Myocardial infarction (Інфаркт міокарда)

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Myocardial infarction (Інфаркт міокарда)

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart
attack, is a medical condition that occurs when the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_flow” \o “Blood flow” blood supply
to a part of the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart” \o
“Heart” heart is interrupted, most commonly due to rupture of a
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulnerable_plaque” \o
“Vulnerable plaque” vulnerable plaque . The resulting HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ischemia” \o “Ischemia” ischemia or
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypoxia_%28medical%29” \o
“Hypoxia (medical)” oxygen shortage , if left untreated for a
sufficient period, can cause damage and/or death of heart tissue. It is
a HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_emergency” \o
“Medical emergency” medical emergency , and the leading cause of death
for both men and women all over the world. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “cite_note-WHO-2002-0” \o “” [1]
Important HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risk_factor” \o
“Risk factor” risk factors are a history of vascular disease such as
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atherosclerosis” \o
“Atherosclerosis” atherosclerotic HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronary_heart_disease” \o “Coronary heart
disease” coronary heart disease and/or HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angina_pectoris” \o “Angina pectoris”
angina , a previous heart attack or HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke” \o “Stroke” stroke , any previous
episodes of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrhythmia” \o “Cardiac
arrhythmia” abnormal heart rhythms or HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fainting” \o “Fainting” syncope , older
age—especially men over 40 and women over 50, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobacco_smoking” \o “Tobacco smoking”
smoking , excessive alcohol consumption, the abuse of certain drugs,
high triglyceride levels, high HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_density_lipoprotein” \o “Low density
lipoprotein” LDL (low-density lipoprotein, “bad cholesterol”) and low
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_density_lipoprotein” \o
“High density lipoprotein” HDL (high density lipoprotein, “good
cholesterol”), HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus” \o “Diabetes mellitus”
diabetes , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertension” \o
“Hypertension” high blood pressure , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity” \o “Obesity” obesity , and
chronic high stress levels. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronic_kidney_disease” \o “Chronic kidney
disease” Chronic kidney disease HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “cite_note-pmid18241872-1” \o “” [2]
and a history of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_failure” \o “Heart failure” heart
failure HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“cite_note-pmid16651468-2” \o “” [3] are also significant risk factors
which may indicate a hightened disposition towards suffering a MI.

The term myocardial infarction is derived from HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myocardium” \o “Myocardium” myocardium
(the heart muscle) and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infarction” \o “Infarction” infarction
(tissue death due to oxygen starvation). The phrase “heart attack” is
sometimes used incorrectly to describe HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudden_cardiac_death” \o “Sudden cardiac
death” sudden cardiac death , which may or may not be the result of
acute myocardial infarction. A heart attack is different from, but can
be the cause of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrest” \o “Cardiac arrest”
cardiac arrest , which is the stopping of the heartbeat, and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrhythmia” \o “Cardiac
arrhythmia” cardiac arrhythmia , an abnormal heartbeat. It is also
distinct from HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_failure”
\o “Heart failure” heart failure , in which the pumping action of the
heart is impaired; severe myocardial infarction may lead to heart
failure, but not necessarily.

Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chest_pain” \o “Chest pain” chest pain
(typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck),
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyspnea” \o “Dyspnea” shortness
of breath , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nausea” \o
“Nausea” nausea , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vomiting”
\o “Vomiting” vomiting , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palpitation” \o “Palpitation”
palpitations , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweating” \o
“Sweating” sweating , and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anxiety” \o “Anxiety” anxiety (often
described as a sense of impending doom). Patients frequently feel
suddenly ill. Women may experience less typical symptoms than men.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “cite_note-Kosuge-3” \o “”
[4] The most common symptoms of MI in women include shortness of
breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_%28physical%29” \o “Fatigue
(physical)” fatigue . Approximately one fourth of all myocardial
infarctions are silent, without chest pain or other symptoms. A history
of diabetes should heighten the index of suspicion, particularly if the
patient has HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetic_neuropathy” \o “Diabetic
neuropathy” diabetic neuropathy (diabetes-related nerve damage).

Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen_therapy” \o “Oxygen
therapy” oxygen , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirin” \o
“Aspirin” aspirin , and sublingual HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glyceryl_trinitrate_%28pharmacology%29” \o
“Glyceryl trinitrate (pharmacology)” glyceryl trinitrate (colloquially
referred to as HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitroglycerin”
\o “Nitroglycerin” nitroglycerin and abbreviated as NTG or GTN).
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analgesia” \o “Analgesia” Pain
relief is also often given, classically HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphine_sulfate” \o “Morphine sulfate”
morphine sulfate . HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“cite_note-4” \o “” [5]



















mH phsH re the patient is unstable, more intensive nursing care may be

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