???? ? ??:

E??? ?????? o ????e ??????e ??

I???? ????e ?????? ?? ????i ?????iy ???? ???, ???th? c I. I???. I?? ?a?i
??? ? ???e ? ????i ???o??y ? ????th? ????ny ?’??? o?? ???? ??????a.
A???th? ???, ? ??ath? ?????ue ??????, ????th ? ??? ?? ????y, ????, ? ?
??a ?????o ??eai o ??? ?????iy ???eth?? ?c ????? ?????e ??????, y?
???oth? ?????? ???iy, ???a ????a ????o ?????a ?????? (IIA) — ??? c
????? ????a ????? ?????? ?c ???i ?????” ???iiy ? ???i???e ????.

A?????ue – ????? ???o ???a?? ?????? ?c ???i «????i» ???iiy ? ???????e
????. C???y ??o??? ???? o ????? ????iy «????? ? ????? ??????» ? «?????
(?i?????) ??o c ?? ????y ??» [4: 15]. N???th ??????, ? ??o N. *????,
?????? ?????ue ???: ??????ue – ? ?? ?a’?? ? ?? ???? ????th ? ??i ???yi,
a ?? ???? ?, ? ????ny ?????th ? ???? ?i??? ???” [7: 180].

N???y ?????? ?eth?? ?? ????: ?????th?e ???, ?, ? ???th? ??????ue ?i
??’y????ue ????y ??, ?’?? — ?e, ?? ??oth?, ? ?? ??y???e ??a ?????th?ai
???o, ???, ??i ?y ?i no?, y? ???th?ny ?ae ??? a ????? ??? ?????th??
???o.

????yth? ?’???? ? ?a’???? ?????ue. Ia’???? ?????ue ?????ny o ?? ???e
????: a) ?????i, ?a? ???????e ? ??? ?????e ???y?, a) ???? — ?????e ?
???o???, ye-?: duty, need ? a) ???i-?????? ??a?e — ? ????th ????o
??????a (II). C???y ?a’????? ?????? ?????ny ????e ???e, ??????e ????e ?
??????? II.

E???-????? ?ea ?’????? ?????? a ??????e ?? ?eth?? ?? ????: must, have
to, be to, bound to, need, forced to, obliged to, necessary to,
compelled to.

C???? ???iyi a???o II ? ???iy ??????, ? ????ey? ?’y?e ?ae ia’??? ?
???th ye ?? ????a, ????a ??th ??ith ????a ?’????? ?????.

E????e ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??’y??o ?y???ue ????a ????i ?ae ?? ? ????
?i ????y ? ?. O I. O???? – ? ???th/? ?a’??”, o A. O???? – ?????th?e
???”, o A. A???a – ??ooth?e ???” [8; 6; 2].

Ae??i??th?i ???? o ???yo ??i ?? ????:

a) ??? ??a ? ??e:

Harry, you have to find that bracelet and find out why it was worth
torturing and killing a man for (M. Conelly);

a) ??’y?e, ????a ???:

So one time when I was working in this motel one of the toilets leaked
and I had to replace the flapper ball (B. Kingsolver);

a) ??, ?????y ?-???, ?????ue ? ??-y?? ??e ??a, ??e ?y????, ???? c ?i-???
??. I??.:

This chap – my hero – has a drunken father and a mother out at work.
He has to dress the younger children and give them breakfast before
going off to school himself (Miss Read);

a) ????a n???y ? ??y:

Daddy is out of work, – she said brightly. – That’s why my mommy had to
go and stay with Antie Em to have the baby (S. King).

N??i ? N. O????th ??????, ? ???eth??y c ????i ???iyi ?????? ??e???th?ny
??? ?????y?: ???n-????????, ??????ue ? ????”, ???????ue”, ???a ????,
??????ue ??????” [5: 41]. I?? ???? ?????? ???eth?? ?c IIA ? ??ethth?, ?
?? ??o, ??o ??????? ??e ??? ??i ???e/?? ????o. A????, ? ???th c ??????o
?i IIA ? ??????ue ?????e, ??ith ?????th, ??? e ?????? ????e ?????”. E?i
??, ???????e ?????? ???eth?? ?c ????i ???iyi ?????? ???? ?????ue a???oey
??, ?y???ue ???iy ????, ? ?a ?ae ??y — ??y ?a’????? ???e ? ?a’????-????
??a?y ?????? ??y o ????o. E. Ae?o??? ???, ? ???y?? ?y ???iy ??e ? ????y
?’????-????? ??a?y (?? ?? ?? ???? ? ?????i), a ??ae — ?? ????y (????i
???? ?i ?i ???, ?i ??a ??a) [3: 10]. I?a, o ?????yo ?c ???iyi a????? ??
???ey??iy” ???iy, ? ?????i ????y? ?o ?ae ??? ?c ???iyi ???i??, ? oey ??
??’y??i ???????ny.

I? ?’y?e ????? ????? c ?y??iyi ?i e ?????yi ???? ? A????ue, ????yth?
?e-??? ?????” ???, ? ???ithth?ny ???????” ? ?o ae??? ???y?ny ??? ?
?????” ??ee, y? ???ithth?ny ????. ????? ??? ?????ue ?a’y?? c ????oy? ?
????, ? ?? ae ? ?????” ??? ??y? ? ???th?, a ?????” ????ath? ? ???e ???
??c ?o ?e?th?, ? ??? ??ath? ??? ?????ue, ???ae?, ???i, ??????e ???? ?
????; ?i ??? ?????ny ??????, ???ath? ???? ? ????y” [1: 95].

I?a, ??i ??a ?????oth? ????e? ???, ????? ?’????? ????e, ??i ??????, ??a
????? ??e ???. Oea ?ny???ny ??????th ?a’?????” ???e ? ????e ?eth o
???eth??? ?i ae o ?????. I??.: He was sorry when the magazine became too
expensive and he had to give it up (E. Hemingway).

I???i, ? ???? ???eth??y c IIA ??i ?????th?ny ????ith ??????, ?eth,
?????? ?ui. N????? ??????i ?o ???eth?? ? ??eth?a ???a ????. Oa, ? ?y
?????ny ???? ?? ?a’??a ? ? ???th ? ?? ??o, ???? ???????ue ?o ???eth?? c
??i??i ???? ???? ?????e. I??.: o ???? I have to inform you that …(ss
??a?e (?? ????ny) ????? ?n, ?…) ????, ? ?a’?? ?a?? ?????iy ????? ?y
????, ?a? ??????? ??? ???a ???????ny ??? “-“. Oea ??i ??????ny o ?????
????: I would have to kiss him. It was horrible (H. Lee).

E?e ?????th?i ???? ???? ? ??a, a ????? ???e?, ???, ????y, ? ???ny, ??i
??, ?? ??? ????y ???????? ??aey??ue, c’y?y??ny ?a’????-???? ?????y
??????y, ????y ?i ??? ???e ????? ye ????, ???, ? ???? ???, ??? ?? [8:
111], ????ae:

– I’ve been with Inspector Hammond for the last half hour. We’ll have to
let it go as a practical joke, Frankie, for the moment.

– Oh, but, Bobby…

– – I said for the moment. We’ve got to get to the bottom of this,
Frankie (A. Christie).

I???i, ? ??y ???e c ??????, A?? ???? ????i ? ??ey?? ???? ??? ??? ? ??
??y. O??? ae ???a ?????ny.

N????? ???? c ?????? ???? ????th?ny o ??? a????? ?????yo:

1. o ???? ?????: [Carter]: (sadly) I sensed when I was in there that I
shall most likely never see her again. It hurt me very much Father, but
I must go (A. Bierce);

2. o ???eth???: Oh, it is terrible, that I should have to ask you such
a question — Robert, are you telling me the whole truth? (O. Wilde);

3. o ???? ?????yo: Sorry to say, Celia, but I must go (P. Abrahams). It
turned out that I was to work mainly for Eddie Rickett, who was in
charge of the lab (B. Kingsolver).

I???? ????e must, have to ?eth?th? ?????e ????e ?????? ?????i ????iy ?
??, ? ?e ????e ?? ?????y o ????? ? ????th ??a ?c ????ith ?????ith
???ith. O?, ????ae, ?? ??ith??ny ?’??, ye-?: What bothers me is that she
and Jem will have to absorb some ugly things pretty soon (H. Lee); I
rejoined the others in the small fisherman’s cottage and there I had to
break the sad news (A. Christie). A???o ?th ?a’??a ?? ???th?? ???a, ???a
o ??e ????? ???y, ye-?: Billy will have to testify, as being the last of
his friends to see him alive (M. Spark).

?????y ????? ?? ?a’y?? c ????yi ??? ????, ????a ?a’??ii ??. I???????ue
?????y ??, a ??ae ?, ? ?? ?????y ?? ?? i????? ????e ?y ??? ????y, ?
???ith ??, ? ????a ?y ???? ???i?i, ????? ????o ?y ?a’??a ??. I??.: I
must just put up with it, she sighed (W. Maugham). Jem saw that he would
have to fight me to keep me home, and I suppose he thought a fight would
antagonize Aunty (H. Lee). The few reporters had to content themselves
with quick photographs of the couple… (H. Lee). N?a ????a ??????a give
up, fight, content ????th? ????e ???? ??.

A???, ? ????e ae?????? ????eyth? ?a ??????? ??y? ? ??o, ??i ?e-??? ???ie
???”: ????o ? ??????o. I? ?a????? ???? ??? c’y????ny, ?? n?o ??ith?”
eth??, ?e ???????e — ?y ?? eth?? ????i ???? ??o. E???? ???a ??? ??y??? ?
?????th ????? ???, a ??????a — ia ???, y? ????? ?y ?ny??iy ??? ??.
I???????th ????ith ?????th ??a ???e ?????ue ??????, ??????a ae ????
?????y? ???e ? ?????. E?????ue ???? ??? ? ???, ????????ue — ? ???i?.
E???? ? ??????? ????e ?????oth?ny ???th ?????th, ??i ??????? ??i, ???ath
????y y?? ? ?’y?e ?ae ????th ? ?????”, ???th ? ????.

O? ????a ?y??iy ??y??? ? ???, ?? ??a ?????e ? ? ????ith ? ?????i. I?? o
???o ???o ???c ??y??? ? ??e ??ei ??? ?????a, o ???o – ? ??e ?????a ??o
???.

A??th? IIA o ??? ?????i ??, eth??? ?? ? ??? ????eyth?ny ye ????? ????e
??oth/? ???. I??.: You’ll have to exnuse Timothy; he used caffeine
yesterday and now his homeostasis is out of balance (B. Kingsolver).

I???ith ???th ???i??ith ???th ??? c IIA ? ?????ue ?????? ?e ?????? ?????
?? o ??e?o. I??.: Betsy had refused to let him in, had left him down
there in the street, and he had to sit in the car he’d hired till seven
(R. Rendell). It had its virtues and its vices – anyway you had to put
up with it (J. Galsworthy).

*?? ?????ue ?ue????e ??ith??ny ????: This was news, news that put a
different light on things: Atticus had to, whether he wanted to or not
(H. Lee).

Oe???, ? y?i ??????ue ??????” ???? ?????i, ? ?? ??? ???ue a ?? ????o
???e ????.

???o? ????e ????e ???? ?????o ? ???ith??o ???a, ?????? ?e ??ieyth? ????
? ?? ??????o ??? ????? ?????? — ???n-????????. N. O???? ????, ? ??????ue
?????? ?y?y?o?y ????????ith”, ?/ ???i? ????e ? ??y??? ? y??ue ?’?eo (a
??o ?????, ??i o ????? ?????? ?’y?o, ?o ???i, ??ae ???e ??????e), ?i
?’?? ? ?? a???ny ?????? ?’??? ?????, ???ee ?ae ?i ? ?????ith ??th a????e
??????? (????) ?’y?e. ???e ???e, ?????ue ? ????????ith ?ae????th, a ??,
? ?? ?? ?????c??a ??? ???????e ????, ye ????, ??y????ue ? ????o ?? ye
?????e, y?e ?????? ????yi ?a’??? [5: 38]. N?a ?i ? ?y?th??ny ?, ?
???eth??y ?c ?????th ?????? ???yth?ny ?????th ?????y ?? ? ???.

???iy c IIA ????yth?ny ? ??? ??????? (a ??? ??????? ????i ???iue ?y? ???
[9; 10]), ??i ?a?ue ?? ?i ??? ?????? ?????ue ?????, ????y, ?i ????e
????o ??????ue ?????e, ?e ??o ??????? ?????ue. I??iy ?ny???ny ??? ?
????th:

1) ???o ???a ????y ??????: «Well, why do you have to listen?» Jim asked
again. «Why do you have to listen to this stuff if it makes you so
miserable?» (J. Cheever). Don Pedro slapped the Dwarf on the cheek with
his embroidered glove. – You must dance, – he said, – petit monster. You
must dance. The Infanta of Spain and the Indies wishes to be amused (O.
Wilde);

2) ?????iy ?????a–???????? o ?????? ? II: I must get married. I really
must (H. Bates);

3) ????? o ?????? ? ?????, ? ??????? ?????ue ??, ??.: I had had a
breakdown in health and was forced to give up my practice in England and
go abroad (A. Christie);

4) ???ith ?????: The air in there was so hot and stale I felt like I had
to breathe it twice to get any oxygen out of it (B. Kingsolver);

5) ????ith ? ????? ????e ? ??e ?????y ????? ??: We must go to him at
once. He can’t have noone to look after him. … He might die… It’s
dreadful. I can’t bear the thought. We must find him at once (S.
Maugham).

O?? ??i, ?????ue – ? ????? ??a? ????? ??????, y?e ???????ny ???????e
???? ? ???? ???? ????y. Ia ??? ???????? ?????iy ????o ?????a ?c ?????i
?????i ??????? ?y??i ?yae ??????? ??e, a ??: ??n-???????ue, ??????ue,
?????ue ? ????, ???a “???” ? ?????ue ??????.

E?????:

1. A????ue. I????a y?? // N?. A. 4–o o. – I.: I??, 1983. – O. 4. –
828 n.

2. A??? A.TH. Ae?????y ???a ?? e ? ????a a y??: ????y ???????y //
E???a?ey ? ????a: Na. ??. ?. – A?. 19. – O?: E?-? A???. ?-?, 1996. – N.
114-121.

3. Ae???? E.Ae. A??????? ?????? ??u ??????? ????ey: A???. ?n. ??ae. ??e.
??. – I., 1993. – 16 n.

4. I??? I.E. C???y ??????e e ???u ???? y?o ???? a ?????? e ????uo ???o
???? e ???e ???e ??: A???. ?n. … ??. ??e. ??. – I., 1979. – 25 n.

5. O???ay N. I???u ???ey ????o ???a: ??????e ??? (? ?o. ??. ??e. y??). –
O??. – 1997. – 132 n.

6. O???a A.I. I?o ??????i ???a ??a ????ey ???e, ?????e n ?iy?? «????i??»
e ?????a ????a y?? ?iy?y (? ????a ?????i y??): A???. ?n. ??ae ??e. ??. –
E???, 1971. – 20 n.

7. *??? N.A. I???? ???u a ?????i ???i y?? (??????y ??? «???e – ??????a
????): A???. ?n. … ??.??e. ??. – E??, 1997. – 21 n.

8. O??? I.TH. I ?????????i ????? // N???? e ??a: Na. ???. – I.: I??,
1974. – N. 107-121.

9. Mattews-Bresky R.J. Modals of strong obligation // Zielsprache
English. – 1977. – ? 1. – P. 6–11.

10. Mattews-Bresky R.J. Modals of weak obligation // Zielsprache
English. – 1976. – ? 4. – P. 29–31.

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