Реферат на тему:
Poltava and places of interest
Poltava was first mentioned in the annals of Ipatiev (1173) under the
name Ltava. This town has a great history that discovers a thorny way it
went along to become so wonderful. Numerous wars (the Great liberation
war, the Second World War) posed a grave obstacle to the further
development of the town turning it sometimes into a field of ruins,
however the town restored its beauty on a regular basis. The historic
document of the year 1641 claimed that Poltava became an urban center.
The spotlight of the history of this town is HYPERLINK
«http://www.ukrainian-women.com/poltava_battle.shtml» a glorious battle
between the troops of Peter I (the Russian tsar) and those of the
Swedish king Charles XII and his Ukrainian ally, hetman Mazepa that took
place 290 years ago. Over 4000 Poltavites joined the army of Peter I to
fight against the Swedish. The grand event ended in the victory of
Russians. That battle defined the historic evolution of Ukraine.
Subsequently, Poltava began to thrive. The architectural art was being
implemented in magnificent edifices. Thus, Poltava got the honor of
being called «little Petersburgh». Yet, during the Great Patriotic War
(1941-1945) everything was brought to null. Restoring the town took a
lot of time. In the year 2001 Poltava celebrated the 1100th anniversary
of its foundation.
Marshal Biryusov and what not.
The religious life of Poltava is sustained due to a number of churches,
cathedrals, chapels. Here belong the Assumption Cathedral, the
Cross-exulting Monastery, St. Savior’s Church, The Temple of Faith, Hope
and Love and others.
Both Poltava’s natives and visitors are provided with excellent
opportunities to cultural and spiritual enrichment owing to a range of
museums, theatres, cinemas. The museums of Poltava are welcoming those
who are eager to unfold the pages of the town’s glorious past. The most
remarkable of them are the Museum of Local lore (designed in baroque
style), the Art Museum, the Poltava Battle Museum, the Art Gallery, the
Kotlyarevsky museum-homestead, the Korolenko memorial museum, the Panas
Myrny literary museum etc.
People can spend their spare time in a reasonable way by attending such
theatres and cinemas as the Gogol theatre, the Kotlyarevsky cinema, the
cinema «Kolos», the Philharmonic House. Quite recently (2 years ago)
there appeared the Palace of Leisure and Culture «Lystopad» where the
renowned Ukrainian, Russian and even foreign singers give their
concerts. There are also plenty of entertainment places — cafes, disco
bars, restaurants, night clubs, sport complexes etc. Speaking about
amusement sites we can’t help mentioning the underground town «Zlato
misto». It is a posh entertainment and trading complex that includes a
few shops, a luncheonette, a disco bar «Eneida». Zlato misto can be
recognized from the outside by the two large glass domes. One of them is
prolonged and serves as a cover of the underground passage on the either
side of which we can find small shops, under the other one — round and
medium tall — there situated the disco bar » Eneida». When it comes to
restaurants, one can enjoy tasty dishes at those of Ukrainian cuisine
(«Khutorok»), Georgian («Mimino»), Italian («Palazzo»), Chinese
(«Mars»). The most luxurious restaurants are » Ivanova Hora»( Ivan’s
hill), situated in the vicinity of the White Arbor and the
Kotlyarevsky’s homestead-museum, and «Kashtanova Aleya» («The Chestnut
Alley») that is next to «Lystopad».
find several higher learning establishments, for example, the State
Teacher-training University, the Ukrainian Medical Stomatological
Academy, The University of consumers’ goods cooperation, the State
Agricultural Academy, the Institute of Economy and Law, the Yaroslav
Mudry National Academy, the National Technical University. There are
also a multitude of institutions of secondary special training:
vocational and technical schools, colleges, lyceums.
Poltava is a town of abundant greenery. We can afford a wonderful
opportunity to marvel at the beauty of parks, squares, gardens. If you
are willing to have a stroll, you are offered a wide choice of parks:
Victory park, Corps garden, Sunny park, Students’ park etc.
Poltava is considered to be the spiritual capital of Ukraine. It gave
the world so many famous names: Ivan Kotlyarevsky, Vladimir Korolenko,
Panas Myrny, Nikolai Gogol (writers), Katerina Bilokur (an artist),
Mykola Lysenko (a musician). These people replenished a galaxy of the
world culture luminaries.
Tourists are always welcome to Poltava to discover its genuine splendor
and feast their eyes upon it. They can stay at the comfortable hotels
such as «Gallery», «Palazzo»(4 star hotels), «Ukraine», «Kiev». All of
them are characterized by high class service and living conditions.
The emblem of the Russian period
The emblem of Poltavs’ka province was confirmed on the 5th of July 1878
and it was a picture of an or shield with a sable triangular monument
decorated with or circle snake. Behind the monument there are two vert
banners with or crowned monogram of the name of the Emperor Peter the
Great, the staff are high-carat or with the points of the spears. All
this is accompanied by two crossed laid high-carat or swords at the top
of the shield. The shield is crowned with the emperial crown and
surrounded with oak-leaves connected by the St.Andrew’s ribbon.
The modern emblem
It was confirmed at January, 30, 1998. A shield divided into quarters
by raspberry lozenge, crossed by argent and azure wavy belt. In first
azure part is or patty cross. In second or part is gules horseshoe. In
third or part is gules heart. In fourth azure part is or wheat sheaf. In
first part of lozenge is or bow, accompanied by two or stars, in second
is or gates with three towers, accompanied by two or stars.
— Bow with arrow and stars are the elements which went into Poltava and
Pyriatyn coats of arms, indicate on historic role the edges in defence
of own earths, and also Poltava as administrative centre.
— Urban gates with three towers and flagpoles — element eldest of coats
of arms, basic Lokhvytsia coat of arms element. It indicates on
durability, power, edge inviolability, cossack traditions.
— A water wave — element of Komsomol’s’k and Kremenchuk emblems,
symbolizes riches of water spaces.
— A Cossack cross is symbol on historic colours of Poltava regiments and
Myrhorod and Zin’kiv emblems.
— A horseshoe is blown about element of patrimonial Ukraine coats of
arms — happiness symbol, good, love, consent.
— A heart is hetman coat of arms element of P.Polubotok, V.Kochubey,
symbolizes Poltavschyna as Ukraine heart, her grandeur, spirituality, —
earth, begining by mother country to prominent figures of world
— Sheaf is personifies natural resource, earths fertility, industry of
its inhabitants, national traditions.
— A Crown is power, firmness, grandeur and glory.
— Raspberry — most blown about colour of cossack colours — power,
— Azure means wrestling after freedom, hope.
— Or means sun, lightly, welfare, kindness, work, dignity.
The modern emblem (large)
A little coat of arms crowned by crown with five towers and enframed by
guelder roze branches, entwisted by blue-yellow ribbon. Over crown is
The Poltavs’ka oblast’ flag was approved by February 10, 2000 by the
solution XI of session of regional advice XXIII of convocation and
represents the yellow cossac’s cross on a blue rectangular. A ratio of
the parts is 2:3.
The cossac’s cross is the basic element of the arms of the Poltavs’ka
oblast’ was introduced in composition of a flag, which one is included
on historical motives. In middle of XVIII century a some cossac’s
regiments were joint around of the Poltava shelf, that had dark blue
flag with cossack’s cross.
Battle of Poltava
The Battle of Poltava, painted 1726
On June 27, 1709 one of the famous events in the World History took
place at Poltava. Russian troops headed by Peter I won a brilliant
victory over the Swedish army headed by Karl the XII-th.
The victory at Poltava predetermined the outcome of the North war
(1700-1721) waged by Russia against Sweden for the outlet into the
Baltic sea and returning the Russian lands in Pre-Baltic region captured
by Sweden. In the course of the North war the Swedish king Karl XII
commenced the campaign against Moscow. Having met the stubborn
resistance at Smolensk he turned his troops to the Ukraine. The
Ukrainian people rose to fight against invaders. When the enemy
approached the population of towns and villages annihilated food-stuffs,
burned the dwellings down and left for the forests under the protection
of the Russian troops. Detachments of the regular army and partisans
wore the enemy forces down in skirmishes. Karl XII attempted to capture
the fortress of Poltava trying to replenish here their exhausted food
supplies and, mainly, to use convenient geographical position of the
fortress for the communication with their allies — the Turkish sultan
and the Crimean khan.
Battle of Poltava: a fragment of the great mosaic by Mikhail Lomonosov.
The Russian command, taking into account the important strategic
position of Poltava, sent there in due time six infantry battalions
commanded by colonel A.S. Kelin. The fortress was fortified with
additional ramparts, wooden paling, bastions…
Due to courage and staunchness of the Russian soldiers and inhabitants
of the town this «wretched», as Karl XII called it, fortress withstood
almost three months long siege of the famous Swedish army. At Poltava’s
walls the invaders lost nearly six thousand soldiers and officers and
this considerably weekend their forces.
During Poltava`s siege the Russian troops were concentrating for the
decisive battle. Peter’s I army crossed the Vorskla river to the right
bank where the fortified camp had been built. The system of earthen
fortifications was built at Poltava: redoubts which played an important
role in repulsing enemy’s attacks during the first stage of the battle.
For the first time in the history of military art separate closed
earthen fortifications were used. Such fortifications appeared in armies
of Western Europe only 80 years later.
At dawn on June 27 Swedish infantry and cavalry began their offensive.
The enemy was hit by aimed rifle and artillery fire. Chased by Russians
the regiments of enemy’s cavalry were defeated utterly.
Peter I ordered to withdraw the cavalry from the redoubts to the
fortified camp where the main part of the Russian army-infantry and
artillery were concentrated.
The Swedes mistook this withdrawal for the retreat and followed the
Russian cavalry. But unexpectedly they found themselves under
devastating fire of Russian artillery. Having suffered great losses the
disorganized regiments retread.
A three hours interval in the battle ensued at 6 o’clock in the morning
on June 27. The second crucial stage of the decisive battle began, it
lasted about two hours. Karl XII attempted to strike a decisive blow
into the centre but he failed to do it. No later than in half an hour
the Swedes wavered. Russian infantry and cavalry began to press the
enemy’s regiments. Soon their retreat turned out to be a panic flight.
At Poltava the Swedes lost 9.234 soldiers killed, 2.874 soldiers and
officers were taken prisoners. Russian losses were 1.345 killed, 3.290
wounded. The rest of the Swedish army 16.264 men were taken prisoners at
The Battle of Poltava is an unfading example of the feat of arms,
courage and valour of the people for their independence. The victory at
Poltava saved the Ukranian and Byelorussian peoples from enslavement,
strengthened their friendship with the Russian people.
«_blank» The immortal deed of the heroes in the battle of Poltava is
eternalized in numerous monuments. In Poltava it is a majestic Monument
of Glory set up in honour of the 100-th anniversary of the Battle of
Poltava, the Monument on the spot where Peter I had a rest after the
Battle which was set up to the 140-th anniversary of that famous battle.
The Monument to valorous defenders of Poltava and the courageous
commandant of the fortress colonel A.S. Kelin was erected in 1909.
Memorable Badges marked the region where the Russian troops crossed the
Vorskla River, the first and the second fortified camps of Russian
troops. There is a Common grave of Russian soldiers who fell in action
in the Battle of Poltava. The Monument of the Swedes who fell in action
from the Russians was set up in a honour of the 200-th anniversary of
the battle. In 1909 the Monument to the Swedes from their compatriots
was set up.
«_blank» The sculpture of Peter I is placed in front of the Museum, it
was made by academician A. Adamson in 1915.
Numerous historic relics are kept in the Museum of History of the Battle
The State Museum-Reserve «The Field of the Battle of Poltava» was
created in 1981. It comprises the historic places and monuments
connected with the events of the native history.
E.Shyrai — HYPERLINK «http://patent.net.ua/symbol/regions/pl/en.html»