Iniaeeaino? aea/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae a oiiaao aeaiyce//y

Ine?eueee aea/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao aeaiyce//y, a
a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao o?eyce//y (oiaoi a oiiaao c?oeiaiiy 2-3 iiaieo
nenoai) anoaiiaeii, ye oea aieeaa? ia caeiaoooy iiaeo iaae/ie o aeiia?.

O ca’yceo c aeaiyce//yi oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaia aeoiea i?i ?nioaaiiy
“aaaeei? aeiiae” ? “eaaei? aeiiae”. ??aeia aeiiaa caaaeaee eaaei
aea?oueny i?aaenoaaieeai aeaii? iiae ? oae /e ?iaeoa aaaeei aea?oueny
i?aaenoaaieeo ?ioi? iiae. A?oeeoeyoe?ei? nenoaie, ui eaaeaoue a iniia?
ii??aithaaeueieo oiiaoe/ieo nenoai iiaeooue a?ae??ciyoeny iaeia a?ae
iaeii? a a?eueo?e /e iaio?e i???, a ?ieiee ? ni?aiaaeaoe.

A oeueiio ? caeeaaeaia ii??aithaaia neeaaei?noue ? eaae?noue iaieiae?iiy
aeiiai? /oaei? iiae. I?ioa ni?aaaei? o?oaeiiu?, ui aeieeathoue i?e
iaieiae?ii? ?iicaiiith aeiiaith, aeeeeeai? ia?o ca ana ia?ic?iaeaiith
iaoiaeeeith ii aea/aiith aeiiae.

E.A.Ua?aa i?eae?eya aaeeeo oaaao i?iaeai? aeaiyce//y, ui ia? i?yiee
ca’ycie c oe?eyie ? iaoiaeeeith ii aea/aiith ?iicaiieo iia. I?ae “/enoei
aeaiyce//yi” E.A.Ua?aa ?icoi?a oaea aeaiyce//y, yea noai?th?oueny i?e
ia?aeaeueiiio, aea iacaeaaeiiio iaeiei a?ae iaeiiai aea/aiiyi aeaio iia.
I?ae “ci?oaiei aeaiyce//yi” a?i ?icoi?a aeaiyce//y, ui noai?th?oueny a
?acoeueoao? ii??aithaaiiai aea/aiiy aeaio iia, eiee ae?oaa iiaa
aea/a?oueny ia iniia? ia?oi?. A yeino? ia?oi? iiaea aooe ??aeia iiaa,
oiae? ae?oaith iiaea aenooiaoe ?iicaiia aai ?iciiaia (ae?aeaeo) aeaii?
iiae, ? oiae? ae?oaith aoaea ienueiiaa (e?oa?aoo?ia) iiaa. I/aaeaeii, ui
a oiiaao oeiee ie ia?ii ni?aao c aeaiyce//yi. E.A. Ua?aa, aiai?y/e i?i
oaea aeaiyce//y, aaaaea?, ui yeui ia aaeeaaoe a?aeiia?aei? caoiaee, oi
?iicaiia iiaa, yea ia?aaoaa? a noaae?? aea/aiiy, aeyaeoueny ci?oaiith
“ia?o ca ana a iaeano? aeiiae”. Aeina?ae iieaco?, ui ci?oaiiy aeaio iia
ni?aaae? i?iyaey?oueny aieiaiei /eiii o aeiia?.

“A e?ioe? e?ioe?a, — ieoa Ua?aa, — iiaeia neacaoe, ui iaa/eoeny
i?aaeeueii aeiiaeyoe… oea ana iaeii, ui canai?oe ?yae iiaeo iacae/ieo
?oo?a, i?e /iio oae canai?oe ?o, uia aiie noaee ?aoeaeoi?ieie, oiaoi
cae/ieie, uia aiie cae?enithaaeeny i?e i?i?ioi? eiio?ieth na?aeiiino?”.

Iiieeee oiiaoe/iiai neeaaeo

Aaoi?e e?oa?aoo?e c iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy aeiiae a oeie? aaaaeathoue, ui
iaaeiionoeii a?aenooiaoe a?ae anueiai oiai, ui aeeth/a? aacaeiaaiia
aiae?enueea aeiiaa ? aeiaaathoue aaniethoii i?aaeeueio aeiiao an?o oi?i.

Aea /e iiaeeeai iinoaaeoe ia?aae o/iyie caaaeaiiy iaieiae?oe ca /an
ia?aaoaaiiy a oeie? aieiiaeaiiyi an?o aiae?enueeeo oi?i?

C oi/ee ci?o no?iaeo oiiaoe/ieo aeiia naia iinoaiiaea caaaeaiiy eia?/ia,
i?ioa c oi/ee ci?o ?aaeueieo oiia ? iiaeeeainoae aeiiaa iaieiae?oe
iiaiith ii?iith aeiiaeyiiy an?o aiae?enueeeo oiiai a oeie? aeyaey?oueny
iaiineeueiei caaaeaiiyi aeey o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a, ? oiio eiai ne?ae
iaiaaeeoe iaaieie ?aieaie iaia’yceiaiai ? aaaeaiiai. O?eueee ae??oeaoe
oea caaaeaiiy, iiaeia iinoaaeoe ieoaiiy i?i oa?aeoa?i? iiieeee a oeo,
ooi aea/athoue oiiaiiee neeaae aiae?enueei? iiae, naia yeee iio??aii
aei?aaeyoe ? iiia?aaeaeoaaoe.

Aeey oeueiai iio??aii anoaiiaeoe i?noea eiaeiiai aeiaaeeo iai?aaeeueiiai
aeiiaeaiiy aiae?enueei? oiiaie ? ?ie? oaei? iiieeee o aee?eaeaii? ?
ii?ooaii? ii?ie e?oa?aoo?ii? aeiiae aiae?enueei? iiae.

A?cueiaii i?eaieini? oi?ie [m], [b], [p], [k], [g], [t], [d], [n], [l],
[f], [v], [s], [z], [j], [?], [t?], [dz], ?ia?i a????i?aeoe??ue oii?? c
aea?aeoe??? /i???uei? ????iei?i??. ??? a?eue? ????eueii?o aei?e?ae??ii?
a??ae???ue??, ?i i?ae???ii? ?? a??iae?ii? a ???e?ue ???? aei
a?ae?ia?aei?? o????i?ue??? cao??a i? aii???ue ci?/i?? c??i o c????
a??eiae?a?ii?i, c? a?ei???i? ??? a???ae??a, ?ie? o/i?a ?i???aii i?a/???
?????eueii – ?euea?ie??ii?o o???i? ?ia? ??? a?a/?ii? a?eueoino? c oeeo
oiiai.

Iiieeee a aieinieo oiiaiao oaeiae ia an? iaeiaeiai aieeaaoeiooue ia
ci?no aeneiaethaaiiai, yeui iaa?oue aeiiaeyoe ?o c a?eueo – iaio
a?aeaa?oei oe?a?inueeei aeoeaioii. Oae? oiiaie ye [e], [E], [], [ei],
[ai], [au], [], oiaoi n?i c aeaaaeoeyoe, ia ii?ooothoue eiioi?eaoeaio
noi?iio aiae?enueeiai iiaeaiiy, yeui ?o aeiiaeythoue c aeayeei
a?aeoeeaiiyi a?ae aaniethoii? ii?ie.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aenoiooeo iieiaeaiue ieae/a iaaaaeai? i?eeeaaee,
aea iiaeai? an? aeacai? i?eaieini? ? aieini?, cai?iai? oe?a?inueeeie
oiiaiaie, ui, iaeiae, ?iaeoue ?a/aiiy aeinooiiei aeey ?icoi?iiy ?o
aiae?eoeyie.

[ `men ken bai faiv ` paundz v` keik]

[aiae eao nai ieaaea oa? aoa /aeeae aeaeaei]

[aanon oaa aoa eaiiai? oo aeae]

Aei na?aeiiino? aiae?eoey ci?no oeeo ?a/aiue ae?eaea, cae/aeii,
iiai?noth, aea a?i iii?oeoue ?iicaiiee (oe?a?inueeee) aeoeaio. I?/iai
iaeiia??iiai a oae?e aeiia? ?iicaioey aeey aiae?eoey iaia?, ine?eueee
aeoeaio a aiae?enuee?e iia? a?i /o? a?ae i?aaenoaaiee?a ?yaeo ?ioeo
ia?iae?a. C oi/ee ci?o aieeaaiiy /e ia aieeaaiiy iai?aaeeueiiai
aeiiaeyiiy oiiaie ia ci?no aeneiaethaaiiai, yeui ?icaeyaeaoe oea ieoaiiy
ia oai?aoe/ii, a i?aeoe/ii, aei aaea aeae?eaieo oiiai iiaeia aoei a
aeiaeaoe e oe? [ ],[ ],[ ],[w],[h], ine?eueee aeiiaeyiiy oeio [e
oae oaon], [ aei aaeei], [oae?], [aio oaei?], [i?noa? Ni?o] oaeiae ia
ii?ooo? eiioi?eaoeaio ooieoe?th oeeo ne?a a iaaiiio eiioaeno?. Aeacai?
i?eeeaaee iiaeia cono??oe ? a iae?oa?aoo?i?e aeiia? naii? Aiae??.

Oiiaia [h] a ?yaeo ii?aeiaiiy aea? caoee, ye? ca nai?th
iiioii?/i?noth aeathoue aoeueaa?i? nieneia? aa??aioe a oe?a?inuee?e
iia?. A/eoae? ciathoue, ui ?ieiee oea aeeeeea? iaaaaeaio ?aaeoe?th a
o/i?a. Aeeo/eoe oeae iiaiee iaoa??ae ia iiaeia, a oiio iaiao?aeii
iaia’yceiai iaa/aoe o/i?a i?aaeeuei?e aeiia? [h].

Oiiaia [ ] aeiiaeaia ye [i], iai?eeeaae, o “ni?aath/e” ia? a
aiae?enuee?e iia? cian?i ?ioa cia/aiiy, ui iiaea aeaiyei ?icoi?oeny
aiae?eoeai: y /anoi a??oo cai?noue y /anoi ni?aath.

Oiiaia [w], aeiiaeaia ye [a] iiaea ci?ieoe cia/aiiy ne?a, iai?eeeaae,
[vent aeionoea cai?noue [went] i?oia /e [vi:l] oaeyoeia cai?noue [wi:l]
eieani.

Aeiiaeyiiy [nae] cai?noue [ei] ii?ooeoue eiioi?eaoeaio ooieoe?th iiae,
ine?eueee [nae nae] cai?noue [ ei sei] aeey aiae?eoey icia/aoeia:
aiai?e, aiai?e, a ia aiie aiai?youe.

Oiiaie [],[],[],[w],[h] ? o?eeaoeaia, eaeoi?iaeueia [r] ie a?aeiineii
aei oiiai aeaeueiuei? a?oie, oiaoi aei oeo ?iicaiieo oiiai, ono?i? yeeo
cia/ii a?aeaeaeai? a?ae oeeaae?a, cae/ieo aeey ??aeieo oiiai. Aeey
oeiey??a oea noai?th? iaeneioi iiaecie a a?oeeoeyoe?? /e a aeonoe/iiio
aoaeo?. A?aeoai?aiiy oeeo oi?i iio?aao? niaoe?aeueii? iano?ieee neooo oa
i?aai?a iiae aeey ia?aeiiiai ?o ni?eeiyooy ? noai?aiiy iiaeo oeeaae?a.
Iiae?aieo i?eeeaae?a iiaeia iaaiaeeoe aeoaea aaaaoi.

A i??o ?ic?iaee iaoiaee/ieo i?eeii?a ii iaa/aiith aeiiae oeiey??a ? i?e
noai?aii? a iaeaooiueiio aeineiiae?oeo i?ae?o/iee?a aeey ii/aoeiaiai
ia??iaeo iaa/aiiy c’yaeoueny iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoeoe aeiiae aei a/eoaey
? o/i?a o a?aeiioaii? ?icoe?aiiy noa?e iaia’yceiaiai ? aeineiiaeiai
oeeaaeii, a ca?aene, ?icoe?aiiy nieneo oa?aeoa?ieo iiieeie, ui
aeiaaathoue iiia?aaeaeaiiy.

Iinoaiiaea ieoaiiy i?i iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiieeie o aeiia? ye caaaeueiiai
iaoiaee/iiai caniao i?aaeeueiiai iaa/aiiy aeiiae

?nioth/a i?aeoeea aei?aaeaiiy oiiaoe/ieo iiieeie eaea ia?aaaaeii
aii??e/iei oeyoii ? aeoiaeeoue c oaeoo, ui a o/iy c’yaeythoueny o? /e
?io? iiieeeia? a?oeeoeyoe?ei? aai ?ioiiaoe?ei? aee?eaeaiiy, ye?
iaiao?aeii aei?aaeoe aei ii?ie.

*eneaii?noue iiieeie c ia?oeo e?ie?a iaa/aiiy ? i?ioyaii anueiai
ia??iaeo iaieiae?iiy iaaeeaie aeiiaeyiiy ne?ae a?aeianoe aieiaiei /eiii
ca ?aooiie iaaeinoaoiueiai aea/aiiy iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, iniaeeai ia
ii/aoeia?e noaae??.

A iaoiaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iiaeia cono??oe o?eueee ie?ai? aeneiaethaaiiy
i?i iaiao?aei?noue iiia?aaeaeaiiy a?aeoeeaiue a iaae/eao aeneiaeaiiy
??aeii? e ?iicaiii? iia. Iai?eeeaae, i?eoeeueieeii iiia?aaeaeaiiy
iiieeie aoa A.Iii?aaoo?, yeee ienaa: “ I? a yeiio ?ac? ia aa?oi eoe
oeyoii, ui anoaiiaeany a oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?, — aaeaaaoeny a e?auiio
aeiaaeeo i?ney oiai, ye ae/a?iai? an? caniae iane?aeoaaeueii? oaoi?ee, a
a on?o aeiaaeeao iiia?aaeaeaoe eiia??io iiieeeo, iiia?aaeaeath/e ??
iiyniaiiyi a?oeeoeyoe?? oeeo caoe?a”

Oaeei /eiii aeey oiai, uia iaa/eoe i?aaeeuei?e aeiia? c i?i?iaeueiei
aeiiouaiiyi iiieeie, iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo iiia?aaeaeaiiy
iiieeie o aeiia?. Oea nei?i/o? /an, a?aeaaaeaiee ia aei?aaeaiiy ?
?iaeoue inoaii? a?eueo eiie?aoiei.

Iiieeee o aeiia? a o/i?a c’yaeythoueny i?e /eoaii? a neoo ? a oniiio
iiaeaii?. A/eoaeue iiaeiai aai aanue /an coieiyoe o/iy, aeacoth/e eiio
ia eiaeio iiieeeo, aai ia coieiyoe eiai, ia caa?oath/e oaaao ia iiieeee
acaaae?. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo a o/iy neeaaea?oueny a?aaeaiiy, ui o iueiai
ana iai?aaeeueii, a a ae?oaiio, iaaiaee, — a?i /eoa? /e ?iciiaey? aac
iiieeie.

Aeo?ae c oeueiai ca/a?iaaiiai eiea iiaea aooe ciaeaeaii o?eueee i?e
aeei?enoaii? iaoiaeo iiia?aaeaeoaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy, i?e yeiio iaeei ?ac
ooai?ai? a?oeeoeyoe?eia aaca ? ono?i? aoaeooue aanoe aei i?aaeeueii?
aeiiae oiiaie a aoaeue-yeiio neia?.

I?eioeei ?ic?iaee iaoiaee/ieo i?eeii?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiieeie o aeiia?

Ine?eueee aaniethoia iiaecia a?oeeoeyoe?? i?e ii??aiyii? aeaio oiiaiieo
nenoai noino?oueny ??aee?nieo aeeeth/aiue ? /anoi a?aeiineoueny o?eueee
aei ie?aieo cia/eieo aeaiaio?a a?oeeoeyoe?? ?iicaiii? oiiaie, iiieeeiaa
aaeeaaiiy oiiai, iai?eeeaae, [n] cai?noue [], [ae] cai?noue [], [i]
cai?noue [], [a] cai?noue [w], [?] cai?noue [r], [o] cai?noue [h] ia?
aooe aeei?enoaia a oe?eyo ii??aiyiiy, iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? aei?aaeaiiy
iiieeie.

E??i oiai, a/eoaeue iiaeiai a iaoiaee/ieo oe?eyo aeei?enoiaoaaoe
aeiaaeeiaa a?aeoai?aiiy caoe?a, ui ca?aathoueny c oiiaiaie ?iicaiii?
iiae. Oae, iai?eeeaae, i?e?iaeiee ni?o ia aeaein?, /anoi oi/ii
a?aeoai?th? a nai?io ia?oiio aeaiaio? oiiaio [] ? o. i. Oaeei /eiii,
iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiieeie o aeiia? iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eoiaai? o?c?ieia?/i? ?ano?ne ??aeii? a?oeeoeyoe?eii?
aace ? aeiioneathoue oei/aniaa ii??aiyiiy iaciaeiieo oiiai c ??aeieie a
oe?eyo ?o a?eueo aeioeeiai ?ic??ciaiiy.

A i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo o?eieia?a, ineoieia?a, e?iaa?i?no?a ? iaoiaeeno?a
iayai? aeneiaethaaiiy, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iaiao?aei?noue /eaioaaiiy
a?oeeoeyoe?? ii aeaiaioao aeey a?eueo eaaeiai iaieiae?iiy iath.

Aeieeaaeiee aiae?c ?iaioe i’yc?a i?e a?oeeoeyoe?? ie?aieo oiiai
iieno?oueny a i?aoe? A. Eainueeiai ua a 1888 ?ioe?. Eainueeee aaaaeaa,
ui aea/aiith ?oo?a i?aai?a iiae i?e a?aeoai?ai? oiiai iiaeiii
a?aeaiaeeoeny iaeaaeia i?noea, aea oea ia aa?aoueny aei oaaae.

N.?. Aa?iooaei a “Ieoaiiyo iaa/aiiy aeiiae” aeacoaaa ia oa, ui iaa/aiiy
aeiiae aeiaaa? ?ic/eaioaaiiy caoeiai? noi?iie ne?a ia caoee ? iiaeaeueoa
?ic/eaioaaiiy caoe?a ia neeaaeath/? ?o /anoeia? aeiiai? ?iaioe, a
caiaeii neioacoaaiiy ?ioiiiaieo caoe?a c /anoeiaeo ?ia?o ? caoeiai?
iaieiiee ne?a c ie?aieo caoe?a.

I.A.?oaeee aaaaeaa, yeui o/aiue iai?aaeeueii a?aeoai?th? caoe, nii/aoeo
aeiiaeaiee a/eoaeai, oi “… ooo aa?oi aoei a aeei?enoaoe iniaeeaee
i?eeii, yeee cionea ae o/iy a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai naiai
aeina?aeo ? oi/ii ni?eeiyoe oa iiaa, ui eiio iieacothoue. Aaaei?noue
canoinoaaiiy iai/iiai iaoiaeo a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iiiaaa? a oiio, uia
ae/eaieoe iio??aia yaeua, aeyaeoe eiai o an?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? ?
cioneoe o/iy ni?eeiyoe eiai ye aeaui iani?aaae? iiaa.”

O ca’yceo c ieoaiiyi ?ic/eaiiaaiiai iaieiae?iiy a?oeeoeyoe??th oiiaie
a i?aoeyo iaoeo a/aieo i?eae?ey?oueny iniaeeaa oaaaa oae caai?e
“a?iianoeoe? i?aai?a iiaeaiiy”. “Eaaoa ? e?aua, — ienaa i?ioani? A. A.
A?oaiia, — iane?aeoaaoe aeiiao ia ?iicaii?e iia? oei, ooi caeia?oueny
niaoe?aeueiith ieanoe/iith a?iianoeeith i?aai?a iiaeaiiy.”

“Niaoe?aeuei? ai?aae aeey aoa ? yceea, — iaaieiooaaa i?ioani?
A.A.O?aooa?ia, iathoue oe?iia i?iiaaeaaoe/ia cia/aiiy, ine?eueee aiie ia
eeoa ae?iaeythoue a o/i?a ai?iiy eiio?iethaaoe ?ooe aeoeaieo i?aai?a
iiaeaiiy, aea e aioothoue ?o aei naiino?eiiai eiio?iethaaiiy
a?oeeoeyoe?eii? ?iaioe ca ?aooiie i?aai?a ci?o ? aeioeeo. Oea
i?aeaioiaea a iiaeaeueo?e ?iaio? caaacia/o? oaeaeea ? aaciiieeeiaa
aeeiiaiiy aeiia a/eoaey i?e iinoaiiaoe? aeiiae.”

An? aeua aeacai? oeeoaoe aiai?youe i?i oa, ui ?iicaiia oiiaia aeey o/iy
? neeaaeiei o?c?ieia?/iei eiiieaenii aeey ni?eeiaiiy ? a?aeoai?aiiy, ?
/ano? iiieeee c’yaeythoueny naia a iane?aeie ia?ic/eaiiaaiiai iaa/aiiy
ii iaieiae?iith oiiaiith ? iai?aeaioiaeai?noth i?aai?a iiaeaiiy aei
a?oeeoeyoe?? ia??aeieo oiiai. Oiio a iniiao iaoiaeo iaieiae?iiy
?iicaiieie oiiaiaie ? a iniiao iaoiaee/ieo i?eeii?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?
aei?aaeaiiy iiieeie o aeiia? iaiao?aeii iieeanoe iiaeaeueoa na?aeiia
canai?iiy aeaiaio?a a?oeeoeyoe??, ui caaacia/o?oueny iiia?aaeiueith
i?aeaioiaeith i?aai?a iiaeaiiy aeey a?aeoai?aiiy neeaaeiiai
o?c?ieia?/iiai eiiieaeno a?oeeoeyoe?? oiiaie.

Iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie ia?aaoaeiae a?oeeoeyoe?eii? aace

A?aeiii, ui aieiaiith i?e/eiith iiieeie oeiey??a ? o?c?ieia?/ia ??cieoey
i?ae a?oeeoeyoe?eiith aacith oe?a?inueei? iiae ? aiae?enueei?. Ine?eueee
ni?aaa a o?c?ieia??, oi aea?aiii aeiaaaoe a?ae o/iy, uia a?i aeiiaeya
oie /e ?ioee caoe ia oae, ye a?i oea ?iaeoue a ??aei?e iia?. Aeey oiai,
uia caaacia/eoe iniaeeaino? aiae?enueei? oiiaoe/ii? nenoaie, iaiao?aeia
ia?aaoaeiaa a?oeeoeyoe?eii? aace ??aeii? iiae aeey a?aeoai?aiiy
aiae?enueeeo oiiai.

Ia?aaoaeiaa a?oeeoeyoe?eii? aace – oea iniiaa anueiai i?ioeano iaa/aiiy
?iicaiii? iiae, ine?eueee a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? iaieiae?iiy oiiaiiith
nenoaiith ?iicaiii? iiae – oea noai?aiiy o iiaoey /e /eooey iiai?
a?oeeoeyoe?eii? aace.

A?oeeoeyoe?eia aaca cacae/ae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeayeeie iniaeeainoyie:
nooi?iue iai?oaeaiino? a?oeeoeyoe??, i?ioean oiiaoe?eiiai aeeoaiiy.

A oiiaao oeiee iaia? iiaeeeaino? aeiiiaoeny iiaii? ia?aaoaeiae
a?oeeoeyoe?eii? aace o/iy. I?ioa, ia aeoieo ?.A.Eoeieoeueeiai, ? aea?
o?c?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino?, ye? aecia/athoue niaoeeo?eo aiae?enueei?
a?oeeoeyoe??, iaiao?aei? o/iaa? aeey cia/iiai iieaaoaiiy iaieiae?iiy
aiae?enueeith aeiiaith – oea, ii-ia?oa, iaieiae?iiy oiiaoe?eiei
aeeoaiiyi, ui a aiae?enuee?e iia? iaaaaaoi neeuei?oa, ai?ae a
oe?a?inuee?e iia?, ?, ii-ae?oaa, iaieiae?iiy a?eueo aenieei nooiaiai
iai?oaeaiiy i?aai?a iiaeaiiy i?e a?aeoai?aii? aiae?enueeeo oiiai a
ii??aiyii? c iai?oaeai?noth, ui oa?aeoa?ia aeey oe?a?inueei? iiae.

Oiiaoe?eia aai aeiiaia ? i?inoa, cae/aeia aeeoaiiy – oea ia iaeia ? oa
ae. “Eiee, — ienaa A.A.Aiai?iaeeoeueeee, — ie aeei?enoiao?ii aeeoaiiy
aeey aeneiaeaiiy ie?aiiai caoeo /e eiia?iaoe?? caoe?a aieinii /e
iioaiee, aei i?inoiai a?ae/oooy aeaeeoaiiy i?e?aeio?oueny a?ae/oooy
iniaeeaiai i’yciaiai iineeaiiy a iaeano? a?oaeii? ee?oee ? i?ano aeeaioa
niaoe?aeueii aeey aeaiiai aeiiaeyiiy”.

Ia iniia? aeuaneacaiiai i?eoiaeeii aei aeniiaeo, ui aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy
iiieeie a o/i?a iaiao?aeii i?aeaiooaaoe a ieo oiiaoe?eia aeeoaiiy, oiaoi
aeeoaiiy a?eueo iai?oaeaia, i?ae oe?a?inueea.

Ine?eueee a e?oa?aoo?? ia cono??/athoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c ieoaiue
iaa/aiiy aiae?enueeiai oiiaoe?eiiai aeeoaiiy, ieae/a i?iiiio?oueny aeey
ii/aoeo iaaaeeea na??y ai?aa, aoaeoeai?noue yei? oni?oii ia?aa??aia ia
i?aeoeoe?.

O?aioaaiiy oiiaoe?eiiai aeeoaiiy

Ai?aaa ?

Aaeeoi?oue iia?o?y oaeaeei ? aeeaiei. Ia ?ice?eaath/e oe?iei ?ioa,
c?ia?oue 3-4 ei?ioeeo aeaeioe, uia aeaeeoiooe oaanue caian iia?o?y.
ssceeii i?e oeueiio oi?eaeoanue ieaei?o coa?a. Iiaoi??oue oea aeae?eueea
?ac?a.

Ai?aaa ??

A?aee?eeoa ?io aeey oe?ieiai oe?a?inueeiai [a] ?, iinooiiai cae?eaath/e
?io, c?ia?oue no?eueee aaeeo?a, ne?eueee iiaeaoa.

Ai?aaa ???

I?e u?eueii c?ieiaieo aoaao ?c ceaaea a?aeoyaiooeie eooeeaie ?ioo
c?ia?oue aeeaieee aaeeo /a?ac i?n, a iio?i 3 ?ace aia?a?/ii aeiia?oue
[n-n-n]. ?ic?ieioaoe aoae, c?ia?oue oa ae, aeeaiei aaeeoioaoe /a?ac ?io.
O?aioeoanue a oae?e aeiia? caoeo [n].

Ai?aaa IV

Aeeaiei aaeeoioaoe, aeo?ao?oue oaanue caian iia?o?y ia aeiiaeaiiy ne?a
no?e, ne?e, i?e. I?ney aeiiaeyiiy eiaeii? i?eaieinii? a neia? ae iiaeii?
/ooe, ye i?ioiaeeoue /anoeia iia?o?y, ui aeaeeoa?oueny.

Ai?aaa V

Eiaeiiai ?aco aeeaiei aaeeoath/e iia?o?y, ii-/a?c? aeiiaeyeoa
aiae?enuee? neiaa [taim], [keik], [pen]. Ai?aaeyeoanue a aeiiaeyii?
?ioeo ne?a oaeiai ae oeio.

A oiiaao oeiee a?aenooi?noue ani??aoe?e o aeiia? o/i?a ia iiaeia
aaaaeaoe aaeeeith iiieeeith, ine?eueee ani??aoe?y a aiae?enuee?e iia? ia
ia? oiiaiaoe/iiai cia/aiiy, a o?eueee aeiiiaith? aeoeaio. Aeuaiaaaaeaia
na??y ai?aa oaeiae ia ia?aaeaa/a? niaoe?aeueiiai iaa/aiiy ani??aoe??.
Iaiao?aeii ae?iaeoe neeueia oiiaoe?eia aeeoaiiy acaaae?; yeui oea
aaeanoueny, oi ani??aoe?y c’yaeoueny ye i?e?iaei?e ?acoeueoao oaeiai
aeeoaiiy. Neeueia aeeoaiiy iaiao?aeia aieiaiei /eiii aeey aia?a?eiiai
aeiiaeyiiy ?yaeo aiae?enueeeo aeooeo i?eaieinieo ? aaaeeeo eiia?iaoe?e
i?eaieinieo.

I’yciaa iai?oaeai?noue iiaiiai aia?aoo, a a ia?oo /a?ao yceea ? aoa?a, ?
ae?oaith oiiaith, iaiao?aeiith aeey ia?aaoaeiae oe?a?inueei?
a?oeeoeyoe?eii? aace o/i?a.

Ai?aae aeey noai?aiiy caaaeueii? iai?oaeaiino? iiaiiai aia?aoo

Ai?aaa ?

I?aei?i?oue e?i/ee yceea aei aeueaaie ? aeae?eueea ?ac?a i?ae?yae oi
a?aeaiaeueoa eiai, oi neeueii i?eoeneaeoa aei aeueaaie. Iiaoi?theoa oeth
ai?aao aeioe, iiee ia a?ae/o?oa, ui ycee aac iniaeeaeo coneeue aeeiio?
oe? ?ooe. E?i/ee yceea i?e oeueiio ia iiaeiai a?aeaeiaoenue aia?aae /e
caaeiaoenue iacaae.

Ai?aaa ??

I?aei?i?oue ycee ? iieeaae?oue eiai i?ae coaaie, ne?aeeoth/e ca oei, uia
aieia? e?a? yceea u?eueii i?enyaaee aei aieiaeo coa?a ? i?aeiaa?iiy.
I?aeo?eioth/e ycee a oaeiio iieiaeaii?, a?aeaiaeueoa eiai a?ae coa?a ?
ciiao i?aeaiaeueoa aei ieo.

Ai?aaa ???

Aeae?eueea ?ac?a i?oeii i?eoeni?oue i?aeii aoae (?? ciai?oi?i e?a?i) aei
aa?oi?o coa?a, caeeoath/e iaeaea ia?ooiiith ieaeith uaeaio. Iiaoi??oue
ai?aao a oaeaeeiio oaii?.

Ai?aaa ?V

Ceaaea i?ea?aee?eaoe ?ioa, cae?eeoa eiai, i?oeii noeneath/e aoae. *anoi
iiaoi?theoa oeth ai?aao.

Ai?aaa V

Aeeaey/enue a aeca?eaei, nii/aoeo iia?eueii, a iio?i oaeaeei iaaeaeoa
aoaai iieiaeaiiy, iaiao?aeia aeey aeiiaeyiiy iiii?yaeeo, a cai?ioiueiio
? ci?oaiiio ii?yaeeo ianooii? aieini?: [a], [o], [y], [e], [u], [i].
I?ney aea/aiiy aiae?enueeeo aieinieo, iiaeia a oeth ai?aao aeiaeaoe ?o
iiia?ai?iii c a?aeiia?aeieie oe?a?inueeeie.

Ia aeeaey/enue ia iiaecio ? iacae/aei?noue ai?aa aeey ia?aaoaeiae
iiaiiai aia?aoo, iaiao?aeii ia?aeiiaoe o/i?a a ei?eniino? oeeo ai?aa ?
iaiieyaaoe ia ?o ?aae?caoe??. Oea aaaeeeai iaaiai?eoe ua ? oiio, ui o/i?
/anoi ni?iieyoueny eii?thaaoe iacae/i? ?ooe aoa ? yceea, anoeaeathoueny,
eiee iio??aii aeiiaeoe aaaeea, iacae/ia aeey oe?a?inueeeo, aiae?enueea
neiai, iai?eeeaae, that [?t]. Na??y a iniiaiiio iia/acii? i?aeaioiaee
i?aai?a iiae iiaea aeeeeeaoe iaii?icoi?iiy a o/i?a. Oiio
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeey a?eueoi? iaaiino? ii??aiyoe oe? ai?aae c?
nii?oeaieie ai?aaaie, ye? aioothoueny o?aia?aie ? ?aae?cothoueny o/iyie
ia iae?aco iiai?noth, a iiaeaiaioii. Ne?ae ?icoeoia/eoe, ui aeeiiaoe
neeaaeiee caoeiaee eiiieaen ?iicaiiiai neiaa ? iaa?oue iaei??? oiiaie
i?aaiai iiae cia/ii aaae/a, ai?ae ?ioei /anoeiai o?ea (?oeai, iea/ai)
aac i?aeaioiaee aeeiioaaoe oo /e ?ioo neeaaeio ai?aao ia eieueoeao /e
a?onao. I?aeaiooaaaoe iiaiee aia?ao o/i?a aei aiae?enueei? a?oeeoeyoe??,
a/eoaeue iiaea aeaaaoe ?i ??ci? ai?aae aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo
iiieeie ? o aeiiaeyii? ie?aieo oiiai.

Iiia?aaeaeaiiy iii’yeoaiiy aiae?enueeeo i?eaieinieo

Iii’yeoaiiy i?eaieinieo a oe?a?inuee?e iia? aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii
i?aeeiio nieiee yceea aei i?aeiaa?iiy aeiaeaoeiai aei iniiaii?
a?oeeoeyoe?? aeaii? oiiaie. Na??y iiia?aaeaeoaaieo ai?aa aioo? iiaiee
aia?ao aei oiai, uia ia aeicaieeoe o/iyi iii’yeooaaoe aiae?enuee?
i?eaieini?, oiaoi oe? ai?aae iiia?aaeaeothoue i?aeeii na?aaeiuei? nieiee
yceea, ia aeicaieyth/e o/ith aeiiaeoe i’yeee i?eaieiniee cai?noue
oaa?aeiai.

An? o?aioaaeuei? ai?aae na?aeii? neeaaeai? c aeei?enoaiiyi o?eueee
iiiiooiia?a ? aeeooiia?a ia?aaeiueiai ?yaeo.

Ine?eueee ai?aae ia a?oeeoeyoe?th aeiaai? oiiaie [i:] aaaee?, a?eueoa
/anoeia ai?aa iaoe?eaia ia i?aaeeueia aeiiaeyiiy ia?o ca ana ei?ioeiai
aieiniiai [i]. Noiniaii iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiiyeoaiiy ia?aae [a], oi
aeineoue i???iooaaoe o/i?a ia aeiiaeyiiy i?eaieinieo oae, i?ae i?ney ieo
noiya ae [a].

Na??y ai?aa aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiiyeoaiiy aiae?enueeeo i?eaieinieo

Ai?aaa ?

Aeiia?oue neiai iee ?, ia ci?uoth/e ycee, aeiia?oue ieethea. Caoaaaeoa,
ui a?aeaoaa?oueny c yceeii i?e aeiiaeyii? caoeo [e] a e?ioe? oeeo ne?a.
Iiaoi??oue ua ?ac ai?aao ? neaae?oue, yea /anoeia yceea noai?th? eiioaeo
a oiio /e ?ioiio aeiaaeeo.

Ai?aaa ??

Aeiia?oue neiai iee. I?ioyai?oue caoe [e], ia aeicaieyth/e na?aaei?e
/anoei? yceea i?aeiyoeny; iio?i aeiia?oue neiai eei. Oaia? aeiia?oue
i?ae?yae: iee — [e] — eei. Ii??aiyeoa a?aei?ii?noue a ono?iyo yceea aeey
[e] oaa?aeiai ? [eue] i’yeiai.

Ai?aaa ???

Oaeei aea /eiii aeiia?oue: n?i — [i] – i?n; i?iaiae?coeoa a?aei?ii?noue
ono?i?a yceea aeey [i] ? [iue].

Ai?aaa IV

Aeiia?oue neiai e?o oae, uia ycee i?e aeiiaeyii? [o] aoa i?eoeniaiee aei
aeueaaie. Ia ci?ithth/e yceea c aeueaaie, aeiia?oue neiai o?e, oiaoi e?o
— [o] – o?e. Ne?aeeoeoa, uia ia aeiiaeoe oee.

Ai?aaa V

Aiaeia?/ii aei ai?aae IV o?aioeoanue o aeiiaeyii?: i?ae- [ae] –ae?i.

Ai?aaa V?

Aeiia?oue iiaeai? aiae?enuee? neiaa, ia iiiyeooth/e i?eaieini? ia?aae
aieinieie. sseui ae oie /e ?ioee i?eaieiniee aeeaea i’yeee, eiai
iio??aii ie?aii o?aioaaoe a neia?, ia aeicaieyth/e na?aaei?e nieioe?
yceea i?ei?aei?iaoenue. sseui ai?aaa ciiao ia aaea?oueny, ne?ae
iiaoi?eoe iaeio c ia?oeo ai?aa c oeei caoeii. [`lili], [`kiti], [`siti],
[`tikit], [`piti], [`beti], [`keltik], [`sedrik].

Ai?aaa V??

Aeeiiaeoa eiio?ieueio ai?aao, iiaoi?thth/e eiaeia neiai ia iaioa o?ueio
?ac?a. sseui iii?oeoa, ui ciiao iii’yeoo?oa aiae?enuee? i?eaieini?,
iiaoi??oue ua e ?io? ai?aae.

[pit] [pi:t] [pei] [pen]

[lift] [li:k] [lei] [leg]

[siks] [si:k] [sei] [sens]

An? oe? ai?aae iieeeeai? aeinyaoe ??ceiai cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino?
na?aaeiuei? /anoeie yceea. Iaeii/anii oe? ai?aae iano?iththoue ycee ia
ai?eaeueiee ono??e, ui ni?ey? aeayeiio cieaeaiith oe?a?inueeiai aeoeaioo
o aeiia? o/i?a.

Iaoiaee/iee i?eeii iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?aeeiio na?aaeiuei? nieiee yceea ?
aoi?aiaiiyi o o?c?ieia?th noai?aiiy aeonoe/ii i’yeeo oiiai. A o/iy
iiaeiai ae?iaeoeny ?aoeaen: ye o?eueee a?i ona?aeiieth?, ui ia? ni?aao c
aiae?enueeith aeiiaith, ono?i? eiai a?oeeoeyoe?eieo i?aai?a
ia?aaoaeiaothoueny aeey iiai? oiiaoe/ii? nenoaie.

I?eeiie iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo iiieeie aeiiae o oiiaoe/iiio neeaae?

?. I?eaieini? oiiaie

Ia?o ca ana iaiao?aeii iiia?aaeeoe iiieeee o/i?a a aiae?enueeeo oiiaiao
aeaeueiuei? a?oie [….. w, h] ? o?eeaoeaiiai [r].

Iaeieo eeo iien?a a?oeeoeyoe?? oiiaie iaaeinoaoiuei aeey iaieiae?iiy
a?oeeoeyoe?eiiai ono?ith iiai?, ia??aeii? oiiaie. Cia/iee i?ioeaio
iiieeie o oeiey??a i?e iaieiae?ii? oiiaiaie aeaeueiuei? a?oie
iiynith?oueny ia no?eueee aaaeeith a?oeeoeyoe??th, ne?eueee
iaaeineiiae?noth iaoiae?a, yeeie aiie ei?enoothoueny.

Ieae/a i?iiiiothoueny i?eeiie iaieiae?iiy oiiaiaie aeaeueiuei? a?oie, ui
iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey i?aaeeueiiai iaa/aiiy iaciaeiieo oiiai.

Oiiaie[], []

Ai?aaa ?

Iii?no?oue ia?aaei?e e?ae yceea i?ae coaaie oae, uia ycee i?eoeneaany
aieaie o?eueee aei aa?oi?o coa?a. ?icooe?oue aoae oae, uia aiie ia
caaaaeaee aa/eoe a aeca?eae?, ye ae eeaaeaoa ycee. Iio?i caaa??oue ycee,
cae?eeoa ?io ? iiaoi??oue ai?aao aeae?eueea ?ac?a.

Ai?aaa ??

Iai?aaoa ycee aei aa?oi?o coa?a (ye o ai?aa? ?). sscee i?eaei?oue aei
coa?a oae, uia i?ae yceeii ? aa?oi?ie coaaie aoea aocueea u?eeia. Oaia?
i?iioneaeoa iia?o?y /a?ac oeth u?eeio. Ne?aeeoeoa, uia iia?o?y ia
i?ioiaeeei ii aieao. Iiaoi??oue ai?aao aeae?eueea ?ac?a.

Ai?aaa ???

A?aeaaae?oue ycee ca coae ? , i?iaeoaath/e iia?o?y, aeiia?oue [s], a
iio?i [] ? ii??aiyeoa ?o cao/aiiy. Iio?i aeiia?oue [s], a cae?i/?oue
aeiiaeaiiyi []. A oaia? iaaiaee.

Ai?aaa IV

Aeeiiaeoa ai?aao ???, i?aenoaaeyth/e cai?noue caoeo [] caoe [].

Ai?aaa V

Aeiia?oue ianooii? ii?aeiaiiy caoe?a nii/aoeo c ?ioa?aaeii, a iio?i
ceeoii:

[s] – [s]

[f] – [f]

[v] – [v]

[d] – [d]

An? aeuaiaaaaeai? ai?aae aeey oiiaie [],[] aeeiiothoueny iaeia ca
ae?oaith ia o?ieao, a iio?i aeathoueny ia aeiiaoi? caaaeaiiy.

O/i? aaea i?ney iaeiiai ?aco io?eiaiiai iiyniaiiy i?i iaoiaee ?iaioe
i?ney aeeiiaiiy na??? ai?aa aeey oiiaie [],[] ia iio?aaothoue iiaoi?aiiy
caaaeueieo aeac?aie ? aac iniaeeaeo iiia?aaeaeaiue iiaeooue ia?aeoe aei
aeeiiaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?eii? na??? ai?aa aeey oiiaie [].

Oiiaia []

Ai?aaa ?

Iia?eueii iioneaeoa ieaeith uaeaio ieae/a, i?ae aeey oe?a?inueeiai [a],
iaeii/anii a?aeoyaoth/e ycee a?ae coa?a. Cae?eeoa ?io. Iiaoi??oue oe?
?ooe aeae?eueea ?ac?a.

Ai?aaa ??

I?eoeni?oue caaeith /anoeio yceea aei i’yeiai i?aeiaa?iiy ? aeaeeoaeoa
iia?o?y /a?ac i?n. I?e oeueiio i’yea i?aeiaa?iiy iionoeoueny.
I?aeaaae?oue aeieiith aei iina, uia ia?aa??eoe, /e iia?o?y ni?aaae?
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac i?n. Iiaoi??oue oaeee aeaeeo aeae?eueea ?ac?a.

Ai?aaa ???

Ii/i?oue aeaeeoaoe iia?o?y /a?ac i?n oae naii, ye ae oea ?iaeee a ai?aa?
?? ? iiaeaeoa aiein. Io?eia?oa iiniaee aiae?enueeee caoe [].
Iio?aioeoany o aeiiaeyii? [].

Ai?aaa IV

Eiio?iethth/e naaa c aeiiiiiaith aeca?eaea ? oaaaeii aneooath/enue o
aeanio iiao, aeiia?oue ianooii? o?e neiaa, ui a ia?aeeaae? ia
oe?a?inueeo icia/athoue ae??neiaa a??oeoe, ni?aaoe ? oiiooe, ye?
aiae?eoe? ?ic??ciythoue o?eueee ii i?aaeeuei?e aeiia? caoe?a [n — — k]
a oeeo iiaao:

[sin] – [si ] – [si k]

Oiiaia [w]

Ai?aaa ?

Noyai?oue aoae aei oeaio?o ? i?aeiyaoe iaeii/anii caaeith nieieo yceea
aei i’yeiai i?aeiaa?iiy, i?iaeoeoa iia?o?y /a?ac aocueeee ioa??
noyaiaieo aoa; iio?i aei aeaeio?a aeiaeaeoa aiein ? ae io?eia?oa
aiae?enueeee caoe [w]. Iio?aioeoany o aeiia? [w – w – w].

Ai?aaa ??

Ii??aiyeoa ??cieoeth a iieiaeaii? aoa ? yceea i?e aeiiaeyii?
oe?a?inueeiai [a] ? aiae?enueeiai [w]. Iio?aioeoanue o aeiiaeyii? [a —
w] ? , iaaiaee, [w — a]. aeey eiio?ieth ei?enooeoany aeca?eaeii.

Ai?aaa ???

I?eaiooeoa aoae aei [w]. Noai??oue aenieee i?aeeii caaeiuei? /anoeie
nieiee yceea. A oaia? aeiia?oue neiai [w?:] c i?ioyaeiei [w] ? aeiaaei
[?:]; oiaoi [www?:]. Iio?aioeoany! Aeae? aeiia?oue neiai [wwwai] ? neiai
[wwwan].

Ai?aaa IV

Uia ia iiieeyoeny o aeiia? caoeo [w] i?iaiae?coeoa iai?aaeeueia
aeiiaeyiiy [`weri`vel] cai?noue i?aaeeueiiai [`veri `wel]. Iio?i
iio?aioeoanue o?eueee o i?aaeeueiiio ? oaeaeeiio aeiiaeyii? [`veri `wel;
`veri `wel;`veri `wel].

Oiiaia [h]

Ai?aaa ?

Aeiia?oue ieeeee Aoa! Ioi!, cai?ieaoe a ieo i?eaieini? caoee i?ioyaeieie
aeaeeoaie. I?e o?aioaaii? o?eieee caoe [o] iiaeiai iiai?noth cieeiooe.

Ai?aaa ??

Aeiia?oue neiaa: oeoio?oe, oioaoe, cai?ithth/e caoe [o] aeaeeoii.
Iio?aioeooeny a oae?e iaa/aeuei?e aeiia? oeeo ne?a.

Ai?aaa ???

A?aee?eeoa ?io, ii/i?oue aeiiaeyoe iiaeiaaeaiee oe?a?inueeee [o] ?
niinoa??aaeoa c aeiiiiiaith aeca?eaea, a yeiio iieiaeaii? ciaoiaeeoueny
ycee. Ae iiaa/eoa, ye caaeiy nieiea yceea i?ae?eia?oueny. Iio?i
ia?aa??oa iieiaeaiiy yceea i?e /enoiio aeaeen?; oaia? caaeiy /anoeia
nieiee yceea ia i?ae?eia?oueny. Oea ? ? iieiaeaiiy yceea i?e aeiia?
aiae?enueeiai caoeo [h].

Ai?aaa IV

sse iiaeia oeo?oa, iioaiee aeiia?oue niieo/aiiy aiae?enueeiai caoeo [h]
c oe?a?inueeeie aieinieie:

[ho, ha, he, hu, hy].

Oiiaia [r]

Ai?aaa ?

A?aee?eeoa ?io aeey oe?a?inueeiai [a] ?, ia i?ae?eiath/e uaeaie,
aeiia?oue [?]. Iio?aioeoany!

Ai?aaa ??

I?aeaaae?oue iai?oaeaiee ia?ooiiee e?i/ee yceea aei aeueaaie oae, uia
i?ae yceeii ? aeueaaieaie caeeoaeanue iaaaeeea u?eeia. Iaa/?oueny
i?iaeoaaoe iia?o?y /a?ac ia?. Aeae?, iia?eueii aeaeeoioaoe /a?ac u?eeio
? iiaeaaoe aiein, aeiia?oue aiae?enueeee caoe [r]. Iiaoi??oue oeth
oiiaio aeae?eueea ?ac?a iaeiei aeaeeoii [r..r..r..].

Ai?aaa ???

Ii/i?oue iia?eueii aeiiaeyoe aiae?enueeee caoe [r], a cae?i/?oue neiaii
[rait]. Aeiia?oue ciaeii? aai aiae?enuee? neiaa, ye? ii/eiathoueny
caoeii [r].

1. Aieini? oiiaie

sse aaea aiai?eeiny, na?aeiia iane?aeoaaiiy ? iniiaith iaoiaeo, aea aiii
i?eiee ia iiaeiii ia?aoai?thaaoeny a iaoai?/ia, aac aiae?co iiaoi?aiiy.
Aea /anoi o?aiey?oueny oae, ui a naiiai a/eoaey aeiiai? iaae/ee ia/?oe?
aai ia a?aeiia?aeaoue ii?iai e?oa?aoo?ii? aeiiae.

Ieae/a i?iiiiothoueny i?eeiie iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiieeie a aeiaaeei? aeey
ie?aieo aieinieo caoe?a.

Ai?aaa ?

Iani?aaeoa ae?acii oe?a?inuee? o?ace ? iii?oueoa, ui i?e oaeiio
aeiiaeyii? ie “aeeeaea?ii” aieini?:

1. Oe?ea-a-aaa eieaeea!

2. Aa?ie-e-e oa?o!

3. *oaei-i-iaee aeaiue!

4. I?-?-?ia?aeueia aiaea!

5. Oa io-o-o!

6. Ua-a-aae?ee aa/??!

Ai?aaa ??

Iani?aaeoa aeecuee? ii cao/aiith aiae?enuee?e e oe?a?inuee?e neiaa (ii
aa?oeeae? ? ii ai?eciioae?). Aeia?oue ??cieoeth o cao/aii? a
oe?a?inuee?e ? aiae?enuee?e iiaao:

[ma:] – [ta:]

[mo:] – [to:]

[my:] – [ty:]

Ai?aaa ???

Iani?aaeoa ianooii? aeaa ?yaeee ne?a ? caoeiaeo niieo/aiue:

[oe:] – [o?:] – [ti:]

[oa:] – [o?:] – [te:]

I?iaiae?coeoa ??cieoeth i?ae aiae?enueeeie ? oe?a?inueeeie caoeaie.

Ai?aaa IV

Iani?aaeoa oe?a?inuee? neiaa, a aiae?enuee? c i?aaeeueieie aeiaaeie
aieinieie (ne?aeeoeoa, uia aieini? ia iii’yeooaaeeny):

[ee?:i] – [kli:n]

[ne?:i] – [sli:n]

[a?:o] – [ bi:t]

[n?:] – [ si:]

Ai?aaa V

Aeeiiaeoa ii??aiyeueio ai?aao, caa?oath/e oaaao ia aeiaaeeio aieiniiai:

[pi:t] – [pit]

[po:t] – [pot]

[ba:k] – [bEk]

[pu:l] – [pul]

[he:] – [he]

Iaeii/anii ne?aeeoeoa ca on?ia iniaeeainoyie a?oeeoeyoe?? aiae?enueeeo
i?eaieinieo.

I?e aeyaeaii? a iiaeaeueoiio iiieeie a o/i?a o aeiaaeei? aieinieo
ei?enii aea??eiai iiaa?oaoeny aei oeeo ai?aa. Aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy
iiieeie o aeiia? ie?aieo aieinieo /anoi aeiaiaeeoueny ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe
cae??ieaiiy aoaeue-yeiai aeaiaioo aeey aeaii? oiiaie.

Iai?eeeaae, a?aeiii, ui o/i? iiieeythoueny o aeiia? aiae?enueeeo
aieinieo [o], [u], ye? aiie iaaei??ii iaoaeythoue ca cae/eith aei
iaeiioeiieo oiiai a ??aei?e aeiia?, i?e oeueiio iieiaeaiiy yceea ?
ieaeiuei? uaeaie iiaea aooe i?aaeeueiei.

3. Aaaee? ii?aeiaiiy oiiai

Ieoaiiy i?i aaaee? ii?aeiaiiy oiiai ia? ia oaac? o?oaeiiu?, ui
aeieeathoue aaea ia no?eueee ye o?oaeiiu? ie?aieo a?oeeoeyoe?e, ne?eueee
aeoioeyoe?y ?o o ii?aeiaii? a oae?e iine?aeiaiino?, yea noai?th? iia?
o?oaeiiu? ? iaiao?aei?noue aeiaeaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy. A oeeo aeiaaeeao
i?eioeei iiia?aaeiueiai ona?aeiieaiiy an?o aeaoaeae ia?aoiaeo a?ae
iaeiiai ono?ith aei ?ioiai, a?aooaaiiy ??cieo anei?eyoeaieo iniaeeainoae
a?ae?a?a? aaaeeea?oo ?ieue. Oae, iai?eeeaae, o aaaeeiio ii?aeiaii? [str]
iaiao?aeii iaia?aae i?aeaiooaaoe o/i?a aei oiai, ui i?ney [s] e?i/ee
yceea iiaeiai i?aeiyoenue aeiaa?oo ?, oi?eioaoenue aeueaaiey?ii? aeoae,
ooai?eoe u?eeio aeey [r]. Aac oaei? i?aeaioiaee oe?a?inuee? o/i?
iaia’yceiai aeiiaeyoue ii-oe?a?inueee [no?], ye o neia? no?ao.

Iaea?eueo aaaeeeie ii?aeiaiiyie oiiai cacae/ae aaaaeathoue ? o.i. A
i?aeoeoe? iaa/aiiy aeiiae iiaeia cono??oeny c aaeeeith ??ciiiai?oi?noth
aaaeeeo ii?aeiaiue i?eaieinieo, aieinieo c i?eaieinieie aai o?eueee
aieinieo o neiaao.

Aeina?ae iieaco?, ui e?auei ? i?eioeei ?icae?eueii? i?aeaioiaee
a?oeeoeyoe?eieo i?aai?a aei a?aeoai?aiiy aeayeeo aaaeeeo aeey
oe?a?inueeeo o/i?a aca?iica’yce?a i?ae aiae?enueeeie oiiaiaie.
Iai?eeeaae, yeui ie aoaeaii aiooaaoe o/i?a aei aeiiae ii?aeiaiiy , oi
cai?iiiio?ii oea oaeei oeyoii: iiaeiaaeaii ? ieaaii aeiiaeoe , uia
ycee “caiai’yoaa” iio??aia iieiaeaiiy. Iio?i ieaaiee, /?oeee ia?ao?ae
a?ae aei iinooiiai ia?aoai?th?oueny o oaeaeeee.

E??i aaea caaaeaieo, aaaeeeie aeey o/i?a ? e oae? ii?aeiaiiy, ye oa
?io? ii?aeiaiiy c oiiaiith , a aeaeo ??ceiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaeiiai
iieiaeaiiy i?aai?a iiae aei ae?oaiai: iaiao?aei?noue a?ae cieeaiiy aoa
/e aa?oiueiai iieiaeaiiy yceea ieoo?ai ia?aeoe aei cia/iiai ?ic?ieiaiiy
aoa e iaeii/aniiai noai?aiiy iecueeiai i?aeeiio na?aaeiuei? nieiee
yceea.

Ia?ao?ae ii?aeiaiue oeio aei iiniaiai niiaioa /e aei aeueaaiey?ieo
oiiai oaeiae aeiaaa? niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee i?aai?a iiae. Iaeia neiai
i?eoiao? a nia? ?yae aaaeeeo ia?aoiae?a i?aai?a iiae a?ae iaeiiai
neeaaeiiai ono?ith aei ?ioiai; a iueiio o?e oiiaie aeaeueiuei? a?oie o
aaaeeiio a?oeeoeyoe?eiiio ii?aeiaii?. I?aaeeueia a?oeeoeyoe?y oaeeo ne?a
iiaea aooe o?eueee ?acoeueoaoii aeiaaio?eaaeiai o?aioaaiiy i?aai?a iiae.

Oae, nii/aoeo iio??aii aeinyaoe i?aaeeueii? aeiiae oiiaie
,aeae? iaa/eoe aeiiaeyoe , aei ii?aeiaiiy oeyoii oaeaeeiai
a?aeoyaoaaiiy yceea aeiaeaoe , a i?ney o?aioaaiiy aeiiae cae?i/eoe
aeooei caaeiueiyce/iei ?, ia?aoo?, i?aaeeueiith aeiiaith anueiai
neiaa . O?eueee oaeei oeyoii iiaeia iiaeieaoe o?oaeiiu? aeiiae noiaeeo
ne?a. sseui a neia? o?eueee iaeia oiiaia aeiiaeaia c iiieeeith, iiaeia
nei?ioeoe ii/eaiiaa iaa/aiiy, aeae?eeaoe oeth oiiaio aeey iiaoi?iiai
o?aioaaiiy.

Ae?oaei aaaeeei i?eeeaaeii ? neiai , yea neeaaea?oueny iaeaea
iiai?noth c oiiai aeaeueiuei? a?oie, o aeiia? eiaeii? c yeeo iiaeeea?
iiieeee. Oaea neiai noa? aeoaea aaaeeei aeey a?oeeoeyoe??, ? iaa?oue ia
iniia? na?aeiiiai iane?aeoaaiiy o/aiue eiai aeiiaeoe ia iiaea. O?eueee
iiaiee a?oeeoeyoe?eiee aiae?c neiaa c iiia?aaei?i o?aioaaiiyi ie?aieo
a?oeeoeyoe?e iiaea aeaoe iiceoeaiee ?acoeueoao.

Ia aa?oi aeieacoaaoe, ui noeee, ye? ie niinoa??aa?ii o niieo/aiiyo ne?a
oeio ? o.i., oaeiae coiiaeee a iaaio neeaaei?noue aeey
oeiey??a ? ia iiaeooue caiia/oaaoenue; ?o aeiiao ne?ae aiooaaoe oeyoii
iiia?aaeiueiai ii?aoethaaiiy.

I?iiiiiaaiee i?eeii iine?aeiaiiai ia?iuoaaiiy oiiaiiiai cao/aiiy, ui
i?aeaiaeeoue aei cae?i/aiiai caoeiaiai eiiieaeno neiaa, i?ney eiai
cae??ieaiiy ia eeanieo o?ieao, iiaea i?aeaiooaaoe o/i?a ? aei
a?aeiia?aeieo aeiiaoi?o caaaeaiue. Iai?eeeaae, oaea caaaeaiiy iiaeia
noi?ioethaaoe ianooiiei /eiii: “Iaa/?oueny aeiiaeyoe ieae/aiaaaaeai?
neiaa, aeiaea?aeoth/enue oiia (iaoca) iaoca) (iaoca)

Aeiiae aei a/eoae?a, ye? iaa/athoue aeiia?

Niinoa??aath/e oaeoe, iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i ?nioaaiiy iaaeie?e?a o
oiiaoe/ieo iaae/eao a/eoae?a. Iiieeee a oiiaoe/iiio neeaae? aiae?enueei?
iiae a iaeieo, a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?ie ?ioiiaoe?? a ?ioeo, ?, ia?aoo?,
aianaiiy oe?a?inueeiai aeoeaioo a aiae?enueeo iiae – ana oea noai?th?
noia?a/eeaee oiiaoe/iee oii aeey o/i?a ? ia iiaea ia a?aeaeaaoeny ia
yeino? aeiiaieo iaae/ie. O ca’yceo c oeei iaiao?aeii aenoiooe aeiiae aei
a/eoaey, yeee iaa/a? aeiiae.

Ia aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui aeiiaa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaiaeii??aei?noth,
a/eoaeue iiaeiai aieiae?oe an?ia aaaaonoaaie ?ioiiaoe?eieo cania?a
??aeii? iiae. ??aeia aeiiaa a/eoaey ?iicaiii? aeiiaa iiaeiia aooe
a?eueiith a?ae aeaoaeo?a iiae (ea?oaa?noue, ca?eaiiy, oaiaeya?noue,
aionaa?noue e ?ioa), a?oeeoeyoe?y oiiai a ?cieueiaaiiio iieiaeaii? ? a
iioioe? iiae iiaeiia aooe aacaeiaaiiith, aeneiaethaaiiy iiaeiii aooe
?ioiiaoe?eii iaeneiaeueii iane/aiei.

sse ieoa A.E.O?aooa?ia: “?ieiee a/eoae? ciathoue oiiaoeeo ?iicaiieo iia
cia/ii e?aua, ai?ae caoeiaee ono??e oe?a?inueei? iiae. Oeae i?ia?e…
?iaeoue a/eoaey aaciii?/iei, ciooo? eiai aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?ei?oeai?
i?eeiie, iiaoaeiaai? ia iaoi/ieo /e iai?aaeeueieo oeoia/aiiyo ?
iiyniaiiyo.” Iaaeaaia aea iiaeiai ae/eaiiaoaaoe a ??aei?e aeiia?
aa??aioe oiiai, ni?eeiaoe ia neoo noeeueia? iniaeeaino? aeiiae,
ae?aeaeoio aeiiao, ai?oe aei?aaeoe iiieeeo a ??aei?e aeiia? o/iy.

Aieiae?iiy ae?aciith aeiiaith ? iaeiei c iniiaieo aeaiaio?a o
eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoaey ?iicaiii? iiae, iaeiei c aoaeoeaieo cania?a, ui
ni?eythoue oaeaeeiio ni?eeiyooth ? iaieiae?iith o/iyie ?iicaii? aeiiae.
Iaai? ciaiiy a iaeano? caaaeueii? oiiaoeee, ui ? /anoeiith
caaaeueiie?aa?noe/ii? i?aeaioiaee, neeaaeathoue iaeei c aeaiaio?a
eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoaey.

Aac noii?ao, a/eoaeue iiaeiai aieiae?oe ia yeeiinue noaiaiai aeiiae, a
no?eeeie aeiiaii-neooiaeie iaae/eaie aiae?enueei? iiae o no?ia?e
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ii?iith aeiiae. An? eiai a?oeeoeyoe?? iiaeii? aooe
ae?acieie, /?oeeie, ?ica??eeaeie.

A. Iii?aaoo?, aiai?y/e i?i eaae?o?eaoe?th a/eoaey ?iicaiii? iiae,
i?aee?anethaaa, ui “… iaiao?aeii, uia a/eoaeue aieiae?a c?aceiaith
aeiiaith ? cae?ai?noth noa?aioeiii a?aeoai?thaaoe iaeei ? oie naiee
caoe, — iacao oeth cae?ai?noue oiiaii “e?iaioii?/i?noth a/eoaey”. Ia
aa?oi ? aeiaeaaaoe, ui ia i?aeoeoe? noiaea e?iaioii?/i?noue
cono??/a?oueny aeineoue ??aeei.”

O aenie?e aeiiai?e eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a oa ?o oi?ii? iaa/aoe
oeiey??a ?iicaii?e aeiia? caeeaaeai? ei?ai? oni?o?a o ciaiiyo ? iaae/eao
ii aeiia? ?iicaiieo iia.

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