Leni Riefenstahl

Riefenstahl, 1931

Helene Bertha Amalie «Leni» Riefenstahl ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_22» \o «August 22» August 22 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1902» \o «1902» 1902 –
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_8» \o «September 8»
September 8 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2003» \o «2003»
2003 ) was a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany» \o
«Germany» German dancer, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor» \o «Actor» actor , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_director» \o «Film director» film
director widely noted for her HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics» \o «Aesthetics» aesthetics
and advances in film technique. Her most famous works are HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Documentary_film» \o «Documentary film»
documentary HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_film»
\o «Propaganda film» propaganda films for the German HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Party» \o «Nazi Party» Nazi Party .
Rejected by the film industry after HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o «World War II» World War
II , she later pursued still HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography» \o «Photography» photography
and continued to make films of marine life.

Contents

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Biography» 1 Biography

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Dancer_and_actor» 1.1
Dancer and actor

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Documentary_filmmaker»
1.2 Documentary filmmaker

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «World_War_II» 2 World
War II

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «After_World_War_II» 3
After World War II

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Post_War_Career.2C_Legacy_and_Personal_Life» 3.1 Post War Career,
Legacy and Personal Life

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Works» 4 Works

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Actor» 4.1 Actor

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Director» 4.2 Director

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Photographer» 4.3
Photographer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Author» 4.4 Author

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Notes» 5 Notes

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Bibliographies» 6
Bibliographies

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «References» 7
References

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «External_links» 8
External links

Biography

Dancer and actor

Born in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin» \o «Berlin»
Berlin , Riefenstahl began her career as a self-styled and well-known
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpretive_dance» \o
«Interpretive dance» interpretive dancer . In a 2002 interview, she
said dancing was what made her truly happy. After injuring a knee, she
attended a film about mountains and became fascinated with the
possibilities of the medium. She went to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alps» \o «Alps» Alps for about a year
and when she returned, confidentially approached HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_Fanck» \o «Arnold Fanck» Arnold
Fanck , the director of the film she’d seen earlier, asking for a role
in his next project. Riefenstahl went on to star in a number of Fanck’s
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountain_film» \o «Mountain
film» bergfilme , presenting herself as an athletic and adventurous
young woman with suggestive appeal. Riefenstahl’s career as an actor in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_film» \o «Silent film»
silent films was prolific, and she became highly regarded by directors
and publicly popular with German film-goers. When presented with the
opportunity to direct HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Das_Blaue_Licht» \o «Das Blaue Licht» Das
Blaue Licht in 1932, she took it. Her main interest at first was in
fictional films. Her last acting role before moving to directing was in
the 1933 film HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=SOS_Eisberg&action=edit» \o
«SOS Eisberg» SOS Eisberg (U.S. title SOS Iceberg); this film was
released on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVD» \o «DVD» DVD
in the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S.» \o «U.S.» U.S.
in November 2005.

Documentary filmmaker

Riefenstahl influenced how later movies were made with her innovative
filming techniques (here shown during the production of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympia_%28film%29» \o «Olympia (film)»
Olympia )

She heard HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler» \o
«Adolf Hitler» Adolf Hitler speak at a rally in 1932 and was
mesmerized by his powers as a public speaker. Upon meeting Riefenstahl,
Hitler, himself an artist, saw the chance to hire a visionary who could
create the image of a strong, proud HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Wagner» \o «Richard Wagner»
Wagnerian Germany radiating beauty, power, strength, and defiance, an
image he could sell to the world. During a personal meeting he asked
Riefenstahl to make a documentary and, in 1933, she directed the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_film» \o «Short film»
short film HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Der_Sieg_des_Glaubens» \o «Der Sieg des
Glaubens» Der Sieg des Glaubens (Victory of Faith), an hour-long
feature about the Nazi party rally at Nuremberg in 1933 (released on DVD
in 2003). Reports vary as to whether she ever had a close relationship
with Hitler but, impressed with her work, he then asked her to film the
upcoming 1934 Party rally in Nuremberg. After initially turning down the
project because she did not want to make «a prescribed film»,
Riefenstahl began making another film titled Tiefland. She hired
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Ruttmann» \o «Walter
Ruttmann» Walter Ruttmann to direct it in her place. When she fell
ill, Tiefland was cancelled. Upon her recovery, she reviewed Ruttmann’s
initial footage and found it to be terrible. She eventually relented to
Hitler’s pressure, and resumed her role as director of the film. She was
given unlimited resources, camera crews, budget, complete artistic
control and final cut of the film. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triumph_of_the_Will» \o «Triumph of the
Will» Triumph of the Will was a documentary glorifying Hitler and
widely regarded as one of the most effective pieces of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda» \o «Propaganda» propaganda
ever produced. It is generally regarded as a masterful, epic, innovative
work of documentary filmmaking. Because it was commissioned by the Nazi
party and used as propaganda, however, critics have said it is nearly
impossible to separate the subject from the artist behind it. Triumph of
the Will was a rousing success in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe» \o «Europe» Europe , but widely
banned in America.

Triumph of the Will won many international awards as a ground-breaking
example of filmmaking. She went on to make a film about the German
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wehrmacht» \o «Wehrmacht»
Wehrmacht , released in 1935 as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tag_der_Freiheit» \o «Tag der Freiheit»
Tag der Freiheit (Day of Freedom).

In 1936 Riefenstahl qualified as an athlete to represent Germany in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-country_skiing» \o
«Cross-country skiing» cross-country skiing for the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1936_Summer_Olympics» \o «1936 Summer
Olympics» Olympics but decided to film the event instead. This
material became HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympia_%28film%29» \o «Olympia (film)»
Olympia , a film widely noted for its technical and aesthetic
achievements. She was the first to put a camera on rails, a technique
which is commonly called a tracking shot, used to film the crowds in the
stadium as well as the movement of the runners in track and field
events. Riefenstahl’s achievements in the making of Olympia have proved
to be a major influence in modern sports photography. Still today her
influence is seen in government «photo ops», major movies, television,
and advertisement.

World War II

A picture of a massacre of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jew» \o «Jew» Jews captured, with
documentary clarity, by Leni Riefenstahl’s film crew

During the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland_%281939%29» \o
«Invasion of Poland (1939)» Invasion of Poland Leni Riefenstahl
accompanied German soldiers in Poland. On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_28» \o «September 28» 28
September 1939 she was present in the town of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ko%C5%84skie» \o «Ko?skie» Ko?skie
during an execution of 30 civilians carried out in retaliation of an
attack on German soldiers. According to witnesses when Leni tried to
intervene a furious German officer held her at gun point and threatened
to shoot her on the spot. There are close-up pictures showing a
despaired Leni from that day. As a result of the events Leni left her
work and immediately went to Berlin where using her personal influences
she demanded an audience with Adolf Hitler. However, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_5» \o «October 5» 5 October 1939
she was already back in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Poland_%281939%E2%80%931945%29»
\o «History of Poland (1939–1945)» occupied Poland and filming
Hitler’s HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victory_parade» \o
«Victory parade» victory parade in Warsaw.

After World War II

After HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o «World
War II» World War II , she spent four years in a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France» French HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detention_camp» \o «Detention camp»
detention camp . There were accusations she had used HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concentration_camp» \o «Concentration
camp» concentration camp inmates on her film sets, but those claims
were not proven in court. Being unable to prove any culpable support of
the Nazis, the court called her a sympathizer. In later interviews
Riefenstahl maintained, with little success, that she was «fascinated»
by the Nazis but politically naive and ignorant about the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_crime» \o «War crime» war crimes
they committed.

In order to understand in a broader context the conclusions of the
court, it’s important to know that after the war, every German had to be
“ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denazification» \o
«Denazification» denazified ”. For that purpose, every person’s case
was examined and his or her connections with the Nazi regime were linked
to a degree of connection, from 1 (for the war criminals like
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring» \o «Hermann
Goering» Hermann Goering ) to 5 (the latter meant completely innocent
of any connection). Leni Riefenstahl belonged in group 4, not completely
innocent but the lowest degree of relationship with the regime. Some
other directors like HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veit_Harlan» \o «Veit Harlan» Veit Harlan
(who made the film HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jud_S%C3%BC%C3%9F» \o «Jud Suess» Jud
Suess (The Jew Suess) in 1940) were considered as to belong in category
5.

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_Channel» \o
«History Channel» History Channel , on its sister channel, History
International, released a documentary entitled, Hitler’s Women: Leni
Riefensthal HYPERLINK «http://www.sbs.com.au/hitlerswomen/» \o
«http://www.sbs.com.au/hitlerswomen/» [2] . In it, the accusation is
made that Riefenstahl was acutely aware that her films were propaganda.
They point to evidence such as the fact that Hitler had a sit-down
discussion between Riefenstahl and Hitler’s propaganda minister,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Goebbels» \o «Joseph
Goebbels» Joseph Goebbels at her personal German villa, as seen in
this HYPERLINK
«http://www.latimes.com/travel/la-os-leni16-pg,1,4993192.photogallery?in
dex=3&coll=la-mininav-travel&ctrack=1&cset=true|» \o
«http://www.latimes.com/travel/la-os-leni16-pg,1,4993192.photogallery?in
dex=3&coll=la-mininav-travel&ctrack=1&cset=true| picture , to resolve
differences the two were having which were causing strife in Hitler’s
early regime. Even more damning are the film clips of Riefenstahl dining
with Goebbels and Himmler, and other top men of both the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownshirt» \o «Brownshirt» Brownshirt
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS» \o «SS» SS branches
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NSDAP» \o «NSDAP» NSDAP ,
intercut with interviews with German historians and WWII scholars
questioning how any one could appear at state dinners with top Nazi
officials (eating at the high table with them, no less) and be
completely unaware of what politics they were supporting. Furthering the
connection, they cite the fact that Riefenstahl sent a celebratory
telegram to Hitler after his invasion of France, «Your deeds exceed the
power of human imagination. They are without equal in the history of
mankind. How can we ever thank you?» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-0» \o «» [1] .

Lastly, they detail interviews with actual HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gypsy» \o «Gypsy» Gypsy survivors of the
Holocaust, who refute Riefensthal’s claims that the concentration camp
victims she used for filming were not killed HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_note-1» \o «» [2]

The documentary comes to the conclusion that Riefenstahl suffered from a
deep denial of her actual culpability, to the point that she even began
to believe her own lies regarding her innocence.

Post War Career, Legacy and Personal Life

Riefenstahl attempted to make films after the war but each attempt was
met with resistance, protests, sharp criticisms and an inability to
secure funding. In 1944, she married Peter Jacob, whom she later
divorced, and in the 1960s took a man, Horst Kettner, who was forty
years her junior. He remained her faithful companion to the end of her
life. She became a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photographer» \o «Photographer»
photographer and was later the first to photograph rock star
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mick_Jagger» \o «Mick Jagger»
Mick Jagger and his wife HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bianca_Jagger» \o «Bianca Jagger» Bianca
as a couple holding hands after they were married, as they were both
admirers. Jagger told Riefenstahl he had seen Triumph of the Will at
least 15 times.

Later, embracing a cult of «primitivism», she became interested in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuba» \o «Nuba» Nuba tribe in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan» \o «Sudan» Sudan . Her
books with photographs of the tribe were published in 1974 and 1976. She
survived a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicopter» \o
«Helicopter» helicopter crash in the Sudan in 2000.

In her late 70s, Riefenstahl lied about her age to get certified for
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scuba_diving» \o «Scuba diving»
scuba diving and started a career in underwater photography. She
released a new film titled HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Impressionen_unter_Wasser&act
ion=edit» \o «Impressionen unter Wasser» Impressionen unter Wasser
(Underwater Impressions), an idealized documentary on life in the
oceans, on her 100th birthday — HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_22» \o «August 22» August 22 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002» \o «2002» 2002 .

In October 2002, German authorities decided to drop a case against her
for HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocaust_denial» \o
«Holocaust denial» Holocaust denial , citing her age and possible
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia» \o «Dementia»
dementia . She had allegedly falsely claimed that «every one» of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roma_people» \o «Roma people»
Roma people which had been drawn from a concentration camp to appear in
her film Tiefland had survived the war. A Gypsy group had filed the
case, claiming she used them for the film and sent them back when she no
longer needed them. In addition to Riefenstahl having signed a
withdrawal of her claim, the prosecutor cited Riefenstahl’s considerable
age as a reason for dropping further action.

Leni Riefenstahl died in her sleep on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_8» \o «September 8» September 8
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2003» \o «2003» 2003 , at
her home in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C3%B6cking» \o
«Poecking» Poecking , Germany a few weeks after her 101st birthday. She
had been suffering from cancer. In her obituaries Riefenstahl was said
to be the last famous figure of Germany’s Nazi era to die.

Riefenstahl is renowned in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_cinema» \o «History of cinema»
film history for developing new aesthetics in film, especially in
relation to nude bodies. While the propaganda value of her early films
repels many, their aesthetics are cited by many filmmakers as
outstanding.

Works

Riefenstahl in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blue_Light_%28film%29» \o «The Blue
Light (film)» The Blue Light , 1931

Actor

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wege_zu_Kraft_und_Sch%C3%B6nh
eit&action=edit» \o «Wege zu Kraft und Schoenheit» Wege zu Kraft und
Schoenheit — Ein Film ueber moderne Koerperkultur ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ways_to_Strength_and_Beauty&a
ction=edit» \o «Ways to Strength and Beauty» Ways to Strength and
Beauty , 1926)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Der_Heilige_Berg&action=edit»
\o «Der Heilige Berg» Der Heilige Berg ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holy_Mountain_%281926_fillm%29» \o
«The Holy Mountain (1926 fillm)» The Holy Mountain , 1926)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Der_Gro%C3%9Fe_Sprung&action=
edit» \o «Der Grosse Sprung» Der Grosse Sprung ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Great_Leap&action=edit»
\o «The Great Leap» The Great Leap , 1927)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Das_Schicksal_derer_von_Habsb
urg&action=edit» \o «Das Schicksal derer von Habsburg» Das Schicksal
derer von Habsburg ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Destiny_of_the_Habsburgs&
action=edit» \o «The Destiny of the Habsburgs» The Destiny of the
Habsburgs , 1928)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Der_Wei%C3%9Fe_H%C3%B6lle_vom
_Piz_Pal%C3%BC&action=edit» \o «Der Weisse Hoelle vom Piz Palue» Der
Weisse Hoelle vom Piz Palue ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_White_Hell_of_Pitz_Palu&a
ction=edit» \o «The White Hell of Pitz Palu» The White Hell of Pitz
Palu , 1929)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=St%C3%BCrme_%C3%BCber_dem_Mon
t_Blanc&action=edit» \o «Stuerme ueber dem Mont Blanc» Stuerme ueber
dem Mont Blanc ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Storm_Over_Mont_Blanc&action=
edit» \o «Storm Over Mont Blanc» Storm Over Mont Blanc , 1930)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Der_Wei%C3%9Fe_Rausch&action=
edit» \o «Der Weisse Rausch» Der Weisse Rausch ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_White_Flame&action=edit»
\o «The White Flame» The White Flame , 1931)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Das_Blaue_Licht» \o «Das Blaue
Licht» Das Blaue Licht ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blue_Light_%28film%29» \o «The Blue
Light (film)» The Blue Light , 1932)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=SOS_Eisberg&action=edit» \o
«SOS Eisberg» SOS Eisberg ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=SOS_Iceberg&action=edit» \o
«SOS Iceberg» SOS Iceberg , 1933)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiefland» \o «Tiefland»
Tiefland ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowlands» \o
«Lowlands» Lowlands , 1954)

Director

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Das_Blaue_Licht» \o «Das Blaue
Licht» Das Blaue Licht ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blue_Light_%28film%29» \o «The Blue
Light (film)» The Blue Light , 1932)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Der_Sieg_des_Glaubens» \o «Der
Sieg des Glaubens» Der Sieg des Glaubens ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victory_of_Faith» \o «Victory of Faith»
Victory of Faith , 1933)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triumph_of_the_Will» \o
«Triumph of the Will» Triumph des Willens ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triumph_of_the_Will» \o «Triumph of the
Will» Triumph of the Will 1934)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tag_der_Freiheit_-_Unsere_Wehrmacht» \o
«Tag der Freiheit — Unsere Wehrmacht» Tag der Freiheit — Unsere
Wehrmacht ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Day_of_Freedom» \o
«Day of Freedom» Day of Freedom , 1935)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympia_%28film%29» \o
«Olympia (film)» Olympia (Part 1 known as Festival of the Nations,
Part 2 as Festival of Beauty, 1938)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiefland» \o «Tiefland»
Tiefland ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowlands» \o
«Lowlands» Lowlands , 1954)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Impressionen_unter_Wasser&act
ion=edit» \o «Impressionen unter Wasser» Impressionen unter Wasser (
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Underwater_Impressions&action
=edit» \o «Underwater Impressions» Underwater Impressions , 2002)

Photographer

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Last_of_the_Nuba&action=e
dit» \o «The Last of the Nuba» The Last of the Nuba (Harper, 1974;
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Martin%27s_Press» \o «St.
Martin’s Press» St. Martin’s Press , 1995, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0312
136420» ISBN 0-312-13642-0 )

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_People_of_Kau&action=edit
» \o «The People of Kau» The People of Kau (Harper, 1976; St. Martin’s
Press reprint edition, 1997, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0312
169639» ISBN 0-312-16963-9 )

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vanishing_Africa&action=edit»
\o «Vanishing Africa» Vanishing Africa (Harmony 1st American edition,
1988, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0517
54914X» ISBN 0-517-54914-X )

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Africa_%28Riefenstahl_book%29
&action=edit» \o «Africa (Riefenstahl book)» Africa (Taschen, 2002,
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=3822
816167» ISBN 3-8228-1616-7 )

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Riefenstahl_Olympia&action=ed
it» \o «Riefenstahl Olympia» Riefenstahl Olympia ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taschen» \o «Taschen» Taschen , 2002,
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=3822
81945X» ISBN 3-8228-1945-X )

Author

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leni_Riefenstahl_%28memoir%29
&action=edit» \o «Leni Riefenstahl (memoir)» Leni Riefenstahl by Leni
Riefenstahl, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autobiography» \o
«Autobiography» autobiography ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picador» \o «Picador» Picador Reprint
edition, 1995, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0312
119267» ISBN 0-312-11926-7 )

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coral_Gardens&action=edit» \o
«Coral Gardens» Coral Gardens by Leni Riefenstahl ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpercollins» \o «Harpercollins»
Harpercollins 1st U.S. edition, 1978, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0060
135913» ISBN 0-06-013591-3 )

First editions, they are all in German:

Kampf in Schnee und Eis ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leipzig» \o «Leipzig» Leipzig , 1933)

Hinter den Kulissen des Reichsparteitags-Films ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%BCnchen» \o «Muenchen» Muenchen ,
1935)

Schoenheit im olympischen Kampf ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin» \o «Berlin» Berlin , 1937)

Die Nuba (Muenchen, 1973)

Die Nuba von Kau (Muenchen, 1976)

Korallengaerten (Muenchen, 1978)

Mein Afrika (Muenchen, 1982)

Memoiren (Muenchen, 1987)

Wunder unter Wasser (Muenchen, 1990)

Notes

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-0» \o «» ^ See
also HYPERLINK
«http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/riefenstahl-obit.html»
\o
«http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/riefenstahl-obit.html»
obituary and other HYPERLINK
«http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=52459» \o
«http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=52459» [1]

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «_ref-1» \o «» ^ See
also HYPERLINK
«http://www.guardian.co.uk/germany/article/0,2763,776639,00.html» \o
«http://www.guardian.co.uk/germany/article/0,2763,776639,00.html»
Gypsies’ Fate Haunts Film Muse of Hitler , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Guardian» \o «The Guardian» The
Guardian , August 17, 2002.

Bibliographies

HYPERLINK «http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/Germanfilmbib.html» \l
«Riefenstahl» \o
«http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/Germanfilmbib.html#Riefenstahl» Leni
Riefenstahl Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)

HYPERLINK «http://users.skynet.be/deneulin/books.html» \o
«http://users.skynet.be/deneulin/books.html»
http://users.skynet.be/deneulin/books.html (see also articles section
on that page)

References

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wonderful%2C_Horrible_Life_of_Leni_Rie
fenstahl» \o «The Wonderful, Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl» The
Wonderful, Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl , documentary film directed
by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ray_M%C3%BCller&action=edit»
\o «Ray Mueller» Ray Mueller (1994)

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leni_Riefenstahl:_The_fallen_
film_goddess&action=edit» \o «Leni Riefenstahl: The fallen film goddess»
Leni Riefenstahl: The fallen film goddess by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Glenn_B._Infield&action=edit»
\o «Glenn B. Infield» Glenn B. Infield ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowell» \o «Crowell» Crowell , 1976,
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0690
011679» ISBN 0-690-01167-9 )

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leni_Riefenstahl:_The_Seducti
on_of_Genius&action=edit» \o «Leni Riefenstahl: The Seduction of Genius»
Leni Riefenstahl: The Seduction of Genius by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rainer_Rother&action=edit» \o
«Rainer Rother» Rainer Rother , translated by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Martin_H._Bott&action=edit»
\o «Martin H. Bott» Martin H. Bott (Continuum International Publishing
Group reprint edition, 2003, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0826
470238» ISBN 0-8264-7023-8 )

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Films_of_Leni_Riefenstahl
&action=edit» \o «The Films of Leni Riefenstahl» The Films of Leni
Riefenstahl by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=David_B._Hinton&action=edit»
\o «David B. Hinton» David B. Hinton ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scarecrow_Press&action=edit»
\o «Scarecrow Press» Scarecrow Press 3rd edition, 2000, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=1578
860091» ISBN 1-57886-009-1 )

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leni_Riefenstahl:_Five_Lives&
action=edit» \o «Leni Riefenstahl: Five Lives» Leni Riefenstahl: Five
Lives by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Angelika_Taschen&action=edit»
\o «Angelika Taschen» Angelika Taschen ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taschen» \o «Taschen» Taschen , 2000,
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=3822
862169» ISBN 3-8228-6216-9 )

HYPERLINK «http://www.dasblauelicht.net/new_page_2.htm» \o
«http://www.dasblauelicht.net/new_page_2.htm» Das Blaue Licht: The Art
of Leni Riefenstahl Unofficial biographical website endorsed by the
Riefenstahl Estate

HYPERLINK
«http://1971films.com/Victory_of_Faith_Triumph_of_the_Will.htm» \o
«http://1971films.com/Victory_of_Faith_Triumph_of_the_Will.htm» Her
propaganda marches on , An analysis of Victory of Faith and Triumph of
the Will.

HYPERLINK «http://leni-riefenstahl.de» \o «http://leni-riefenstahl.de»
Homepage of Leni Riefenstahl

HYPERLINK «http://www.riefenstahl.org/» \o
«http://www.riefenstahl.org/» www.riefenstahl.org — a fanpage , claims
the «most accurate and detailed Leni Riefenstahl filmography …
available anywhere.»

HYPERLINK «http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0726166/» \o
«http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0726166/» Leni Riefenstahl at the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Movie_Database» \o
«Internet Movie Database» Internet Movie Database

HYPERLINK «http://www.websteruniv.edu/~barrettb/riefenstahl2a.htm» \o
«http://www.websteruniv.edu/~barrettb/riefenstahl2a.htm» Collection of
Internet Resources: Leni Riefenstahl

HYPERLINK «http://womenshistory.about.com/od/riefenstahl» \o
«http://womenshistory.about.com/od/riefenstahl» Women’s History
collection

HYPERLINK «http://wsws.org/articles/2003/sep2003/rief-s15.shtml» \o
«http://wsws.org/articles/2003/sep2003/rief-s15.shtml» «Leni
Riefenstahl: propagandist for the Third Reich by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stefan_Steinberg&action=edit»
\o «Stefan Steinberg» Stefan Steinberg , on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Socialist_Web_Site» \o «World
Socialist Web Site» World Socialist Web Site published by the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trotskyist» \o «Trotskyist»
Trotskyist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Committee_of_the_Fourth_Inte
rnational» \o «International Committee of the Fourth International»
International Committee of the Fourth International

HYPERLINK «http://www.anti-rev.org/textes/Sontag74a/index.html» \o
«http://www.anti-rev.org/textes/Sontag74a/index.html» «Fascinating
Fascism», a critical 1974 essay by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susan_Sontag» \o «Susan Sontag» Susan
Sontag (out of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Under_the_Sign_of_Saturn» \o «Under the
Sign of Saturn» Under the Sign of Saturn )

HYPERLINK «http://www.powernet.net/~hflippo/cinema/tiefland.html» \o
«http://www.powernet.net/~hflippo/cinema/tiefland.html» «»Wherever you
may run, you cannot escape him»: Leni Riefenstahl’s Self-Reflection and
Romantic Transcendence of Nazism in Tiefland by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_von_Dassanowsky» \o «Robert von
Dassanowsky» Robert von Dassanowsky

HYPERLINK
«http://www.riefenstahl.org/director/1954/dassanowsky-titanic.html» \o
«http://www.riefenstahl.org/director/1954/dassanowsky-titanic.html»
Robert von Dassanowsky: Tiefland/Titanic analysis

HYPERLINK «http://www.germanhollywood.com/rief.html» \o
«http://www.germanhollywood.com/rief.html» Biography at The
German-Hollywood Connection

HYPERLINK «http://users.skynet.be/deneulin/video.html» \o
«http://users.skynet.be/deneulin/video.html» (a list of documentaries
about and or with Leni Riefenstahl 1965-2004)

HYPERLINK
«http://www.hyperhistory.org/index.php?option=displaypage&Itemid=703&op=
page» \o
«http://www.hyperhistory.org/index.php?option=displaypage&Itemid=703&op=
page» Leni Riefenstahl: Film Maker Extraordinaire or Nazi Stooge?
National Centre for History Education — Australia

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