Реферат на тему:

President of the United States Abraham Lincoln

16th HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States» \o
«President of the United States» President of the United States

In office

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_4» \o «March 4» March 4
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1861» \o «1861» 1861  – 
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_15» \o «April 15» April
15 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1865» \o «1865» 1865

Vice President(s) HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hannibal_Hamlin» \o «Hannibal Hamlin»
Hannibal Hamlin (1861 — 1865)

Member of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_of_Representatives» \o
«United States House of Representatives» U.S. House of Representatives

from HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois» \o «Illinois»
Illinois ‘s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois%27s_7th_congressional_district»
\o «Illinois’s 7th congressional district» 7th district

In office

Born HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_12» \o «February
12» February 12 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1809» \o
«1809» 1809 (1809-02-12)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardin_County%2C_Kentucky» \o
«Hardin County, Kentucky» Hardin County, Kentucky

Died HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_15» \o «April 15»
April 15 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1865» \o «1865»
1865 (aged 56)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington%2C_D.C.» \o
«Washington, D.C.» Washington, D.C.

Nationality American

Political party HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Whig_Party» \o «United
States Whig Party» Whig , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States_Republican_Pa
rty» \o «History of the United States Republican Party» Republican

Spouse HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Todd_Lincoln» \o
«Mary Todd Lincoln» Mary Todd Lincoln

Occupation HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawyer» \o «Lawyer»
Lawyer

Religion raised by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard-shell_Baptists» \o «Hard-shell
Baptists» Hard-shell Baptists ; rented a pew in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Avenue_Presbyterian_Church» \o
«New York Avenue Presbyterian Church» New York Avenue Presbyterian
Church ; never officially acquired membership in a church

Signature HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Abraham_Lincoln_Signature.png» \o
«Abraham Lincoln’s signature»

Contents

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Lincoln_1809_to_1854» 1
Lincoln 1809 to 1854

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Early_life» 1.1 Early
life

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Early_career» 1.2 Early
career

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Family» 1.3 Family

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Legislative_activity»
1.4 Legislative activity

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Prairie_lawyer» 1.5
Prairie lawyer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Republican_politics_1854.E2.80.931860» 2 Republican politics 1854–1860

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Election_of_1860» 3
Election of 1860

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Civil_War» 4 Civil War

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Secession_winter_1860.E2.80.931861» 4.1 Secession winter 1860–1861

HYPERLINK «» \l «Fighting_begins:_1861.E2.80.931862» 4.2 Fighting
begins: 1861–1862

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Emancipation_Proclamation» 4.3 Emancipation Proclamation

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Domestic_measures» 4.4
Domestic measures

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«1864_election_and_second_inauguration» 4.5 1864 election and second
inauguration

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Conducting_the_war_effort» 4.6 Conducting the war effort

Abraham Lincoln ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_12»
\o «February 12» February 12 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1809» \o «1809» 1809 – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_15» \o «April 15» April 15 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1865» \o «1865» 1865 ) was the
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States»
\o «List of Presidents of the United States» sixteenth HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States» \o
«President of the United States» President of the United States ,
serving from HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_4» \o
«March 4» March 4 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1861» \o
«1861» 1861 until his death on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_15» \o «April 15» April 15 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1865» \o «1865» 1865 . As an
outspoken opponent of the expansion of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_the_United_States»
\o «History of slavery in the United States» slavery , he won the
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republican_Party_%28United_States%29» \o
«Republican Party (United States)» Republican Party nomination in 1860
and was elected president later that year. During his term, he helped
preserve the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o
«United States» United States by leading the defeat of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secession» \o «Secession» secessionist
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_States_of_America»
\o «Confederate States of America» Confederate States of America in
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War» \o
«American Civil War» American Civil War . He introduced measures that
resulted in the abolition of slavery, issuing his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation» \o
«Emancipation Proclamation» Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and
promoting the passage of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_
Constitution» \o «Thirteenth Amendment to the United States
Constitution» Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865.

Lincoln’s leadership qualities were evident in his close supervision of
the victorious war effort, especially in his selection of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant» \o «Ulysses S. Grant»
Ulysses S. Grant and other top generals. Historians conclude that he
handled the factions of the Republican Party brilliantly by bringing its
leaders into his cabinet and forcing them to cooperate. In crisis
management, he defused a war scare with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom» \o «United Kingdom»
United Kingdom (1861), he outmaneuvered the Confederacy and took
control of the border slave states in 1861 – 1862, and he managed his
own landslide reelection in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election%2C_186
4» \o «United States presidential election, 1864″ 1864 presidential
election .

Antiwar » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copperheads_%28politics%29» \o
«Copperheads (politics)» Copperheads » criticized him for refusing to
compromise on the slavery issue. In contrast, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radical_Republican_%28USA%29» \o «Radical
Republican (USA)» Radical Republicans , a strongly Abolitionist faction
of the Republican Party, criticized him for moving too slowly in
abolishing slavery. Lincoln successfully rallied public opinion through
the powerful rhetoric of his messages and speeches; his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gettysburg_Address» \o «Gettysburg
Address» Gettysburg Address is remembered as a prime example of this.
At the close of the war, Lincoln took a moderate view of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconstruction» \o «Reconstruction»
Reconstruction , seeking to speedily re-unite the nation through a
policy of generous reconciliation. His HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln_assassination» \o «Abraham
Lincoln assassination» assassination in 1865 was the first in U.S.
history and made him a martyr for the ideal of national unity.

Scholars rank Lincoln among the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_rankings_of_United_States_Presi
dents» \o «Historical rankings of United States Presidents» top three
U.S. Presidents , with the highest of those surveyed placing him at
number one. He is noted for his lasting influence on U.S. politics,
including a redefinition of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republicanism_in_the_United_States» \o
«Republicanism in the United States» republican values . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-0» \o «» [1]

Lincoln 1809 to 1854

Early life

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln%27s_early_life_and_career»
\o «Abraham Lincoln’s early life and career» Abraham Lincoln’s early
life and career

Abraham Lincoln was born on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_12» \o «February 12» February 12
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1809» \o «1809» 1809 , to
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Lincoln» \o «Thomas
Lincoln» Thomas Lincoln and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nancy_Hanks_Lincoln» \o «Nancy Hanks
Lincoln» Nancy Hanks Lincoln , two uneducated farmers. He was born in a
one-room HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Log_cabin» \o «Log
cabin» log cabin on the 348 acre (1.4 km?) Sinking Spring Farm, in
Nolin Creek, three miles (5 km) south of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hodgenville» \o «Hodgenville» Hodgenville
, in southeast HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardin_County%2C_Kentucky» \o «Hardin
County, Kentucky» Hardin County, Kentucky (now part of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LaRue_County%2C_Kentucky» \o «LaRue
County, Kentucky» LaRue County ), an area which, at that time, was
considered the » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontier» \o
«Frontier» frontier .» The name Abraham was chosen to commemorate his
grandfather, who was killed in an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_of_the_Americas» \o
«Indigenous peoples of the Americas» American Indian raid in 1786.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-1» \o «» [2] His
elder sister, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Lincoln»
\o «Sarah Lincoln» Sarah Lincoln , was born in 1807; a younger brother,
Thomas Jr, died in infancy. It is sometimes debated whether Abraham
Lincoln had HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marfan_syndrome»
\o «Marfan syndrome» Marfan syndrome , an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autosome» \o «Autosome» autosomal
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominant_gene» \o «Dominant
gene» dominant disorder of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connective_tissue» \o «Connective tissue»
connective tissue characterized by long limbs and great physical
stature. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-2» \o «»
[3]

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Abe-Lincoln-Birthplace-2.jpg» \o
«Enlarge»

Symbolic log cabin at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln_Birthplace_National_Histor
ic_Site» \o «Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site» Abraham
Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site

For some time, Thomas Lincoln was a respected and relatively affluent
citizen of the Kentucky back country. He had purchased Sinking Spring
Farm in December 1808 for $200 cash and assumption of a debt. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-3» \o «» [4] The family
belonged to a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baptist» \o
«Baptist» Baptist church that had seceded from a larger church over
the issue of slavery. While exposed to his parents’ anti-slavery
sentiment from a very young age, Lincoln never joined their church, or
any other, and as a youth he ridiculed religion. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-4» \o «» [5]

In 1816, when Lincoln was just seven years old, the family was forced to
make a new start in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perry_County%2C_Indiana» \o «Perry County,
Indiana» Perry County (now in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spencer_County%2C_Indiana» \o «Spencer
County, Indiana» Spencer County ), Indiana. He later noted that this
move was «partly on account of slavery,» and partly because of
difficulties with land deeds in Kentucky: Unlike land in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Territory» \o «Northwest
Territory» Northwest Territory , Kentucky never had a proper U.S.
survey, and farmers often had difficulties proving title to their
property. In 1818, Lincoln’s mother, then thirty-four years old, died of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk_sickness» \o «Milk
sickness» milk sickness : Lincoln was only nine at the time. Soon
afterwards, his father remarried to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Bush_Lincoln» \o «Sarah Bush
Lincoln» Sarah Bush Johnston . Sarah Lincoln raised young Lincoln like
one of her own children. Years later she compared Lincoln to her own
son, saying «Both were good boys, but I must say — both now being dead
that Abe was the best boy I ever saw or ever expect to see.» Lincoln was
affectionate toward his step-mother, whom he would call «Mother» for the
rest of his life, but he was distant from his father. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-5» \o «» [6]

In 1830, after more economic and land-title difficulties in Indiana, the
family settled on public land HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/»
\l «_note-6» \o «» [7] in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macon_County%2C_Illinois» \o «Macon
County, Illinois» Macon County, Illinois , 10 miles (16 km) west of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decatur%2C_Illinois» \o
«Decatur, Illinois» Decatur . Some scholars believe that it was his
father’s repeated land-title difficulties and ensuing financial
hardships that led young Lincoln to study law. The following winter was
desolate and especially brutal, and the family nearly moved back to
Indiana. The following year, when his father relocated the family to a
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_Log_Cabin_State_Historic_Site» \o
«Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site» new homestead in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coles_County%2C_Illinois» \o «Coles
County, Illinois» Coles County, Illinois , twenty-two-year-old Lincoln
struck out on his own, canoing down the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sangamon_River» \o «Sangamon River»
Sangamon River to the village of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Salem_%28Menard_County%29%2C_Illinois»
\o «New Salem (Menard County), Illinois» New Salem in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sangamon_County%2C_Illinois» \o «Sangamon
County, Illinois» Sangamon County . Later that year, hired by New Salem
businessman HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denton_Offutt» \o
«Denton Offutt» Denton Offutt and accompanied by friends, he took
goods from New Salem to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Orleans%2C_Louisiana» \o «New Orleans,
Louisiana» New Orleans via flatboat on the Sangamon, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois_River» \o «Illinois River»
Illinois and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_River» \o «Mississippi River»
Mississippi rivers. While in New Orleans, he may have witnessed a slave
auction, though as a frequent visitor to Kentucky, he would have had
several earlier opportunities to witness similar sales. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-7» \o «» [8]

Lincoln’s formal education consisted of about 18 months of schooling.
Largely self-educated, he read every book he could get his hands on,
once walking 20 miles (32 km) just to borrow one. While his favorite
book was The Life of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington» \o «George Washington»
George Washington , Lincoln mastered the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible» \o «Bible» Bible , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shakespeare» \o «William
Shakespeare» Shakespeare , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_history» \o «English history»
English and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_history»
\o «American history» American history , and developed a plain writing
style that puzzled audiences more used to grandiloquent rhetoric. He was
also a talented local wrestler and skilled with an ax; some rails he had
allegedly split in his youth were exhibited at the 1860 Republican
National Convention, as the party celebrated the poor-boy-made-good
theme. He avoided hunting and fishing because he did not like killing
animals even for food and, though unusually tall (6 feet, 4 inches) and
strong, spent so much time reading that some neighbors suspected he must
be doing it to avoid strenuous manual labor.

Early career

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Abe_Lincoln_young.jpg»
\o «Enlarge»

Young Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln began his political career in 1832, at age 23, with an
unsuccessful campaign for the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois_General_Assembly» \o «Illinois
General Assembly» Illinois General Assembly , as a member of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whig_Party_%28United_States%29»
\o «Whig Party (United States)» Whig Party . He ran eighth in a field
of 13 candidates. The centerpiece of his platform was the undertaking of
navigational improvements on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beardstown_and_Sangamon_Canal» \o
«Beardstown and Sangamon Canal» Sangamon River . He believed that this
would attract steamboat traffic, which would allow the sparsely
populated, poorer areas along the river to flourish.

He was elected captain of an Illinois HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militia» \o «Militia» militia company
drawn from New Salem during the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Hawk_War» \o «Black Hawk War» Black
Hawk War , and later wrote that he had not had «any such success in life
which gave him so much satisfaction.» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-8» \o «» [9] Though he never
saw combat, Lincoln did assist in burying the dead from the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Stillman%27s_Run» \o «Battle of
Stillman’s Run» Battle of Stillman’s Run the day after Major
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaiah_Stillman» \o «Isaiah
Stillman» Isaiah Stillman ‘s troops fled the field of battle.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-Abraham_Lincoln» \o
«» [10]

For several months, Lincoln ran a small store in New Salem, selling
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tea» \o «Tea» tea , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffee» \o «Coffee» coffee , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar» \o «Sugar» sugar , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt» \o «Salt» salt , blue HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calico» \o «Calico» calico , brown
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslin» \o «Muslin» muslin ,
straw hats and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whiskey» \o
«Whiskey» whiskey . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-9» \o «» [11] Later, he found work as village postmaster and as
a surveyor.

In 1834, he won election to the state legislature, and after coming
across the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commentaries_on_the_Laws_of_England» \o
«Commentaries on the Laws of England» Commentaries on the Laws of
England , began to teach himself law. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Admission_to_the_bar_in_the_United_States»
\o «Admission to the bar in the United States» Admitted to the bar in
1837, he moved to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Springfield%2C_Illinois» \o «Springfield,
Illinois» Springfield, Illinois , that same year and began to practice
law with HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_T._Stuart» \o
«John T. Stuart» John T. Stuart . With a reputation as a formidable
adversary during cross-examinations and in his closing arguments,
Lincoln became one of the most respected and successful lawyers in
Illinois and grew steadily more prosperous.

He served four successive terms in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois_House_of_Representatives» \o
«Illinois House of Representatives» Illinois House of Representatives
as a representative from Sangamon County, and became a leader of the
Illinois Whig party. In 1837, he made his first protest against slavery
in the Illinois House, stating that the institution was «founded on both
injustice and bad policy.» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-10» \o «» [12] It was also in 1837 that Lincoln met his most
intimate friend, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Fry_Speed» \o «Joshua Fry Speed»
Joshua Fry Speed .

In 1842, Lincoln wrote a series of anonymous letters, published in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_State_Journal-Register» \o
«The State Journal-Register» Sangamon Journal , mocking State Auditor
(and later US Senator) and prominent Democrat HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Shields» \o «James Shields» James
Shields . When Shields learned that it was Lincoln who had been writing
the barbs, he challenged him to a duel. Since Shields was the
challenger, Lincoln was granted the right to choose the weapon and
specified «Cavalry broad swords of the largest size.» Much taller and
with long arms, this gave him an overwhelming advantage over his
opponent; but the duel was called off at the last minute. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-11» \o «» [13]

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:MTLincoln.jpg» \o
«Enlarge»

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Todd_Lincoln» \o «Mary
Todd Lincoln» Mary Todd Lincoln c. 1846

In 1844, Lincoln entered law practice with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Herndon_%28lawyer%29» \o «William
Herndon (lawyer)» William Herndon , a fellow Whig. In 1854, both men
joined the fledgling HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States_Republican_Pa
rty» \o «History of the United States Republican Party» Republican
Party . Following Lincoln’s death, Herndon began collecting stories
about Lincoln and published them in Herndon’s Lincoln.

Family

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_4» \o «November 4»
November 4 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1842» \o «1842»
1842 Lincoln married HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Todd_Lincoln» \o «Mary Todd Lincoln»
Mary Todd , daughter of a prominent slave-owning family from Kentucky.
The couple had four sons:

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Todd_Lincoln» \o
«Robert Todd Lincoln» Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1 1843 — July 26
1926): born in Springfield, Illinois, and died in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester%2C_Vermont» \o «Manchester,
Vermont» Manchester, Vermont .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Baker_Lincoln» \o
«Edward Baker Lincoln» Edward Baker Lincoln (March 10 1846 — February
1 1850): born and died in Springfield.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wallace_Lincoln» \o
«William Wallace Lincoln» William Wallace Lincoln (December 21 1850 —
February 20 1862): born in Springfield and died in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington%2C_D.C.» \o «Washington, D.C.»
Washington, D.C. .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tad_Lincoln» \o «Tad Lincoln»
Thomas «Tad» Lincoln (April 4 1853 — July 16 1871): born in Springfield
and died in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago» \o
«Chicago» Chicago .

Only Robert survived into adulthood. Lincoln greatly admired the study
of science in the elite schools of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_England» \o «New England» New England
and sent him to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phillips_Exeter_Academy» \o «Phillips
Exeter Academy» Phillips Exeter Academy and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_College» \o «Harvard College»
Harvard College .

Four of his wife’s brothers fought for the Confederacy, with one wounded
and another killed in action. Lieutenant David H. Todd, a half-brother
of Mary Todd Lincoln, served as commandant of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libby_Prison» \o «Libby Prison» Libby
Prison camp during the war.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Abelincoln1846.jpeg» \o
«Enlarge»

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daguerreotype» \o
«Daguerreotype» Daguerreotype of Lincoln c. 1846

Legislative activity

A staunch Whig and fervent admirer of party leader HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Clay» \o «Henry Clay» Henry Clay ,
Lincoln was HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_elections%2C_1846» \o
«United States House elections, 1846» elected to a term in the
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_of_Representatives» \o
«United States House of Representatives» U.S. House of Representatives
in 1846. As a freshman House member, he was not a particularly powerful
or influential figure. He spoke out against the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican-American_War» \o «Mexican-American
War» Mexican-American War , which he attributed to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Knox_Polk» \o «James Knox Polk»
President Polk’s desire for «military glory — that attractive rainbow,
that rises in showers of blood», challenged the President’s claims
regarding the Texas boundary and offered HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spot_Resolutions» \o «Spot Resolutions»
Spot Resolutions demanding to know on what «spot» on US soil that blood
was first spilt. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-12» \o «» [14] In January 1848, he was among the 82 Whigs who
defeated 81 Democrats in a procedural vote on an amendment to send a
routine resolution back to committee with instructions to add the words
«a war unnecessarily and unconstitutionally begun by the President of
the United States.» The amendment passed, but the bill never reemerged
from committee and was never finally voted upon. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-13» \o «» [15]

Lincoln later damaged his political reputation with an intemperate
speech, declaring: «God of Heaven has forgotten to defend the weak and
innocent, and permitted the strong band of murderers and demons from
hell to kill men, women, and children, and lay waste and pillage the
land of the just.» Two weeks later, President Polk sent a peace treaty
to Congress. While no one in Washington paid any attention to Lincoln,
the Democrats orchestrated angry outbursts from across his district,
where the war was popular and many had volunteered. In Morgan County,
resolutions were adopted in fervent support of the war and in wrathful
denunciation of the «treasonable assaults of guerrillas at home; party
demagogues; slanderers of the President; defenders of the butchery at
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Alamo» \o
«Battle of the Alamo» Alamo ; traducers of the heroism at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_San_Jacinto» \o «Battle of San
Jacinto» San Jacinto «.[ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources» \o
«Wikipedia:Citing sources» citation needed ]

Warned by his law partner, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Herndon_%28lawyer%29» \o «William
Herndon (lawyer)» William Herndon , that the damage was mounting and
irreparable, a despondent Lincoln decided not to run for reelection. In
fact, in 1848 he campaigned vigorously for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zachary_Taylor» \o «Zachary Taylor»
Zachary Taylor , the successful general whose atrocities he had
denounced in January. Regardless, his statements were not easily
forgotten. They would haunt him during the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War» \o «American Civil
War» Civil War , and were held against him when he applied for a
position from the new Taylor administration. Instead, Taylor’s people
offered Lincoln various positions in the remote HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oregon_Territory» \o «Oregon Territory»
Oregon Territory . Acceptance of this offer would have ended his career
in the rapidly growing state of Illinois, so Lincoln declined the
position. Returning to Springfield, Lincoln gave up politics for several
years and turned his energies to his law practice, making grueling trips
on horseback from county courthouse to county courthouse. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-14» \o «» [16]

Prairie lawyer

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Piatt_and_DeWitt_County_Lincoln_mark
er_wide.jpg» \o «Enlarge»

In the 1920s historical markers were placed at the county lines along
the route Lincoln traveled in the eight judicial district. This example
is on the border of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piatt_County%2C_Illinois» \o «Piatt
County, Illinois» Piatt and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeWitt_County%2C_Illinois» \o «DeWitt
County, Illinois» DeWitt counties

By the mid-1850s, Lincoln’s caseload focused largely on the competing
transportation interests of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barge» \o «Barge» river barges and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_transport» \o «Rail
transport» railroads . In one prominent 1851 case, he represented the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alton_Railroad» \o «Alton
Railroad» Alton & Sangamon Railroad in a dispute with a shareholder,
James A. Barret. Barret had refused to pay the balance on his pledge to
the railroad on the grounds that it had changed its originally planned
route. Lincoln argued that as a matter of law a corporation is not bound
by its original charter when that charter can be amended in the public
interest, that the newer route proposed by Alton & Sangamon was superior
and less expensive, and that accordingly, the corporation had a right to
sue Barret for his delinquent payment. He won this case, and the
decision by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois_Supreme_Court» \o «Illinois
Supreme Court» Illinois Supreme Court was eventually cited by several
other courts throughout the United States. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-15» \o «» [17]

Another important test of Lincoln’s legal expertise was a lawsuit in
defense of a tax exemption that the state had granted to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois_Central_Railroad» \o «Illinois
Central Railroad» Illinois Central Railroad . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McLean_County%2C_Illinois» \o «McLean
County, Illinois» McLean County argued that the state had no authority
to grant such an exemption, and sought to impose taxes on the railroad
notwithstanding. In January 1856, the Illinois Supreme Court delivered
its opinion upholding the tax exemption.

Lincoln’s most notable criminal trial came in 1858, when he defended
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_%22Duff%22_Armstrong» \o
«William \»Duff\» Armstrong» William «Duff» Armstrong , who was charged
with murder. The case is famous for Lincoln’s use of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judicial_notice» \o «Judicial notice»
judicial notice , a rare tactic at that time, to show that an eyewitness
had lied on the stand. After the witness testified to having seen the
crime by moonlight, Lincoln produced a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farmer%27s_Almanac» \o «Farmer’s Almanac»
Farmer’s Almanac to show that the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon» \o «Moon» moon on that date was at
such a low angle that it could not have provided enough illumination to
see anything clearly. Based on this evidence, Armstrong was acquitted.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-16» \o «» [18]

Lincoln was involved in more than 5,100 cases in Illinois alone during
his 23-year legal practice. Amounting to about one case per business
day, many cases involved little more than filing a writ, while others
were more substantial and drawn-out. Lincoln and his partners appeared
before the Illinois State Supreme Court more than 400 times.

In at least one trial, Lincoln’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voir_dire» \o «Voir dire» voir dire
included a question to prospective HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurors» \o «Jurors» jurors as to whether
they were acquainted with counsel for the other side. When a few of them
turned out to know the other lawyer, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judge» \o «Judge» judge interrupted.

«Mr. Lincoln, you are wasting the time of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court» \o «Court» court ,» said the
judge. «The fact that a prospective juror knows your opponent does not
disqualify him.»

«No, Your Honor, I understand that,» Lincoln answered. «I’m afraid that
some of them might not know him, which would place me at a
disadvantage.»

Republican politics 1854–1860

Lincoln returned to politics in response to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas-Nebraska_Act» \o «Kansas-Nebraska
Act» Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), which expressly repealed the limits
on slavery’s extent as determined by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri_Compromise» \o «Missouri
Compromise» Missouri Compromise (1820). Illinois Democrat HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_A._Douglas» \o «Stephen A.
Douglas» Stephen A. Douglas , the most powerful man in the Senate,
proposed HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Popular_sovereignty»
\o «Popular sovereignty» popular sovereignty as the solution to the
slavery impasse, and incorporated it into the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Douglas argued that in a democracy the people should have the right to
decide whether or not to allow slavery in their territory, rather than
have such a decision imposed on them by Congress. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-17» \o «» [19]

In a speech against the act, on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_16» \o «October 16» October 16 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1854» \o «1854» 1854 ,
delivered in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peoria%2C_Illinois» \o «Peoria, Illinois»
Peoria , Lincoln first stood out among the other HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_soil» \o «Free soil» free soil
orators of the day:

“ [The Act has a] declared indifference, but as I must think, covert
real zeal for the spread of slavery, I cannot but hate it. I hate it
because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because
it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the
world—enables the enemies of free institutions, with plausibility, to
taunt us as hypocrites—causes the real friends of freedom to doubt our
sincerity, and especially because it forces so many really good men
amongst ourselves into an open war with the very fundamental principles
of civil liberty—criticizing the Declaration of Independence, and
insisting that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-18» \o «» [20] ”

Drawing on remnants of the old Whig, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Soil_Party» \o «Free Soil Party»
Free Soil , Liberty and Democratic parties, he was instrumental in
forming the new Republican Party. In a stirring campaign, the
Republicans carried Illinois in 1854 and elected a senator. Lincoln was
the obvious choice, but to keep the new party balanced he allowed the
election to go to an ex-Democrat HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyman_Trumbull» \o «Lyman Trumbull» Lyman
Trumbull .

In 1857-58, Douglas broke with President HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Buchanan» \o «James Buchanan»
Buchanan , leading to a fight for control of the Democratic Party. Some
eastern Republicans even favored the reelection of Douglas in 1858,
since he had led the opposition to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lecompton_Constitution» \o «Lecompton
Constitution» Lecompton Constitution , which would have admitted Kansas
as a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_state» \o «Slave
state» slave state . Accepting the Republican nomination for Senate in
1858, Lincoln delivered his famous speech: «‘A house divided against
itself cannot stand.'( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_of_Mark» \o «Gospel of Mark» Mark
3:25) I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and
half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect
the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will
become all one thing, or all the other.» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-19» \o «» [21] The speech
created an evocative image of the danger of disunion caused by the
slavery debate, and rallied Republicans across the north.

The 1858 campaign featured the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln-Douglas_Debates_of_1858» \o
«Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858″ Lincoln-Douglas debates , a
nationally famous contest on slavery. Lincoln warned that the »
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_Power» \o «Slave Power»
Slave Power » was threatening the values of republicanism, while Douglas
emphasized the supremacy of democracy, as set forth in his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freeport_Doctrine» \o «Freeport Doctrine»
Freeport Doctrine , which said that local settlers should be free to
choose whether to allow slavery or not. Though the Republican
legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more
seats, and the legislature reelected Douglas to the Senate.
Nevertheless, Lincoln’s eloquence transformed him into a national
political star.

During the debates of 1858, the issue of race was often discussed.
During a time period when few believed in racial egalitarianism, Stephen
Douglas informed the crowds, «If you desire Negro citizenship… if you
desire them to vote on an equality with yourselves… then support Mr.
Lincoln and the Black Republican party, who are in favor of the
citizenship of the negro.» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-20» \o «» [22] Lincoln countered that he was «not in favor of
bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white
and black races.» HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-21» \o «» [23] His opposition to slavery was opposition to the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_Power» \o «Slave Power»
Slave Power , though this would change during the course of the Civil
War. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-22» \o «»
[24]

On May 9-10, 1860, the Illinois Republican State Convention was held in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decatur%2C_Illinois» \o
«Decatur, Illinois» Decatur . At this convention, Lincoln received his
first endorsement to run for the presidency.

Election of 1860

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election%2C_186
0» \o «United States presidential election, 1860» United States
presidential election, 1860

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:1860.jpg» \o «Enlarge»

Photo of Lincoln taken HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_27» \o «February 27» February 27
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1860» \o «1860» 1860 in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City» \o «New York
City» New York City , the day of his famous HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooper_Union» \o «Cooper Union» Cooper
Union speech.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:The_Rail_Candidate.jpg»
\o «Enlarge»

«The Rail Candidate,» Lincoln’s 1860 candidacy is held up by slavery
issue (slave on left) and party organization (New York Tribune editor
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horace_Greeley» \o «Horace
Greeley» Horace Greeley on right)

Entering the presidential nomination process as a distinct underdog,
Lincoln was eventually chosen as the Republican candidate for the 1860
election for several reasons. His expressed views on slavery were seen
as more moderate than those of rivals HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Seward» \o «William H. Seward»
William H. Seward and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmon_P._Chase» \o «Salmon P. Chase»
Salmon P. Chase . His «Western» origins also appealed to the newer
states: other contenders, especially those with more governmental
experience, had acquired enemies within the party and were weak in the
critical western states, while Lincoln was perceived as a moderate who
could win the West. Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North
was the aggrieved party as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_Power» \o «Slave Power» Slave Power
tightened its grasp on the national government. Yet despite his
Southern connections (his in-laws owned slaves), Lincoln misunderstood
the depth of the revolution underway in the South and the emergence of
Southern nationalism. Throughout the 1850s he denied that there would
ever be a civil war, and his supporters repeatedly rejected claims that
his election would incite secession. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-23» \o «» [25]

Throughout the election, Lincoln did not campaign or give speeches. This
was handled by the state and county Republican organizations, who used
the latest techniques to sustain party enthusiasm and thus obtain high
turnout. There was little effort to convert non-Republicans, and there
was virtually no campaigning in the South except for a few border cities
such as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis%2C_Missouri»
\o «St. Louis, Missouri» St. Louis, Missouri , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheeling%2C_West_Virginia» \o «Wheeling,
West Virginia» Wheeling, Virginia ; indeed, the party did not even run
a slate in most of the South. In the North, there were thousands of
Republican speakers, tons of campaign posters and leaflets, and
thousands of newspaper editorials. These focused first on the party
platform, and second on Lincoln’s life story, making the most of his
boyhood poverty, his pioneer background, his native genius, and his rise
from obscurity. His nicknames, «Honest Abe» and «the Rail-Splitter,»
were exploited to the full. The goal was to emphasize the superior power
of «free labor,» whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top
by his own efforts. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-24» \o «» [26]

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_6» \o «November 6»
November 6 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1860» \o «1860»
1860 , Lincoln was elected as the 16th President of the United States,
beating Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_C._Breckinridge» \o «John C.
Breckinridge» John C. Breckinridge of the Southern Democrats, and
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bell_%28Tennessee_politician%29» \o
«John Bell (Tennessee politician)» John Bell of the new HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_Union_Party_%28United_State
s%29» \o «Constitutional Union Party (United States)» Constitutional
Union Party . He was the first Republican president, winning entirely on
the strength of his support in the North: he was not even on the ballot
in nine states in the South, and won only 2 of 996 counties in the other
Southern states. Lincoln gained 1,865,908 votes (39.9% of the total),
for 180 electoral votes; Douglas, 1,380,202 (29.5%) for 12 electoral
votes; Breckenridge, 848,019 (18.1%) for 72 electoral votes; and Bell,
590,901 (12.5%) for 39 electoral votes. There were HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electoral_fusion» \o «Electoral fusion»
fusion tickets in some states, but even if his opponents had combined
in every state, Lincoln had a majority vote in all but two of the states
in which he won the electoral votes and would still have won the
electoral college and the election.

Civil War

Secession winter 1860–1861

As Lincoln’s election became more likely, secessionists made it clear
that their states would leave the Union. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Carolina» \o «South Carolina» South
Carolina took the lead, followed by six other cotton-growing states in
the deep South. The upper South ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaware» \o «Delaware» Delaware ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maryland» \o «Maryland»
Maryland , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia» \o
«Virginia» Virginia , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Carolina» \o «North Carolina» North
Carolina , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennessee» \o
«Tennessee» Tennessee , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky» \o «Kentucky» Kentucky ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri» \o «Missouri»
Missouri , and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arkansas» \o
«Arkansas» Arkansas ) listened to and rejected the secessionist appeal.
They decided to stay in the Union, though they warned Lincoln that they
would not support an invasion through their territory. The seven
Confederate states seceded before Lincoln took office, declaring
themselves to be a new nation, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_States_of_America» \o
«Confederate States of America» Confederate States of America .
President Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize the
Confederacy.

President-elect Lincoln evaded possible assassins in Baltimore, and on
February 23, 1861, arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C. At his
inauguration on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_4» \o
«March 4» March 4 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1861» \o
«1861» 1861 , the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_American» \o «German American»
German American HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turners» \o
«Turners» Turners formed Lincoln’s bodyguard; and a sizable garrison
of federal troops was also present, ready to protect the capital from
Confederate invasion and local insurrection.

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Abraham_lincoln_inauguration_1861.jp
g» \o «Enlarge»

Photograph showing the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_4» \o «March 4» March 4 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1861» \o «1861» 1861 ,
inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in front of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Capitol_Building» \o «U.S. Capitol
Building» U.S. Capitol Building

In his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln%27s_First_Inaugural» \o «Lincoln’s
First Inaugural» First Inaugural Address, Lincoln declared, «I hold
that in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution the Union
of these States is perpetual. Perpetuity is implied, if not expressed,
in the fundamental law of all national governments,» arguing further
that the purpose of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution» \o «United
States Constitution» United States Constitution was «to form a more
perfect union» than the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation» \o «Articles of
Confederation» Articles of Confederation which were explicitly
perpetual, thus the Constitution too was perpetual. He asked
rhetorically that even were the Constitution a simple contract, would it
not require the agreement of all parties to rescind it?

Also in his inaugural address, in a final attempt to reunite the states
and prevent the looming war, Lincoln supported the pending HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corwin_amendment» \o «Corwin amendment»
Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which had already passed
Congress. This amendment, which explicitly protected slavery in those
states in which it existed, was designed to appeal not to the
Confederacy but to the critical border states. At the same time, Lincoln
adamantly opposed the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crittenden_Compromise» \o «Crittenden
Compromise» Crittenden Compromise , which would have permitted slavery
in the territories. Despite support for the Crittenden compromise among
some prominent Republicans (including HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Seward» \o «William H. Seward»
William Seward ), Lincoln denounced it saying that it «would amount to a
perpetual covenant of war against every people, tribe, and state owning
a foot of land between here and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tierra_del_Fuego» \o «Tierra del Fuego»
Tierra del Fuego .»

By the time Lincoln took office, the Confederacy was an established
fact, and no leaders of the insurrection proposed rejoining the Union on
any terms. No compromise was found because a compromise was deemed
virtually impossible. Lincoln might have allowed the southern states to
secede, and some Republicans recommended that. However, conservative
Democratic nationalists, such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeremiah_S._Black» \o «Jeremiah S. Black»
Jeremiah S. Black , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Holt» \o «Joseph Holt» Joseph Holt
, and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_M._Stanton» \o
«Edwin M. Stanton» Edwin M. Stanton had taken control of Buchanan’s
cabinet around HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_1» \o
«January 1» January 1 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1861»
\o «1861» 1861 , and refused to accept secession. Lincoln and nearly
every Republican leader adopted this position by March 1861: the Union
could not be dismantled. However, as a strict follower of the
constitution, Lincoln refused to take any action against the South
unless the Unionists themselves were attacked first. This finally
happened in April 1861.

Historian HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Nevins» \o
«Allan Nevins» Allan Nevins argues that Lincoln made three
miscalculations in believing that he could preserve the Union, hold
government property, and still avoid war. He «temporarily underrated the
gravity of the crisis», overestimated the strength of Unionist sentiment
in the South and border states, and misunderstood the conditional
support of Unionists in the border states. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-25» \o «» [27]

Fighting begins: 1861–1862

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War» \o «American Civil
War» American Civil War

In April 1861, after Union troops at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fort_Sumter» \o «Battle of Fort
Sumter» Fort Sumter were fired upon and forced to surrender, Lincoln
called on the governors of every state to send detachments totaling
75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and «preserve the
Union,» which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of
the seceding states. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia»
\o «Virginia» Virginia , which had repeatedly warned Lincoln that it
would not allow an invasion of its territory or join an attack on
another state, responded by seceding, along with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Carolina» \o «North Carolina» North
Carolina , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennessee» \o
«Tennessee» Tennessee , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arkansas» \o «Arkansas» Arkansas .

The slave states of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri»
\o «Missouri» Missouri , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky» \o «Kentucky» Kentucky ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maryland» \o «Maryland»
Maryland , and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaware» \o
«Delaware» Delaware did not secede, and Lincoln urgently negotiated
with state leaders there, promising not to interfere with slavery. After
the fighting started, he had rebel leaders arrested in all the border
areas and held in military prisons without trial. Over 18,000 were
arrested, though none were executed. One, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clement_Vallandingham» \o «Clement
Vallandingham» Clement Vallandingham , was exiled; but all of the
remainder were released, usually after two or three months (see:
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ex_parte_Merryman» \o «Ex parte
Merryman» Ex parte Merryman ).

Emancipation Proclamation

Main articles: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln_on_slavery» \o «Abraham
Lincoln on slavery» Abraham Lincoln on slavery and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation» \o
«Emancipation Proclamation» Emancipation Proclamation

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Emancipation_proclamation.jpg» \o
«Enlarge»

Lincoln met with his cabinet for the first reading of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation» \o
«Emancipation Proclamation» Emancipation Proclamation draft on
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_22» \o «July 22» July 22 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1862» \o «1862» 1862 . L-R:
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_M._Stanton» \o «Edwin M.
Stanton» Edwin M. Stanton , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmon_P._Chase» \o «Salmon P. Chase»
Salmon P. Chase , Abraham Lincoln, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gideon_Welles» \o «Gideon Welles» Gideon
Welles , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caleb_B._Smith» \o
«Caleb B. Smith» Caleb B. Smith , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Seward» \o «William H. Seward»
William H. Seward , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montgomery_Blair» \o «Montgomery Blair»
Montgomery Blair and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Bates» \o «Edward Bates» Edward
Bates

In July 1862, Congress moved to free the slaves by passing the Second
Confiscation Act. The goal was to weaken the rebellion, which was led
and controlled by slave owners. While it did not abolish the legal
institution of slavery (the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteenth_Amendment» \o «Thirteenth
Amendment» Thirteenth Amendment did that), the Act showed that Lincoln
had the support of Congress in liberating slaves owned by rebels. This
new law was implemented with Lincoln’s «Emancipation Proclamation.»

Lincoln is well known for ending slavery in the United States. In 1861 –
1862, however, he made it clear that the North was fighting the war to
preserve the Union, not to abolish slavery. Freeing the slaves became,
in late 1862, a war measure to weaken the rebellion by destroying the
economic base of its leadership class. Abolitionists criticized Lincoln
for his sluggishness over slavery per ses, but on August 22, 1862,
Lincoln explained:

“ I would save the Union. I would save it the shortest way under the
Constitution. The sooner the national authority can be restored; the
nearer the Union will be «the Union as it was.» … My paramount object
in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to
destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I
would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do
it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I
would also do that. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-26» \o «» [28] ”

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation»
\o «Emancipation Proclamation» Emancipation Proclamation , announced on
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_22» \o «September
22» September 22 and put into effect on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_1» \o «January 1» January 1 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1863» \o «1863» 1863 , freed
slaves in territories not under Union control. As Union armies advanced
south, more slaves were liberated until all of them in Confederate hands
(over three million) were freed. Lincoln later said: «I never, in my
life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing
this paper.» The proclamation made the abolition of slavery in the rebel
states an official war goal. Lincoln then threw his energies into
passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to permanently abolish slavery
throughout the nation. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-27» \o «» [29]

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_23» \o «September
23» September 23 and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_24» \o «September 24» September
24 , 1862, thirteen northern governors met in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altoona%2C_Pennsylvania» \o «Altoona,
Pennsylvania» Altoona, Pennsylvania , at the Loyal HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Governors%27_Conference» \o «War
Governors’ Conference» War Governors’ Conference to discuss the
Proclamation and Union war effort. In the end, the state executives
fully supported the president’s Proclamation and also suggested the
removal of General HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_B._McClellan» \o «George B.
McClellan» George B. McClellan as commander of the Union’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_of_the_Potomac» \o «Army of the
Potomac» Army of the Potomac . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-28» \o «» [30]

For some time, Lincoln had been working on plans to set up HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln_on_slavery» \l
«Colonization» \o «Abraham Lincoln on slavery» colonies for the newly
freed slaves. He commented favorably on colonization in the Emancipation
Proclamation, but all attempts at such a massive undertaking failed. As
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Douglass» \o
«Frederick Douglass» Frederick Douglass observed, Lincoln was, «The
first great man that I talked with in the United States freely who in no
single instance reminded me of the difference between himself and
myself, of the difference of color.» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-29» \o «» [31]

Domestic measures

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Abraham_Lincoln_seated%2C_Feb_9%2C_1
864.jpg» \o «Enlarge»

While Lincoln is usually portrayed bearded, he first grew a beard in
1860 at the suggestion of 11-year-old HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Bedell» \o «Grace Bedell» Grace
Bedell

Lincoln believed in the Whig theory of the presidency, which left
Congress to write the laws while he signed them, vetoing only those
bills that threatened his war powers. Thus, he signed the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homestead_Act» \o «Homestead Act»
Homestead Act in 1862, making millions of acres of government-held land
in the West available for purchase at very low cost. The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morrill_Land-Grant_Colleges_Act» \o
«Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act» Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act ,
also signed in 1862, provided government grants for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural» \o «Agricultural»
agricultural HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universities» \o
«Universities» universities in each state. The Pacific Railway Acts of
1862 and 1864 granted federal support for the construction of the United
States’ first transcontinental railroad, which was completed in 1869.
Other important legislation involved economic matters, including the
first HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Income_tax» \o «Income
tax» income tax and higher HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tariffs» \o «Tariffs» tariffs . Also
included was the creation of the system of national banks by the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Banking_Act» \o
«National Banking Act» National Banking Acts of 1863, 1864, and 1865,
which allowed the creation of a strong national financial system.

In 1862, Lincoln sent a senior general, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Pope_%28military_officer%29» \o «John
Pope (military officer)» John Pope , to put down the » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sioux_Uprising» \o «Sioux Uprising» Sioux
Uprising » in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minnesota» \o
«Minnesota» Minnesota . Presented with 303 death warrants for convicted
Santee Dakota who had massacred innocent farmers, Lincoln affirmed 39 of
these for execution (one was later reprieved).

1864 election and second inauguration

After Union victories at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Gettysburg» \o «Battle of
Gettysburg» Gettysburg , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vicksburg» \o «Battle of
Vicksburg» Vicksburg and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Battle_of_Chattanooga» \o «Third
Battle of Chattanooga» Chattanooga in 1863, victory seemed at hand,
and Lincoln promoted HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant» \o «Ulysses S. Grant»
Ulysses S. Grant General-in-Chief (March 12, 1864). When the spring
campaigns turned into bloody stalemates, Lincoln supported Grant’s
strategy of wearing down HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_E._Lee» \o «Robert E. Lee» Lee ‘s
Confederate army at the cost of heavy Union casualties. With an election
looming, he easily defeated efforts to deny his renomination. At the
Convention, the Republican Party selected HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Johnson» \o «Andrew Johnson»
Andrew Johnson , a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Democrat» \o «War Democrat» War
Democrat from the Southern state of Tennessee, as his running mate in
order to form a broader coalition. They ran on the new HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Union_Party_%28United_States%29»
\o «National Union Party (United States)» Union Party ticket uniting
Republicans and War Democrats.

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:PinkertonLincolnMcClernand.jpg» \o
«Enlarge»

Lincoln, in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stovepipe_hat» \o
«Stovepipe hat» stovepipe hat , with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Pinkerton» \o «Allan Pinkerton»
Allan Pinkerton and Gen. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_McClernand» \o «John McClernand»
John McClernand at Antietam

Nevertheless, Republicans across the country feared that Lincoln would
be defeated. Acknowledging this fears, Lincoln wrote and signed a pledge
that, if he should lose the election, he would nonetheless defeat the
Confederacy by an all-out military effort before turning over the White
House: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-30» \o «»
[32]

“ This morning, as for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable
that this Administration will not be re-elected. Then it will be my duty
to so co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between
the election and the inauguration; as he will have secured his election
on such ground that he cannot possibly save it afterwards. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-31» \o «» [33] ”

Lincoln did not show the pledge to his cabinet, but asked them to sign
the sealed envelope.

While the Democratic platform followed the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copperheads_%28politics%29» \o
«Copperheads (politics)» Peace wing of the party and called the war a
«failure,» their candidate, General HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_B._McClellan» \o «George B.
McClellan» George B. McClellan , supported the war and repudiated the
platform.

Lincoln provided Grant with new replacements and mobilized his party to
support Grant and win local support for the war effort. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tecumseh_Sherman» \o «William
Tecumseh Sherman» Sherman ‘s capture of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlanta%2C_Georgia» \o «Atlanta, Georgia»
Atlanta in September ended defeatist jitters; the Democratic Party was
deeply split, with some leaders and most soldiers openly for Lincoln;
the Union party was united and energized, and Lincoln was easily
reelected in a landslide. He won all but two states, capturing 212 of
233 electoral votes.

On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_4» \o «March 4»
March 4 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1865» \o «1865»
1865 , Lincoln delivered his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln%27s_second_inaugural_address» \o
«Lincoln’s second inaugural address» second inaugural address , his
favorite of all his speeches. At this time, a victory over the rebels
was at hand, slavery was dead, and Lincoln was looking to the future.

“ Fondly do we hope — fervently do we pray — that this mighty scourge of
war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue, until
all the wealth piled by the bond-man’s two hundred and fifty years of
unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with
the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said
three thousand years ago, so still it must be said «the judgments of the
Lord, are true and righteous altogether.» With malice toward none; with
charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the
right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the
nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and
for his widow, and his orphan — to do all which may achieve and cherish
a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-32» \o «» [34] ”

Conducting the war effort

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:RunningtheMachine-LincAdmin.jpg» \o
«Enlarge»

“Running the ‘Machine’”

An 1864 cartoon featuring Lincoln, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_P._Fessenden» \o «William P.
Fessenden» William Fessenden , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_M._Stanton» \o «Edwin M. Stanton»
Edwin Stanton , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Seward» \o «William H. Seward»
William Seward and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gideon_Welles» \o «Gideon Welles» Gideon
Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration

The war was a source of constant frustration for the president, and
occupied nearly all of his time. He had a contentious relationship with
General HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_B._McClellan»
\o «George B. McClellan» McClellan , who became general-in-chief of all
the Union armies in the wake of the embarrassing Union defeat at the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Bull_Run» \o
«First Battle of Bull Run» First Battle of Bull Run and after the
retirement of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winfield_Scott»
\o «Winfield Scott» Winfield Scott in late 1861. Despite his
inexperience in military affairs, Lincoln wanted to take an active part
in determining war strategy. His priorities were twofold: to ensure that
Washington, D.C., was well defended; and to conduct an aggressive war
effort in the hope of ending the war quickly and appeasing the Northern
public and press. McClellan, a youthful HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Military_Academy» \o «United
States Military Academy» West Point graduate and railroad executive
called back to active military service, took a more cautious approach.
He took several months to plan and execute his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsula_Campaign» \o «Peninsula
Campaign» Peninsula Campaign , with the objective of capturing
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richmond%2C_Virginia» \o
«Richmond, Virginia» Richmond by moving the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_of_the_Potomac» \o «Army of the
Potomac» Army of the Potomac by boat to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Peninsula» \o «Virginia
Peninsula» peninsula between the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_River_%28Virginia%29» \o «James
River (Virginia)» James and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/York_River_%28Virginia%29» \o «York River
(Virginia)» York Rivers . McClellan’s delay irritated Lincoln, as did
his insistence that no troops were needed to defend Washington, D.C.
Lincoln insisted on holding some of McClellan’s troops to defend the
capital, a decision McClellan blamed for the ultimate failure of the
Peninsula Campaign.

McClellan, a lifelong HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Party_%28United_States%29» \o
«Democratic Party (United States)» Democrat who was temperamentally
conservative, was relieved as general-in-chief after releasing his
Harrison’s Landing Letter, where he offered unsolicited political advice
to Lincoln urging caution in the war effort. McClellan’s letter incensed
Radical Republicans, who successfully pressured Lincoln to appoint
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Pope_%28military_officer%29» \o «John
Pope (military officer)» John Pope , a Republican, as head of the new
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_of_Virginia» \o «Army of
Virginia» Army of Virginia . Pope complied with Lincoln’s strategic
desire to move toward Richmond from the north, thus protecting the
capital from attack. But Pope was soundly defeated at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Bull_Run» \o «Second
Battle of Bull Run» Second Battle of Bull Run in the summer of 1862,
forcing the Army of the Potomac to defend Washington for a second time.
In response to his failure, Pope was sent to Minnesota to fight the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sioux» \o «Sioux» Sioux .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:A%26TLincoln.jpg» \o
«Enlarge»

An 1864 HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathew_Brady» \o
«Mathew Brady» Mathew Brady photo depicts President Lincoln reading a
book with his youngest son, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tad_Lincoln» \o «Tad Lincoln» Tad

Panicked by Lee’s invasion of Maryland, Lincoln restored McClellan to
command of all forces around Washington in time for the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Antietam» \o «Battle of
Antietam» Battle of Antietam (September 1862). The ensuing Union
victory enabled Lincoln to release his Emancipation Proclamation, but he
relieved McClellan of his command shortly after the 1862 midterm
elections and appointed Republican HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrose_Burnside» \o «Ambrose Burnside»
Ambrose Burnside to head the Army of the Potomac. Burnside had promised
to follow through on Lincoln’s strategic vision for a strong offensive
against Lee and Richmond. After Burnside was stunningly defeated at
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fredericksburg» \o
«Battle of Fredericksburg» Fredericksburg , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Hooker» \o «Joseph Hooker» Joseph
Hooker was given the command, despite his idle talk about becoming a
military strong man. Hooker was routed by Lee at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chancellorsville» \o «Battle of
Chancellorsville» Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1863), and relieved
of command early in the subsequent HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gettysburg_Campaign» \o «Gettysburg
Campaign» Gettysburg Campaign replaced by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_G._Meade» \o «George G. Meade»
George G. Meade .

After the Union victory at Gettysburg, Meade’s failure to pursue Lee and
months of inactivity for the Army of the Potomac persuaded Lincoln to
bring in a western general, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant» \o «Ulysses S. Grant»
Ulysses S. Grant . Grant already had a solid string of victories in the
Western Theater, including the battles of Vicksburg and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chattanooga_III» \o «Battle of
Chattanooga III» Chattanooga . Responding to criticism of Grant,
Lincoln was quoted as saying, «I cannot spare this man. He fights.»
Grant waged his bloody HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overland_Campaign» \o «Overland Campaign»
Overland Campaign in 1864 with a strategy of a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_attrition» \o «War of attrition»
war of attrition , characterized by high Union losses at battles such as
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Wilderness»
\o «Battle of the Wilderness» Wilderness and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cold_Harbor» \o «Battle of Cold
Harbor» Cold Harbor , but by proportionately higher Confederate losses.
His invasion campaign eventually bottled Lee up in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Petersburg» \o «Siege of
Petersburg» Siege of Petersburg , so that Grant could take Richmond,
and bring the war to a close in the spring of 1865.

Lincoln authorized Grant to target civilians and infrastructure, hoping
to destroy the South’s morale and weaken its economic ability to
continue fighting. This allowed Generals HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tecumseh_Sherman» \o «William
Tecumseh Sherman» Sherman and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Sheridan» \o «Philip Sheridan»
Sheridan to destroy farms and towns in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shenandoah_Valley» \o «Shenandoah Valley»
Shenandoah Valley , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_%28U.S._state%29» \o «Georgia
(U.S. state)» Georgia , and South Carolina. The damage caused by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sherman%27s_March_to_the_Sea» \o
«Sherman’s March to the Sea» Sherman’s March to the Sea through
Georgia totaled in excess of $100 million by Sheridan’s own estimate.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-33» \o «» [35]

Lincoln had a star-crossed record as a military leader, possessing a
keen understanding of strategic points (such as the Mississippi River
and the fortress city of Vicksburg) and the importance of defeating the
enemy’s army, rather than simply capturing cities. He had, however,
limited success in motivating his commanders to adopt his strategies
until late 1863, when he found a man who shared his vision of the war in
Ulysses S. Grant. Only then could he insist on using HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_American» \o «African American»
African American troops and relentlessly pursue a series of coordinated
offensives in multiple theaters.

Throughout the war, Lincoln showed a keen curiosity with the military
campaigns. He spent hours at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_War_Department» \o «United
States War Department» War Department HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telegraphy» \o «Telegraphy» telegraph
office, reading dispatches from his generals. He visited battle sites
frequently, and seemed fascinated by watching scenes of war. During
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jubal_A._Early» \o «Jubal A.
Early» Jubal A. Early ‘s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fort_Stevens» \o «Battle of Fort
Stevens» raid on Washington, D.C. in 1864, Lincoln had to be told to
duck to avoid being shot while observing the battle.

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