Myocardial infarction (Інфаркт міокарда)

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart
attack, is a medical condition that occurs when the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_flow» \o «Blood flow» blood supply
to a part of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart» \o
«Heart» heart is interrupted, most commonly due to rupture of a
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulnerable_plaque» \o
«Vulnerable plaque» vulnerable plaque . The resulting HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ischemia» \o «Ischemia» ischemia or
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypoxia_%28medical%29» \o
«Hypoxia (medical)» oxygen shortage , if left untreated for a
sufficient period, can cause damage and/or death of heart tissue. It is
a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_emergency» \o
«Medical emergency» medical emergency , and the leading cause of death
for both men and women all over the world. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «cite_note-WHO-2002-0» \o «» [1]
Important HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risk_factor» \o
«Risk factor» risk factors are a history of vascular disease such as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atherosclerosis» \o
«Atherosclerosis» atherosclerotic HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronary_heart_disease» \o «Coronary heart
disease» coronary heart disease and/or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angina_pectoris» \o «Angina pectoris»
angina , a previous heart attack or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke» \o «Stroke» stroke , any previous
episodes of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrhythmia» \o «Cardiac
arrhythmia» abnormal heart rhythms or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fainting» \o «Fainting» syncope , older
age—especially men over 40 and women over 50, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobacco_smoking» \o «Tobacco smoking»
smoking , excessive alcohol consumption, the abuse of certain drugs,
high triglyceride levels, high HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_density_lipoprotein» \o «Low density
lipoprotein» LDL (low-density lipoprotein, «bad cholesterol») and low
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_density_lipoprotein» \o
«High density lipoprotein» HDL (high density lipoprotein, «good
cholesterol»), HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus» \o «Diabetes mellitus»
diabetes , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertension» \o
«Hypertension» high blood pressure , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity» \o «Obesity» obesity , and
chronic high stress levels. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronic_kidney_disease» \o «Chronic kidney
disease» Chronic kidney disease HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «cite_note-pmid18241872-1» \o «» [2]
and a history of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_failure» \o «Heart failure» heart
failure HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«cite_note-pmid16651468-2» \o «» [3] are also significant risk factors
which may indicate a hightened disposition towards suffering a MI.

The term myocardial infarction is derived from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myocardium» \o «Myocardium» myocardium
(the heart muscle) and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infarction» \o «Infarction» infarction
(tissue death due to oxygen starvation). The phrase «heart attack» is
sometimes used incorrectly to describe HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudden_cardiac_death» \o «Sudden cardiac
death» sudden cardiac death , which may or may not be the result of
acute myocardial infarction. A heart attack is different from, but can
be the cause of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrest» \o «Cardiac arrest»
cardiac arrest , which is the stopping of the heartbeat, and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrhythmia» \o «Cardiac
arrhythmia» cardiac arrhythmia , an abnormal heartbeat. It is also
distinct from HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_failure»
\o «Heart failure» heart failure , in which the pumping action of the
heart is impaired; severe myocardial infarction may lead to heart
failure, but not necessarily.

Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chest_pain» \o «Chest pain» chest pain
(typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck),
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyspnea» \o «Dyspnea» shortness
of breath , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nausea» \o
«Nausea» nausea , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vomiting»
\o «Vomiting» vomiting , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palpitation» \o «Palpitation»
palpitations , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweating» \o
«Sweating» sweating , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anxiety» \o «Anxiety» anxiety (often
described as a sense of impending doom). Patients frequently feel
suddenly ill. Women may experience less typical symptoms than men.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «cite_note-Kosuge-3» \o «»
[4] The most common symptoms of MI in women include shortness of
breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_%28physical%29» \o «Fatigue
(physical)» fatigue . Approximately one fourth of all myocardial
infarctions are silent, without chest pain or other symptoms. A history
of diabetes should heighten the index of suspicion, particularly if the
patient has HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetic_neuropathy» \o «Diabetic
neuropathy» diabetic neuropathy (diabetes-related nerve damage).

Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen_therapy» \o «Oxygen
therapy» oxygen , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirin» \o
«Aspirin» aspirin , and sublingual HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glyceryl_trinitrate_%28pharmacology%29» \o
«Glyceryl trinitrate (pharmacology)» glyceryl trinitrate (colloquially
referred to as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitroglycerin»
\o «Nitroglycerin» nitroglycerin and abbreviated as NTG or GTN).
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analgesia» \o «Analgesia» Pain
relief is also often given, classically HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphine_sulfate» \o «Morphine sulfate»
morphine sulfate . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«cite_note-4» \o «» [5]

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