Marie Curie (Марія Кюрі) (реферат)

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Marie Curie (Марія Кюрі)

Maria Sk?odowska-Curie.

Born HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_7” \o “November
7” November 7 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1867” \o
“1867” 1867 (1867-11-07)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw” \o “Warsaw” Warsaw ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_Poland” \o “Congress
Poland” Congress Poland

Died HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_4” \o “July 4” July
4 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1934” \o “1934” 1934
(aged 66)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sancellemoz” \o “Sancellemoz”
Sancellemoz , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France” \o
“France” France

Nationality HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland” \o
“Poland” Polish , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France” \o
“France” French

Field HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics” \o “Physics”
Physics and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemistry” \o
“Chemistry” Chemistry

Institutions HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \o “University of
Paris” University of Paris

Alma mater HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \o “University of
Paris” University of Paris and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ESPCI” \o “ESPCI” ESPCI

Academic advisor   HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Becquerel” \o “Henri Becquerel”
Henri Becquerel

Notable students   HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9-Louis_Debierne” \o “Andre-Louis
Debierne” Andre-Louis Debierne

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marguerite_Perey” \o
“Marguerite Perey” Marguerite Catherine Perey

Known for HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactivity” \o
“Radioactivity” Radioactivity

Notable prizes HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nobel_prize_medal.svg” \o “Nobel
prize medal.svg” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_for_Physics” \o “Nobel Prize
for Physics” Nobel Prize for Physics (1903)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nobel_prize_medal.svg”
\o “Nobel prize medal.svg” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_for_Chemistry” \o “Nobel Prize
for Chemistry” Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1911)

The only person to win two HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize” \o “Nobel Prize” Nobel
Prizes in different science fields. Married HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Curie” \o “Pierre Curie” Pierre
Curie (1895); their children were HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ir%C3%A8ne_Joliot-Curie” \o “Irene
Joliot-Curie” Irene Joliot-Curie and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%88ve_Curie” \o “Eve Curie” Eve Curie


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Life” 1 Life

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Prizes” 2 Prizes

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Tribute” 3 Tribute

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “See_also” 4 See also

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Further_reading” 5
Further reading

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Fiction” 6 Fiction

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “References” 7

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “External_links” 8
External links

Maria Sk?odowska-Curie (born Maria Sk?odowska; HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_7” \o “November 7” November 7 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1867” \o “1867” 1867 –
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_4” \o “July 4” July 4 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1934” \o “1934” 1934 ) was a
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physicist” \o “Physicist”
physicist and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemist” \o
“Chemist” chemist of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland”
\o “Poland” Polish upbringing and, subsequently, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France” \o “France” French citizenship.
She was a pioneer in the field of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactivity” \o “Radioactivity”
radioactivity , the first twice-honored HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_laureate” \o “Nobel laureate” Nobel
laureate (and still the only one in two different sciences) and the
first female professor at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \o “University of
Paris” University of Paris .

She was born in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw” \o
“Warsaw” Warsaw , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_Poland” \o “Congress Poland”
Congress Poland , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire” \o “Russian Empire”
Russian Empire , and lived there until she was 24. In 1891 she followed
her elder sister to study in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris” \o “Paris” Paris , where she
obtained her higher degrees and conducted her scientific work. She
founded the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curie_Institute”
\o “Curie Institute” Curie Institutes in Paris and Warsaw. She was the
wife of fellow-Nobel-laureate HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Curie” \o “Pierre Curie” Pierre
Curie and the mother of a third Nobel laureate, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ir%C3%A8ne_Joliot-Curie” \o “Irene
Joliot-Curie” Irene Joliot-Curie .

While an actively loyal French citizen, she never lost her sense of
Polish identity and named the first HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_element” \o “Chemical element”
chemical element that she discovered HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polonium” \o “Polonium” polonium for her
native country.


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mc-birthplace.jpg” \o

Maria Sk?odowska’s birthplace on ulica Freta (Freta Street) in
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw” \o “Warsaw” Warsaw ‘s ”
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_New_Town” \o “Warsaw New
Town” New Town .”

Maria Sk?odowska was born in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw” \o “Warsaw” Warsaw to
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poles” \o “Poles” Polish
parents , Bronis?awa and W?adys?aw Sk?odowski, both of whom were
teachers and instilled in their children a sense of the value of

Maria was the youngest of five children: Zofia (born 1862), Jozef
(1863), Bronis?awa (1865), Helena (1866) and finally Maria (1867).

Maria’s early years were marked by the death of her sister Zofia (from
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhus” \o “Typhus” typhus )
and, two years later, the death of her mother ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis” \o “Tuberculosis”
tuberculosis ). These events caused her to give up her Roman Catholic
religion and become an HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnosticism” \o “Agnosticism” agnostic .
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-0” \o “” [1]

In her youth Sk?odowska showed an exceptional memory and diligent
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Work_ethic” \o “Work ethic”
work ethic , and was known to neglect food and even sleep in order to
study. At age fifteen she graduated from HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_school” \o “High school” high school
at the top of her class. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-mhlanas.de” \o “” [2]

G” \o “Enlarge”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krakowskie_Przedmie%C5%9Bcie”
\o “Krakowskie Przedmie?cie” Krakowskie Przedmie?cie 66 , near
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw” \o “Warsaw” Warsaw ‘s
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_Old_Town” \o “Warsaw Old
Town” Old Town . At a lab here, Maria Sk?odowska did her first
scientific work (1890-91).

Because she was female, and because of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia” \o “Russia” Russian reprisals
following the Polish HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_Uprising” \o “January Uprising”
1863 uprising against HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsarist_Russia” \o “Tsarist Russia”
Tsarist Russia , Sk?odowska was denied admission to a regular
university. She worked several years as a private tutor while attending
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw” \o “Warsaw” Warsaw ‘s
illegal HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_University”
\o “Floating University” Floating University and helped support her
elder sister Bronis?awa, who was studying medicine in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris” \o “Paris” Paris . Eventually in
1891, having saved up money earned as a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governess” \o “Governess” governess ,
Maria went to join her elder sister in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris” \o “Paris” Paris .

Sk?odowska studied HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics” \o “Mathematics” mathematics
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics” \o “Physics”
physics and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemistry” \o
“Chemistry” chemistry at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \o “University of
Paris” University of Paris . (Later, in 1909, she would become that
University’s first female professor, when she was named to her late
husband’s chair in physics, which he had held for only a year and a half
before his tragic death.) In early 1893 she graduated first in her
undergraduate class. A year later, also at the University of Paris, she
obtained her HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master%27s_degree” \o “Master’s degree”
master’s degree in mathematics. In 1903, under the supervision of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Becquerel” \o “Henri
Becquerel” Henri Becquerel , she received her HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DSc” \o “DSc” DSc from the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \o “University of
Paris” University of Paris , becoming the first woman in France to
complete a doctorate.

At the University of Paris, she met and married HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Curie” \o “Pierre Curie” Pierre
Curie . At the time, Pierre Curie was an instructor in the School of
Physics and Chemistry HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ESPCI”
de_Chimie_Industrielles_de_la_Ville_de_Paris” \o “Ecole Superieure de
Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris” Ecole
Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris
). Sk?odowska was a student at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \o “University of
Paris” University of Paris , and had begun her scientific career in
Paris with an investigation of the magnetic properties of various
steels; it was their mutual interest in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetism” \o “Magnetism” magnetism that
drew Sk?odowska and Curie together.

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Pierre_and_Marie_Curie.jpg” \o

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Curie” \o “Pierre
Curie” Pierre and Marie Curie in their Paris lab before 1907 (he died
in 1906).

Eventually they studied HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_decay” \o “Radioactive decay”
radioactive materials, particularly HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitchblende” \o “Pitchblende” pitchblende
— the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ore” \o “Ore” ore
from which HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium” \o
“Uranium” uranium was extracted — which had the curious property of
being more radioactive than the uranium extracted from it. By April 1898
Sk?odowska-Curie deduced that pitchblende must contain traces of an
unknown substance far more radioactive than uranium. In July 1898 Pierre
and Marie together published an article announcing the existence of an
element which they named HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polonium” \o “Polonium” polonium , in
honor of Sk?odowska-Curie’s native country Poland, then still
partitioned among three empires. On HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_26” \o “December 26” December 26
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1898” \o “1898” 1898 , the
Curies announced the existence of a second element, which they named
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium” \o “Radium” radium ,
for its intense HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactivity”
\o “Radioactivity” radioactivity — a word that they coined.

Over the course of several years’ unceasing work in the most difficult
physical conditions, they processed several tons of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uraninite” \o “Uraninite” pitchblende ,
progressively concentrating the radioactive substances and eventually
isolating the chloride salts (refining HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium_chloride” \o “Radium chloride”
radium chloride on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_20”
\o “April 20” April 20 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1902” \o “1902” 1902 ). Polonium was not
yet isolated at this time.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Dyplom_Sklodowska.jpg”
\o “Enlarge”

One of Maria Sk?odowska-Curie’s two HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize” \o “Nobel Prize” Nobel Prize

In 1903, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Curie” \o “Pierre Curie” Pierre
Curie , Marie Curie, and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Becquerel” \o “Henri Becquerel”
Henri Becquerel the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_in_Physics” \o “Nobel Prize in
Physics” Nobel Prize in Physics , “in recognition of the extraordinary
services they have rendered by their joint researches on the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionizing_radiation” \o “Ionizing
radiation” radiation phenomena discovered by Professor HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Becquerel” \o “Henri Becquerel”
Henri Becquerel .”

Curie was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize. Eight years
later, she received the 1911 HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_in_Chemistry” \o “Nobel Prize
in Chemistry” Nobel Prize in Chemistry , “in recognition of her
services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the
elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study
of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”.

In an unusual decision, Sk?odowska-Curie intentionally refrained from
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent” \o “Patent” patenting
the radium-isolation process, leaving it open so that the scientific
community could do research unhindered.

A month after accepting her 1911 Nobel Prize, she was hospitalized with
depression and a kidney ailment.

Sk?odowska-Curie was the first person to win or share two Nobel Prizes.
She is one of only two people who have been awarded a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize” \o “Nobel Prize” Nobel Prize
in two different fields, the other being HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Pauling” \o “Linus Pauling” Linus
Pauling (Chemistry, Peace). She remains the only woman to have won two
Nobel Prizes, and the only person to have won Nobel Prizes in two
different HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science” \o
“Science” science fields. Nevertheless, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Academy_of_Sciences” \o “French
Academy of Sciences” French Academy of Sciences refused to abandon its
prejudice against women, and she failed by one vote to be elected to
membership. (Pierre had been elected to the Academy in 1905.)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:HerbDolega.svg” \o
“Do??ga coat-of-arms, hereditary in Sk?odowska’s family.”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:HerbDolega.svg” \o

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Do%C5%82%C4%99ga_Coat_of_Arms”
\o “Do??ga Coat of Arms” Do??ga coat-of-arms , hereditary in
Sk?odowska’s family.

On HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_19” \o “April 19”
April 19 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1906” \o “1906”
1906 , Pierre was killed in a street accident as he was leaving a
publishers office. He had gone there to review proofs of an article, and
found the business closed due to a strike. Heading back across the
street in heavy rain, he was struck by a horse-drawn vehicle and fell
under its wheels, fracturing his skull. While it has been speculated
that he may previously have been weakened by prolonged radiation
exposure, it has not been proven that this was the cause of the
accident. Marie was devastated by her husband’s death and may
subsequently have had an affair with physicist HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Langevin” \o “Paul Langevin” Paul
Langevin [ HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources” \o
“Wikipedia:Citing sources” citation needed ] — a married man who had
left his wife — which resulted in a press scandal, exploited by her
academic opponents. Despite her fame as a scientist working for France,
the public’s attitude to the scandal tended toward HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenophobia” \o “Xenophobia” xenophobia .

Langevin’s grandson Michel Langevin later married Sk?odowska-Curie’s
granddaughter, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%C3%A9l%C3%A8ne_Langevin-Joliot” \o
“Helene Langevin-Joliot” Helene Joliot .

During HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I” \o “World
War I” World War I , Sk?odowska-Curie pushed for the use of mobile
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiography” \o “Radiography”
radiography units, which came to be popularly known as “Little Curies”
(petites Curies), for the treatment of wounded soldiers. These units
were powered using tubes of radium emanation, a colorless, radioactive
gas given off by radium, later identified as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radon” \o “Radon” radon .
Sk?odowska-Curie personally provided the tubes, derived from the radium
she purified. Also, promptly after the war started, she donated her and
her husband’s gold HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize” \o “Nobel Prize” Nobel Prize
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medal” \o “Medal” medals
for the war effort.

After World War I, in 1921 and again in 1929, Sk?odowska-Curie toured
the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States” \o “United
States” United States , where she was welcomed triumphantly, to raise
funds for research on radium. These distractions from her scientific
labours, and the attendant publicity, caused her much discomfort but
provided many resources for her work. Her second American tour succeeded
in equipping the Warsaw Radium Institute, founded in 1925 with her
sister Bronis?awa as director.

In her later years, Sk?odowska-Curie headed the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasteur_Institute” \o “Pasteur Institute”
Pasteur Institute and a radioactivity laboratory created for her by the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \o
“University of Paris” University of Paris .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:20000_zl_a_1989.jpg” \o

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland” \o “Poland” Polish
20,000- HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z%C5%82oty” \o “Z?oty”
z?oty HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknote” \o “Banknote”
banknote with likeness of Maria Sk?odowska-Curie.

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Banknote_500FF_Curies.jpg” \o

500- HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_franc” \o “French
franc” French franc HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknote” \o “Banknote” banknote with
Marie Curie and (background) her husband and 1903 fellow-Nobel-laureate,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Curie” \o “Pierre
Curie” Pierre Curie .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mc-tablica.jpg” \o

Plaque commemorating Maria Sk?odowska-Curie’s first scientific work
(1890–91), in a laboratory at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krakowskie_Przedmie%C5%9Bcie” \o
“Krakowskie Przedmie?cie” Krakowskie Przedmie?cie 66, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw” \o “Warsaw” Warsaw .

Her death near HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sallanches” \o
“Sallanches” Sallanches , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savoy” \o “Savoy” Savoy , in 1934 was
from HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aplastic_anemia” \o
“Aplastic anemia” aplastic anemia , almost certainly due to exposure to
radiation, as the damaging effects of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionising_radiation” \o “Ionising
radiation” ionising radiation were not yet known, and much of her work
had been carried out in a shed with no safety measures. She had carried
test tubes containing radioactive isotopes in her pocket and stored them
in her desk drawer, remarking on the pretty blue-green light the
substances gave off in the dark.

She was interred at the cemetery in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sceaux” \o “Sceaux” Sceaux , where Pierre
lay, but sixty years later, in 1995, in honor of their work, the remains
of both were transferred to the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panth%C3%A9on%2C_Paris” \o “Pantheon,
Paris” Pantheon in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris” \o
“Paris” Paris .

The Curies’ elder daughter, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ir%C3%A8ne_Joliot-Curie” \o “Irene
Joliot-Curie” Irene Joliot-Curie , won a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize” \o “Nobel Prize” Nobel Prize
for Chemistry in 1935 for discovering that aluminium could be
radioactive and emit neutrons when bombarded with alpha rays. The
younger daughter, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%88ve_Curie” \o “Eve Curie” Eve Curie
, wrote the biography, Madame Curie, after her mother’s death.


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_for_Physics” \o
“Nobel Prize for Physics” Nobel Prize for Physics (1903)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Davy_Medal” \o “Davy Medal”
Davy Medal (1903)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matteucci_Medal” \o “Matteucci
Medal” Matteucci Medal (1904)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_for_Chemistry” \o
“Nobel Prize for Chemistry” Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1911)


As one of the most famous female scientists to date, Marie Curie has
been an icon in the scientific world and has inspired many tributes and
recognitions. In 1995, she was the first and only woman laid to rest
under the famous dome of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Panth%C3%A9on” \o “The Pantheon”
Pantheon , in Paris, on her own merits, alongside her husband. The
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curie” \o “Curie” curie
(symbol Ci), a unit of radioactivity, is named in their honour, as is
the element with atomic number 96 – HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curium” \o “Curium” curium .























?????? ? ? ? ???????? ? ? ? ?AE



# # #?$

?????? ? ?????????K`LaLbLdLeLfL3/4LALALAL


?? ?he Polish late-1980s HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflation” \o “Inflation” inflationary
\o “Historical coins and banknotes of Poland” 20,000-z?oty banknote .
Her likeness also appeared on stamps and coins, and on the last French
500- HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E2%82%A3” \o “?” franc
note, with her husband, before the franc was made obsolete by the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euro” \o “Euro” euro .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greer_Garson” \o “Greer
Garson” Greer Garson and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Pidgeon” \o “Walter Pidgeon”
Walter Pidgeon starred in the 1943 U.S. Oscar-nominated film,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madame_Curie_%28film%29” \o
“Madame Curie (film)” Madame Curie , based on her life. “Marie Curie”
is also the name of a character in a 1988 comedy, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Young_Einstein” \o “Young Einstein” Young
Einstein , by HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahoo_Serious”
\o “Yahoo Serious” Yahoo Serious .

Three radioactive minerals are named after the Curies: HYPERLINK
“http://www.uraniumminerals.com/UTh/Curite.htm” \o
“http://www.uraniumminerals.com/UTh/Curite.htm” curite , HYPERLINK
“http://www.uraniumminerals.com/UTh/Sklodowskite.htm” \o
“http://www.uraniumminerals.com/UTh/Sklodowskite.htm” sklodowskite ,
“http://www.uraniumminerals.com/UTh/Cuprosklodowskite.htm” \o
cuprosklodowskite .

rie” \o “University of Paris VI: Pierre et Marie Curie” Pierre and
Marie Curie University , the largest science, technology and medicine
university in France, and successor institution to the faculty of
science at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \o “University of
Paris” University of Paris , where she taught, is named in honour of
her and Pierre. The university is home to the laboratory where they
discovered HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium” \o “Radium”
radium .

Another school named for her, Marie Curie HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M.S._158” \o “M.S. 158” M.S. 158 , in
Bayside, New York, specializes in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science” \o “Science” science and
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology” \o “Technology”
technology as does HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curie_Metropolitan_High_School” \o “Curie
Metropolitan High School” Curie Metropolitan High School , located in
the community area of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archer_Heights%2C_Chicago” \o “Archer
Heights, Chicago” Archer Heights on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southwest_Side%2C_Chicago” \o “Southwest
Side, Chicago” Chicago’s Southwest Side . It has a Technical,
Performing Arts and IB program.

In 2007, the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Curie” \o
“Pierre Curie” Pierre Curie HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_M%C3%A9tro” \o “Paris Metro” Paris
Metro station was renamed the ” HYPERLINK
29” \o “Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris Metro)” Pierre et Marie Curie ”

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Sk%C5%82odowska-Curie” \o “Maria
Sk?odowska-Curie” Maria Sk?odowska-Curie Medallion, a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stained_glass” \o “Stained glass”
stained-glass panel created by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jozef_C._Mazur” \o “Jozef C. Mazur” Jozef
C. Mazur , may be found at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_at_Buffalo” \o “University at
Buffalo” University at Buffalo Polish Room.

See also

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:1911_Solvay_conference.jpg” \o

At the First HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solvay_Conference” \o “Solvay Conference”
Solvay Conference (1911), Sk?odowska-Curie (seated, 2nd from right),
the only woman present, confers with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Poincar%C3%A9” \o “Henri Poincare”
Henri Poincare . Standing, 4th from right, is HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Rutherford” \o “Ernest Rutherford”
Ernest Rutherford ; 2nd from right, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \o “Albert Einstein”
Albert Einstein ; at far right, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Langevin” \o “Paul Langevin” Paul
Langevin .

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Curie-Sk%C5%82odowska_University” \o
“Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University” Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University
in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lublin” \o “Lublin” Lublin

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curie_Institute_%28Warsaw%29”
\o “Curie Institute (Warsaw)” Maria Sk?odowska-Curie Institute of
Oncology in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw” \o
“Warsaw” Warsaw

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_on_stamps_of_Ireland” \o
“List of people on stamps of Ireland” List of people on stamps of

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Curie_Cancer_Care” \o
“Marie Curie Cancer Care” Marie Curie Cancer Care

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curie” \o “Curie” Curie

Further reading

Naomi Pasachoff, Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity, New York,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford_University_Press” \o
“Oxford University Press” Oxford University Press , 1996.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eve_Curie” \o “Eve Curie”
Curie, Eve . Madame Curie: A Biography. HYPERLINK
810387” ISBN 0-306-81038-7 . 

Quinn, Susan. Marie Curie: A Life. HYPERLINK
887940” ISBN 0-201-88794-0 . 

Goldsmith, Barbara. Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie.
051374” ISBN 0-393-05137-4 . 


Olov Enquist, Per. The Book about Blanche and Marie. HYPERLINK
676683” ISBN 1-58567-668-3 .  a fictionalized account of relationships
among Curie, JM Charcot and Blanche Wittman


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-0” \o “” ^ Reid,
Robert William (1974). Marie Curie. London: Collins, page 19.
115395” ISBN 0-00-211539-5 .  “Unusually at such an early age, she
became what T. H. Huxley had just invented a word for: agnostic.”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-mhlanas.de_0” \o “”
^ HYPERLINK “http://www.mlahanas.de/Physics/Bios/MarieCurie.html” \o
“http://www.mlahanas.de/Physics/Bios/MarieCurie.html” Marie Curie .
Retrieved on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007” \o “2007”
2007 – HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_12” \o “April 12”
04-12 .

External links

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Commons-logo.svg” \o

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

HYPERLINK “http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Marie_Curie” \o
“commons:Marie_Curie” Marie Curie

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Wikiquote-logo-en.svg”
\o “Wikiquote-logo-en.svg”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikiquote” \o “Wikiquote”
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Marie_Curie” \o
“wikiquote:Marie_Curie” Marie Curie

HYPERLINK “http://www.aip.org/history/curie/contents.htm” \o
“http://www.aip.org/history/curie/contents.htm” [1] Two biographies of
Sk?odowska-Curie, one brief and one comprehensive.




?????? ? ????????LINK
Out of the Shadows -A study of women physicists

“http://www.nobelprize.org/physics/articles/curie/index.html” \o
“http://www.nobelprize.org/physics/articles/curie/index.html” Marie and
Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium Chronology from

page of Maria Curie Sk?odowska University in Lublin, Poland in English.

HYPERLINK “http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~zbzw/ph/sci/msc.htm” \o
“http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~zbzw/ph/sci/msc.htm” Detailed Biography
at Science in Poland website ; with quotes, photographs, links etc.

HYPERLINK “http://www.aip.org/history/curie/contents.htm” \o
“http://www.aip.org/history/curie/contents.htm” Long biography at
American Institute of Physics website (site also has a short version for
kids entitled HYPERLINK
“http://www.aip.org/history/curie/brief/index.html” \o
“http://www.aip.org/history/curie/brief/index.html” “Her story in

HYPERLINK “http://www.ptchem.lodz.pl/en/museum.html” \o
“http://www.ptchem.lodz.pl/en/museum.html” Maria Sk?odowska-Curie
Museum in Warsaw

ie.html” \o
ie.html” Marie Curie: A Nobel Prize Pioneer at the Pantheon

HYPERLINK “http://www.cordis.lu/improving/fellowships/home.htm” \o
“http://www.cordis.lu/improving/fellowships/home.htm” European Marie
Curie Fellowships

HYPERLINK “http://www.mariecurie.org” \o “http://www.mariecurie.org”
Marie Curie Fellowship Association

HYPERLINK “http://www.mariecurie.org.uk/” \o
“http://www.mariecurie.org.uk/” Marie Curie Cancer Care , UK


achers/chemistry/institutes/1992/MarieCurie.html” Marie Sklodowska
Curie: Her Life as a Media Compendium

“http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=people/Curie,+Marie” \o
Annotated bibliography of Marie Curie from the Alsos Digital Library

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