President of the United States George W. Bush President of the United States (реферат)

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President of the United States George W. Bush

President of the United States

States_Of_America.svg” \o “Seal Of The President Of The Unites States Of

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Bush” \o “George W.
Bush” George W. Bush .

First president: HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington” \o “George Washington”
George Washington

Formation: HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_30” \o “April
30” April 30 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1789” \o
“1789” 1789

The President of the United States of America (sometimes referred to as
POTUS) HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-0” \o “”
[1] is the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_of_state” \o
“Head of state” head of state and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_of_government” \o “Head of
government” head of government of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States” \o “United States” United
States . The president is at the head of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_%28government%29” \o “Executive
(government)” executive branch of the HYPERLINK
\o “Federal government of the United States” federal government , whose
role is to enforce national law as given in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution” \o “United
States Constitution” Constitution and written by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Congress” \o “United States
Congress” Congress . HYPERLINK
ion” \o “Article Two of the United States Constitution” Article Two of
the Constitution establishes the president as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commander-in-chief” \o
“Commander-in-chief” commander-in-chief of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_of_the_United_States” \o
“Military of the United States” armed forces and enumerates powers
specifically granted to the president, including the power to sign into
law or HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veto” \o “Veto” veto
bills passed by both houses of Congress, to create a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Cabinet” \o “United States
Cabinet” Cabinet of advisors, to grant HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pardon” \o “Pardon” pardons or
reprieves, and, with the ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advice_and_consent” \o “Advice and
consent” advice and consent ” of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Senate” \o “United States
Senate” Senate , to make HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty” \o “Treaty” treaties and appoint
federal officers, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambassador”
\o “Ambassador” ambassadors , and federal HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judge” \o “Judge” judges , including
Justices of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States” \o
“Supreme Court of the United States” Supreme Court . As with officials
in the other branches of the United States government, the Constitution
restrains the president with a set of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_powers” \o “Separation of
powers” checks and balances designed to prevent any individual or
group from taking absolute power. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-answers” \o “” [2]
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-encarta_powers” \o
“” [3]

The president is elected HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indirect_election” \o “Indirect election”
indirectly through the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Electoral_College” \o
“United States Electoral College” United States Electoral College to a
four year term, with a limit of two terms imposed by the HYPERLINK
es_Constitution” \o “Twenty-second Amendment to the United States
Constitution” Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution , ratified in
1951. Under this system, each state is allocated a number of electoral
votes, equal to the size of the state’s delegation in both houses of
Congress combined. The HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/District_of_Columbia” \o “District of
Columbia” District of Columbia is also granted electoral votes, per
s_Constitution” \o “Twenty-third Amendment to the United States
Constitution” Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution . Voters in
nearly all states choose a presidential candidate through the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plurality_voting_system” \o
“Plurality voting system” plurality voting system , whom then receives
all of that state’s electoral votes. A simple majority of electoral
votes is needed to become president; if no candidate receives that many
votes, the election is thrown to the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_of_Representatives” \o
“United States House of Representatives” House of Representatives ,
which votes by state delegation. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-electoral_college” \o “” [4]

While in office, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_House” \o “White House” White House
in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington%2C_D.C.” \o
“Washington, D.C.” Washington, D.C. serves as the place of residence
for the president. The president is also entitled to use its staff and
facilities, including medical care, recreation, housekeeping, and
security services. One of two HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_VC-25” \o “Boeing VC-25” Boeing
VC-25 aircraft, which are extensively modified versions of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_747” \o “Boeing 747” Boeing 747
-200B airliners, serve as long distance travel for the president, and
are referred to as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Force_One” \o “Air Force One” Air
Force One while the president is on board. A salary of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_dollar” \o “United States
dollar” $ 400,000, along with other benefits, is paid to the president
annually. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-af1” \o
“” [5]

The United States was the first country to create the office of
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_%28history_of_the_term%29” \o
“President (history of the term)” president as head of state of a
modern HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic” \o “Republic”
republic . Since the adoption of the Constitution, forty-two
individuals have been elected or succeeded into the presidency, the
first being HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington”
\o “George Washington” George Washington , serving forty-three
different presidencies altogether (since Grover Cleveland was the
twenty-second and twenty-fourth president(s) of the U.S.A.). The current
president is HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Bush”
\o “George W. Bush” George W. Bush , inaugurated on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_20” \o “January 20” January 20 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001” \o “2001” 2001 to a
first term and on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_20”
\o “January 20” January 20 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 to a second. His
term expires at noon on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_20” \o “January 20” January 20 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009” \o “2009” 2009 , after
which he will be replaced by the winner of the HYPERLINK
8” \o “United States presidential election, 2008” 2008 presidential
election . From the middle of the twentieth century, the United States’
status as a HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superpower” \o
“Superpower” superpower has led the American president to become one
of the world’s most well-known and influential public figures.
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election” \o
“United States presidential election” U.S. presidential elections are
regarded by many as events of international as well as national
significance and are closely followed in many places around the world.


“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_%281783%29” \o “Treaty of
Paris (1783)” Treaty of Paris (1783) left the United States
independent and at peace but with an unsettled governmental structure.
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Continental_Congress” \o “Second
Continental Congress” Second Continental Congress had drawn up
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation” \o
“Articles of Confederation” Articles of Confederation in 1777,
describing a permanent confederation but granting to the Congress—the
only federal institution—little power to finance itself or to ensure
that its resolutions were enforced. In part this reflected the anti-
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy” \o “Monarchy”
monarchy view of the Revolutionary period, and the new American system
was explicitly designed to prevent the rise of an American tyrant to
replace the British King.

However, during the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_depression” \o “Economic
depression” economic depression that followed the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_War” \o “Revolutionary War”
Revolutionary War the viability of the American government was
threatened by political unrest in several states, efforts by debtors to
use popular government to erase their debts, and the apparent inability
of the Continental Congress to redeem the public HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obligations” \o “Obligations” obligations
incurred during the war. The Congress also appeared unable to become a
forum for productive cooperation among the States encouraging commerce
and economic development. In response a HYPERLINK
\o “United States Constitutional Convention” Constitutional Convention
was convened, ostensibly to reform the Articles of Confederation but
that subsequently began to draft a new system of government that would
include greater executive power while retaining the checks and balances
thought to be essential restraints on any imperial tendency in the
office of the president.

Before the 1788 ratification of the Constitution, there was no
comparable figure with executive authority. Individuals who presided
over the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_Congress”
\o “Continental Congress” Continental Congress during the
Revolutionary period and under the Articles of Confederation had the
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_Continental_Congress” \o
“President of the Continental Congress” President of the United States
of America in Congress Assembled “, often shortened to “President of the
United States”. They had no important executive power. The president’s
executive authority under the Constitution, tempered by the checks and
balances of the judicial and legislative branches of the federal
government, was designed to solve several political problems faced by
the young nation and to anticipate future challenges, while still
preventing the rise of an autocrat over a nation wary of royal


ion” \o “Article Two of the United States Constitution” Article Two of
the Constitution sets the qualifications required to become president.
Presidents must be HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural-born_citizen” \o “Natural-born
citizen” natural-born citizens of the United States, at least
thirty-five years old, and must have been HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Residency” \o “Residency” resident in
the United States for at least fourteen years. Citizens at the time of
adoption of the Constitution were also eligible to become president,
provided they met the age and residency requirements. While not an
official requirement, the vast majority of presidents had prior
experience as vice presidents, members of Congress, governors, or
generals; in addition, thirty-one of forty-two presidents served in the
military, all but one of them, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Buchanan” \o “James Buchanan” James
Buchanan , as an officer. During the electoral process, experience or
lack thereof is often given as a point in a presidential candidate’s
campaign. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-Article_II” \o “” [6]

Candidates usually must receive the backing of a major political party.
This is not strictly required in order to be considered a serious
candidate. Third-party candidate HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ross_Perot” \o “Ross Perot” Ross Perot
received nearly 19% of the vote in the HYPERLINK
2” \o “United States presidential election, 1992” 1992 election .


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Electoral_map.svg” \o

A map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes
currently allocated to each state; 270 electoral votes are required for
a majority out of 538 overall

Unlike most other countries using the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidential_system” \o “Presidential
system” presidential system , presidents are elected HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indirect_election” \o “Indirect election”
indirectly in the United States. A number of electors, collectively
known as the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Electoral_College” \o
“United States Electoral College” United States Electoral College ,
select the president instead. Each state is allocated a number of
electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress
combined. Additionally, the HYPERLINK
s_Constitution” \o “Twenty-third Amendment to the United States
Constitution” Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution grants
electors to the District of Columbia as if it were a state, with the
restriction that it may not have more representation than the least
populated state. Electoral apportionment is adjusted every ten years, in
alignment with the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Census” \o “United States
Census” census . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_legislature_%28United_States%29” \o
“State legislature (United States)” State legislatures are
constitutionally empowered to appoint electors, however, all of the
fifty states have established their popular selection.


ion” \o “Article Two of the United States Constitution” Article Two of
the Constitution originally established the method of presidential
election. It also used an electoral college, but there was a major
difference in the voting system. Each elector cast two votes, with the
intention that one would be used for a presidential and the other for a
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vice_President_of_the_United_States” \o
“Vice President of the United States” vice presidential candidate. The
candidate with the highest number of votes would become the president,
while the second-place candidate becoming the vice president.

However, the HYPERLINK
6” \o “United States presidential election, 1796” 1796 and HYPERLINK
0” \o “United States presidential election, 1800” 1800 elections
highlighted flaws in the electoral system in use at the time. In
particular, the tie in the electoral vote that resulted from the lack of
separation between presidential and vice presidential votes in the
latter election was an issue. The HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic-Republican_Party” \o
“Democratic-Republican Party” Democratic-Republican Party ‘s
candidates, who won the election, were tied with each other, and as a
result, the election was thrown to the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_of_Representatives” \o
“United States House of Representatives” House of Representatives in
the outgoing HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalist_Party_%28United_States%29” \o
“Federalist Party (United States)” Federalist Party -controlled
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6th_United_States_Congress” \o
“6th United States Congress” 6th Congress . Federalist representatives
attempted to elect HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Burr”
\o “Aaron Burr” Aaron Burr , the Democratic-Republican candidate for
vice president, over HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson” \o “Thomas Jefferson”
Thomas Jefferson , the presidential candidate. Jefferson eventually won
after HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Hamilton” \o
“Alexander Hamilton” Alexander Hamilton managed to swing one state
delegation’s vote to him. As a result, Congress proposed the HYPERLINK
stitution” \o “Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution”
Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution in 1803, and it was ratified in
1804. This amendment created the electoral system used today.


The modern presidential campaign begins before the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_primary” \o
“United States presidential primary” primary elections , which the two
major political parties use to clear the field of candidates in advance
of their HYPERLINK
\o “U.S. presidential nominating convention” national nominating
conventions , where the most successful candidate is made the party’s
nominee for president. The party’s presidential candidate chooses a vice
presidential nominee and this choice is rubber-stamped by the
convention. Also, the party establishes a platform on which to base its
campaign. Although nominating conventions have a long history in the
United States, their substantive importance in the political process has
greatly diminished; however, they remain important as a way of
energizing the parties for the general election and focusing public
attention on the nominees.

Nominees participate in HYPERLINK
s” \o “United States presidential election debates” nationally
televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Party_%28United_States%29” \o
“Democratic Party (United States)” Democratic and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republican_Party_%28United_States%29” \o
“Republican Party (United States)” Republican nominees, third party
candidates may be invited, such as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ross_Perot” \o “Ross Perot” Ross Perot
in the 1992 debates. Nominees campaign across the country to explain
their views, convince voters, and solicit contributions. Much of the
modern electoral process is concerned with winning HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swing_state” \o “Swing state” swing
states through frequent visits and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_media” \o “Mass media” mass media
advertising drives.

Electoral College

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:FORPRES.jpg” \o

President HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Bush” \o
“George W. Bush” George W. Bush (second from left), walks with, from
left, former Presidents HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_H.W._Bush” \o “George H.W. Bush”
George H.W. Bush , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton” \o “Bill Clinton” Bill
Clinton , and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter” \o
“Jimmy Carter” Jimmy Carter during the dedication of the HYPERLINK
_Park” \o “William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park” William J.
Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_18” \o “November 18”
November 18 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004” \o “2004”

Voters in each of the states elect a president on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Election_Day_%28United_States%29” \o
“Election Day (United States)” Election Day , set by law as the first
Tuesday after the first Monday in November, once every four years;
elections for other offices at all levels of government also occur on
this date. Each state holds a number of electoral votes which correspond
to electors in the Electoral College. Tickets of presidential and vice
presidential candidates are shown on the ballot; each vote for the
tickets actually corresponds to a vote for a slate of electors chosen by
the candidates’ political party. In most states, the ticket that wins
the most votes in a state wins all of that state’s electoral votes, and
thus has their slate of electors chosen to vote in the Electoral
College. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maine” \o “Maine”
Maine and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebraska” \o
“Nebraska” Nebraska do not use this method, opting instead to give two
electoral votes to the statewide winner and one electoral vote to the
winner of each Congressional district. Neither state has split electoral
votes between candidates as a result of this system in modern elections.
In any case, the winning set of electors meets at their state’s capital
on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, a few weeks
after the election, to vote, and sends a vote count to Congress.

The vote count is opened by the sitting vice president, acting in his
capacity as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_Senate” \l
“United_States_Senate” \o “President of the Senate” President of the
Senate , and read aloud to a HYPERLINK
s” \o “Joint session of the United States Congress” joint session of
the incoming Congress, which was elected at the same time as the
president. Members of Congress can object to any state’s vote count,
provided that the objection is supported by at least one member of each
house of Congress. A successful objection will be followed by debate;
however, objections to the electoral vote count are rarely raised.

In the event that no candidate receives a majority of the electoral
vote, the House of Representatives chooses the president from among the
top three contenders. However, the House does not vote normally;
instead, each state delegation is given only one vote, marginalizing the
importance of more populous states. The vice president is chosen through
normal voting in the Senate, where each state delegation is already of
equal size.


When the Constitution was written, the framers disagreed on the
selection of the president: some favored national popular vote, while
others wanted Congress to choose the president. The Electoral College
was created as a compromise between the two proposals. It gave rural
areas and smaller states a slightly larger role in determining the
outcome of the election, and it continues to do so today; for example,
the largest state by population, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California” \o “California” California ,
only has about one electoral vote for every 660,000 residents, while the
smallest, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wyoming” \o
“Wyoming” Wyoming , has an electoral vote for about every 170,000.

Today, most of the electoral process is a formality in the public eye,
as the choice of electors determines the result of the election, with a
few exceptions. However, the Twelfth Amendment was written in a time
when voters at large had little knowledge of candidates outside their
state. As a result, the amendment accommodated this; the electors that
voters had chosen were supposed to learn about the other candidates, and
make an informed decision that represented the wishes of their
constituents. Modern communication has rendered this unnecessary, and as
a result, voters now choose between electors that are already pledged to
a presidential candidate.

Term of office

A president’s term of office begins at noon on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_20” \o “January 20” January 20
of the year following the election. This date, known as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inauguration_Day” \o “Inauguration Day”
Inauguration Day , marks the beginning of the president’s and vice
president’s four-year terms. Before assuming office, the president-elect
is constitutionally required to take the HYPERLINK
ted_States” \o “Oath of office of the President of the United States”
presidential oath :

“ I do solemnly swear (or HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affirmation” \o “Affirmation” affirm )
that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United
States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and
defend the Constitution of the United States. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-Article_II” \o “” [6] ”

Presidents traditionally include “So help me God” at the end of the
ted_States” \o “Oath of office of the President of the United States”
oath .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington” \o “George
Washington” George Washington , the first president, set an unofficial
term limit of two terms, which was generally followed by subsequent
presidents as precedent. After the twelve-year presidency of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt” \o “Franklin D.
Roosevelt” Franklin D. Roosevelt , who was elected four times, but died
shortly after beginning his fourth term, the HYPERLINK
es_Constitution” \o “Twenty-second Amendment to the United States
Constitution” Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution was
ratified, barring presidents from being elected more than twice, or once
if they served more than half of another president’s term. Prior to
Roosevelt, several presidents had campaigned for a third term, but none
were elected. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_S._Truman”
\o “Harry S. Truman” Harry S. Truman , who was president at the time of
the amendment’s ratification and thus not subject to its terms, also
briefly sought a third term before withdrawing from the HYPERLINK
2” \o “United States presidential election, 1952” 1952 race.

Since the amendment’s ratification, three presidents have served two
full terms: HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower” \o “Dwight D.
Eisenhower” Dwight D. Eisenhower , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan” \o “Ronald Reagan” Ronald
Reagan , and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton” \o
“Bill Clinton” Bill Clinton . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon” \o “Richard Nixon” Richard
Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it;
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Bush” \o “George W.
Bush” George W. Bush will become the fourth upon completion of his
current term on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_20” \o
“January 20” January 20 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009” \o “2009” 2009 . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyndon_B._Johnson” \o “Lyndon B. Johnson”
Lyndon B. Johnson was the only president under the amendment to be
eligible to serve more than two terms in total, having only served for
14 months following HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy” \o “John F. Kennedy”
John F. Kennedy ‘s HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy_assassination” \o “John F.
Kennedy assassination” assassination . However, he chose not to run in
8” \o “United States presidential election, 1968” 1968 election .

Removal from office

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Five_Presidents.jpg” \o

(From left) President HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_H.W._Bush” \o “George H.W. Bush”
George H.W. Bush , with former Presidents HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan” \o “Ronald Reagan” Ronald
Reagan , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter” \o
“Jimmy Carter” Jimmy Carter , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_R._Ford” \o “Gerald R. Ford”
Gerald R. Ford , and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon” \o “Richard Nixon” Richard
Nixon at the dedication of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan_Presidential_Library” \o
“Ronald Reagan Presidential Library” Ronald Reagan Presidential Library
in 1991

Vacancies in the office of President may arise because of death,
resignation, or removal from office. Articles HYPERLINK
ion” \o “Article One of the United States Constitution” One and Two of
the Constitution allow the House of Representatives to impeach high
federal officials, including the president, for “treason, bribery, or
other high crimes and misdemeanors”, and give the Senate the power to
remove impeached officials from office, given a two-thirds vote to
convict. Two presidents have thus far been impeached by the House,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Johnson” \o “Andrew
Johnson” Andrew Johnson in 1868 and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton” \o “Bill Clinton” Bill
Clinton in 1998. Neither was subsequently convicted by the Senate;
however, Johnson was acquitted by just one vote.

s_Constitution” \o “Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States
Constitution” Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president and a
majority of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Cabinet” \o “United States
Cabinet” Cabinet may suspend the president from discharging the powers
and duties of the office once they transmit a statement declaring the
president’s incapacity to discharge the duties of the office. to the
esentatives” \o “Speaker of the United States House of Representatives”
Speaker of the House and the HYPERLINK
_Senate” \o “President pro tempore of the United States Senate”
President pro tempore of the Senate . If this occurs, then the vice
president will assume the powers and duties of President as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acting_President_of_the_United_States” \o
“Acting President of the United States” Acting President ; however, the
president can declare that no such inability exists, and resume
executing the Presidency. If the vice president and Cabinet contest this
claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not
already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

The United States Constitution mentions the resignation of the president
but does not regulate the form of such a resignation or the conditions
for its validity. By Act of Congress, the only valid evidence of the
president’s decision to resign is a written instrument declaring the
resignation signed by the president and delivered to the office of the
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Secretary_of_State” \o
“United States Secretary of State” Secretary of State . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-1” \o “” [7] The only
president to resign was HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon” \o “Richard Nixon” Richard
Nixon on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_9” \o “August
9” August 9 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1974” \o “1974”
1974 ; he was facing likely impeachment and possible subsequent
conviction in the midst of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watergate_scandal” \o “Watergate scandal”
Watergate scandal . Just before his resignation, the HYPERLINK
iary” \o “United States House Committee on the Judiciary” House
Judiciary Committee had reported favorably on articles of impeachment
against him.

The Constitution states that the vice president is to be the president’s
successor in the case of a vacancy. If both the president and vice
president are killed or unable to serve for any reason, the next officer
ion” \o “United States presidential line of succession” presidential
line of succession , currently the Speaker of the House, becomes acting
president. The list extends to the President pro tempore of the Senate
after the Speaker, followed by every member of the Cabinet in a set

Duties and powers

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:SOU2007.jpg” \o

President HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Bush” \o
“George W. Bush” George W. Bush delivering the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_State_of_the_Union_Address” \o “2007
State of the Union Address” 2007 State of the Union Address , with
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vice_President_of_the_United_States” \o
“Vice President of the United States” Vice President HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Cheney” \o “Dick Cheney” Dick Cheney
esentatives” \o “Speaker of the United States House of Representatives”
Speaker of the House HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nancy_Pelosi” \o “Nancy Pelosi” Nancy
Pelosi behind him

Main article: HYPERLINK
es” \o “Powers of the President of the United States” Powers of the
President of the United States

The president is the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_executive” \o “Chief executive”
chief executive of the United States, putting him at the head of the
executive branch of the government, whose responsibility is to “take
care that the laws be faithfully executed”. To carry out this duty, he
is given control of the four million employees of the vast executive
branch, including one million active duty personnel in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_of_the_United_States” \o
“Military of the United States” military . Both the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislative_branch” \o “Legislative
branch” legislative and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judicial_branch” \o “Judicial branch”
judicial branches maintain HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Checks_and_balances” \o “Checks and
balances” checks and balances on the powers of the president, and vice

Various executive and judicial branch appointments are made by
presidents, including HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President-elect” \o “President-elect”
presidents-elect . Up to 6,000 appointments may be made by an incoming
president before he takes office, and 8,000 more may be made while in
office. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambassador” \o
“Ambassador” Ambassadors , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judge” \o “Judge” judges of the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_federal_courts” \o
“United States federal courts” federal court system , members of the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Cabinet” \o
“United States Cabinet” Cabinet , and other federal officers are all
appointed by the president, with the ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advice_and_consent” \o “Advice and
consent” advice and consent ” of a simple majority of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Senate” \o “United States
Senate” Senate ; appointments made while the Senate is in recess are
temporary and expire at the end of the next session of the Senate. He
may also grant HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pardon” \o
“Pardon” pardons , as is often done just before the end of a
presidential term.

In addition, while the president cannot directly introduce legislation,
he can play an important role in shaping it, especially if the
president’s political party has a majority in one or both houses of
Congress. While members of the executive branch are prohibited from
simultaneously holding seats in Congress, they often write legislation
and allow a member of Congress to introduce it for them. The president
can further influence the legislative branch through the annual
constitutionally mandated HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_the_Union_Address” \o “State of
the Union Address” State of the Union Address , which outlines the
president’s legislative proposals for the coming year. If Congress
passes a bill that the president disapproves of, he may HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veto” \o “Veto” veto it; the veto can be
overridden only by two-thirds of both houses of Congress, making it
substantially more difficult to enact the law.

Perhaps the most important of all presidential powers is command of the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_of_the_United_States”
\o “Military of the United States” armed forces as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commander-in-chief” \o
“Commander-in-chief” commander-in-chief . The framers of the
Constitution took care to limit the president’s powers regarding the
military; HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalist_Papers”
\o “Federalist Papers” Federalist Papers HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalist_No._69” \o “Federalist No. 69”
#69 writes in part:

“ The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the
United States. […] It would amount to nothing more than the supreme
command and direction of the military and naval forces […] while that
[the power] of the British king extends to the DECLARING of war and to
the RAISING and REGULATING of fleets and armies, all [of] which […]
would appertain to the legislature. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-2” \o “” [8] ”

While the power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress,
the president commands and directs the military and is responsible for
planning military strategy. Congress, pursuant the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Powers_Act” \o “War Powers Act” War
Powers Act , must authorize any troop deployments more than 60 days in
length. Military spending and regulations are also governed by Congress,
providing a check to presidential power. Along with the armed forces,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_policy” \o “Foreign
policy” foreign policy is also directed by the president, including
the ability to negotiate HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty” \o “Treaty” treaties , which must
be ratified by two-thirds of the Senate.

Privileges of office

\o “Enlarge”

Presidential authority, past and present: HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Force_One” \o “Air Force One” Air
Force One flying over HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Rushmore” \o “Mount Rushmore” Mount

The president is entitled to use the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_House” \o “White House” White House
as his living and working quarters, and its entire staff and
facilities, including medical care, kitchen, housekeeping and security
staff. While travelling, the president is able to conduct the functions
of the office from one of two custom-built HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_747” \o “Boeing 747” Boeing 747
aircraft, known as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Force_One” \o “Air Force One” Air
Force One . HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-3” \o
“” [9] The president also utilizes a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Marine_Corps” \o “United
States Marine Corps” United States Marine Corps helicopter, designated
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_One” \o “Marine One”
Marine One when the president is aboard. Similarly, ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navy_One” \o “Navy One” Navy One “, ”
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_One” \o “Army One” Army
One ,” and ” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coast_Guard_One”
\o “Coast Guard One” Coast Guard One ” are the call signs used if the
president is aboard a craft belonging to these services. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-4” \o “” [10] For ground
travel, the president uses an armored HYPERLINK
” \o “Presidential State Car (United States)” presidential limousine ,
currently a heavily modified HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadillac_DTS” \o “Cadillac DTS” Cadillac
DTS which uses the call sign “Cadillac One.”


“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_United_States_Congress” \o “First
United States Congress” First U.S. Congress voted to pay HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington” \o “George Washington”
George Washington a salary of $25,000 a year, about $566,000 in 2007
terms. Washington, already a wealthy man, refused to accept his salary,
however, he asked for his living expenses to be covered. Theodore
Roosevelt spent his entire $50,000 salary on entertaining guests at the
White House. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-5” \o
“” [11] HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy” \o
“John F. Kennedy” John F. Kennedy donated his salary to charities.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-6” \o “” [12]

Presidential pay history

Date established Salary Salary in 2007


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_24” \o “September
24” September 24 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1789” \o
“1789” 1789 $25,000 $566,000

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_3” \o “March 3” March 3
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1873” \o “1873” 1873
$50,000 $865,000

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_4” \o “March 4” March 4
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1909” \o “1909” 1909
$75,000 $1,714,000

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_19” \o “January 19”
January 19 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1949” \o “1949”
1949 $100,000 $875,000

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_20” \o “January 20”
January 20 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1969” \o “1969”
1969 $200,000 $1,135,000

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_20” \o “January 20”
January 20 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001” \o “2001”
2001 $400,000 $471,000

Traditionally, the president is the highest-paid government employee.
President Bush currently earns $400,000 per year, along with a $50,000
expense account, a $100,000 nontaxable travel account, and $19,000 for
entertainment. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-salary_details” \o “” [16] The president’s salary and total
expense account serve as an unofficial cap for all other federal
officials’ salaries, such as that of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_Justice_of_the_United_States” \o
“Chief Justice of the United States” Chief Justice . The most recent
raise in salary was approved by Congress and President HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton” \o “Bill Clinton” Bill
Clinton in 1999 and came into force in 2001; prior to the change, the
president earned $200,000, plus expense accounts. This was needed
because other officials who received annual cost-of-living increases had
salaries approaching that of the president, and in order to raise their
salaries further, his needed to be raised as well. Monetary compensation
for the president is minuscule in comparison to the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_executive_officer” \o “Chief
executive officer” CEOs of most HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortune_500” \o “Fortune 500” Fortune 500
companies and comparable to that of certain kinds of professionals,
such as HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attorney” \o
“Attorney” attorneys and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physician” \o “Physician” physicians in
some parts of the United States. Overall the vast majority of U.S.
presidents were very affluent upon entering office and thus were not
dependent on the salary.

Prior to passage by Congress of the Former Presidents Act (FPA) in 1958,
retired presidents did not receive a pension. All living presidents in
1959 began to receive a pension of $25,000 per year, an office, and a
staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional
approval. Retired presidents now receive a pension based on the salary
of the current administration’s cabinet secretaries (Executive Level I),
which is $183,500 as of 2007. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/”
\l “_note-7” \o “” [17] Some former presidents have also collected
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congressional_pension” \o
“Congressional pension” congressional pensions . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-8” \o “” [18] The FPA, as
amended, also provides former presidents with travel funds and mailing

Secret Service

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Secret_Service” \o “United
States Secret Service” United States Secret Service is charged with
protecting the sitting president and his family. Until 1997, all former
presidents and their families were protected by the Secret Service until
the president’s death. The last president to have lifetime Secret
Service protection is HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Clinton” \o “Bill Clinton” Bill
Clinton ; George W. Bush and all subsequent presidents will be protected
by the Secret Service for a maximum of ten years after leaving office.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-9” \o “” [19]
However, debates in Congress have been raised concerning this decision.
Following the increase in terrorism and threats to the president in
general since 1997, lifetime protection is being reconsidered.

Presidential libraries

Each president since HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Hoover” \o “Herbert Hoover”
Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidential_library” \o “Presidential
library” presidential library for preserving and making available
their papers, records, and other documents and materials. Completed
libraries are deeded to and maintained by the HYPERLINK
on” \o “National Archives and Records Administration” National Archives
; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come
from private, non-federal sources. There are currently twelve
presidential libraries in the NARA system. There are also a number of
presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private
foundations, such as the HYPERLINK
useum” \o “Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum” Abraham
Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois” \o “Illinois”
Illinois .

After the presidency

Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office.
Prominent examples include HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Howard_Taft” \o “William Howard
Taft” William Howard Taft ‘s tenure as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_Justice_of_the_United_States” \o
“Chief Justice of the United States” Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Hoover” \o
“Herbert Hoover” Herbert Hoover ‘s work on government reorganization
after HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II” \o “World
War II” World War II . More recently, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter” \o “Jimmy Carter” Jimmy
Carter has become a global HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights” \o “Human rights” human
rights campaigner, international arbiter and election monitor, and a
best-selling author. Other former presidents have served in elected
office after leaving the White House; HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Johnson” \o “Andrew Johnson”
Andrew Johnson was elected to the Senate after his term was over, and
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Quincy_Adams” \o “John
Quincy Adams” John Quincy Adams served in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_of_Representatives” \o
“United States House of Representatives” House of Representatives for
eighteen years. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grover_Cleveland” \o “Grover Cleveland”
Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in 1888, was elected
president again four years later in 1892. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Tyler” \o “John Tyler” John Tyler
served in the provisional HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_States_Congress” \o
“Confederate States Congress” Confederate States Congress during the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War” \o “American
Civil War” Civil War , and was elected to the official Confederate
Congress but died before it convened.

See also

\o “List of Presidents of the United States” List of Presidents of the
United States

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curse_of_Tippecanoe” \o “Curse
of Tippecanoe” Curse of Tippecanoe

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_privilege” \o
“Executive privilege” Executive privilege

al_succession” \o “Fiction regarding United States presidential
succession” Fiction regarding United States presidential succession

dents” \o “Historical rankings of United States Presidents” Historical
rankings of United States Presidents

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_Continental_Congress” \o
“President of the Continental Congress” President of the Continental

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidential_%241_Coin_Program” \o
“Presidential $1 Coin Program” Presidential $1 Coin Program

8” \o “United States presidential election, 2008” United States
presidential election, 2008

es_presidency” \o “Category:Lists relating to the United States
presidency” Category:Lists relating to the United States presidency

y” \o “Category:United States presidential history” Category:United
States presidential history

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