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SAGE

Salvia

Blue Sage Salvia azurea

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Lamiales

Family: Lamiaceae

Genus: Salvia

L.

Species

see List of Salvia species

Sage is a term used for plants of the genus Salvia of the mint family,
Lamiaceae. When used without modifiers, sage generally refers to common
sage (Salvia officinalis); however, it can be used with modifiers to
refer to any member of the genus. This genus includes shrubs, herbaceous
perennials, and annuals. Different species of sage are grown as herbs
and as ornamental plants. The ornamental species are commonly referred
to by their scientific name Salvia.

The closely related genera Perovskia and Phlomis are also known as sage;
Russian Sage, (Perovskia atriplicifolia), native to the Crimea south to
Afghanistan and Pakistan, is grown as an ornamental plant because of its
blue-violet sprays of flowers and its adaptability to either sun or part
shade. It has a pleasant smell and is also grown as a bee plant, but is
not consumed by humans. Jerusalem Sage refers to Phlomis fruticosa and
other species of Phlomis.

Some species of the unrelated genus Artemisia are also referred to as
sages, a shortened version of sagebrush, which is a more appropriate
term for them. They generally taste vile and are not used in food
preparation, although many of them are used medicinally. Smudge bundles
are made with various grey-leaved species of Artemisia and are
misrepresented as «whitesage» smudges. The true whitesage is Salvia
apiana, which has a delightful scent when burned.

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Notable species

2.1 Aromatic sages

2.2 Non-aromatic sages

2.3 Chia sages

3 Medicinal uses

3.1 Aromatic sages

4 References

5 External links

[edit]

History

The sage varieties used as herbs stem from the Mediterranean and Asia
Minor and Sage has been grown in Central Europe since the Middle Ages.

The name Salvia derives from the Latin ‘salveo’, which means ‘to heal’.
Indeed this herb is highly regarded for its healing qualities. An
ancient proverb states, «Why should a man die who has sage in his
garden?». The ancient Greeks used it to treat consumption, ulcers and
snake bites.

The Romans considered sage to be a sacred herb and concocted a whole
elaborate ceremony just to pick it. A sage gatherer would have to use a
special knife (not made of iron as it reacts with the sage), have to
have clean clothes and clean feet and a sacrifice of food would have to
be made before he could begin. The Romans would use it for toothpaste;
they also believed it to be good for the brain, senses and memory.

The Chinese also were quite partial to this herb. 17th century Dutch
merchants found that they would trade one chest of sage leaves for three
of their teas [1].

[edit]

Notable species

[edit]

Aromatic sages

Salvia apiana, White sage, California white sage, a perennial at home in
the mountains of Southern California, sometimes found in the desert of
southern Arizona

Salvia candelabrum, a blue-flowering scented sage

Salvia clevelandii, Blue sage, Cleveland sage, Fragrant sage, with a
very strong scent, found either delightful or disgusting

Salvia clevelandii x pachyphylla x leucophylla Celestial Blue, Celestial
Sage, Musk Sage. Hybrid between Cleveland Sage, Rose Sage, and Pozo Blue
Sage

Salvia fulgens, Cardinal sage, Mexican red sage, a red-flowering
perennial

Salvia greggii, Autumn sage, a red-flowered sage with a very strong
scent

Salvia leucophylla, Purple sage, a drought tolerant perennial from
Southern California.

Salvia lyrata, Lyre-leaved sage, Lyreleaf sage, Cancerweed, a
purple-flowering perennial

Salvia officinalis, Common sage; this is the best-known species of sage.
There are several varieties

Salvia pratensis, Meadow clary, Meadow sage, a blue-flowering species

Salvia sclarea, Clary (or Clary sage), a biennial sage with enormous
(for sages) flower spikes, quite showy, used in teas

Salvia spathacea, Pitcher sage or Hummingbird sage, a magenta-flowering
annual with huge leaves

Salvia verticillata, Whorled clary, Lilac sage, a white- or
blue-flowering perennial with the scent of Clary

[edit]

Non-aromatic sages

Salvia argentea, Silver sage, usually a showy-flowered biennial, named
for the color of its foliage

Salvia azurea, Blue sage, Azure blue sage; this species has very big
bright blue flowers

Salvia coccinea, Blood sage, a scarlet-flowered tender perennial

Salvia divinorum, Diviner’s sage, a highly psychoactive variety

Salvia farinacea, Mealycup sage, grown as an annual in temperate
climates will survive mild winters

Salvia guaranitica, grown as an ornamental plant and a bee plant, has
brilliantly saturated blue flowers and is perennial. It is one of the
sages often known as hummingbird sage.

Salvia horminum, (syn.: S. viridis) Painted sage, an annual with showy
blue, pink or white flower bracts

Salvia patens, a blue-flowering annual

Salvia splendens, Scarlet sage, a red-flowering annual

Salvia x superba, a purple-flowering perennial

[edit]

Chia sages

Salvia arizonica, Arizona sage, Desert indigo sage, a purple-flowering
annual, native to Texas

Salvia carnosa, a blue-flowering annual, native to the Arizona desert

Salvia columbariae, Chia, Chia sage, California chia, a blue-flowering
annual native to California desert

Salvia polystachya, Chia sage, Chia seed

Salvia potus, Chia.

[edit]

Medicinal uses

Several types of Salvia are used medicinally:

aromatic varieties (usually strongly scented leaves, also used as herbs)

non-aromatic varieties (not considered medicinal, but many still have a
scent)

Chia sages

Divinorum (Diviner’s sage) is drug used for spiritual and recreational
purposes.

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