Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_15» \o «April 15» April 15 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1452» \o «1452» 1452 –
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_2» \o «May 2» May 2 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1519» \o «1519» 1519 ) was a
talented HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Renaissance»
\o «Italian Renaissance» Italian Renaissance HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Catholic» \o «Roman Catholic» Roman
Catholic HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-0» \o «»
[1] HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymath» \o «Polymath»
polymath : HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architect» \o
«Architect» architect , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomist» \o «Anatomist» anatomist ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sculpture» \o «Sculpture»
sculptor , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineer» \o
«Engineer» engineer , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventor» \o «Inventor» inventor ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geometer» \o «Geometer»
geometer , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientist» \o
«Scientist» scientist , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematician» \o «Mathematician»
mathematician , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musician» \o
«Musician» musician , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painter» \o «Painter» painter . He has
been described as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archetype» \o «Archetype» archetype of
the » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance_man» \o
«Renaissance man» Renaissance man «, a man infinitely HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curious» \o «Curious» curious and
equally HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invent» \o «Invent»
inventive . He is widely considered to be one of the greatest
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painters» \o «Painters»
painters of all time and a universal genius.

Portrait in red HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalk» \o
«Chalk» chalk , circa 1512 to 1515, widely (though not universally)
accepted as a genuine HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-portrait» \o «Self-portrait»
self-portrait .

Leonardo is famous for his one nut. realistic paintings, such as the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa» \o «Mona Lisa» Mona
Lisa and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Last_Supper_%28Leonardo%29» \o «The
Last Supper (Leonardo)» The Last Supper , as well as for influential
drawings such as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitruvian_Man» \o «Vitruvian Man»
Vitruvian Man . He conceived of ideas vastly ahead of his own time,
notably conceptually inventing the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicopter» \o «Helicopter» helicopter ,
a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tank» \o «Tank» tank , the
use of concentrated HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_power» \o «Solar power» solar power
, the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calculator» \o
«Calculator» calculator , a rudimentary theory of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics» \o «Plate tectonics»
plate tectonics , the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_hull» \o «Double hull» double hull
, and many others. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or
were feasible during his lifetime; modern scientific approaches to
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metallurgy» \o «Metallurgy»
metallurgy and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering»
\o «Engineering» engineering were only in their infancy during the
Renaissance. In addition, he greatly advanced the state of knowledge in
the fields of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy» \o
«Anatomy» anatomy , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomy» \o «Astronomy» astronomy ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_engineering» \o «Civil
engineering» civil engineering , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optics» \o «Optics» optics , and the
study of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water» \o «Water»
water ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrodynamics» \o
«Hydrodynamics» hydrodynamics ). Of his works, only a few paintings
survive, together with his notebooks (scattered among various
collections) containing drawings, scientific diagrams and notes.

Leonardo had no HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surname» \o
«Surname» surname in the modern sense; «da Vinci» simply means «from
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinci%2C_Italy» \o «Vinci,
Italy» Vinci «. His full birth name was «Leonardo di ser Piero da
Vinci», meaning «Leonardo, son of (Mes)ser Piero from Vinci.»

Contents

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Early_life» 1 Early
life

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Professional_life» 2
Professional life

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Art» 3 Art

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Early_works_in_Florence_.281452.E2.80.931482.29» 3.1 Early works in
Florence (1452–1482)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Milan_.281482.E2.80.931499.29» 3.2 Milan (1482–1499)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Nomadic_Period_.E2.80.94_Italy_and_France_.281499.E2.80.931516.29» 3.3
Nomadic Period — Italy and France (1499–1516)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Selected_works» 3.4
Selected works

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Science_and_engineering»
4 Science and engineering

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Anatomy» 4.1 Anatomy

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Inventions_and_engineering» 4.2 Inventions and engineering

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «His_notebooks» 4.3 His
notebooks

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Personal_life» 5
Personal life

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Vegetarianism» 6
Vegetarianism

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Johannite_heresy» 7
Johannite heresy

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Representations_in_popular_culture» 8 Representations in popular
culture

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Further_reading» 9
Further reading

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «See_also» 10 See also

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «References_.26_Notes»
11 References & Notes

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «External_links» 12
External links

Early life

Plato (detail of The School of Athens by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphael» \o «Raphael» Raphael ), believed
to be based on Leonardo’s likeness. The pointing finger was a noted
feature of Leonardo.

Leonardo was born in the village of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anchiano» \o «Anchiano» Anchiano , a few
miles from the small town of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinci%2C_Italy» \o «Vinci, Italy» Vinci ,
in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuscany» \o «Tuscany»
Tuscany , near HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence» \o
«Florence» Florence . He was the son of a wealthy Florentine notary and
a peasant woman. In the mid-1460s the family settled in Florence, where
Leonardo was given the best education that Florence, a major
intellectual and artistic centre of Italy, could offer. He rapidly
advanced socially and intellectually. He was handsome, persuasive in
conversation, and a fine musician and improviser. About 1466 he was
apprenticed as a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Garzone&action=edit» \o
«Garzone» garzone (studio boy) to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Del_Verrocchio» \o «Andrea Del
Verrocchio» Andrea Del Verrocchio , the leading Florentine painter and
sculptor of his day. In Verrocchio’s workshop Leonardo was introduced to
many activities, from the painting of altarpieces and panel pictures to
the creation of large sculptural projects in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marble» \o «Marble» marble and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze» \o «Bronze» bronze . In
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1472» \o «1472» 1472 he was
entered in the painter’s guild of Florence, and in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1476» \o «1476» 1476 he was still
considered Verrocchio’s assistant. In Verrocchio’s Baptism of Christ, in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1470» \o «1470» 1470 , the
kneeling angel at the left of the painting is by Leonardo. In
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1478» \o «1478» 1478 Leonardo
became an independent master at the age of 26. His first commission, to
paint an altarpiece for the chapel of the Palazzo Vecchio, the
Florentine town hall, was never started. His first large painting,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Adoration_of_the_Magi» \o
«The Adoration of the Magi» The Adoration of the Magi , which he
started in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1481» \o «1481»
1481 and was never completed, was ordered for the Monastery of
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=San_Donato_a_Scopeto&action=e
dit» \o «San Donato a Scopeto» San Donato a Scopeto , Florence.

The Baptism of Christ — One of Leonardo’s first public works was to
create an angel (lower-left) and part of the landscape in this 1472
Verrocchio painting

The first known biography of Leonardo was published in 1550 by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgio_Vasari» \o «Giorgio
Vasari» Giorgio Vasari who wrote Vite de’ piu eccelenti architettori,
pittori e scultori italiani («The lives of the most excellent Italian
architects, painters and sculptors»), and later became an independent
painter in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence» \o
«Florence» Florence . Most of the information collected by Vasari was
from first-hand accounts of Leonardo’s contemporaries (Vasari was only a
child when Leonardo died), and it remains the first reference in
studying Leonardo’s life.

Until recently, it was thought that Leonardo was the illegitimate son of
a local peasant woman known as «Vinci», which simply means «Leonardo,
son of Piero, from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinci%2C_Italy» \o «Vinci, Italy» Vinci
«. Leonardo signed his works «Leonardo» or «Io, Leonardo» («I,
Leonardo»).

Leonardo grew up with his father Piero in Florence where he started
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drawing» \o «Drawing» drawing
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painting» \o «Painting»
painting . He started school when he was 5 years old. His early sketches
were of such quality that his father soon showed them to the painter
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_del_Verrocchio» \o
«Andrea del Verrocchio» Andrea del Verrocchio , who subsequently took
on the fourteen-year old Leonardo as an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apprentice» \o «Apprentice» apprentice .
In this role, Leonardo also worked with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_di_Credi» \o «Lorenzo di Credi»
Lorenzo di Credi and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pietro_Perugino» \o «Pietro Perugino»
Pietro Perugino . According to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgio_Vasari» \o «Giorgio Vasari»
Vasari :

But the greatest of all Andrea’s pupils was leonardo da vinci, in whom,
besides a beauty of person never sufficiently admired and a wonderful
grace in all his actions, there was such a power of intellect that
whatever he turned his mind to he made himself master of with ease.

Professional life

Leonardo da Vinci statue outside the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uffizi» \o «Uffizi» Uffizi , Florence

The earliest known dated work of Leonardo’s is a drawing done in pen and
ink of the Arno valley, drawn on the 5th of August, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1473» \o «1473» 1473 . It is assumed that
he had his own workshop between HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1476» \o «1476» 1476 and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1478» \o «1478» 1478 , receiving two
orders during this time.

From around HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1482» \o «1482»
1482 to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1499» \o «1499» 1499
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludovico_Sforza» \o
«Ludovico Sforza» Ludovico Sforza , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke» \o «Duke» Duke of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan» \o «Milan» Milan HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci» \l «rossiPage33» \o
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci#rossiPage33» [1] ,
employed Leonardo and permitted him to operate his own workshop,
complete with apprentices. It was here that seventy tons of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze» \o «Bronze» bronze that had been
set aside for Leonardo’s «Gran Cavallo» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse» \o «Horse» horse HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statue» \o «Statue» statue (see below)
were cast into weapons for the Duke in an attempt to save HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan» \o «Milan» Milan from the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France» French
under HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_VIII_of_France»
\o «Charles VIII of France» Charles VIII in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1495» \o «1495» 1495 .

When the French returned under HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XII_of_France» \o «Louis XII of
France» Louis XII in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1498»
\o «1498» 1498 , Milan fell without a fight, overthrowing Sforza
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci» \l
«tracyPage41» \o
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci#tracyPage41» [2] .
Leonardo stayed in Milan for a time, until one morning when he found
French HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archery» \o «Archery»
archers using his life-size HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clay» \o «Clay» clay model of the «Gran
Cavallo» for target practice. He left with Salai, his assistant and
intimate, and his friend HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luca_Pacioli» \o «Luca Pacioli» Luca
Pacioli (the first man to describe HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-Entry_Booking» \o «Double-Entry
Booking» double-entry bookkeeping ) for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantua» \o «Mantua» Mantua , moving on
after 2 months to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice» \o
«Venice» Venice (where he was hired as a military engineer), then
briefly returning to Florence at the end of April HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1500» \o «1500» 1500 .

In Florence he entered the services of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesare_Borgia» \o «Cesare Borgia» Cesare
Borgia , the son of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Alexander_VI» \o «Pope Alexander VI»
Pope Alexander VI , acting as a military architect and engineer; with
Cesare he travelled throughout Italy. In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506» \o «1506» 1506 he returned to
Milan, now in the hands of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximilian_Sforza» \o «Maximilian Sforza»
Maximilian Sforza after HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swiss_mercenaries» \o «Swiss mercenaries»
Swiss mercenaries had driven out the French.

From HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1513» \o «1513» 1513 to
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1516» \o «1516» 1516 , he
lived in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome» \o «Rome» Rome
, where painters like HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raffaello_Santi» \o «Raffaello Santi»
Raphael and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelangelo» \o
«Michelangelo» Michelangelo were active at the time, though he did not
have much contact with these artists. However, he was probably of
pivotal importance in the relocation of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelangelo%27s_David» \o «Michelangelo’s
David» David (in Florence), one of Michelangelo’s masterpieces,
against the artist’s will.

Clos Luce, in France where Leonardo died in 1519.

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1515» \o «1515» 1515 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I_of_France» \o «Francis
I of France» Francis I of France retook Milan, and Leonardo was
commissioned to make a centrepiece (a mechanical HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion» \o «Lion» lion ) for the peace
talks between the French king and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Leo_X» \o «Pope Leo X» Pope Leo X
in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bologna» \o «Bologna»
Bologna , where he must have first met the King. In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1516» \o «1516» 1516 , he entered
Francis’ service, being given the use of the manor house HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clos_Luc%C3%A9» \o «Clos Luce» Clos Luce
(also called «Cloux»; now a museum open to the public) next to the
king’s residence at the royal HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chateau_Amboise» \o «Chateau Amboise»
Chateau Amboise , where he spent the last three years of his life. The
King granted Leonardo and his entourage generous pensions: the surviving
document lists 1,000 HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89cu»
\o «Ecu» ecus for the artist, 400 for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Count_Francesco_Melzi» \o «Count Francesco
Melzi» Count Francesco Melzi , (his pupil and allegedly one of the
great loves of his life, named as «apprentice»), and 100 for Salai
(«servant»). In 1518 Salai left Leonardo and returned to Milan, where he
eventually perished in a duel. Francis became a close friend. Some
twenty years after Leonardo’s death, Francis told the artist Benevenuto
Cellini that he believed that «No man had ever lived who had learned as
much about sculpture, painting, and architecture, but still more that he
was a very great philosopher.»

Leonardo died at Clos Luce, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France» France , on
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2nd_May» \o «2nd May» 2nd May ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1519» \o «1519» 1519
(Romantic legend said that he died in Francis’s arms). According to his
wish, 60 beggars followed his casket. He was buried in the Chapel of
Saint-Hubert in the castle of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amboise» \o «Amboise» Amboise . Although
Melzi was his principal heir and executor, Salai was not forgotten; he
received half of Leonardo’s vineyards.

It is apparent from the works of Leonardo and his early biographers that
he was a man of high integrity and very sensitive to moral issues. His
respect for life led him to being a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetarian» \o «Vegetarian» vegetarian
for at least part of his life. The term » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegan» \o «Vegan» vegan » would fit him
well, as he even entertained the notion that taking milk from cows
amounts to stealing. Under the heading, «Of the beasts from whom cheese
is made,» he answers, «the milk will be taken from the tiny children.»
HYPERLINK «http://www.propheties.it/variouspeople/leonardo.htm» \o
«http://www.propheties.it/variouspeople/leonardo.htm» [3] . Vasari
reports a story that as a young man in Florence he often bought caged
birds just to release them from captivity. He was also a respected judge
on matters of beauty and elegance, particularly in the creation of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pageant» \o «Pageant» pageants
.

Art

Leonardo pioneered new painting techniques in many of his pieces. One of
them, a colour shading technique called «Chiaroscuro», used a series of
glazes custom-made by Leonardo. It is characterized by subtle
transitions between colour areas. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiaroscuro» \o «Chiaroscuro» Chiaroscuro
is a technique of bold contrast between light and dark. Another effect
created by Leonardo is called HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sfumato» \o «Sfumato» sfumato , which
creates an atmospheric haze or smoky effect.

Early works in Florence (1452–1482)

One of his first paintings done in Florence, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Benois_Madonna» \o «The Benois
Madonna» the Benois Madonna (1478)

Leonardo was an apprentice to the artist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrocchio» \o «Verrocchio» Verrocchio
in Florence when he was about 15. In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1476» \o «1476» 1476 Leonardo worked
with Verrocchio to paint The Baptism of Christ for the friars of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vallombrosa» \o «Vallombrosa»
Vallombrosa . He painted the angel at the front and the landscape, and
the difference between the two artists’ work can be seen, with
Leonardo’s finer blending and brushwork. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgio_Vasari» \o «Giorgio Vasari»
Giorgio Vasari told the story that when Verrocchio saw Leonardo’s work
he was so amazed that he resolved never to touch a brush again.

Leonardo’s first solo painting was the Madonna and Child completed in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1478» \o «1478» 1478 ; at the
same time, he also painted a picture of a little boy eating sherbet.
From HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1480» \o «1480» 1480 to
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1481» \o «1481» 1481 , he
created a small Annunciation painting, now in the Louvre. In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1481» \o «1481» 1481 he also painted an
unfinished work of St. Jerome. Between HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1481» \o «1481» 1481 and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1482» \o «1482» 1482 he started painting
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adoration_of_the_Magi_%28Leonardo%29» \o
«Adoration of the Magi (Leonardo)» The Adoration of the Magi . He made
extensive, ambitious plans and many drawings for the painting, but it
was never finished, as Leonardo’s services had been accepted by the Duke
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan» \o «Milan» Milan .

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Last_Supper_%28Leonardo%29» \o «The
Last Supper (Leonardo)» The Last Supper (1498), painted in Milan

Milan (1482–1499)

Leonardo spent 17 years in Milan in the service of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludovico_Sforza» \o «Ludovico Sforza»
Duke Ludovico (between 1482 and 1499). He did many paintings,
sculptures, and drawings during these many years. He also designed court
festivals, and drew many of his engineering sketches. He was given free
rein to work on any project he chose, though he left many projects
unfinished, completing only about six paintings during this time. These
include HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgin_of_the_Rocks»
\o «Virgin of the Rocks» Virgin of the Rocks in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1494» \o «1494» 1494 and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Last_Supper_%28Leonardo%29» \o «The
Last Supper (Leonardo)» The Last Supper (Ultima Cena or Cenacolo, in
Milan) in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1498» \o «1498»
1498 . In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1499» \o «1499»
1499 he painted Madonna and Child with St. Anne. He worked on many of
his notebooks between HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1490» \o
«1490» 1490 and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1495» \o
«1495» 1495 , including the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codex_Trivulzianus» \o «Codex
Trivulzianus» Codex Trivulzianus .

He often planned grandiose paintings with many drawings and sketches,
only to leave them unfinished. One of his projects involved making plans
and models for a monumental seven-metre-high (24 ft) horse statue in
bronze called «Gran Cavallo». Because of war with France, the project
was never finished. (In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1999»
\o «1999» 1999 a pair of full-scale statues based on his plans were
cast, one erected in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Rapids%2C_Michigan» \o «Grand
Rapids, Michigan» Grand Rapids, Michigan , the other in Milan
HYPERLINK «http://www.leonardoshorse.org/» \o
«http://www.leonardoshorse.org/» [4] .) The bronze intended for use in
the building of the statue was used to make cannon, and victorious
French soldiers used the clay model of the statue for target practice.
The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunt_Museum» \o «Hunt
Museum» Hunt Museum in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limerick%2C_Ireland» \o «Limerick,
Ireland» Limerick, Ireland has a small bronze horse thought to be the
work of an apprentice from Leonardo’s original design.

When the French invaded Milan in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1499» \o «1499» 1499 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludovico_Sforza» \o «Ludovico Sforza»
Ludovico Sforza lost control, forcing Leonardo to search for a new
patron. But Ian Moore in 1517 made the first comb. a

Nomadic Period — Italy and France (1499–1516)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgin_of_the_Rocks» \o
«Virgin of the Rocks» Virgin of the Rocks (second version)

Between HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1499» \o «1499» 1499
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1516» \o «1516» 1516
Leonardo worked for a number of people, travelling around Italy doing
several commissions, before moving to France in 1516. This has been
described as a ‘Nomadic Period’. HYPERLINK
«http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15440a.htm» \o
«http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15440a.htm» [5] He stayed in:

Mantua (1500)

Venice (1501)

Florence (1501–06) known sometimes as his Second Florentine Period.

Travelled between Florence and Milan staying in both places for short
periods before settling in Milan.

Milan (1506–13) (known sometimes as his Second Milanese Period, under
the patronage of Charles d’Amboise until 1511)

Rome (1514)

Florence (1514)

Pavia, Bologna, Milan (1515)

France (1516–19) (patronage of King HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I» \o «Francis I» Francis I )

In 1500 he went to Mantua where he sketched a portrait of the Marchesa
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_d%27Este» \o «Isabella
d’Este» Isabella d’Este . He left for Venice in 1501, and soon after
returned to Florence.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa» \o «Mona Lisa»
Mona Lisa (1503–1507)

After returning to Florence, he was commissioned for a large mural
commemorating HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Battle_of_Anghiari_%28painting%29» \o
«The Battle of Anghiari (painting)» The Battle of Anghiari , a great
military triumph in the history of Florence, by the Grand Council
Chamber in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palazzo_Vecchio» \o «Palazzo Vecchio»
Palazzo Vecchio , the seat of government of the Florentine Republic
(Zollner p. 164); his rival, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelangelo» \o «Michelangelo»
Michelangelo , was to sketch on the opposite wall HYPERLINK
«http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/m/michelan/4drawing/cascina/index
.html» \o
«http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/m/michelan/4drawing/cascina/index
.html» The Battle of Cascina . After producing a fantastic variety of
studies in preparation for the work, he left the city, with the mural
unfinished due to problems with getting paid by his employer and more
importantly by his choice of technique, which instead of the fresco
technique he experimented again (as in the Last Supper) with oil binders
hoping to extend the time to manipulate the paint (Zollner pp. 172–178).
The incomplete painting was destroyed in a war in the middle of the
sixteenth century. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubens» \o
«Rubens» Rubens and other artists have produced their own studies
based on Leonardo’s original sketches.

Most evidence suggests that he began work on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa» \o «Mona Lisa» Mona Lisa
(also known as La Gioconda, now at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louvre» \o «Louvre» Louvre in Paris) in
1503 and continued to work on it until 1506, working sporadically on it
well after that (Sasson p. 22). It is likely to be Lisa de Gherardini
del Giocondo, wife of a silk merchant, Francesco del Giocondo.
Commissioned by her husband to commemorate the birth of their second son
as well as moving to a new home (Zollner p. 240). He most likely kept it
with him at all times, and did not travel without it. Much is attributed
to the importance of this painting, primarily why it is the most famous
painting in the world. In short, it was famous at the time of its
contemporaries for many different reasons than it is now. Leonardo da
Vinci’s use of sfumato (the smoky effect he has on his work) transcended
convention of the time, as did the sitter’s angle, contrapposto, and the
bird’s-eye view of the background. For the most part it has become
famous for all of the above and for the insurmountable amount of media
attention it has received. In other words, it has become famous for
being famous.

It is also of interest that the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa» \o «Mona Lisa» Mona Lisa was
one of only three paintings that he took with him to his final residence
at HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clos_Luc%C3%A9» \o «Clos
Luce» Clos Luce ; part of its original fame appears to be that it may
have been his favourite work. It certainly had a rather large monetary
valuation in the will of his protoge Salai.

He painted St Anne in 1509. Between 1506 and 1512, he lived in Milan and
under the patronage of the French Governor Charles d’Amboise, he painted
several other paintings. These included The Leda and the Swan, known now
only through copies as the original work did not survive. He painted a
second version of The Virgin of the Rocks (1506–1508). While under the
patronage of Pope Leo X, he painted St. John the Baptist (1513–1516).

During his time in France, Leonardo made studies of the Virgin Mary for
The Virgin and Child with St. Anne, and many drawings and other studies.

Selected works

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Baptism_of_Christ_%28Verrocchio%29» \o
«The Baptism of Christ (Verrocchio)» The Baptism of Christ (1472–1475)
– HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uffizi» \o «Uffizi» Uffizi
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence» \o «Florence»
Florence , Italy (from Verrocchio’s workshop; angel on the left-hand
side is generally agreed to be the earliest surviving painted work by
Leonardo)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annunciation_%28Leonardo%29»
\o «Annunciation (Leonardo)» Annunciation (1475–1480) – Uffizi,
Florence, Italy

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginevra_de%27_Benci» \o
«Ginevra de’ Benci» Ginevra de’ Benci (c. 1475) – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Gallery_of_Art» \o «National
Gallery of Art» National Gallery of Art , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington%2C_D.C.» \o «Washington, D.C.»
Washington, D.C. , United States

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Benois_Madonna» \o «The
Benois Madonna» The Benois Madonna (1478–1480) – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermitage_Museum» \o «Hermitage Museum»
Hermitage Museum , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Petersburg» \o «Saint Petersburg»
Saint Petersburg , Russia

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Virgin_with_Flowers&actio
n=edit» \o «The Virgin with Flowers» The Virgin with Flowers
(1478–1481) – HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alte_Pinakothek»
\o «Alte Pinakothek» Alte Pinakothek , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munich» \o «Munich» Munich , Germany

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adoration_of_the_Magi_%28Leonardo%29» \o
«Adoration of the Magi (Leonardo)» Adoration of the Magi (1481) –
Uffizi, Florence, Italy

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgin_of_the_Rocks» \o
«Virgin of the Rocks» The Madonna of the Rocks (1483–86) – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louvre» \o «Louvre» Louvre , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris» \o «Paris» Paris , France

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_with_an_Ermine» \o «Lady
with an Ermine» Lady with an Ermine (1488–90) – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czartoryski_Museum» \o «Czartoryski
Museum» Czartoryski Museum , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krakow» \o «Krakow» Krakow , Poland

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portrait_of_a_Musician» \o
«Portrait of a Musician» Portrait of a Musician (c. 1490) –
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pinacoteca_Ambrosiana&action=
edit» \o «Pinacoteca Ambrosiana» Pinacoteca Ambrosiana , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan» \o «Milan» Milan , Italy

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madonna_Litta» \o «Madonna
Litta» Madonna Litta (1490–91) – Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg,
Russia

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_belle_Ferroni%C3%A8re» \o
«La belle Ferroniere» La belle Ferroniere (1495–1498) – Louvre, Paris,
France — attribution to Leonardo is disputed

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Last_Supper_%28Leonardo%29» \o «The
Last Supper (Leonardo)» Last Supper (1498) – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_delle_Grazie_%28Milan%29» \o
«Santa Maria delle Grazie (Milan)» Convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan» \o «Milan» Milan ,
Italy

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Virgin_and_Child_with_St._Anne_and_St.
_John_the_Baptist» \o «The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John
the Baptist» The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the
Baptist (c. 1499–1500) – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Gallery%2C_London» \o «National
Gallery, London» National Gallery , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London» \o «London» London , UK

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madonna_of_the_Yarnwinder» \o
«Madonna of the Yarnwinder» Madonna of the Yarnwinder 1501 (original
now lost)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa» \o «Mona Lisa»
Mona Lisa or La Gioconda (1503-1505/1507) – Louvre, Paris, France

The Madonna of the Rocks or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virgin_of_the_Rocks» \o «Virgin of the
Rocks» The Virgin of the Rocks (1508) – National Gallery, London, UK

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leda_and_the_Swan» \o «Leda
and the Swan» Leda and the Swan (1508) — (Only copies survive —
best-known example in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galleria_Borghese» \o «Galleria Borghese»
Galleria Borghese , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome» \o
«Rome» Rome , Italy)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Virgin_and_Child_with_St._Anne» \o
«The Virgin and Child with St. Anne» The Virgin and Child with St. Anne
(c. 1510) – Louvre, Paris, France

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._John_the_Baptist_%28Leonardo%29» \o
«St. John the Baptist (Leonardo)» St. John the Baptist (c. 1514) –
Louvre, Paris, France

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacchus_%28Leonardo%29» \o
«Bacchus (Leonardo)» Bacchus (or St. John in the Wilderness) (1515) –
Louvre, Paris, France

Science and engineering

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhombicuboctahedron» \o
«Rhombicuboctahedron» rhombicuboctahedron , by Leonardo, as it appeared
in the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luca_Pacioli» \o «Luca
Pacioli» Luca Pacioli’s Divina Proportione, 1509.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance_humanism» \o
«Renaissance humanism» Renaissance humanism saw no mutually exclusive
polarities between the sciences and the arts, and Leonardo’s studies in
science and engineering are as impressive and innovative as his artistic
work, recorded in notebooks comprising some 13,000 pages of notes and
drawings, which fuse art and science. These notes were made and
maintained through Leonardo’s travels through Europe, during which he
made continual observations of the world around him. He was left-handed
and used HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirror_writing» \o
«Mirror writing» mirror writing throughout his life. This is
explainable by the fact that it is easier to pull a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quill» \o «Quill» quill pen than to push
it; by using mirror-writing, the left-handed writer is able to pull the
pen from right to left and also avoid smudging what has just been
written. He wrote in his diaries (journals) using mirror writing.

His approach to science was an observational one: he tried to understand
a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail, and did
not emphasize experiments or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory» \o «Theory» theoretical
explanation. Since he lacked formal education in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin» \o «Latin» Latin and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics» \o «Mathematics» mathematics
, contemporary scholars mostly ignored Leonardo the scientist, although
he did teach himself Latin. It has also been said that he was planning a
series of treatises to be published on a variety of subjects though none
were ever done.

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitruvian_Man» \o
«Vitruvian Man» Vitruvian Man , Leonardo’s study of the proportions of
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_body» \o «Human
body» human body .

Anatomy

Leonardo started to discover the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy» \o «Anatomy» anatomy of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_body» \o «Human body»
human body at the time he was apprenticed to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_del_Verrocchio» \o «Andrea del
Verrocchio» Andrea del Verrocchio , as his teacher insisted that all
his pupils learn anatomy. As he became successful as an artist, he was
given permission to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissection» \o «Dissection» dissect
human corpses at the hospital Santa Maria Nuova in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence» \o «Florence» Florence . Later
he dissected in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milano» \o
«Milano» Milano at the hospital Maggiore and in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome» \o «Rome» Rome at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hospital_Santo_Spirito&action
=edit» \o «Hospital Santo Spirito» hospital Santo Spirito (the first
mainland Italian hospital). From 1510 to 1511 he collaborated with the
doctor HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marcantonio_della_Torre&actio
n=edit» \o «Marcantonio della Torre» Marcantonio della Torre (1481 to
1511). In 30 years, Leonardo dissected 30 male and female corpses of
different ages. Together with Marcantonio, he prepared to publish a
theoretical work on anatomy and made more than 200 drawings. However,
his book was published only in 1680 (161 years after his death) under
the heading Treatise on painting. Leonardo also dissected HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cows» \o «Cows» cows , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birds» \o «Birds» birds , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monkeys» \o «Monkeys» monkeys ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bears» \o «Bears» bears , and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frogs» \o «Frogs» frogs ,
comparing their anatomical structure with that of humans.

Studies of Embryos by Leonardo da Vinci (circa 1510)

Leonardo drew many images of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_skeleton» \o «Human skeleton» human
skeleton , and was the first to describe the double S form of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backbone» \o «Backbone»
backbone . He also studied the inclination of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelvis» \o «Pelvis» pelvis and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacrum» \o «Sacrum» sacrum and
stressed that sacrum was not uniform, but composed of five fused
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertebrae» \o «Vertebrae»
vertebrae . He was also able to represent exceptionally well the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_skull» \o «Human skull»
human skull and cross-sections of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain» \o «Brain» brain ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transversal» \o «Transversal» transversal
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagittal» \o «Sagittal»
sagittal , and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontal» \o
«Frontal» frontal ). He drew many images of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung» \o «Lung» lungs , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesentery» \o «Mesentery» mesentery ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinary_tract» \o «Urinary
tract» urinary tract , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_organs» \o «Sex organs» sex organs ,
and even HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coitus» \o «Coitus»
coitus . He was one of the first who drew the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetus» \o «Fetus» fetus in the
intrauterine position (he wished to learn about «the miracle of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy» \o «Pregnancy»
pregnancy «). He often drew HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscle» \o «Muscle» muscles and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tendon» \o «Tendon» tendons of
the cervical muscles and of the shoulder. He was a master of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Topographic_anatomy&action=ed
it» \o «Topographic anatomy» topographic anatomy . He not only studied
human anatomy, he studied the anatomy of many other animals, as well.

It is important to note that he was not only interested in structure but
also in function, so he became a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiology» \o «Physiology» physiologist
in addition to being an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy» \o «Anatomy» anatomist . He
actively searched for models among those who had significant physical
deformities, for the purpose of developing HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caricature» \o «Caricature» caricature
drawings.

His study of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_anatomy» \o
«Human anatomy» human anatomy led also to the design of the first
known HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robot» \o «Robot» robot
in recorded history. The design, which has come to be called
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo%27s_robot» \o
«Leonardo’s robot» Leonardo’s robot , was probably made around the year
1495 but was rediscovered only in the 1950s. It is not known if an
attempt was made to build the device. He correctly worked out how heart
valves eddy the flow of blood yet he was unaware of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_circulation» \o «Blood circulation»
circulation as he believed that blood was pumped to the muscles where
it was consumed. A diagram drawing Leonardo did of a heart inspired a
British heart surgeon to pioneer a new way to repair damaged hearts in
2005. HYPERLINK «http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4289204.stm» \o
«http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4289204.stm» [6]

An armoured HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tank» \o «Tank»
tank designed by Leonardo at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_d%27Amboise» \o «Chateau
d’Amboise» Chateau d’Amboise

Inventions and engineering

Fascinated by the phenomenon of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight» \o «Flight» flight , Leonardo
produced detailed studies of the flight of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird» \o «Bird» birds , and plans for
several flying machines, including a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicopter» \o «Helicopter» helicopter
powered by four men (which would not have worked since the body of the
craft would have rotated) and a light HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hang_glider» \o «Hang glider» hang glider
which could have flown. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-1» \o «» [2] On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_3» \o «January 3» January 3 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1496» \o «1496» 1496 he
unsuccessfully tested a flying machine he had constructed.

The interior of Leonardo da Vinci’s armoured tank

In 1502, Leonardo da Vinci produced a drawing of a single span 720-foot
(240 m) bridge as part of a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_engineering» \o «Civil engineering»
civil engineering project for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan» \o «Sultan» Sultan HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beyazid_II» \o «Beyazid II» Beyazid II
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinople» \o
«Constantinople» Constantinople . The bridge was intended to span an
inlet at the mouth of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosphorus» \o «Bosphorus» Bosphorus
known as the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Horn» \o
«Golden Horn» Golden Horn . Beyazid did not pursue the project, because
he believed that such a construction was impossible. Leonardo’s vision
was resurrected in 2001 when a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vebj%C3%B8rn_Sand_Da_Vinci_Project» \o
«Vebjorn Sand Da Vinci Project» smaller bridge based on his design was
constructed in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norway» \o
«Norway» Norway . In May 2006, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey» \o «Turkey» Turkish government
decided to construct Leonardo’s bridge. It is expected to be finished by
October 2006.

In 1490, he made a sketch that conceptualized a stepless HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuously_variable_transmission» \o
«Continuously variable transmission» continuously variable transmission
(CVT). HYPERLINK «http://www.sae.org/automag/techbriefs_01-00/03.htm»
\o «http://www.sae.org/automag/techbriefs_01-00/03.htm» [7] Modern
variations of Leonardo’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission» \o «Transmission»
transmission concept are being used in some automobiles produced today.
HYPERLINK «http://auto.howstuffworks.com/cvt.htm» \o
«http://auto.howstuffworks.com/cvt.htm» [8] HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuously_variable_transmission» \o
«Continuously variable transmission» Continuously variable
transmissions have been available in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tractor» \o «Tractor» tractors ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowmobile» \o «Snowmobile»
snowmobiles , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motorscooter» \o «Motorscooter»
motorscooters for many years.

Owing to his employment as a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_engineer» \o «Military engineer»
military engineer , his notebooks also contain several designs for
military machines: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_gun» \o «Machine gun» machine
guns , an armoured HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tank» \o
«Tank» tank powered by humans or horses, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cluster_bomb» \o «Cluster bomb» cluster
bombs , a working HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parachute»
\o «Parachute» parachute , a diving suit made out of pig’s leather and
a hose connecting to air, etc. even though he later held war to be the
worst of human activities. Other inventions include a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Submarine» \o «Submarine» submarine , a
cog-wheeled device that has been interpreted as the first mechanical
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calculator» \o «Calculator»
calculator , and one of the first programmable robots that has been
misinterpreted as a car powered by a spring mechanism. In his years in
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vatican_City» \o «Vatican
City» Vatican , he planned an industrial use of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_power» \o «Solar power» solar power
, by employing concave HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirror»
\o «Mirror» mirrors to heat HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water» \o «Water» water . While most of
Leonardo’s inventions were not built during his lifetime, models of many
of them have been constructed with the support of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM» \o «IBM» IBM and are on display at
the Leonardo da Vinci Museum at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clos_Luc%C3%A9» \o «Clos Luce» Chateau du
Clos Luce in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amboise» \o
«Amboise» Amboise HYPERLINK
«http://www.vinci-closluce.com/machines.htm» \o
«http://www.vinci-closluce.com/machines.htm» [9] .

His notebooks

Leonardo kept notebooks throughout his life, in which he wrote daily,
often in a private «backwards» or mirror-image handwriting. While the
popular belief that he did this to keep some amount of secrecy may have
some truth, the more plausible reason is that he did this naturally due
to his left-handedness. He wrote about his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sketches» \o «Sketches» sketches ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventions» \o «Inventions»
inventions , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture» \o
«Architecture» architecture , elements of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanics» \o «Mechanics» mechanics ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painting» \o «Painting»
painting ideas, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_anatomy» \o «Human anatomy» human
anatomy , grocery lists and even people that owed him money. These
notebooks—originally loose papers of different types and sizes,
distributed by friends after his death—have found their way into major
collections such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Louvre» \o «The Louvre» the Louvre ,
the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblioteca_Nacional_de_Espa%C3%B1a» \o
«Biblioteca Nacional de Espana» Biblioteca Nacional de Espana , the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblioteca_Ambrosiana» \o
«Biblioteca Ambrosiana» Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, and the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victoria_and_Albert_Museum» \o
«Victoria and Albert Museum» Victoria and Albert Museum and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Library» \o «British
Library» British Library in London. The British Library has put a
selection from its notebook (BL Arundel MS 263) on the web in the
Turning the Pages section. HYPERLINK
«http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/ttp/ttpbooks.html» \o
«http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/ttp/ttpbooks.html» [10] The
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codex_Leicester» \o «Codex
Leicester» Codex Leicester is the only major scientific work of
Leonardo’s in private hands. It is owned by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Gates» \o «Bill Gates» Bill Gates ,
and is displayed once a year in different cities around the world.

Why Leonardo did not publish or otherwise distribute the contents of his
notebooks remains a mystery to those who believe that Leonardo wanted to
make his observations public knowledge. Technological historian
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Mumford» \o «Lewis
Mumford» Lewis Mumford suggests that Leonardo kept notebooks as a
private journal, intentionally censoring his work from those who might
irresponsibly use it (the tank, for instance). They remained obscure
until the 19th century, and were not directly of value to the
development of science and technology. In January 2005, researchers
discovered the hidden HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laboratory» \o «Laboratory» laboratory
used by Leonardo da Vinci for studies of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight» \o «Flight» flight and other
pioneering scientific work in previously sealed rooms at a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monastery» \o «Monastery» monastery next
to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_della_Santissima_Annunziata_di_Fi
renze» \o «Basilica della Santissima Annunziata di Firenze» Basilica of
the Santissima Annunziata , in the heart of Florence. HYPERLINK
«http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20050117/leonardo.html» \o
«http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20050117/leonardo.html» [11]

[ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leonardo_da_Vinci&action=edit
&section=12» \o «Edit section: Personal life» edit ]

Personal life

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._John_the_Baptist_%28Leonardo%29» \o
«St. John the Baptist (Leonardo)» St. John the Baptist

Leonardo kept his private life particularly secret. He claimed to have a
distaste of physical relations: his comment that «the act of procreation
and anything that has any relation to it is so disgusting that human
beings would soon die out if there were no pretty faces and sensuous
dispositions», was later interpreted by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmund_Freud» \o «Sigmund Freud» Sigmund
Freud , in an analysis of the artist, as indicative of his «frigidity».
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-2» \o «» [3]

In 1476, while still living with Verrocchio, he was accused anonymously
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodomy» \o «Sodomy» sodomy
with a 17 year-old model, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacopo_Saltarelli» \o «Jacopo Saltarelli»
Jacopo Saltarelli , a youth already known to the authorities for his
sexual escapades with men. After two months of investigation he was
acquitted, ostensibly because no witnesses stepped forward though others
claim it was due to his father’s respected position. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-3» \o «» [4] For some time
afterwards, Leonardo and the others were kept under observation by
Florence’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Officers_of_the_Night» \o «Officers of the
Night» Officers of the Night — a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance» \o «Renaissance» Renaissance
organization charged with suppressing the practice of sodomy, as shown
by surviving legal records of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podest%C3%A0» \o «Podesta» Podesta and
the Officers of the Night.

Leonardo’s alleged love of boys was a topic of discussion even in the
sixteenth century. In «Il Libro dei Sogni» (The Book of Dreams), a
fictional dialogue on l’amore masculino (male love) written by the
contemporary art critic and theorist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gian_Paolo_Lomazzo» \o «Gian Paolo
Lomazzo» Gian Paolo Lomazzo , Leonardo appears as one of the
protagonists and declares, «Know that male love is exclusively the
product of virtue which, joining men together with the diverse
affections of friendship, makes it so that from a tender age they would
enter into the manly one as more stalwart friends.» In the dialogue, the
interlocutor inquires of Leonardo about his relations with his
assistant, il Salaino, «Did you play the game from behind which the
Florentines love so much?» Leonardo answers, «And how many times! Keep
in mind that he was a beautiful young man, especially at about fifteen.»
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-4» \o «» [5]

Leonardo’s servant and assistant, Caprotti il Salaino by an anonymous
artist (1495)

Gian Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-5» \o «» [6] , nicknamed
Salai or il Salaino («The Little Unclean One» i.e., the devil), was
described by Vasari as «a graceful and beautiful youth with fine curly
hair, in which Leonardo greatly delighted.» Il Salaino entered
Leonardo’s household in 1490 at the age of 10. The relationship was not
an easy one. A year later Leonardo made a list of the boy’s
misdemeanours, calling him «a thief, a liar, stubborn, and a glutton.»
The «Little Devil» had made off with money and valuables on at least
five occasions, and spent a fortune on apparel, among which were
twenty-four pairs of shoes. Nevertheless, il Salaino remained his
companion, servant, and assistant for the next thirty years, and
Leonardo’s notebooks during their early years contain pictures of a
handsome, curly-haired adolescent.

Il Salaino’s name also appears (crossed out) on the back of an erotic
drawing (ca. 1513) by the artist, The Incarnate Angel, at one time in
the collection of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victoria_of_the_United_Kingdom» \o
«Victoria of the United Kingdom» Queen Victoria . It is seen as a
humorous and revealing take on his major work, St. John the Baptist,
(based on Salaino’s appearance) also a work and a theme imbued with
homoerotic overtones by a number of art critics such as Martin Kemp and
James Saslow HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-6» \o
«» [7] Another erotic work, found on the verso of a foglio in the
Atlantic Codex, depicts il Salaino’s behind, towards which march several
penises on two legs. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-7» \o «» [8] Some of Leonardo’s other works on erotic topics,
his drawings of heterosexual human sexual intercourse, were destroyed by
a priest who found them after his death [ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources» \o
«Wikipedia:Citing sources» citation needed ].

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506» \o «1506» 1506 ,
Leonardo met Count HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Melzi» \o «Francesco Melzi»
Francesco Melzi , the 15 year old son of a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lombard» \o «Lombard» Lombard
aristocrat. Melzi himself, in a letter, described Leonardo’s feelings
towards him as a sviscerato et ardentissimo amore («a deeply passionate
and most burning love»). HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-8» \o «» [9] Salai eventually accepted Melzi’s continued
presence and the three undertook journeys throughout Italy. Melzi became
Leonardo’s pupil and life companion, and is considered to have been his
favourite student.

Though Salai was always introduced as Leonardo’s «pupil», the artistic
merit of his work has been a matter of debate. He is credited with a
nude portrait of Lisa del Gioconda, known as Monna Vanna, painted in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1515» \o «1515» 1515 under the
name of Andrea Salai. HYPERLINK
«http://www.paintingsdirect.com/content/artnews/032001/artnews1.html» \o
«http://www.paintingsdirect.com/content/artnews/032001/artnews1.html»
[12] The other portrait of Lisa del Gioconda, the Mona Lisa was
bequeathed to Salai by Leonardo, a valuable piece even then, as it is
valued in Salai’s own will at F200,000.

Both of these relationships follow the pattern of eroticized
apprenticeships which were frequent in the Florence of Leonardo’s day,
relationships which were often loving and frequently sexual. (See
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_pederastic_couples»
\o «Historical pederastic couples» Historical pederastic couples .)
Besides them, Leonardo had many other friends who are figures now
renowned in their fields, or for their influence on history. These
included HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesare_Borgia» \o
«Cesare Borgia» Cesare Borgia , in whose service he spent the years of
1502 and 1503. During that time he also met HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niccol%C3%B2_Machiavelli» \o «Niccolo
Machiavelli» Niccolo Machiavelli , with whom later he was to develop a
close friendship. Also among his friends are counted HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franchinus_Gaffurius» \o «Franchinus
Gaffurius» Franchinus Gaffurius and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_d%27Este» \o «Isabella d’Este»
Isabella d’Este , whose portrait he drew while on a journey which took
him through HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantua» \o
«Mantua» Mantua . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«_note-9» \o «» [10]

Vegetarianism

It is known that Leonardo da Vinci embraced vegetarianism at a young
age, and remained so for the entire duration of his life.

Johannite heresy

It has been the subject of much speculation whether da Vinci was an
orthodox Christian or whether he was a heretic. Many conspiracy
theorists believe that he was «infected» with the Johannite heresy, that
is he regarded not Jesus Christ but John the Baptist as the real Christ.
This subject has also been the source for many best-selling books in
recent times.

Representations in popular culture

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci_in_popular_culture» \o
«Leonardo da Vinci in popular culture» Leonardo da Vinci in popular
culture

With the genius and legacy of Leonardo da Vinci having captivated
authors and scholars generations after his death, many examples of «da
Vinci fiction» can be found in culture and literature. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/As_of_2006» \o «As of 2006» As of 2006 ,
the most prominent example is HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Brown» \o «Dan Brown» Dan Brown ‘s
novel HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Da_Vinci_Code» \o
«The Da Vinci Code» The Da Vinci Code (2003), which is concerned with
Leonardo’s role as a supposed member of a secret society called the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priory_of_Sion» \o «Priory of
Sion» Priory of Sion .

Further reading

Jean Paul Richter (1970). The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Dover.
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0486
225720» ISBN 0-486-22572-0 and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0486
225739» ISBN 0-486-22573-9 (paperback). 2 volumes. A reprint of
HYPERLINK «http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/5000» \o
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/5000» the original 1883 edition .

Frank Zollner & Johannes Nathan (2003). Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete
Paintings and Drawings. Taschen. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=3822
817341» ISBN 3-8228-1734-1 (hardback).

Fred Berence (1965). Leonard de Vinci, L’homme et son oeuvre. Somogy.
Depot legal 4° trimestre 1965.

Charles Nicholl (2005). Leonardo da Vinci, The Flights of the mind.
Penguin. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0140
296816» ISBN 0-14-029681-6 .

Simona Cremante (2005). Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor.
Giunti. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=8809
038916» ISBN 88-09-03891-6 (hardback).

John N. Lupia, «The Secret Revealed: How to Look at Italian Renaissance
Painting,» Medieval and Renaissance Times, Vol. 1, no. 2 (Summer, 1994):
6-17. (ISSN 1075–2110)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sherwin_B._Nuland» \o «Sherwin
B. Nuland» Sherwin B. Nuland , «Leonardo Da Vinci.» 176 P. Phoenix
Press. 2001. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0753
81269X» ISBN 0-7538-1269-X

Michael H. Hart (1992). HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_100» \o «The 100» The 100 . Carol
Publishing Group. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0806
513500» ISBN 0-8065-1350-0 (paperback).

See also

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_Da_Vinci_International_Airport»
\o «Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport» Leonardo Da Vinci
International Airport near HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome» \o «Rome» Rome

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci_Art_Institute» \o
«Leonardo da Vinci Art Institute» Leonardo da Vinci Art Institute ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo» \o «Cairo» Cairo

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luca_Pacioli» \o «Luca
Pacioli» Luca Pacioli

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_painters» \o «List of
painters» List of painters

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_famous_left-handed_people» \o
«List of famous left-handed people» List of famous left-handed people

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Italian_painters» \o
«List of Italian painters» List of Italian painters

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_famous_Italians» \o
«List of famous Italians» List of famous Italians

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymath» \o «Polymath»
Polymath

References & Notes

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-0» \o «» ^
HYPERLINK «http://www.adherents.com/people/pd/Leonardo_DaVinci.html» \o
«http://www.adherents.com/people/pd/Leonardo_DaVinci.html»
Adherents.com article on Leonardo Da Vinci’s religious beliefs.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-1» \o «» ^ The
U.S. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_Broadcasting_Service» \o «Public
Broadcasting Service» Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), aired in
October 2005, a television programme called «Leonardo’s Dream Machines»,
about the building and successful flight of a glider based on Leonardo’s
design

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-2» \o «» ^
Sigmund Freud, Gesammelte Werke, bd VIII, 1909–1913

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-3» \o «» ^
Saslow, Ganymede in the Renaissance: Homosexuality in Art and Society,
1986, p.197

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-4» \o «» ^ E
quante volte! Considera che egli era uno bellissimo giovane, e massime
ne’ 15 anni. Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo, «Il Libro dei Sogni;» (1563) in
Scritti sulle arti; Centro DI, Firenze, 1974; vol 2, dialogue 5

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-5» \o «» ^
HYPERLINK «http://www.oreno.it» \o «http://www.oreno.it» Oreno website
(Italian)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-6» \o «» ^
Saslow, ibid., passim)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-7» \o «» ^
Augusto Marinoni, in «Io Leonardo», Mondadori, Milano 1974, pp.288,310

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-8» \o «» ^
Crompton, p.269

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-9» \o «» ^
Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships epigraph, p. 148 & N120 p.298

HYPERLINK
«http://print.google.com/print?hl=en&id=1OeCJFJY3ZYC&dq=history+of+aerod
ynamics» \o
«http://print.google.com/print?hl=en&id=1OeCJFJY3ZYC&dq=history+of+aerod
ynamics» History of Aerodynamics, John David Anderson, page 19 .
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=5216
69553» ISBN 521669553

HYPERLINK «http://academic.udayton.edu/BradHume/hst307/leonardo.htm»
\o «http://academic.udayton.edu/BradHume/hst307/leonardo.htm» Giorgio
Vasari’s Lives of the Artists

HYPERLINK
«http://print.google.com/print?id=qnLeXBbTyvYC&pg=33&sig=Oy79Vv2KPORO67j
5Fjbohrksn-M» \o
«http://print.google.com/print?id=qnLeXBbTyvYC&pg=33&sig=Oy79Vv2KPORO67j
5Fjbohrksn-M» Birth of Modern Science, Paolo Rossi, page 33 .
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=6312
27113» ISBN 631227113

HYPERLINK
«http://print.google.com/print?id=tXKMvr09dB4C&pg=41&sig=SCdUPzOjo-9RmU4
zuiEBBt1nJn0» \o
«http://print.google.com/print?id=tXKMvr09dB4C&pg=41&sig=SCdUPzOjo-9RmU4
zuiEBBt1nJn0» Emperor Charles V, Impresario of War, James D Tracy, page
41 . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0521
814316» ISBN 0-521-81431-6

HYPERLINK
«http://print.google.com/print?id=_IOvCIBpM-sC&pg=58&sig=1q4IxqPsVE6l7UR
DCkvFQkahZdg» \o
«http://print.google.com/print?id=_IOvCIBpM-sC&pg=58&sig=1q4IxqPsVE6l7UR
DCkvFQkahZdg» Algebra in Ancient and Modern Times, V S Varadarajan,
page 58 . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0821
80989X» ISBN 0-8218-0989-X

HYPERLINK
«http://www.artnewsonline.com/currentarticle.cfm?art_id=1240» \o
«http://www.artnewsonline.com/currentarticle.cfm?art_id=1240» ArtNews
article about current studies into Leonardo’s life and works

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