Myocardial infarction (Інфаркт міокарда)

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart
attack, is a medical condition that occurs when the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Blood flow» blood supply
to a part of the HYPERLINK «» \o
«Heart» heart is interrupted, most commonly due to rupture of a
«Vulnerable plaque» vulnerable plaque . The resulting HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ischemia» ischemia or
«Hypoxia (medical)» oxygen shortage , if left untreated for a
sufficient period, can cause damage and/or death of heart tissue. It is
«Medical emergency» medical emergency , and the leading cause of death
for both men and women all over the world. HYPERLINK
«» \l «cite_note-WHO-2002-0» \o «» [1]
Important HYPERLINK «» \o
«Risk factor» risk factors are a history of vascular disease such as
«Atherosclerosis» atherosclerotic HYPERLINK
«» \o «Coronary heart
disease» coronary heart disease and/or HYPERLINK
«» \o «Angina pectoris»
angina , a previous heart attack or HYPERLINK
«» \o «Stroke» stroke , any previous
episodes of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Cardiac
arrhythmia» abnormal heart rhythms or HYPERLINK
«» \o «Fainting» syncope , older
age—especially men over 40 and women over 50, HYPERLINK
«» \o «Tobacco smoking»
smoking , excessive alcohol consumption, the abuse of certain drugs,
high triglyceride levels, high HYPERLINK
«» \o «Low density
lipoprotein» LDL (low-density lipoprotein, «bad cholesterol») and low
«High density lipoprotein» HDL (high density lipoprotein, «good
cholesterol»), HYPERLINK
«» \o «Diabetes mellitus»
diabetes , HYPERLINK «» \o
«Hypertension» high blood pressure , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Obesity» obesity , and
chronic high stress levels. HYPERLINK
«» \o «Chronic kidney
disease» Chronic kidney disease HYPERLINK
«» \l «cite_note-pmid18241872-1» \o «» [2]
and a history of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Heart failure» heart
failure HYPERLINK «» \l
«cite_note-pmid16651468-2» \o «» [3] are also significant risk factors
which may indicate a hightened disposition towards suffering a MI.

The term myocardial infarction is derived from HYPERLINK
«» \o «Myocardium» myocardium
(the heart muscle) and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Infarction» infarction
(tissue death due to oxygen starvation). The phrase «heart attack» is
sometimes used incorrectly to describe HYPERLINK
«» \o «Sudden cardiac
death» sudden cardiac death , which may or may not be the result of
acute myocardial infarction. A heart attack is different from, but can
be the cause of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Cardiac arrest»
cardiac arrest , which is the stopping of the heartbeat, and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Cardiac
arrhythmia» cardiac arrhythmia , an abnormal heartbeat. It is also
distinct from HYPERLINK «»
\o «Heart failure» heart failure , in which the pumping action of the
heart is impaired; severe myocardial infarction may lead to heart
failure, but not necessarily.

Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include HYPERLINK
«» \o «Chest pain» chest pain
(typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck),
HYPERLINK «» \o «Dyspnea» shortness
of breath , HYPERLINK «» \o
«Nausea» nausea , HYPERLINK «»
\o «Vomiting» vomiting , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Palpitation»
palpitations , HYPERLINK «» \o
«Sweating» sweating , and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Anxiety» anxiety (often
described as a sense of impending doom). Patients frequently feel
suddenly ill. Women may experience less typical symptoms than men.
HYPERLINK «» \l «cite_note-Kosuge-3» \o «»
[4] The most common symptoms of MI in women include shortness of
breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Fatigue
(physical)» fatigue . Approximately one fourth of all myocardial
infarctions are silent, without chest pain or other symptoms. A history
of diabetes should heighten the index of suspicion, particularly if the
patient has HYPERLINK
«» \o «Diabetic
neuropathy» diabetic neuropathy (diabetes-related nerve damage).

Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes
HYPERLINK «» \o «Oxygen
therapy» oxygen , HYPERLINK «» \o
«Aspirin» aspirin , and sublingual HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Glyceryl trinitrate (pharmacology)» glyceryl trinitrate (colloquially
referred to as HYPERLINK «»
\o «Nitroglycerin» nitroglycerin and abbreviated as NTG or GTN).
HYPERLINK «» \o «Analgesia» Pain
relief is also often given, classically HYPERLINK
«» \o «Morphine sulfate»
morphine sulfate . HYPERLINK «» \l
«cite_note-4» \o «» [5]



















mH phsH re the patient is unstable, more intensive nursing care may be

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