?i?i?a.

Nai???aei?noue eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai noaoono oa?i?ia a noa?? oniiai
ni?eeoaaiiy oao?aoe?a o ii??aiyii? c ??aiai noaoae ? aeiiia?aeae
iaoiiaeaia ia o?eueee «aeaiie?aoe/ieie» oaiaeaioe?yie ?iciiaiiai noeeth.
?icoeooaaiiy ? ?icoe?aiiy naiaioe/ieo iiaeeeainoae oa?i?ia ii?yae c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?ioan?iiae?ci?a ? aea?aii?ci?a ? «aeeaeeueiei
na?aaeiaeuai» aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oa?i?iieia?/ieo nenoai. Onia
ni?eeoaaiiy — ia o?eueee iaea?eueo c?o/iee ? iia?aoeaiee niin?a
eiioi?eaoe??, aan?aee oao?aoe?a aieiae?thoue cia/iei oai?/ei
iioaioe?aeii. Ia aeiaaeeiai aia?eeainuee? e aiae?enuee? o??ie oe?iei
aeei?enoiaothoue i?aeoeeo «iiceiaeo ooo?i?a» i?e ??oaii? neeaaeieo
caaea/. «Ooo?ie» i?ioiaeyoue o oi?i? a?eueieo a?ae aoaeue-yeeo
noaiaea?o?a iaaiai?aiue, o?ae yeeo caieno?oueny ia iaai?oioii. Oni?
eiioi?eaoe?? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye nai???aei? «/a?iaoee» iaeaooi?o
noaoae ? aeiiia?aeae. Ci?io eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai noaoono oa?i?ia ia
oeueiio ??ai? iiaeia a?aeianoe ca ?aooiie aeeiiaiiy niaoe?aeueiith
eaene/iith iaeeieoeath ua iaei??? niaoeeo?/ii? ooieoe?? — noai?aiiy
iioaioe?eiiai oiiaeo aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo naii? oa?i?iinenoaie.

Ianooiiith noa?ith aaeeaaiiy oa?i?ia ? aaeocue iaoeiai-iiioey?ii?
e?oa?aoo?e ? ?aeeaie. Iaoeiai-iiioey?i? oaenoe, oae naii ye ? an? ?io?
noa?e ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?i?ia, ia ? iaeii??aeieie ca nai?ie oe?eyie ?
caniaaie ?o aeinyaiaiiy. O oe?e noa?? niinoa??aa?oueny ua a?eueoa
«?icoeooaaiiy» aaeocaai? ia?aaeeaiaoeee oa?i?ia, ye o ieai? ci?noo, oae
? a ieai? ae?aaeaiiy (ua a?eueoa ia?inoaiiy neiii?i?/ieo ? aioii?i?/ieo
?yae?a, iaiiaeeeaa ia o?eueee ia ??ai? aaeocaai? oa?i?iieia??, aea e o
noa?? oniiai ni?eeoaaiiy oao?aoe?a, iiyaa iaoa?aeoa?ieo aeey
oa?i?iinenoaie ao?en?a, niieo/oaaiino? ? o.ae.) (paralawyer, cf.
paramedic). Aeey oeueiai oeio oaeno?a iaiao?aeia aeaiaioa?ia
iiynithaaeueia ?ioi?iaoe?y, caeaa a ia?oeo o?ueio aeiaaeeao
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?i?ia.

Aeineoue /anoi iaoeiai-iiioey?iee oaeno iiaea iaoe ?aeeaiiee oa?aeoa?,
a?ae??ciyth/enue a?ae ?aeeaie eiioi?eaoeaiith ni?yiiaai?noth e ianyaii.
?aeeaia, o naith /a?ao, a?aeaeaath/e c?inoath/? caieoe aeiiaeeaiai
niiaeeaa/a, ona /ano?oa i?noeoue o nia? oa?i?ie /e oa?ieiiiiae?ai?
eaene/i? iaeeieoe?. Iaoeiaa /e eaac?iaoeiaa ia??oioiaai?noue aeniei?
yeino? oiaa?o (ae?aaeaia a ?aeeai? ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo
eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue) aa?aioo? iniaeeao aeia??o iieoioe?a.

O eaene/i?e nenoai? iiae caeeaaeai? aaeee? ?ano?ne ooieoe?iiaeueii?
eiiiainaoe?? — iaiaia’yceia?noue iaoeiai? noai?ino? ia o?aoueiio ??ai?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeicaiey? cia/ii ?icoe?thaaoe aeeno?eaooeai? iiaeeeaino?
oa?i?ia. Aeey noai?aiiy «?aeeaiiiai» aoaeoo oa?i?i iae/ano?oa i?noeoueny
a iaiiaeeeaiio ioi/aii? ( legal eagle).

I?e aaeeaaii? a noa?? iaoeiai-iiioey?ii? e?oa?aoo?e ? ?aeeaie oa?i?i
aeeiio? naith o?aoth niaoeeo?/io ooieoe?th — ?iciianthaeaeoaa/a iaoeiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, oiio ui, iacaaaeath/e ia cia/i? ci?ie naiai
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/iiai noaoono, oa?i?ie a oe?e noa?? eiioi?eaoe??
caa??aathoue na?e ca’ycie c aaeocaaith nenoaiith iiiyoue.

Inoaiiy noa?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?i?ia iioe?th?oueny ia ooaeiaei? oai?e,
aeeth/ath/e ?aae?i-, oaea- ? e?iieiioi?eaoe??. E?euee?niee ? ye?niee
neeaae niiaeeaa/?a o oe?e iaeano? c?inoa? i?aeoe/ii aei an?o iin??a
iaoe?iiaeueii? iiae. ?icoe?aiiy aoaeeoi??? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iei
cieaeaiiyi /anoioiino? oa?i?ia ia oe? caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ne?a. Aecia/ai?
c?ooaiiy a?aeaoaathoueny e o naiaioe/iiio ieai?. Ii?aoeueiaai?noue
iiiyo?eieo ca’yce?a aeey oa?i?ia a oe?e noa?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ia?eaa?oueny i?aeoe/ii ia aa?oi?e iaae? iiiyo?eii? iaeano?. O ca’yceo c
oeei aaaeo/ith naiith aeey oa?i?ia noa? naia eiai oaiaoe/ii?
i?eiaeaaeiino?, ui ae?aaea?oueny a iie?oaoi?/ieo neiaieeao iicia/eaie
«th?.», «aaie.», «a?ie.» ? o.ae.

O oeo aeineoue ??aeeeo aeiaaeeao, eiee oa?i?iieia?/ia cia/aiiy a?a?
aaaeeeao aeey ooaeiaeiueiai iiia?aeaiiy ?ieue, ienueiaiiee aeei?enoiao?
i?eeiie aioo??oiueioaenoiaiai iiyniaiiy. Along with Walter White of the
NAACP and T. Arnold Hill of the National Urban League, he implored FDR
to do away with Jim Crow [segregation] in the Armed Forces… (Land of
Promise. The History of the United States from 1865, p.496). ?iiae?
iiiyo?ei? eii?aeeiaoe oa?i?ia aecia/athoueny c aaeeeei iaaeeaeaiiyi /e
iaa?oue iiieeeiai, iaeiae iiae?aia iaa?aeiia?aei?noue a?ae/oaa?oueny
o?eueee oao?aoeyie ? i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia ooaeiaeith aa?o?noue oai?o.
A?eueo oiai, c iaoith noai?aiiy eii?/iiai aoaeoo ienueiaiiee iiaea
aaeaoeny aei iaaieniiai a?ae?eao oa?i?ia a?ae eiai iiiyo?eii?
ni?aa?aeianaiino?. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo niinoa??aa?oueny iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeaa ia?inoaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee, iaaeanoeaeo /e iaa?oue
«i?ioeiieacaieo» oa?i?io a noa?? aeo?aeii? aaeocaai? oa?i?iieia??. Oea
aeiaaeie, eiee oa?i?i noa? «aioe-oa?i?iii», oiio ui cieea? eiai iniiaia
eaene/ia ooieoe?y iii?iaoe?? niaoe?aeueiiai iiiyooy.

Aaaeo/a ?ieue naie oaiaoe/ii? i?eiaeaaeiino? i?e aaeeaaii? oa?i?ia a
noa?? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue, ui ia oeueiio ??ai? a?i
aeeiio? ooieoe?? oaiaoe/iiai ia?ea?a, ui iaeneiaeueii ocaaaeueith?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiia?aeaiiy c iaaiith aaeoccth niaoe?aeueieo iiiyoue.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? aeyaeoe i’youe
niaoeeo?/ieo ooieoe?e oa?i?ia:

1) eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai aoaeiia;

2) ?ino?oiaioo oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy;

3) oiiaeo iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oa?i?iinenoaie;

4) ?iciianthaeaeoaa/a iaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??;

5) oaiaoe/iiai ia?ea?a.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aeae?eaiiy ia eiaeiiio c i’yoe oiiaieo ??ai?a
yei?nue iaei??? niaoeeo?/ii? ooieoe?? oa?i?ia cian?i ia icia/a?, ui an?
?io? ooieoe?? a oe?e noa?? acaaae? ia i?iyaeythoueny. Ia eiaei?i ??ai?
i?aeoe/ii ae?thoue iaeii/anii a ia?inoath/iio ii?yaeeo a?ae yae?a aei
ia?eoa??? an? i’youe niaoeeo?/ieo ooieoe?e. O eiaei?e noa?? iaeia c ieo
noa? aaaeo/ith — ?? cia/aiiy aecia/a?oueny iniaeeaith ?ieeth, ui oa?i?i
iaea?aeo? a aeaiiio i?ioean? eiioi?eaoe??. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ooieoe?y
oa?i?i oaiaoe/iiai ia?ea?a ia aeiaaa? naiai iiaiiai ae?aaeaiiy a noa??
aaeocaai? oa?i?iieia??. Ooo aiia c?icoi?ea naia niaith. Ia i?aeoeoe? oea
aeyaey?oueny o a?aenooiino? niaoe?aeueieo iicia/ie ni?aa?aeianaiiy c
iiiyo?eiith iaeanoth a oa?i?iieia?/ieo neiaieeao. ?ieue oe??? iicia/ee
aeeiio? naia iacaa neiaieea (th?eaee/iee, o?ce/iee, o?i?/iee ? o.ae.).

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaee ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oi?aa?naeuei?noue
iieueiai? no?oeoo?e aeey aoaeoeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo iiaieo yaeu.
Caaaeueiee i?eioeei iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe ianooiiei /eiii: eiioeaio?aoe?y
oa?aeoa?ieo iciae o iacia/iiai ii ianyc? yae?a c ?o iinooiiaei
ineaaeaiiyi o ana c?inoath/i? ca ianyaii ia?eoa???.

C? ciaioaiiyi ?iia??iino? iiyae oa?i?ia (iai?yiie a?ae yae?a aei
ia?eoa???) ca?eueoo?oueny ianya noa?e eiai aaeeaaiiy ? a?aeaoaa?oueny
iiaoaiia iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy «iaoa?i?iieia?/ieo» ?en niaoe?aeueiith
eaene/iith iaeeieoeath. ssae?i ? ?aeaaeueiith noa?ith ?nioaaiiy oa?i?ia.
E??i oiai, oea ?aeeia noa?a, aea iiaeeeai oe?eani?yiiaaiee aieea
ethaeeie ia iiai? i?ioeane. Iaeiae aeey aoaeoeaiino? oaeiai aieeao
iaiao?aeii aeaoaeueia i?ciaiiy ye ?aaeueieo ?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a
?icaeoeo caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? iiae ? iiae iaoee (aeine?aeaeaiiy a
aeeaeio), oae ? /?oea oyaeaiiy i?i no/aniee noai oa?i?iinenoaie, ??
aca?iiae?th c caaaeueiiaaeeaaiith iiaith.

Ia iiaeia ia a?aecia/eoe ??no oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo naieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo noa? oa?i?ia a iia?. Noai?a caaa?oai?noue noaiaea?oieo
iaae oacao?on?a, oaoaeieoiaioaoe?? ? iaoaio?a iinooiiai ?icieaa?oueny
oai?/ei ona?aeiieaiiyi iaoeiaeo oaeo?a aae aei ?o i?aai?/iiai aie?oaiiy
a oeaieio ooaeiaeiueiai iiia?aeaiiy.

3.3. O?aeiia? no?oeoo?e a aiaeiiiaiiio iaoeiaiio oaeno?

3.3.1. Oaeno ye iaeeieoey iiae, eiai iniiai? iiaeae?

Ia?aaeon?i c’yno?ii, ui ?icoi?thoue i?ae iiiyooyi oaeno, ye? eiai
iciaee, iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa oeiieia?y. E?iaa?noe/iee neiaiee oae
aecia/a? oea iiiyooy: «Ia’?aeiaia ci?noii iine?aeiai?noue ciaeiaeo
iaeeieoeue, iniiaieie aeanoeainoyie yei? ? ca’ycai?noue oa
oe?euei?noue».

Aeine?aeaeoth/e ieoaiiy oaenoo oa aeeneo?no, E. E?aio a?aecia/a?, ui
iiiyooy oaeno ? i?iaeoeoii ?aeaioe/iino? aaoi?nueeiai iai??o. Oaeno ia
iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe a iiaiiio ianyc? c o?aooaaiiyi oe?e?nii?
cia/aiiy, yeui a?i ia ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeeneo?n.

O nai?ioeoe? i?ae oaenoii ?icoi?thoue iine?aeiai?noue aoaeue-yeeo ciae?a
ia’?aeiaieo aeeaaeaiei o ieo ci?noii, aoaeue-yeo oi?io eiioi?eaoe??, o
oiio /ene? oaiie, ?eooae oiui; o iiaiciaanoa? oaeno — oea
iine?aeiai?noue aa?aaeueieo ciae?a. No?oeoo?a aa?aaeueiiai oaenoo, yeee,
a naith /a?ao, iiaea aooe oniei /e ienueiiaei, iia’ycaia c
a?aeiia?aei?noth aeiiaai oaenooaeueiino?, oiaoi ciai?oi?e ca’ycaiino?,
aioo??oi?e inieneaiico?, iiaeeeaino? nai?/aniiai ni?eeiyooy, cae?eniaiiy
iaiao?aeieo oiia eiioi?eaoe??. Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii ye aeey oniiai, oae ?
aeey ienueiiaiai oeio oaeno?a ? ieoaiiy eith ?aeaioe/iino?. A
iiaiciaanoa? iienaii niaoeeo?/i? caniae, ye? caaacia/othoue ci?noia?
ianoaiiae, ui ia?aaeathoueny a oaeno?, oiaoi eaene/i? caniae, cie?aia
oae?, ye aa?aei? neiaa, /anoee oiui; oea oaeiae oaenoii?/i? caniae —
ci?ia ii?yaeeo ne?a caeaaeii a?ae oaenoiai? ianoaiiae, ?ioiiaoe?ei?
caniae, iniaeea? a?ao?/i? caniae — oe?a, i?aee?aneaiiy, o?eooia?
aeae?eaiiy, ioieooaoe?y. A?aeiia?aei?noue ni?eeiyooy oaeno?a
caaacia/o?oueny ia eeoa iiaieie iaeeieoeyie oa ?o ii?aeiaiiyi, aea e
iaiao?aeiei oiiii ciaiue, eiioi?eaoeaiei oiiii, oiio ni?eeiyooy oaenoo
aeine?aeieee iia’ycothoue c i?anoiiceoe?yie.

Oaenoe aea/athoue i?ae ??cieie eooaie ci?o: aeine?aeaeothoue e?iaa?noeeo
oaenoo, no?oeoo?o, aa?iaiaaoeeo (oiaoi aeyaeaiiy nenoaie iai/aaeaeieo
ci?noiaeo ca’yce?a oa iiiceoe?e), a?aiaoeeo oaenoo. Oaea aeenoeeie?ia ye
oai??y oaenoo aea/a? ??ciiiai?oi? oeie aieiaii aa?aaeueieo oaeno?a:
ooaeiaei?o, iaoeiaeo, iiioey?ieo, oaoi?/ieo, iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo.

Ia aeoieo I. Ai?iaeiai?, A. Ii?ioianueeiai, oaeno — oea iaea?eueoa
eiioi?eaoeaia iaeeieoey, iniaeeaei /eiii i?aai?ciaaia eiioi?eaoeaia
oe?ea, yeiio i?eoaiaii? eaoaai??aeuei? aeanoeaino?. Oaeno ia? iiaea?eio
i?e?iaeo, ine?eueee ? i?iaeoeoii, ?acoeueoaoii iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?
? aiaeii/an aiaeiaii,»a?aeaeoeii» naiiai i?ioeano iiaeaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino? a oiio cia/aii?, ui a oaeno? c a?eueoei /e iaioei nooiaiai
oi/iino?, caeaaeii a?ae oeio oaenoo, a?aeia?aaeaii iine?aeiai?noue
i?ioeano aeoo eiioi?eaoe??. Oaeno ? ?aeeiei oe?eei, ui aoaeo?oueny ca
iaaieie i?aaeeaie. Oe? i?aaeea ooai?aiiy oaeno?a cae??ieai? a nenoai?
iiae ? ciaoiaeyoueny a iniia? noai /e iiaeaeae oaeno?a ??cieo oei?a.
Ia?aoai?aiiy iiaeaeae oaeno?a o eiie?aoi? oai?e — iiia?aaeaeaiiy oaenoo
— a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?ioean? iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? ? noaiiaeoue eiai
aieiaiee ci?no ? iaeio c oe?eae. Ieoaiiy i?i niiniae ia?iaeaeaiiy oaenoo
ua aeaeaea a?ae naiai inoaoi/iiai ae??oaiiy. Iaeei ?c iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a
i?iiiio? ?. Oa?aaa, ?iciaaeiaoth/e aeaa aeaee ia?iaeaeaiiy oaenoo —
ai?eciioaeueia (e?i?eia) ? aa?oeeaeueia, eiee oaeno ?icai?oa?oueny
ca?aeii c ???a?o??th ??ai?a a?ae aeo?aeii? aano?aeoii? iiaeae? aei
eiie?aoiiai a?ao?/iiai ao?eaiiy.

Ioaea, ?icaeyaeath/e ieoaiiy i?i oaeno, aeo?aeiith iiaeia aaaaeaoe
o??aaeo:: iiaeaeue oaenoo (ieai iiae) — noeoii?noue niinia?a
ia?iaeaeaiiy oaenoo (iiaeaii?aa ae?yeuei?noue) — oaeno/noeoii?noue
oaeno?a (ieai iiaeaiiy). Aaaaea?ii, ui i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae oaenoiaeo
noai caaaeii caeaaeaoue a?ae oeio oaenoo.

Anth noeoii?noue oaeno?a ie iiae?ey?ii ia aea? ia’?ii? a?oie. Ia?oo
a?oio noaiiaeyoue oaenoe, iiaoaeiaai? ca iiaeaeyie aei?noeiai
ee?oiaaiiai oeio, aea ?aaeaiaioo?oueny ia eeoa oa?aeoa? naieo
eiiiiiaio?a noaie, ?oiy iine?aeiai?noue, aea e oa?aeoa? caiiaiaiiy
eiiiiiaio?a iiaeae?. Aei ae?oai? a?oie a?aeiineii oaenoe
io?oe?eii-ae?eiaiai noeeth (cayae, aeia?aeee, iioieiee, th?eaee/i?
aeieoiaioe, ao?o?, iaieioaiiy, ?ino?oeoe?? oiui) ? aeaye? oaenoe
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ice, ye? iathoue ?ioi?iaoeaiee (aiioaoe?? noaoae)
aai th?eaee/iee (iaoaioe) oa?aeoa?. Aei ae?oai? a?oie a?aeiineii oaenoe
iiaoaeiaai? ca iiaeaeyie aio/eiai oeio, ye? a naith /a?ao iiaeooue iaoe
ocoaeueiee aai caaaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Ia iniia? ocoaeueieo iiaeaeae, ye?
aeinoaoiuei no?iai ?aaeaiaioothoue oa?aeoa? eiiiiiaio?a noaie ? /anoeiai
?? iine?aeiai?noue, aoaeothoueny oaenoe iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ice (noaoo?,
aeena?oaoe??, aaoi?aoa?aoe oiui) oa aeaye? aacaoi? oaenoe (ei?ioe?,
?ioi?iaoe?ei? iia?aeiieaiiy, eiiaioa??, ?aii?oaae?). 3a caaaeueieie
iiaeaeyie, ye? iathoue ia ?aaeaiaioiaaiee, a i???ioaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?,
noai?ththoueny ia?aaaaeii ooaeiaei? oaenoe oa ioae?oeenoe/i? ia?ene.

Ioaea, oaeno ye iaeeieoey iiae ?ai?acaioo?oueny iiaeaeyie oaenoo, ye?
?aae?cothoueny a iaeiiio ?c o?ueio cacia/aieo aeua oei?a, eio?? iathoue
?iaa??aioiee oa?aeoa? ? anooiathoue o ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiineie iaeei c
iaeiei. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iiaeaeue oaenoo caaaeii, ie noeeuei? aaaaeaoe
oaenoe iaaiith ooieoe?iiaeueiith nenoaiith, oiaoi noeoii?noth
eiiiiiaio?a, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeyoue eiioi?eaoeai? aeiee /e
no?oeoo?i? o?aeie, oiaoi oae? aeaiaioe eiiiiceoe?? oaenoo, ye?
anooiathoue iaeei c iaeiei o neioaene/i? a?aeiineie ? a?ae??ciythoueny
nai?ie ooieoe?yie noiniaii iaeei iaeiiai ? noiniaii anueiai oaenoo
caaaeii oa ia’?aeiai? caaaeueiith ooieoe?iiaeueiithni?yiiaai?noth ia
aeeiiaiiy eiie?aoieo i?aaiaoe/ieo ooieoe?e.

sse cacia/a? I. Iiethaeei, o?aei ? oaeith no?oeoo?ith ciaiiy, yea
i?noeoue iniiaio aai oeiiao e iioaioe?eii iiaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th,
iia’ycaio c oei /e ?ioei eiioaenoii.

Aoaeue-yea ioae?eaoe?y i?noeoue caaieiaeiaee o?aei, yeee aeeiio?
uiiaeiaioa aea? ooieoe?? — iiiianoe/io (caaieiaie — «?i’y oaenoo»
a?ae??ciy? oaenoe iaeei a?ae iaeiiai) ? eiioaeoio (caaieiaie i?yii ?
aaciina?aaeiuei aeaco? ia ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy). Aeae? cacia/athoue
?i’y aaoi?a, a /anii i?noea eiai i?aoe?. A caaieiaeiaee o?aei aoiaeeoue
? ei?ioea aiioaoe?y ioae?eaoe??, yea aea? ciiao /eoa/aa? neeanoe iaaio
aeoieo i?i ?? ci?no.

Iaiao?aeiei eiiiiiaioii iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oaenoo ? ?io?iaeoeoeaiee
eiioi?eaoeaiee o?aei (?EO), yeee iiaea ia?aaeaaaoenue ie?aiith
no?oeoo?iith iaeeieoeath eiiiiceoe?? oaenoo (.preface, introduction) aai
•e?eueeiia aacaoeaie. Iniiaiith ooieoe??th ?EO ? iaaeaiiy aae?anaoo
i?i?ioio iiaeo ciaiue, iaiao?aeieo aeey ni?eeiyooy oeueiai oaenoo ?
aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeiino? eiai /eoaiiy. ?EO cae/aeii i?noeoue oae?
a?aeiiino?, ye oi?ioethaaiiy oaie aai ia’?eoa (i?aaeiaoa)
aeine?aeaeaiiy, caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ca’ycie aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee c
?ioeie noiaeeie aai noi?aeieie i?iaeaiaie, iien no?oeoo?e ?iaioe.

Aeae? eaeooue iniiai? eiioi?eaoeai? o?aeie (IEO), ye? iiaeooue aooe
?ai?acaioiaai? ?icae?eaie /e naaiaioaie eiiiiceoe?eii? no?oeoo?e
iaoeiaiai oaenoo: /anoeiaie, ia?aa?aoaie, oeeo?iaith ?oa?eeaoe??th oa
?i. Ci?no IEO iiaea aooe ??ciei. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?ici?? IEO
i?iy?oueny a?ae ?icae?eo aei aacaoeo, oiaoi a iaaeao iiiaaeo?aciai?
?aeiino? (IO?)

E?ioeaa? eiioi?eaoeai? o?aeie (CEO) aeyaeythoueny o aeaeyae? i?neyiiae,
aeniiae?a ? ? noeneei oi?ioethaaiiyi iaecaaaeuei?oeo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iiae? aeathoueny aeac?aee uiaei iiaeaeueoeo iai?yi?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy a oe?e aaeoc?.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a iaoeiaeo oaenoao caeia? no?oeoo?iee o?aei iaoeiaiai
aia?aoo ?iaioe. I?ae oeei iiiyooyi ia?ii ia oaac? nenoaio iineeaiue ia
oeeoaoe, aeac?aee ia aeaea?aea aeei?enoaiiai iaoa??aeo, oi?ioethaaiiy /e
ooi/iaiiy ?nioth/eo oi?ioethaaiue oeo iiiyoue, yeeie iia?o? aaoi?, iien
iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iien iaoa??aeo, ia?ae?e aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e, nienie aeaea?ae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo, i?aaeiaoiee
?iaeaen, yeee aea? iiaeeea?noue /eoa/aa? oaeaeei ciaeoe iaiao?aeiee aeey
iueiai iaoa??ae. Ooieoe?? oeeo cania?a aeineoue ??ciiiai?oi?.
Aeinoia??i?noue, a ioaea, oe?ii?noue aoaeue-yei? iaoeiai? i?aoe?
ia?aaeon?i aecia/a?oueny iiaeeea?noth a?aeoai?aiiy caeiaooeo o ?iaio?
?acoeueoao?a ? iaoeiaee aia?ao coiiaeth? oeth iiaeeea?noue. ?ioa
ooieoe?y caaacia/aiiy c?o/iino? ei?enooaaiiy i?aoeath, ine?eueee aeniea
ye?nue iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?aoe? — oea ia eeoa ?acoeueoao iaaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aea e ?ino?oiaio aeiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo iiooe?a.

Uiaei neioaene/iiai noeeth iaoeiaeo oaeno?a, oi ooo a?aecia/a?oueny
i???ioaoe?y ia?aaaaeii ia ii?ie e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae. Niaoeeo?/iith ?enith
oaeiai noeeth aiae?enueeiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oaenoo oe?iea
aeei?enoaiiy ae??i?eeiaoieeiaeo cai?io?a, aa?oiae?aeueieo oa
i?eeiaoieeiaeo eiiieaen?a, icia/aeueieo ?io?i?oea?a ? ianeaieo oi?i
neiaa,

O ieai? aeaia?eaoe?? eaene/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee noeeth iaoeiaeo oaeno?a
cacia/eii, ui ?i i?eoaiaiia aeei?enoaiiy caaaeueiiiaoeiai? eaeneee,
a?aenooi?noue naian?ieia?/ieo oa noee?noe/ieo cania?a, oe?iea
aeei?enoaiiy oa?i?iieia??, yeo iiaeia aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe ia
caaaeueiiiaoeiao oa niaoe?aeueio.

Iniiaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie o?aeiiai? no?oeoo?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oaenoo
? iayai?noue niaoe?aeueieo oa?i?i?a, ine?eueee oae? oaenoe (?ic?aoiaai?
ia aocueea eiei oao?aoe?a, aeia?a ia?ciaieo o iaai?e i?iaeaiaoeoe?, aeey
yeeo oa?i?ie ? cae/ieie iiaieie iaeeieoeyie, ui ia iio?aaothoue
aeiaeaoeiaeo iiyniaiue.

A?aoiaoth/e ??ciiiai?oi? iiaeyaee noiniaii aecia/aiiy iiiyooy oa?i?i oa
aa?o/e ca iniiao ?acoeueoaoe aeaniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, cai?iiiio?ii oaea
aecia/aiiy oeueiai iiiyooy: oa?i?i — oea neiai /e neiainiieo/aiiy, ui
iicia/a? iiiyooy iaaii? aaaeoc? iaoeiai? /e oaoiai? ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aiioeaiaai?noth, iii?iaoeai?noth,
iaeiicia/i?noth, oi/i?noth, aeao?i?oeai?noth, nenoaii?noth,
a?aenooi?noth aeni?an??, noee?noe/iith iaeo?aeuei?noth, iiiinai?/i?noth
o iaaeao naiai oa?i?iieia?/iiai iiey.

3.3.2. Iniaeeaa ?ieue oa?i?iiniieo/aiue o o?aeiia?e no?oeoo?? iaoeiaiai
oaenoo

Naia oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy aeeiiothoue o? i?aaiaoe/i? ooieoe??, ye? aaaeooue
aei ii?aeiaiiy aeniei? ?ioi?iaoeaiino?, c iaeiiai aieo, oa eaeii?/iino?
, oi/iino? aeneiaethaaiue — c ?ioiai. Aaeaea caaaeyee iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy ao?eaooeaieo eaioethaee?a — no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a
oa?i?iieia?/ieo neiainiieo/aiue, iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i oaiaeaioe?th
aeiiii?? iiaieo cania?a aiaeiiiaiiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oaenoo.

Oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy ? neioaene/iith eiino?oeoe??th, ui ooai?th?oueny
ia’?aeiaiiyi aeaio ? a?eueoa ne?a ia iniia? i?ae?yaeiiai a?aiaoe/iith
ca’yceo — ocaiaeaeaiiy, ea?oaaiiy aai i?eeyaaiiy. A?aiaoe/ii oa
naiaioe/ia aieiaia neiai ? yae?ii (no?eaeiai) oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy.
Caeaaeii a?ae oiai, yeith /anoeiith iiae ae?aaeaiee no?eaeiaaee
eiiiiiaio, oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy iiae?eythoue ia noanoaioeai? (absolute
reason). aae’?eoeai? (valid to all intents), ae??ne?ai? (to execute
exclusive legislation) oa i?ene?aieeia? (generally accepted).

Oa?i?iieia?/i? neiainiieo/aiiy aoaeothoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei iaaieo
a?aiaoe/ieo c?ace?a, ye? oi?iothoueny o iia? ia iniia? eaoaai??aeueieo
aeanoeainoae ne?a. Caeaoi?noue neiaa niieo/aoenue c ?ioeie neiaaie ?
oi?ie i?iyao oe??? caeaoiino? caeaaeaoue ia eeoa a?ae a?aiaoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae neiaa, aea e a?ae eiai eaene/iiai cia/aiiy.
Oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy neoaeeoue caniaii iii?iaoe??, iicia/ath/e i?aaeiao,
yaeua, i?ioean, ye?noue. Eiai iacaa oi?io?oueny no?eaeiaaei aeaiaioii ?
ooi/ith?oueny, eiie?aoeco?oueny caeaaeiei eiiiiiaioii, iai?eeeaae: bill
of exchange, barter transaction, right to housing.

A?aeiia?aeii aei no?oeoo?ii? aoaeiae i?iiiio?ii ?ic??ciyoe i?ino?,
neeaaei? ? eiia?iiaai? oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy. I?ino? oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy
iiaeooue aooe aeaieiiiiiaioieie (standard act); o?eeiiiiiaioiei (salary
bonus system); /ioe?eeiiiiiaioieie (second-hand goods commission sale).

Na?aae aeaieiiiiiaioieo oa?i?iieia?/ieo niieo/aiue aeae?eythoueny aea?
iiaeae? «i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee» (A+N): absolute necessity, grave crime;
oa «?iaiiee + ?iaiiee» (N+N): acceptance credit, insurance case.
Aeo?aeiei neiaii aeey ?o oai?aiiy ? ?iaiiee: crime — economic crime,
crime of omission. Eiiiiiaioe oa?i?iieia?/ieo neiainiieo/aiue iathoue
??ciee nooi?iue oa?i?iieia?iiino?, iiaeooue ? acaaae? ia aooe oa?i?iaie,
ii??ai: ability to work, leaving in danger, oiui.

O?eeiiiiiaioi? eiino?oeoe?? oa?i?i?a iathoue a?aeiia?aeii no?oeoo?e:
«i?eeiaoiee + i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee» (A+A+N): compulsory medical
treatment, complete material responsibility oa ?i., «i?eeiaoiee +
?iaiiee + ?iaiiee» (A+N+N): personal property rights, corrective labour
code; «?iaiiee + i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee» (N+A+N): commission expert
examination; «?iaiiee + ?iaiiee + ?iaiiee» (N+N+N): notary service
board. Iniiaiei aeaiaioii aeey oai?aiiy iiae?aieo no?oeoo? iiaea aooe ?
neiainiieo/aiiy, ? ie?aia neiai. Oae, ia iniia? iiaeae? «i?eeiaoiee +
?iaiiee» oai?eoueny o?eeiiiiiaioiee oa?i?i iiaeae? A+A+N: advisory
commission — medical advisory commission. Ia iniia? iiaeae? «?iaiiee +
?iaiiee» oai?eoueny iiaeaeue A+(N+N): parcel trade — direct parcel
trade. Aeo?aeiei neiaii aeey iiaeaeae N+A+N, N+N+N ? ?iaiiee, oiaoi
iaeiine?aia no?oeoo?a:. sse aa/eii, c? ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino?
eiiiiiaio?a ca?eueoo?oueny ? iiaeeea?noue ??ciiiai?oieo ?o eiia?iaoe?e,
oiio e?euee?noue iiaeaeae ca?eueoo?oueny ? o o?eeiiiiiaioieo no?oeoo?ao
aei??aith? aaea /ioe?ueii. .

*ioe?eeiiiiiaioi? oa?i?ie oaeiae oai?youeny ia iniia? ieae/i? no?oeoo?e,
o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo — o?eeiiiiiaioii?.

Aaaaoi/eaii? ON iathoue ??cio e?euee?noue eiiiiiaio?a: i’youe — bill of
exchange payable in foreign currency; o?noue — actions disrupting the
work of corrective labour institutions; n?i — state grant for taking
care of the child till its one year’s age. Aiie oaeiae oai?youeny ia
iniia? ?iaiiee?a aai neiainiieo/aiue ieae/iai ii?yaeeo.

Ioaea, oa?i?iieia?/ia nenoaia a?aeia?aaea? a no?oeoo?? eiiiiiaio?a, ui
aoiaeyoue aei ?? neeaaeo, iaai? ca’ycee ? a?aeiioaiiy, ye? ia’?eoeaii
?niothoue o eie? iacaaieo iiiyoue oa yaeu.

Ui ae aei a?aiaoe/iiai ca’yceo, ia iniia? yeiai noai?ththoueny
oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy, oi aeaieiiiiiaioi? noai?ththoueny ia iniia? iaeiiai
a?aiaoe/iiai ca’yceo. O?e- oa /ioe?eeiiiiiaioi? — ia iniia? iiaea?eiiai
oa iio??eiiai i?oeiiai a?aiaoe/iiai ca’yceo. Neeaaei? oa?i?iiniieoee
noai?ththoueny ??cieie oeiaie ca’yceo noiniaii no?eaeiaaiai neiaa,
iai?eeeaae:: ocaiaeaeaiiyi ? i?eeyaaiiyi (temporary tenure of office),
ea?oaaiiyi ? i?eeyaaiiyi (examination of case in absentia). Eiia?iiaai?
neiainiieo/aiiy noai?ththoueny ia iniia? ca’yce?a a?ae ??cieo
no?eaeiaaeo ne?a (material change in conditions of work, statute of
limitations for the execution of the judgement).

O o?aeiia?e no?oeoo?? aiaeiiiaieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oaeno?a i?inoaaeo?ii
oaeiae aneiaeaoe/i? noanoaioeai? oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy. No?eaeiaaei
aeaiaioii oaeeo no?oeoo? caaaeaee ? ?iaiiee. Ao?eaooeaiee eaioethaeie,
?ai?acaioiaaiee ?iaiieeaie, aenie?eo? iino?eio e aaca?aeiinio nooo?ao
iciaeo i?aaeiaoa aai yaeua ia’?eoeaii? ae?eniino?, yeo iana a nia?
no?eaeiaaee eiiiiiaio oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy, a ?acoeueoao? /iai
oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy ae?aaea? ?yaeiaa iiiyooy ? a?ae?a?a? ?ieue
eeaneo?eoth/i? iaeeieoe?, oiaoi aeyaey?oueny a?aeianaiei a iniaeeaee
eean iaaii? aaeoc? ciaiue.

Uiaei naiaioecaoe?? neiainiieo/aiue, oi, ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie
naiaioeea a?aeia?aaea? a?eueoith /e iaioith i??ith cia/aiiy an?o
eiiiiiaio?a, oi/a ooieoe?iiaeueii aiie aeooae?cothoue ?aeeia cia/aiiy.
Ca no?oeoo?iith aoaeiaith ?o iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ye aeaieiiiiiaioi? /e
a?i?i? oa aaaaoi- /e iie?eiiiiiaioi?. Aaaeeeai cacia/eoe, ui nooi?iue
naiaioe/ii? niayiino? i?ae aeaiaioaie aeaieiiiiiaioiiai
oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy ? aeuith, i?ae i?ae aeaiaioaie aaaaoieiiiiiaioiiai
oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy.

Oa?i?iieia?/i? neiainiieo/aiiy, ye ? neiainiieo/aiiy caaaeueiiaaeeaaii?
iiae, aeoaea iaiaeii??aei? ii nai?e eaene/i?e ? a?aiaoe/i?e no?oeoo??,
ui ? iniiaiith i?e/eiith, ui aeeeeea? o?oaeiiu? aecia/aiiy ? aeae?eaiiy
c oaeno?a oa?i?i?a-neiainiieo/aiue.

3.4. aiioeaiaaiino? oa?i?i?a, ?? iniaeeaino? oa Neioaaiaoe/i? ooieoe??

3.4.1. Aioo??oiy oi?ia oa aiioeaiaai?noue oa?i?i?a

Aea/aiiy ae?aeaeoe/iiai ca’yceo i?ae cia/aiiyi ? aioo??oiueith oi?iith
aaaeeeaa ye a oai?aoe/iiio, oae ? a i?eeeaaeiiio ieai?. Ca’ycie i?ae
ieaiii ci?noo oaieaiii ae?aaeaiiy eaene/ii? iaeeieoe? aecia/a?, cie?aia,
oaeo iiaio oi?aa?nae?th ye aiioeaiaai?noue eaene/ii? iaeeieoe?.
Caoaaaeeii, ui aiioeaiaai?noue caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae oi?iith oa ci?noii iaeiiai ciaea, aea e a?ae
ca’yceo i?ae ?ioeie iaeeieoeyie ieaio ci?noo an??? iiae, ine?eueee
oai??iiy eiaeiiai iiaiai iiaiiai ciaeo coiiaeaii aeinyaiooei noaiii
an??? nenoaie.

Aaea oe? iniaeeaino? aiioeaiaaiino? ?ethno?othoue neeaaei?noue i?iaeaie
oa iiaeeea?noue ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei ?? aecia/aiiy. Naia oiio ?aeeiiai
?icoi?iiy oe??? eaoaai??? a iaooe? ? a iia? iaia?. ?iiae? ??
?icaeyaeathoue i?ae ??cieie iacaaie: ciae cia/aiiy, ona?aeiieaiiy
aioo??oiuei? oi?ie, ona?aeiieaiiy aioo??oi?o a?aeiinei, eaene/ia
ia’?eoeaaoe?y, neiaioai?/a cia/aiiy, iioeaaoe?y, iioeaoaaiiy,
aoeiieia?/ia no?oeoo?a neiaa oa ?i. ?ice?eooy oeueiai iiiyooy
?icaeyaeathoue oi a ae?ao?ii??, oi a neio?ii??. Aiioeaiaai?noue
i?e??aiththoue aei aioo??oiuei? oi?ie aai ae oe? iiiyooy
?iciaaeiaothoue. A?eueo?noue e?iaa?no?a aaa/a? o aiioeaiaaiino? ne?a
iiceoeaiee oaeoi?, aeaye? ae caia?a/othoue ?? iaiao?aei?noue. sse ae oai
ia aoaei, nooue oeeo i?aeoiae?a o oe?eiio ?aeeia: oee iiaia yaeua ?
aeoii a?aeia?aaeaiiy iaei??? aai aeae?eueeio iciae i?aaeiaoa a eiai
iaca? caniaaie iiae, iieaciee aei?aaaeaiiy (oa?i?i A. Eina??o)
iaeiaioaaiiy, yeui ie iaa?oue aeoeaioo?ii a ia?oo /a?ao aea?eaaoe?ei?
a?aeiineie i?ae iio?aeiei oa i?iaeoeoth/ei neiaaie.

Caniaii i?ioeano iioeaaoe?? noa? ia cia/aiiy, a iaeiaioaaiiy, ua oi/i?oa
— eiai aioo??oiy oi?ia, yeo iiaeia ?ioa?i?aooaaoe oaeiae ye «iniiao
aiioeaiaaiino?». Oiae N. Ianeiaa-Eaoainueea i?aaii??ii cacia/a?:
«Iioeaaoe?th iaeiaioaaiiy iaiao?aeii /?oei a?ae??ciyoe a?ae cia/aiiy
neiaa». ??cieoey i?ae ieie aeyaey?oueny ? a naiino?eiino? cia/aiiy,
a?iinoacoaaoe eiai ooieoe?? noiniaii aiioeaiaaiino? iiaiiai ae?aco.

Aiioeaiaai?noue ? niieo/iith eaieith i?ae oi?iith oa ci?noii ciaea,
iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ciaea. Oiio, aiai?y/e i?i
a?aei?iiino? i?ae cia/aiiyi ? aiioeaiaai?noth, ia ne?ae oaeiae caaoaaoe
i?i ??ci? (aiinaieia?/i? ooieoe?? aioo??oiuei? oi?ie oa aiioeaiaaiino?
Aioo??oiy oi?ia — oea iaiaei?iia naiaioe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aoaeue-yeiai
neiaa, «?icoiiaee ia?ac» i?aaeiaoa, yeee ia’?eoeao?oueny nioe?aeueiei
noaaeai ethaeeie ? «i?aeeacaiee» eiio no?oeoo?ieie iniaeeainoyie naiiai
neiaa, a aiioeaiaai?noue aeanoeaa aeaeaei ia eiaei?e eaene/i?e
iaeeieoe?, a, oi/i?oa, — ?? aioo??oi?e oi?i?. ?ice?eaath/e
aiioeaiaai?noue neiaa, aaaeeeai a?aoiaoaaoe ii??aithaaeuei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai cia/aiiy ? aioa??oiuei? oi?ie. Iaae? aiioeaiaaiino?
aecia/athoueny o??th /anoeiith eaene/iiai cia/aiiy, yea aeooae?co?oueny
o aioo??oi?e oi?i?. Naiaioe/i? neeaaeia? aioo??oiuei? oi?ie, ye? aeieeee
aeiaaeeiai ? ia ciaeoee (aai ao?aoeee) a?aeiinei c a?aeiia?aeiei
eaene/iei cia/aiiyi, ia ?ice?eaathoue aioeaiaaiino? neiaa, a?eueoa oiai,
ciaioothoue, iineaaeththoue ??. ?iaeyoue neiai a oe?eiio iiieeeiai
aiioeaiaaiei.

Ia ??ai? aiioeaiaaiino? cae?enith?oueny anioe?aoeaiee ca’ycie i?ae
naiaioe/ieie aeaiaioaie iii?iaoeaii? iaeeieoe? ? a?aeiia?aeiei eaene/iei
cia/aiiyi. sseui ae oaeee ca’ycie ia ?aeiino?oth?oueny caniaii
iaioaeueieo iia?aoe?e eiioi?eaioa, oi aeey iueiai neiai ao?aoeei
aiioeaiaai?noue. ? iaa?oue yeui oaea iaaiioeaiaaia eaene/ia iaeeieoey
ana ae aeeeeea? ye?nue aeiaaeeia? ? ia?iaiaioi? aeey oeueiai aeaiioaoo
aia?oeoeai? oyaeaiiy, oi oea ia na?ae/eoue i?i aeooae?caoe?th
aiioeaiaaiino?, a, nei??oa, i?i ?? a?aenooi?noue, oi/ aioo??oiy oi?ia
i?e oeueiio caa??aa?oueny. Aiioeaiaai?noue ? e?euee?niith ? ye?niith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith aioo??oiuei? oi?ie, yea aaiaoe/ii aeanoeaa aoaeue-ye?e
eaene/i?e iaeeieoe?. Iiiyooy aiioeaiaaiino? iaeaaeeoue o?eueee aei
neeaaeieo ii?oaiieo ooai?aiue ? ia oa?aeoa?ia aeey iaiio?aeieo ne?a, o
/iio aeyaey?oueny ua iaeia a?aei?oia iniaeea?noue oiioeaiaaiino? ?
aioo??oiuei? oi?ie o iaoiio ?icoi?ii?. Iaiio?aei? eaene/i? iaeeieoe?,
ii?oaie iiaeooue aooe aiioeaiaaieie eeoa aiane?aeie naiaioe/iiai
ia?aiino aai caoei?i?oaoe?eieo anioe?aoe?e. A?eueo aenie?oeeoii
aiioeaiaai?noue aeyaey?oueny a neeaaeieo neiaao, iaaoaath/e a ?oi?o
oi?aa?aae?caoe?eieo aa??aioao (iai?eeeaae, aea?eaaoao) aeaui i?eoiaaiee
oa?aeoa?.

3.4.2. Oeiieia?y aiioeaiaaiino?

Aiioeaiaai?noue iiaea aooe ??ciith caeaaeii a?ae oiai, yeo ?c noi??i
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iiiyooy i?aee?aneth? a?aeiia?aeiee ae?ac. N. Oeueiai
i?iiiio? ?ic??ciyoe o?e aeaee aiioeaiaaiino?: 1) oiiaoe/io, aai
i?e?iaeio (iai?eeeaae, aeey aeaoe?a); 2) ii?oieia?/io (?iiae? ??
iaceaathoue ii?oaiaoe/iith, ine?eueee aiia oa?aeoa?ia aeey neeaaeieo ?
iio?aeieo ne?a); 3) naiaioe/io (a?aoiaoth/e naiaioe/i? ca’ycee i?ae
eiiiiiaioaie iaeiaioaaiue oa yaeuai ia?a inieneaiei .

Cae/aeii, aeey aaaaoueio ne?a iiaeooue aooe oa?aeoa?i? ??ci? eiia?iaoe??
oeeo aeae?a aiioeaiaaiino?. Aeey iiae oi/ieo iaoe oiiaoe/ia
aiioeaiaai?noue iaoeiiaa. Oeae aea aeae oiioeaiaaiino? iaioith i??ith,
i?ae ii?oieia?/ia aiioeaiaai?noue, i?aeaea?oueny e?euee?niiio
ianoaaeaiith oa oi/iiio aiae?co, oiio ui oiiaoe/ia aiioeaiaai?noue
iaeii/anii ? a?eueo ci?iia, ? noa’?eoeaia. Aaaea?ii, ui aeine?aeaeoth/e
oiiaoe/io aiioeaiaai?noue, ia?ane?aeothoue cian?i ?io? oe?e? ?
aeei?enoiaothoue ?io? caniae.

Caoaaaeeii, ui ia caaaeaee iiaeia /?oei ?iciaaeoaaoe aeaee
aiioeaiaaiino?, ye? ?ic??ciythoueny o e?iaa?noeoe?. I?e/eia aeayei?
iaocaiaeaeaiino? iiaeyae?a iiaiciaaoe?a ? ia?aoe?iiaeueiiai
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy iaca oeeo aeae?a iieyaa? oaeiae a iaaeeoa?aioe?eiaaiino?
nai?ioe/ieo ooieoe?e aiioeaiaaiino? ? aioo??oiuei? oi?ie, a iaaeciaii?
ie?aieie e?iaa?noaie iniaeeaiai iaoa??aeueiiai ?? noaoono. Iaaaaeaia
?ai?oa eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a aiioeaiaaiino? N. Oeueiaia ia
a?aecia/a?oueny aeinoaoiueith /?oe?noth — aiia caciaea cia/ieo ci?i, ye?
?ieiee aac iio?aae oneeaaeiththoue iaoaiiao e?iaa?noe/ii? oai???.

Ni?iao?ii nenoaiaoecoaaoe aieiai? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaii? eaoaai??? ? iiaoaeoaaoe ei?ioeo oeiieia?th
aiioeaiaaiino? eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue. Ii-ia?oa, oe?eeii i?aaii??ii
?ic??ciyoe aeaa ieaie aiioeaiaaiino? — iiaiee ? iiaeaii?aee. A ieai?
iiaeaiiy ie ia?ii ni?aao c aaeaioiith, aai ?aoa?aioiith (oa?i?ie
aeineoue oiiai?) aiioeaiaai?noth. Ia aaeath/enue o aeaoaeueiee aiae?c
oeueiai aniaeoo aiioeaiaaiino?, iaaieineii eeoa ia oiio, ui aiia o?nii
iia’ycaia c iiaiith aiioeaiaai?noth, ine?eueee na?aae on?o iioaioe?eieo
iciae aeaiioaoo iiaeia aeyaeoe i?eiaeii? iaeio, yea ?aaoey?ii ? cia/iith
i??ith aeaoa?i?io? aeooaeueio iciaeo (iciaee). Naia oaea iaia’yceiaa,
iino?eii ?iaiaioia (oi/ ?iie?oeeoii) iciaea neiaa iiaea neoaeeoe
iniiaith aeey ooai?aiiy aioo??oiuei? oi?ie eaene/ii? iaeeieoe?.

Ia iiaiiio ??ai? aeioe?eueii ?ic??ciyoe o?e aeaee aiioeaiaaiino?:
1)ciaeiao (nai?ioe/io); 2) oi?iaeueio (neiaioa??io); 3) ci?noiao
(?ioain?iiaeueio). Ciaeiao aiioeaiaai?noue ?icoi??ii ye aiioeaiaai?noue
o neaaeiio niene?; aiia aeanoeaa an?i eaene/iei iaeeieoeyi, ye? ?aaeueii
ooieoe?iiothoue o iia? o aeaeyae? iiaieo ciae?a. Oeae aeae
aiioeaiaaiino? ia iio?aao? e?euee?nieo aei???a aai eia?/ii?
aa?eo?eaoe??. Ooo neiai iioeao?oueny naiei oaeoii ?nioaaiiy oa
aaeeaaiiy. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui a iia? iaia? aaniethoii iaaiioeaiaaieo
ne?a. On? aiie aca?iiiia’ycai? c a?aeiia?aeiei cia/aiiyi oi/ ae aei
??aiy caaaeueii? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? eaoaai???. Ca ia?aciei
oaa?aeaeaiiyi Ia?aoeaeuena, o i?e?iae? iaia? iioa?iieo ?a/ae, a yeui
aeaye? ?a/? ia?aaoaathoue o i?eoiaaiiio noai?, oi aiie i?eiee ia
aoaathoue aac ciai?oi?o i/aaeaeieo iniaeeaeo iicia/ie, iiae?aii aei oiai
ye ethaeeia iicia/a? i?noea, aea caeiiaea nea?a, uia eiai iiaeia aoei
ciaeoe. Iai caeeoa?oueny aei oeueiai eeoa aeiaeaoe, ui anyeee nea?a
iano?eueee eaaoa aeyaeoe, ciaeoe, caiai’yoaoe, ia nieooaoe c ?ioeie,
iane?eueee /?oe?oith aoaea oey iicia/ea. Ioaea, yeui neiai ia
aiioeaiaaia nai?th i?aaeiaoiith ni?aa?aeianai?noth, oi eiai ni?iiiaei?
aiioeaoaaoe aeaye? nenoaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee, oi/a, c?icoi?ei, aaaeaiith ?
eiie?aoia ni?aa?aeianai?noue oi?ie ? ci?noo iiaiiai ciaeo, yeee
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ?ioeie aeaeaie aiioeaiaaiino? eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue.
Aeoiaey/e c iaoiai ?icoi?iiy iiaiiai ciaeo ? eiai aeaio oi?i, ie ae?eeii
oi?iaeueio aiioeaiaai?noue ia aeaa oeie: 1) aiioeaiaai?noue ca
ciai?oiueith oi?iith (oiiaoe/ia, aaniethoia aai aenie?oeeoia
aiioeaiaai?noue); 2) aiioeaiaai?noue ca aioo??oiueith oi?iith. Aioo??oiy
oi?ia ye aia?oeaaoeaiee ia?ac, yeee aecia/a?oueny ii?oaiiith no?oeoo?ith
neiaa aai ae?aco, ia?aaeaa/a? a?aooaaiiy ?o ii?oieia?/ieo ? naiaioe/ieo
aeanoeainoae. Oiio, aiai?y/e i?i aiioeaiaai?noue ca aioo??oiueith
oi?iith, iaiao?aeii ?ic??ciyoe a?aeiia?aeii ii?oieia?/io ? naiaioe/io
aiioeaiaaiino?.

Ii?oieia?/ia iioeaaoe?y aecia/a?oueny ia?aaeon?i neiaioa??iith
(iiaeaeeth eaene/ii? iaeeieoe?, oiae? ye eaene/ia aiioeaiaai?noue ?
?acoeueoaoii aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae neiaioa??ieie oi?iaioaie ? iniiaith,
i?ae iiaei oa iiia?aaei?i cia/aiiyie.

Aei naiaioe/iiai oeio iioeaaoe?? a?aeiineii oaeiae yaeua ia?ainieneaiiy,
aea no?oeoo?ia iiaeaeue, iiaiai ooai?aiiy caeeoa?oueny aac ci?i, oiaoi
ii?oieia?/ia iioeaaoe?y ia aeyaey?oueny. I?ioa, a?aoiaoth/e iaeii/anii
o?niee aca?iica’ycie ? aeayeo ?icieo?noue iaae i?ae oeeie i?aeoeiaie
aiioeaiaaiino?, aeioe?eueii ia’?aeiaoe ?o a iaeei oei — naiaioeei
ii?oieia?/io aiioeaiaai?noue, yea anaa?/ii oa?aeoa?eco?
no?oeoo?iinaiaioe/i? iniaeeaino? neiaioa??ii? a?o?oaeoii?ee eaene/ii?
iaeeieoe?.

Ei?ioei i?iaiae?coaaaoe oeiieia?th aiioeaiaaiino? (iiiyooy ci?noiai?
aiioeaiaaiino? ?icaeyaeaoeiooueny aeae?), ni?iao?ii cia?aceoe ??
noaiaoe/ii, iaaeath/e aeae?eaiei aeaeai ? oeiai a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue a
oiiai?e ???a?oe.

3.4.3. Ci?noiaa aiioeaiaai?noue

sse iniiaa oai?aiiy oi?ie iio?aeieo ? neeaaeieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue
i?ioean naiaioeei-ii?oiei? ?/ii? iioeaaoe??, ooieoe?iioth/e ia
neiaioa??iiio ??ai?, ana ae ia caaaeaee coiiaeth? aena?oeaiiy o
aioo??oi?e oi?i? iaea?eueo ?aeaaaioieo aeaiaio?a cia/aiiy. Ioiae
i?aeoe/ii aei?aaaeaiei ? iiiyo?eia ?iciaaeoaaiiy oa?i?i?a iioeaaoe?y ?
aiioeaiaai?noue. A?aeoae iioeaaoe?y ? oe?eani?yiiaaiei i?ioeanii, a
aiioeaiaai?noue — aaaeaiei ?acoeueoaoii uiaei cia?aaeaiiy a eaene/i?e
iaeeieoe? caniaaie iiae iaaii? iciaee (iciae) aeaiioaoa, ui aoiaeeoue
(aoiaeyoue) o ei?ion iciae eiai eaene/iiai cia/aiiy. Aoaeue-yeee i?ioean
oai?aiiy iiai? aioo??oiuei? oi?ie — oea aiaeii/an i?ioean iioeaaoe??,
aea ua ia ?acoeueoao i?ioeano. Caoaaaeeii, ui iiiyooth iioeaaoe?? ooa
a?aeiia?aea? naiaioeei-ii?oieia?/ia aiioeaiaai?noue, a i?ae
iioeaiaai?noth ia?oueny ia oaac? ci?noiaa (?ioain?iiaeueia)
aiioeaiaai?noue.

Ia ci?noiaiio ??ai? aeyaey?oueny aiioeaiaai?noue ye c’?aeioaaeueiee
eiiiiiaio i?ae oi?iith ? naiaioe/iei ci?noii iiaiiai ciaea. Ci?noiaa
aiioeaiiai?noue oa?aeoa?eco? caeaoi?noue aioo??oiuei? oi?ie
a?aeia?aaeaoe iaea?eueo ?aeaaaioi? iciaee iiaiiai ci?noo neiaa aai
ae?aco, oiaoi ?ice?eaa? ?? no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i? iniaeeaino? o
c?noaaeaii? c eaene/iei cia/aiiyi. ?ioain?iiaeueia aiioeaiaai?noue
neioaciaaii a?aoiao? ye neiaioa??io no?oeoo?o, oae ? ci?noiao noi?iio
iiaiiai ciaea, ui coiiaeth? nenoaiia aea/aiiy oi?ie ? cia/aiiy. Oaea
aiioeaiaai?noue aecia/a? nooi?iue a?aeiia?aeiino? aioa??oiuei? oi?ie
eaene/iiio cia/aiith, oiaoi, aiai?y/e oa?i?iaie oai??? oi?aae?iiy, —
aoaeoeai?noue ? iaae?ei?noue iiaoaeiae aioo??oiuei? oi?ie. Ca?aene
oaeiae aeieeaa?, ui aiioeaiaai?noue oea oa e?euee?noue ?ioi?iaoe??, ui
i?noeoueny o aioo??oi?e oi?i?, yea ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
a?aeiia?aeiiio cia/aii? eaene/ii? iaeeieoe?. C o?aooaaiiyi aeeeaaeaiiai
i?iiiio?ii oaea aecia/aiiy ci?noiai? aiioeaiaaiino?, ui
aeei?enoiao?oueny iaie a i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio?: ci?noiaa aiioeaiaai?noue —
oea no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea eaene/ii? iaeeieoe?, yea
aenie?eo? caniaaie iiae ?aoe?iiaeueiee eaeneei-naiaioe/iee ca’ycie i?ae
cia/aiiyi ? aioo??oiueith oi?iith oe??? iaeeieoe?. Oeae aeae
oiioeaiaaiino? ? iaeaaaeeea?oee, ine?eueee iaei??th c oiia iiaii?
aeineiiaeino? ? aeiiaa, uia oiioeaiaai?noue aoea, iane?eueee oea
iiaeeeai, ia ciai?oiueith ? oiiaiith, a aioo??oiueith ? eia?/iith, uia
aiia aeyaeyea nooi?noue naiiai iiiyooy. A. Athnoa? iaceaa? oeth
aeanoea?noue oi?ie iai/i?noth iiiyooy, aai naiino?eiith c?icoi?e?noth
??. 3ae/aeii, oaea aeiiaa iniaeeai aaaeeeaa aeey iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
oa?i?iieia?? ? iaioa i?eoaiaiia caaaeueiiaaeeaai?e iia?. A iiae?aiiio
i?aeoiae? aei aecia/aiiy ci?noiai? aiioeaiaaiino? ia ia?oee ieai
aenoaa?oueny ia niin?a iiaoaeiae eaene/ii? iaeeieoe? nai ii nia?, a
no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? aioo??oiuei? oi?ie o c?noaaeaii? c eaene/iei
cia/aiiyi, a?aeia?aaeaeuei? caeaoiino? neiaa i?noeoe a nai?e iiaoaeia?
iciaeo (iciaee) iicia/oaaiiai.

Aeoiaey/e c ia’?io ?ioi?iaoe??, ?ic??ciy?ii: 1) iiaio aiioeaiaai?noue
aioo??oiuei? oi?ie (eiee oi?ia ae?aaea? iciaeo, yea oe?eeii aoiaeeoue o
cia/aiiy); 2) /anoeiao aiioeaiaai?noue (eiee ?nio? caaaeueia aeey
aioo??oiuei? oi?ie ? eaene/iiai cia/aiiy /anoeia iiaiiai ci?noo
iaeeieoe?); 3) a?aenooi?noue aiioeaiaaiino? (oiaoi aeiaeia ii?oaia, ui
aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo aioo??oiuei? oi?ie, ia ia? a?aeiia?aeiino? o
cia/aii?); 4) iaei iioe?aiee oei — aaniethoio aiioeaiaai?noue (iiaiee
ca?a naiaioe/ieo iciae aioo??oiuei? oi?ie ? eaene/iiai cia/aiiy).

Aaniethoia aiioeaiaai?noue aioo??oiuei? oi?ie — iaaecae/aeii ??aee?nia
yaeua a iia?, ui oaeiae na?ae/eoue i?i eiai naii?aaoeyoe?ei? cae?aiino?,
ine?eueee iaiiaeeeaei aoei a ni?eeoaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith ne?a- «iiino??a
aioo??oiy oi?ia yeeo caaaeaee ca?aaeany a c eaene/iei cia/aiiyi.Iaeia c
iniaeeainoae iiae iieyaa? naia a aiiiii?oiiio aaeeaaii? ciae?a ye
?aae?e, ye? neioacothoue, «aae?athoue» oe?e? naiaioe/e? «caonoee» ?
eiioeaiooaeueii aaeeaathoueny on?ia iin?yie iiae. Ui ae aei iiaii?
aiioeaiaaiino? aioo??oiuei? oi?ie, oi i?aee?aneeii, ui oey oi?ia oe?eeii
ocaiaeaeaia ?c cia/aiiyi ? ni?ey? a?eueoiio aca?ii?icoi?iith, i?ae
oi?ia, yea i?noyoue «caea?» aai ia?aeaaaioi? aeey cia/aiiy
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Aeeeaaeaia iiiyooy aiioeaiaaiino? aoei a iaiiaiei, yeae ie ia caaaeaee
ua iaeio ?? iniaeea?noue: ci?noiaa aiioeaiaai?noue ii-??ciiio iiaea
aeyaeyoe naaa caeaaeii a?ae iiaiiai ocono. Ia?aaeon?i oea noino?oueny
?iciaaeoaaiiy iiae ia caaaeueiiaaeeaaio eaeneeo ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/io
oa?i?iieia?th. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aei iiaieo iaeeieoeue i?aae’yaey?oueny
??ci? aeiiae noiniaii ?oiuei? aiioeaiaaiino?, ui iia’ycaii c
iniaeeainoyie ooieoe?iioaaiiy ne?a o oeeo oa?ao eaeneee. Ia iaio
nooo?aeie ? oaeiae a?aei?iiino? ci?noiai? aiioeaiaaiino? o ieai?
i?e?ie?iaa?noeee, oiaoi ia ??ai? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aaeeaaiiy aai
ni?eeiyooy eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue. Oe?eeii ni?aaaaeeeai A.Aeoeaiei
noaa?aeaeo?, ui «aiioeaiaai?noue aaaaoueio oa?i?i?a ? /anoeie
o?acaieia?ci?a ii-??ciiio ni?eeia?oueny na?aaei?i iin??i iiae,
ina?/aiith ethaeeiith ? eaae?o?eiaaiei niaoe?ae?noii.

Ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c aeeeaaeaieie oa ?ioeie iniaeeainoyie i?iya?a
ci?noiai? aiioeaiaaiino?, ? aeoaea aaaeeeaeie ? ua /aeathoue ia nai?
ae??oaiiy. C?icoi?ei, ui ?icaeyiooei iaie iiiyooyi iioeaaoe?? ?
iioeaiaaiino?, iiaeia aeaoe aeayea ?ioa o?aeooaaiiy aai oa?i?iieia?/ii
aecia/eoe ii-?ioiio. I?ioa aacnoii?aiei ? oa, ui aeae?eai? ia’?eoe
iathoue nooo?aa i?noea a oaeniiii?? iiae ? ?o aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?iaa?noe/ii ?aeaaaioia.

Caoaaaeeii, ui iiae?aiee eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei oa?aeoa?enoeee
iioeaiaaiino? oiiaeeeaeth? anoaiiaeaiiy ?? ia’?eoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee,
ia?aiao??a, oi/iino?, iiaiioe oa nooiaiy aiioeaiaaiino? oeyoii
c?noaaeaiiy a?ia?ieo naiaioe/ieo aea?aa aioo??oiuei? oi?ie oa cia/aiiy.
Aeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee anaa?/ii ioe?iththoue ye?niee ??aaiue iiaoaeiae
eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oaeno? oa ni?eythoue
ae??oaiith aaaaoueio i?aeoe/ieo caaea/. Iaeaoaeoeai?oa oae? i?aeoiaee
?aae?ciaothoueny a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oa iaa/aeueieo oaenoao.

3.4.4. Aaaeeea?noue a?aooaaiiy aiioeaiaaiino? i?e eiino?othaaii?
iaa/aeueieo oaeno?a

Aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a i?aee?aneththoue, ui a oaeno? c? niaoe? aeueiino?
ia? aooe cia/iee a?aenioie oaeeo neioaene/ieo no?oeoo?, ye? nooaeaio
«cia?», oi/a a eeoa ia ??ai? ai?ciaaaiiy. Oe? ciaeii? oi?iaeueiiiiai?
aeaiaioe aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeeiioaaoe /anoeio ?iaioe iaae oaenoii
a?aeiinii aaoiiaoeciaaii ? eiioeaio?oaaoe aieiaio oaaao ia noiiethaaii?
ci?noo oaenoo.

A?aeoae ie i?ae?eoee aei iaiao?aeiino? oeoia/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie aeaui
?iaeoa: ni?eeiyooy iiai? eaeneee ? iaea?eueo iiaiei o aeiaaeeo
ona?aeiieaiiy o/iyie ci?noiai? aiioeaiaaiino? iiaeo iaeeieoeue,
iiaioaaiiy ieie aioo??oiueith oi?iith ? cia/aiiyi oeeo iaeeieoeue.
Aaeaea iioeaaoe?y ni?ey? i?aai?caoe?? caa??aaiiy nenoaie ciae?a o
iai’yo?, ine?eueee oae /e ?iaeoa ?o aii?yaeeiao?. 3 ?ioiai aieo,
i?aaio/e aeinyaoe e?auiai canai?iiy eaeneee (ioaea, ? aeeaoiai ?icoi?iiy
oaenoo), ne?ae iiaeaaoe i?i aiioeaiaai?noue yeiiiaa a?eueoi? e?eueeino?
aeaiaio?a eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue o neiaieeiaiio caian? o/ia (nooaeaio?a).
Caoaaaeeii, o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ie ia oi?ea?iinue ieoaiiy iioeaaoe?? c
iiaeyaeo ineoieia??.

?icaeyiaii yaeua aiaeia?/iiai i?ioeano iaieiae?iiy ??aeiith iiaith a
aeeoy/iio a?oe?. I. Oaoia?iae/ iaaieioo?, ui «iaiao?aeiei aoaiii
?icaeoeo iiae ? aiioeaiaai?noue iicia/aiiy. Oaea iicia/aiiy aecia/a?
iiyao a aeeoy/?e iia? aiioeaiaaieo iiaieo ciae?a ia ??cieo ??aiyo: ne?a,
ii?oai, ?a/aiue. Nai???aei?noue i?ioean?a iiaioaaiiy ciaeaie iiae
??ciiai ??aiy aecia/a? aiioeaiaai?noue». Iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?a?
a?aei?iiino? ineoieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, aaaaea?ii, ui yaeua
aiioeaiaaiino? iiaieo ooai?aiue ne?ae, aacoiiaii, a?aoiaoaaoe a
iaoiaeeoe? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiieo iia ? ia?aaeon?i o i?ioean? aaaaeaiiy
iiai? eaeneee a iaa/aeuei? oaenoe.

Canaithth/e iiao oaenoiao ?ioi?iaoe?th, aoaa? /anoi aaaeeeai aecia/eoe,
/e i?aeeaco? oi?ia iaciaeiieo ne?a ?o cia/aiiy, /e i?noeoue oa /e ?ioa
iiaa aaeeeo e?euee?noue ca’ycaieo aioo??oiueith oi?iith anioe?aoeaieo
?yae?a, aai ae oey iiaa ?ai?acaioo? niaith a aeai?e noa?? iaaiioeaiaaio
nenoaio. Caeaaeii a?ae oeeo oaeoi??a (ii?yae c ?ioeie) o?aaa i?aeae?aoe
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeey aea/aiiy iaciaeiii? iiae.

Ioaea, i?iaeaia iiaii? caeiaaaeee iia’ycaia ia?aaeon?i c i?iaeaiith
neiaioai?aiiy — aaeaea aiii, iath/e aaaaoi aaea a?aeiieo o/iyi
eiiiiiaio?a, caeaoia nea?iaoaaoe /eoa/a ia na?aeiia iaieiae?iiy iiaith
eaeneeith, anioe?eiaaiith c oiioeaiaaieie ooai?aiiyie. A.?.I?neoiiaa
oaeiae aeneiaeth? aiaaiai?noue o oiio, ui iaoiaee/ia oeiieia?y
neiaioa??ieo iiaeaeae iio?aeieo ?iaiiee?a aeiiiiiaea a?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueii i?iaiaeeoe ? iaa/aiiy neiaioai?aiiy, ?ic?iaeyoe
aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? niiniae iciaeiieaiiy nooaeaio?a c ??cieie oeiaie
neiaioa??ieo iiaeaeae ? a?aeiia?aeii noai?eoe na??? ai?aa, ui ni?eyoeia
oaeaeoiio ?icaeoeo o nooaeaio?a ae/ie ? ai?iue ?ice?eooy cia/aiiy
iaciaeiieo ne?a o i?ioean? /eoaiiy i?ea?iaeueii? e?oa?aoo?e. Caoaaaeeii,
ui iaiao?aei?noue canai?iiy neiaioa??ieo iniaeeainoae, a?aooaaiiy
oa?aeoa?o ? iioeaiaaiino? iiaeaeae a i?ioean? caaaa/aiiy neiaieeiaiai
caiano — aeiiaa aei aea/aiiy aoaeue-yei? ?iicaiii? iiae.

C?icoi?ei, ui aaaaoi iieiaeaiue iiaeooue aeaeaoenue noia?a/eeaeie. Ie
oaeiae aaaaea?ii, ui ia’?eoeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy aiioeaiaaiino?, yea
canoiniao?oueny aei iiaoaeiae iaa/aeueieo oaeno?a, iio?aao?
oaeineiiaeaiiy. I?ioa aaea ia oeueiio aoai? aiia aeaiiino?o? iiaeeea?
oeyoe ia’?eoeaaoe?? i?ioeano eiino?othaaiiy oaeno?a ? aeyaey? aeaye?
iaoiaee/ii iiaeeea? i?eioeeie aaaaeaiiy ? canai?iiy iiai? eaeneee.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae a eiai inoaoi/ii ii?aoeueiaaiiio aeaeyae? ?
ai?iaiaaiee ia a?eueo oe?ieiio aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ianea? iiaea ciaeoe
canoinoaaiiy a aeooaeueiiio iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii? c i?iaeai aeeneo?no
?iicaiiiiiaieo iaoiaeee.

Aeniiaee aei ??? ?icae?eo

C iioe?aiiyi i?aeia?iaeieo ca’yce?a aea/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae ye iiae
niaoe?aeueii? iaaoaa? oaeiae oaoiaiai oa?i?iieia?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy,
iaei??th c iciae yeiai ? oa?i?iieia?/ia aeaiiiai?noue. Oa?i?ie ??cieo
aaeocae ciaiue, ooai?ththoue a oe?a?inuee?e oa ?iicaii?e iiaao nai?
nenoaie c aioo??oiueith aii?yaeeiaai?noth eiiiiiaio?a. Ciaoe iioeiaeueio
a?aeiia?aei?noue oeeo nenoai — aaaeeeaa caaaeaiiy no/anii? o?eieia?/ii?
iaoee, i???ioiaaii? ia ye?nia aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? i?aoe? aoea th?eaee/ia oa?i?iieia?y, ui
yaey? niaith i?ioa?ie eaeneee, yea ianeoaiao? i?aaiciaanoai ? iia’ycaia
c th?eni?oaeaioe??th ye iaoeith, ye oaoii, ye noa?ith i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. Ae?aiacii ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aaie/i? oa?i?iieia??
ia?aaeaa/a? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oa ooi/iaiiy oaeeo iiiyoue, ye
oa?i?iieia?/ia iiea ? aeeneo?n.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy ? aeine?aeaeaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo ooieoe?e oa?i?ia iai
caeaeiny iaiao?aeii ianaiia?aae aeyaeoe eiie?aoi? noa?e eiai aaeeaaiiy,
ui aoee i?aaenoaaeai? iaie o aeaeyae? iieueiai? no?oeoo?e c
?aiaee?oaaiiyi ca nooiaiai /anoioiino? aaeeaaiiy oa?i?i?a a ii??aiyii? c
?ioeie eaene/ieie iaeeieoeyie.

Ie oaeiae ?icaeyioee o?aeiiao no?oeoo?o oaenoo c oeea?eueii-i?aaiai?
oaiaoeee, iiia?aaeiuei aeaaoe aecia/aiiy iiiyooth “oaeno”, ? ia iniia?
aeeeaaeaiiai ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui aei no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue
o?aeiiai? i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiaeo oaeno?a iaeaaeaoue caaieiaeia? o?aeie,
?io?iaeoeoeai? eiioi?eaoeai? o?aeie, iniiai? eiioi?eaoeai? o?aeie,
e?ioeaa? o?aeie oa o?aeie iaoeiaiai aia?aoo. Iaei??th c iniiaieo ?en
i?iaiae?ciaaieo oaeno?a ? iayai?noue iaoeiai? oa?i?iieia?? ?
aeei?enoaiiy naia niaoe?aeueieo oa?i?i?a noai?th? oie iniaeeaee oii,
yeee a?ae??ciy? ?o a?ae oaeno?a, i?enay/aieo ?io?e i?iaeaiaoeoe?.
Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy na?aae no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue o?aeiiai? i?aai?caoe??
oaeno?a iiae?aiiai aeaeo iathoue aneiaeaoe/i? noanoaioeai?
oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy, ?aae?caoe?y iioaioe?aeo yeeo aaaea aei aeniei?
?ioi?iaoeaiino? iaoeiaeo oaeno?a.

AENIIAEE

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?noi?e/iai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa ia?aaeeaa?
oe?eo ieceo ia?aoai?aiue, iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo na?aae yeeo ?
oi?ioaaiiy iiai? ainiiaea?nueei? nenoaie. Iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei
aeaiaioii iiaiai ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio ? ?eiie, yeee iiaeiai yeee
iiaeiai ia?aoai?eoeny a ii?aeiaii? c aea?aeaaiei ?aaoethaaiiyi a
aeoeaiee ?ino?oiaio, ui ni?eya ae aoaeoeai?e ae?yeueiino? o/aniee?a
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iineeth?oueny ?ieue oeea?eueii-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?o a naiino?ei?e
i?aai?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo
a?aeiinei. Caeiiiaeaa/a i?aeoeea Oe?a?ie ni?eeia? aeina?ae ( ?
iiceoeaiee, ? iaaaoeaiee) ca?oa?aeieo i?aaiaeo aeieo?ei ?
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Oae, i?aaia? aeoe i?i aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa aiooaaeeny
c o?aooaaiiyi ca?oa?aeiiai aeoe?iia?iiai oa ?ioiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Aca?iiae?y a?o/eciyiiai oa ?iicaiiiai oeea?eueiiai a?aeaoaa?oueny ? o
oaeeo oi?iao, ye iaaeaiiy ?iicaii?e i?aaia?e ii?i? cia/aiiy th?eaee/iiai
oaeoo, aai aenooi ?iicaiii? i?aaiai? ii?ie ia?aaeoiiaith aeoo
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy. A on?o oeeo aeiaaeeao iaiao?aeii caa?oaoeny aei
?iicaiiiai i?aaa.

? oiio a aeai?e ?iaio? ie iaiaaaeeny yeiaeiiai?oa aeine?aeeoe
caeiiii??iino? aaeeaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa.
Ie aeaee aecia/aiiy iiiyooyi “oa?i?i” oa “oa?i?iinenoaia”, aecia/eee
aeiiae, yeei aiie iiaeii? a?aeiia?aeaoe. Iaeaaeia oaaaa aoea i?eae?eaia
iaoiaeeoe? aeae?eaiiy oa?i?i?a ca ?aooiie ?o oa?aeoa?ieo a?aei?iiinoae
a?ae caaaeueiiaaeeaaii? eaeneee. Oea ieoaiiy /?oei iia’ycaia c
i?iaeaiith aecia/aiiy i?noey oa cia/aiiy iaoeiai? oa?i?iieia?? a
ooaeiaei?e oa niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo??, nooiaiy caeaaeiino? oi/iino?
iaoeiai? iiae a?ae i?aaeeueiiai aaeeaaiiy oa?i?i?a.

Iao? i?aeoe/i? coneeey aoee iai?aaeai? ia aena?oeaiiy iaeaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaiai oa aeeneon?iiai yaeua iie?nai?? oa?i?i?a acaaae? oa oa?i?i?a
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa cie?aia. Aeine?aeaeaiiy noa? aaeeaaiiy oa?i?i?a
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa aeiiiiiaei iai aecia/eoe ooieoe?iiaeueiee noaoon
oa?i?i?a o eiaei?e noa??. ?acoeueoaoii iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue noaei oaeiae
aecia/aiiy iniiaieo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a o?aeiiai? i?aai?caoe?? oaoiaeo
oaeno?a c oeea?eueiiai i?aaa oa iniaeeai? ?ie? a ?o no?oeoo??
oa?i?iieia?/ieo neiainiieo/aiue, aecia/eaoe iniiai? oeie inoaii?o ca
e?euee?noth eiiiiiaio?a oa oa?aeoa?ii no?eaeiaaiai eiiiiiaioa aai yae?a,
oei naiei aeacaaoe ia oa?i?iieia?/io iani?iiiaei?noue i?aeoe/i an?o
/anoei iiae, e??i ?iaiiee?a. ?iaiieee a iaoeiaeo ? oaoi?/ieo oaenoao, ye
i?aaeei, ?ioi?iaoeai?o?, ca ae??neiaa ? i?ene?aieee, ui oe?iei
aaeeaathoueny ye no?oeoo?i? eiiiiiaioe neeaaeaieo oa?i?i?a, ooi/ithth/e
? aeeoa?aioe?thth/e cia/aiiy iniiaiiai, aaciaiai oa?i?ia a
oa?i?iinenoai? (oae caaii? aeii?iaioe). Aeey iaoeiaiai noeeth oa?aeoa?ia
? e?euee?nia ia?aaaaa ?iaiiee?a iaae ?ioeie /anoeiaie iiae. Aea aeey
i?aeoe/ieo iio?aa aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiii? iiae ye oa?i?ie iiaeii? aooe
aeae?eai? ? cao?eniaai? a iaa/aeueieo oa?i?iieia?/ieo neiaieeao ia
o?eueee ?iaiieee, aea ? aeaye? i?eeiaoieee ae??neiaa, i?ene?aieee, ui
iicia/athoue niaoeeo?/i? aeey a?aeiia?aeii? aaeoc? ciaiue iiiyooy, oiio
ui iaoeiaee noeeue ia neeaaea?oueny aeiyoeiai c iaeieo ?iaiiee?a. I?e
oeueiio iathoue ia oaac? ia o?eueee ie?ai? ?iaiieee, aea ?
aaaaoieiiiiiaioi? noanoaioeai? neiainiieo/aiiy ? ?oi? nei?i/aiiy.

Ie oaeiae ia iieioee iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaiai, ia iao iiaeyae ieoaiiy
aiioeaiaaiino? oa?i?i?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ye iaei??? c iniiaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee niaoe?aeueieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue. Iaie aoea ?icaeyiooa
oeiieia?y aiioeaiaaiino? e i?eae?eaia iniaeeaa oaaaa ci?noia?e
aiioeaiaaiino?, ui yaey? niaith c’?aeioaaeueiee eiiiiiaio i?ae oi?iith ?
naiaioe/iei ci?noii iiaiiai ciaea. Ci?noiaa aiioeaiiai?noue oa?aeoa?eco?
caeaoi?noue aioo??oiuei? oi?ie a?aeia?aaeaoe iaea?eueo ?aeaaaioi? iciaee
iiaiiai ci?noo neiaa aai ae?aco, oiaoi ?ice?eaa? ??
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i? iniaeeaino? o c?noaaeaii? c eaene/iei cia/aiiyi.

Ni?eeiyooy iiai? eaeneee ? iaea?eueo iiaiei o aeiaaeeo ona?aeiieaiiy
o/iyie/nooaeaioaie ci?noiai? aiioeaiaaiino? iiaeo iaeeieoeue, iiaioaaiiy
ieie aioo??oiueith oi?iith ? cia/aiiyi oeeo iaeeieoeue naia a oeueiio
iieyaa? aaaeeea?noue a?aooaaiiy aiioeaiaaiino? a i?ioean? eiino?othaaiiy
iaa/aeueieo oaeno?a.

A?ae?ia?ao?y

1. Ea??? Ae.I. Eiinoeoooe?y Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee: iin?aiee aeey
an?o / Ia?. c aiae. I.I. Iie?iaieuenueeiai. — E., 1993. — 192n.

2. Shively, W. Philips. Power and Choice: an introduction to political
science, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995.

3. Aoiaiiaa I.N. Neiaa?ue eeiaaenoe/aneeo oa?ieiia. — I., 1966. — 606n.

4. Aa?aciaaiei TH.O. iiaue aiaei-?onneee th?eaee/aneee neiaa?ue. — E.:
Aa?ieiaeaen Eoae., 1993. — 316 n.

5. Aeeiiaa I. oa?iei e aai iioeae?iaaiiinoue // Oa?ieiieiaey e eoeueoo?a
?a/e. — I., 1981. — N.28-37.

6. Aoaeaaia ?.A. *oi oaeia iao/iue oa?iei. // sscue, enoi?ey e
nia?aiaiiinoue. — I., 1971. — 246n.

7. Ai?neee Ae.I. I aeaeao ii?aaeaeaiee e eo cia/aiee a iaoea // I?iaeaiu
eiaeee iao/iiai iiciaiey. — I., 1964. — 202n.

8. A?aaen ?., Aa?aa?a Ae., Aa?aiaia A. Neiaa?ue eeiaaenoe/aneeo
oa?ieiia.- ?eaa,1963. — 256n.

9. A?aaeaeaieiia A.O. Iaoiae nenoaiaoecaoeee oeeinioneeo eaoaai?ee. —
Iiaineae?ne, 1985. — 316n.

10. Aeaieeaiei A.I. I oa?ieiieiae/aneii neiaiia?aciaaiee // Aii?inu
ycueiciaiey. — 1978. — ? 4. — N.76-86.

11. Ae’yeia A.N. oa ?i. Iniiae oa?i?iioai?aiiy: Naiaio. oa
nioe?ie?ia?no. aniaeoe.- E.: Aeae. ae?i “ KM Academia”, 2000. — 218n.

12. Eaiaeaeaee O.E. Eeiaaenoe/aneea i?iaeaiu iao/i.- oaoi. oa?ieiieiaee.
— I., 1970. — 272n.

13. Eaiaiaaeca E. A. Acaeiiaeaeneaea oa?ieiieae/aneie e
iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiie eaeneee. // ?acaeoea eaeneee nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea. — I., 1965. — 178n.

14. Eaiaiaaeca E. A. I iiiyoeyo «oa?iei» e «oa?ieiieiaey». // ?acaeoea
eaeneee nia?aiaiiiai?onneiai ycuea. — I., 1965. — 196n.

15. Eaiaieoeeay A.A. I?aaeiaoii-iiiyoeeiay ioianaiiinoue oa?ieia e
oi/iinoue iao/iie ?a/e ? ? Iaaeaoc. oaiaoe/. na. iao/. o?. ? Iiae ?aae.
A.I. Iai/aiei. — Ai?uee. ain. oi-o., Ai?ueeee, 1987. — 98n.

16. Eaooiai N. E, Ia eiaiiii oa?aeoa?a oaoie/aneiai noeey ? ? Aii?inu
ycueiciaiey. — 1961.- ?5. — 126n.

17. Eaeoei I.N. Oa?iei a iao/iii aeieoiaioa. — Eueaia, 1976. — 216n.

18. Eieoaineee A.A. Iaeioi?ua aii?inu naiaioeee ycuea a aiinaieiae/aneii
aniaeoa ? ? I?eioeeiu e iaoiaeu naiaioe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. — I., 1976.
— 278n.

19. Eioaeiaa I.C. E aii?ino i niaoeeoeea oa?ieia. // Eeiaaenoe/aneea

i?iaeaiu iao/ii — oaoie/aneie oa?ieiieiaee. — I., 1970. — 168n.

20. E?ioaae/ ?.A., ?iaecaae/ I.N. Neiaiee e?iaa?noe/ieo oa?i?i?a. —
Ee?a,

1957. — 235n.

21. E?ueia A.E. Oa?iei e eiioaeno. // sscueiaua aaeeieoeu e eiioaeno.-

E., 1973. — 274n.

22. Einaa A.O. Ciae. Neiaie. Ieo. — I., 1970. — 208n.

23. Ia/aaa A.A. E?aoeee eeiaaenoe/aneee neiaa?ue ? ? ?ino. oi-o., 1976.
— 56n.

24. Ia/a?aiei A.I. Aiaeeoe/aneia iaeiaiiaaiea e iiieiaoeaiia

ii?aaeaeaiea ? ? Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu oa?ieiieiaee a iaoea e oaoieea. —

I., 1969. — 120n.

25. ?aoi?iaoneee A.A. Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu oa?ieiieiaee a iaoea e

oaoieea. — I., 1969. — 120n.

26. ?aoi?iaoneee A.A. Oa?iei eae /eai eaene/aneie nenoaiu ycuea ? ?

I?iaeaiu no?oeoo?iie eeiaaenoeee. — I., 1968. — 164n.

27. ?aoi?iaoneee A.A. *oi oaeia oa?iei e oa?ieiieiaey. // Aii?inu

oa?ieiieiaee. — I., 1961. — 114n.

28. Neoi?ia A.E., Eaiaeaeaee O.E. Iaoiaeieiae/aneea aniaeou

oa?ieiieiae/aneie ?aaiou. — I?iaeaiu ?ac?aaioee e oii?yaei/aiey

oa?ieiieiaee a Aeaaeaieyo iaoe nithciuo ?anioaeee. — I., 1983. — 134n.

29. Oaineee I.I. Eaeneeieiaey nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai ycuea. — I., 1972. —
42n.

30. Oaeia N.Ae. Oa?ieiieiaey, i?ioanneiiaeueiay eaeneea e

i?ioanneiiaeeciu (e i?iaeaia eeaneoeeaoeee niaoeeaeueiie eaeneee) ? ?
Ass,

1984. — ?5. — N.76-84.

31. Charlton G. Laird. Webster’s New World Thesaurus. Cleveland: Warner
Book,

Inc., 1990. — 494p.

32. Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English.

Oxford: OUP, 1989. — 1579p.

33. Neufeld, Victoria. Webster’s New World Dictionary. Cleveland: Simon
& Schuster, Inc., 1988. — 1574p.

34. The Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus, edited by Sara Tulloch. Oxford:
OUP,

1997. — 1892p.

NEIAIEE E?IAA?NOE*IEO OA?I?I?A

A?aaeueiee ia?aiao? ao?eaooeaia neiainiieo/aiiy Ao?en Aaaaoicia/i?noue
(iie?nai?y) Aaaaoieiiiiiaioi? noanoaioeai? neiainiieo/aiiy Aaaeo/a naia
oaiaoe/ii? i?eiaeaaeiino? A?aeiioaiiy aeeth/aiiy Aecia/aeueiee aeaiaio
Aeeno?eaooeai? oiiae Aeii?iaioa Aeno?ae?iaa?noe/i?noue
Aiioe?eii-ioe?ithaaeueiee ia?aiao? Caaa?oai?noue Caaaeueiiaaeeaaia
neiai Caaaeueiieaene/ia ooieoe?y Caaaeueiie?oa?aoo?ia iiaa Ciae-oa?i?i
Caoaeaiiy cia/aiiy ???a?o?/i?noue ?iaa??aio ?iaeeoa?aioi?noue
Eaoaai??aeueiee Eiioi?eaoeaiee aniaeo Eiiioaoe?y Eiioaeno Eiioaenoiee
ae?inen Eii’thieoea E?eoa??e ii?iaoeaiino? Eaeneei-naiaioe/iee aoaeii
Iaoii?i?/iee ia?ai?n Iiaia ae?aaeaiiy “Iiceiaee ooo?i” Iaoeiaee iai?yi
Iai?aaeeeaoeaia neiainiieo/aiiy Iaeeieoe? iieno Iaeiicia/i?noue
Iaeii-iaeiicia/ia a?aeiia?aei?noue Iaeiine?aiee oa?i?i Iciaea
Iioieia?/ia aacia?a?ai?noue Ia?aaeeaiaoe/ia a?nue Ia?aeiiee Ia?eoa??y
Iicia/aiee ? oie, ui iicia/a? Iiiyo?eiee eiioaeno Iioe?aia icia/aiiy
I?aeaeuaia /anoioi?noue Ieai ci?noo oa?i?ia Iiaia neiai Iicia/aiiy
I?inoi??//y I?ioan?iiae?ci I?ioan?iiaeueiee aea?aii?ci ?aae??
?aeaaaioi?noue ?iciiaiee noeeue ?icoa?oaaiiy cia/aiue ?icoe?aiiy
cia/aiiy Naiaioeea Naini?iciiae?eueia ooieoe?y Neiaeaeio?/iee ia?ai?n
Neioaaiaoe/ia a?nue Neio?ii?y Neeaaeaiee oa?i?i
Nei?i/aia neiai Nei?i/aiiy Neiaaniee eiioaeno Neiaiee Neiaieeiaee neeaae
Niaoe?aeuei? a?aei?oee Ni?aa?aeianai?noue (ei?aeyoe?y) Niieo/oaai?noue
Noee?noe/iee ia?aiao? Noyae?iy Noa?a aaeeaaiiy Oaiaoe/iee ia?ea? Oa?i?i
Oa?i?iieia?y Oa?i?iieia?/ia iiea Oa?i?iinenoaia Oa?i?iieia?/iee ?yae
Ooieoe?iiaeueia eiiiainaoe?y Ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae Ooieoe?y
?ic??ciaiiy Oe?e?ni?noue *eaie neiii?i?/iiai oa aioii?i?/iiai ?yae?a Oa?
ssae?iParameter of area Attributive collocation (word-group) Affix
Polysemy Polycomponent substantival word-group Derivational seme of
thematic belonging Relation of inclusion Determining element
Distributive conditions Dominant Extralinguistics (metalinguistics)
Emotive-evaluative parameter Finality Commonly used word (in common use)
Lexical function Literary language Sign-term Narrowing of meaning
(specialization) Hierarchy Invariant Indifference Categorial
Communicative aspect Connotation Context Contextual ellipsis Subjunctive
Mood Criteria of normativeness Lexical-semantic standard Metonymic(al)
metaphor Linguistic content (purport) Brainstorming Scientific school,
trend Non-predicative collocation Units of description Monosemy
(univocity) Monosemous correspondence One-word term Feature, mark
Ontological continuity Paradigmatic axis Primary Periphery Signified
and signifying (signifier) Notional context Expanded attribute High
frequency Level (plane) of content Full word Denotation Popular language
Professionalism Professional slang word Realia Relevance Colloquial,
conversational style stratification of meanings Extension (widening) of
meaning Semantics Distinctive function Synecdochical metaphor
Syntagmatic axis Synchrony Compound, complex term Reduced (abridged,
clipped) word Shortening, clipping, abridgement Verbal (lexical) context
Word-list Vocabulary Terminological note Correlation Combinability,
cooccurrence-range Stylistic parameter Contraction Sphere of use
(application, combinatory possibilities) Thematic marker Term
Terminology Terminological field Terminological system Terminological
sequence Functional compensation Functional approach Distinctive
function Integrity Articles of synonymic and antonymic sequences
Layer Nucleus

Aeiaeaoie 3.

Oeea?eueia i?aai a nenoai? aaeocae i?aaa

Aeiaeaoie 4.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y oa?i?iieia?/ieo neiainiieo/aiue ca no?oeoo?iith aoaeiaith

Oei oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy ca e?euee?noth
eiiiiiaio?aEiiiiiaioeI?eeeaaeeIioeaioia /anoeaI?ino?
oa?i?iiniieo/aiiy2-eiiiiiaioi?A + NVoting ballot, written proof77%N +
NWages fund, union treaty3-eiiiiiaioi?A + A + NRestrictive material
responsibility7,2%A + N + NExecutive branch documentsN + A + NCommission
expert examinationN + N + NPriority development
territory4-eiiiiiaioi?Second-hand goods commission sale0,4%Neeaaei?
oa?i?iiniieo/aiiyIiaeeo?eaoe?? aeuacacia/aieo oei?aTemporary tenure of
office13,3%Eiia?iiaai? oa?i?iiniieo/aiiyIiaeeo?eaoe?? aeuacacia/aieo
oei?aStatute of limitations for the execution of the
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0000000000000

Aeiaeaoie 5.

Oeie oa?i?iieia?/ieo niieo/aiue ca niiniaii ae?aaeaiiy yae?a

Oei neiainiieo/aiueI?eeeaaeeI?ioeaioia /anoeaNoanoaioeai?Cross demand,
private accusation96%Aae’?eoeai?Answerable as a defendant1%Ae??ne?ai?To
violate trade
regulations3%I?ene?aieeia?———————————0%picscalex10
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